Earth’s upper atmosphere—below freezing, nearly without oxygen, flooded by UV radiation—is no place to live. But last winter, scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology discovered that billions of bacteria actually thrive up there. Expecting only a smattering of microorganisms, the researchers flew six miles above Earth’s surface in a NASA jet plane. There, they pumped outside air through a filter to collect particles. Back on the ground, they tallied the organisms, and the count was staggering: 20 percent of what they had assumed to be just dust or other particles was alive. Earth, it seems, is surrounded by a bubble of bacteria.
Scientists don’t yet know what the bacteria are doing up there, but they may be essential to how the atmosphere functions, says Kostas Konstantinidis, an environmental microbiologist on the Georgia Tech team. For example, they could be responsible for recycling nutrients in the atmosphere, like they do on Earth. And similar to other particles, they could influence weather patterns by helping clouds form. However, they also may be transmitting diseases from one side of the globe to the other. The researchers found E. coli in their samples (which they think hurricanes lifted from cities), and they plan to investigate whether plagues are raining down on us. If we can find out more about the role of bacteria in the atmosphere, says Ann Womack, a microbial ecologist at the University of Oregon, scientists could even fight climate change by engineering the bacteria to break down greenhouse gases into other, less harmful compounds.
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Here is a list of more than 100 scientists who use Twitter. They are organized by category. Check them out below
From astronomy to rocket science, these scientists are dedicating their careers to exploring what lies beyond our own planet.
@SethShostak: Astronomer Seth Shostak offers up insights into the cosmos through great links to space news in this feed.@astroengine: Here, you’ll find Dr. Ian O’Neill, a solar physicist who now works for Discovery News.@BadAstronomer: If you love this feed, make sure to check out astronomer Phil Plait’s blog, Bad Astronomy.@plutokiller: Dr. Michael Brown teaches planetary astronomy at Caltech. Through his feed, followers can read about new planetary finds, our solar system, and other space-related topics.@DrMRFrancis: Physicist, former planetarium director, and science writer Matthew Francis shares his love of all things astronomy through his Twitter feed.@Earth2larryo: Larry O’Hanlon works for the Keck Observatory in Kamuela, Hawaii, which because of its high altitude and the island’s relative darkness gets some great images of space. Follow his feed to keep up with the latest at the observatory.@DrLucyRogers: Lucy Rogers is a mechanical engineer, but we’ve included her in this grouping because she specializes in helping to protect Earth from space debris.@skyponderer: Astronomer Colin Stuart freelances for the Royal Observatory while writing and speaking about science.@professor_astro: You’ll find some great space-related tweets on this feed courtesy of a UT Austin astronomy professor.@elakdawalla: Former planetary geologist and current writer Emily Lakdawalla shares some amazing photos and commentary on space here.@flyingjenny: Jen Scheer is a former space shuttle technician at the Kennedy Space Center who today is working to teach middle and high school students about mechanical engineering.@apacheman: You’ll find rocket science aplenty in this feed by former space shuttle technician and current NASA employee Andy Scheer. Biology Zoology, entomology, genetics, and biotech are just a few fields these amazing biologists focus on. @JCVenter: American biologist and entrepreneur John Craig Venter was one of the first to sequence the human genome and to create human cells with synthetic genomes. He’s a superstar in his field, and well worth following whether you’re pursuing a degree in biology or not.@franciscollins9: Dr. Francis Collins is another pioneer in the Human Genome Project. Through his feed, you can learn how he reconciles his strong faith with his dedication to pursuing scientific knowledge.@JaneGoodallInstitute: Few people know chimpanzees as intimately as primatologist and conservationist Jane Goodall. Follow this feed to learn about the amazing work her foundation does to preserve primate populations.@RichardDawkins: Many people know Dawkins through his often extreme positions on religion, but he’s also made some amazing contributions to anthropology and zoology as well.@pzmeyers: Biologist P.Z. Meyers posts about biological and science issues from a political perspective.@sciencegoddess: Joanne Manaster is proof that you can be both attractive and smart. This former model now develops science courses at the School of Integrative Biology at the University of Illinois.@phylogenomics: Keep up with biology news, learn a bit about open science, and find great commentary on evolutionary biologist Jonathan Eisen’s feed.@Stephen_Curry: Followers will find a wide range of tweets on structural biologist Stephen Curry’s Twitter feed.@kzelnio: Always dreamed of being a marine biologist? Live vicariously though Kevin Zelnio’s feed.@kejames: Check out Dr. Karen James’ feed for great tweets on topics like genetics, biology, zoology, and even space.@bug_girl: This female entomologist studies natural ways to control insect populations. She shares insights into the insect and academic worlds through her feed.@AFBR: Richard Martyniak is an expert on bees and his feed is full of amazing links and information to help the curious learn more about these insects.@attilacsordas: Here you’ll find tweets from bioinformatician and stem cell biologist Attila Csordas.@BioInfo: Justin H. Johnson is another bioinformatics expert worth following, with tweets that touch on everything from computer science to genetics.@ drbrian: Dr. Brian Degger has a Ph.D. in biotechnology but posts to his feed about a wide range of topics.@alexbortvin: Here you’ll find Dr. Alex Bortvin, an expert on germ cells and epigenetics. He shares great links related to science, but some content is in Russian. Chemistry Keep up with the amazing work these chemists are doing by following their feeds. @Dr_Sally_Beken: Learn more about the fascinating world of polymer chemistry from scientist Sally Beken.@Kulinowski: You’ll find some great updates on science news, nanotech, and other chemistry issues on chemist Kristen Kulinowski’s feed.@cassierodenberg: Cassie Rodernberg started her career working as a chemist in a lab but now writes about chemistry-related topics on a Scientific American blog. Follow her here.@InvaderXan: What could be more fascinating than the chemistry of space? Follow astrochemist Markus Hammonds here to learn more about the field.@egonwillighagen: Cheminformatician Egon Willighagen posts about topics like drug discovery, life science, and of course, chemistry here.@rlanzara: If you’re interested in the chemistry and biology that goes into developing new pharmacological products, check out this feed from Richard Lanzara.@CameronNeylon: Dr. Cameron Neylon is a biochemist, but much of his feed focuses on issues of open access in science.@BenchFly: Follow the tweets by Alan Marnett, founder and CEO of BenchFly, chemist, and neuroscientist.@2020Science: Nanotech expert Andrew Maynard shares insights into the science of these tiny particles here.Earth Sciences Find tweets on topics like oceanography, seismology, and geology here. @cephalopodcast: Marine science geek Jason Robertshaw shares amazing info on the sea and its inhabitants here.@JeffLast: Government meteorologist Jeff Last tweets about all things weather-related here.@Allchthonous: Here you’ll find geologist Chris Rowan as well as some tweets about plate motion, rock magnetism, and science in general.@expeditionlog: Learn more about deep sea volcanic vents from this feed by scientist Jon Copley.@Browntideguy: Oceanographer and photographer George shares his passion for the ocean here.@Reillymj: This geologist is also a senior technology editor atNew Scientist.@paulearle: Follow the world of seismology when you keep up with the USGS National Earthquake Information Center’s director, Paul Earle. Environmental Science Those who are interested in helping protect the environment should take a look at these great feeds. @swhchu: Request to follow this wetland scientist from Illinois to learn a bit more about the field of environmental science.@mtobis: Climate change is a hotly debated topic, but you can hear from an expert in the field when you check out this feed from a climate scientist.@JeremiahOsGo: J. Osborne-Gowey is an aquatic and landscape ecologist and a passionate activist. Check out his feed for tweets on both.@SFriedScientist: Explore the deep sea beside this biologist and conservation geneticist.@Revkin: Former New York Times writer Andrew Revkin is now pursuing his passion for environmental protection, blending his careers as a biologist and a journalist. Physics These great feeds will help you learn more about the often complex field of physics. @michiokaku: Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku is one of the most recognizable faces in science, and a superstar in the physics world to boot. Check out his feed for information on all things science.@NimaArkaniHamed: This physicist works at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland.@seanmcarroll: Professor at Caltech Sean Carroll tweets about issues in theoretical physics and astrophysics here.@thesciencebabe: This Mexican physicist has both beauty and brains. Visit her feed for lots of great posts on science news.@garrettlisi: Garrett Lisi is a surfer and a physicist who’s living the dream while working in Maui.@Prof_S_Hawking: There are few scientists who are as famous as Stephen Hawking. Follow this world-class mind here.@neiltyson: Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson has an excellent Twitter feed, filled with history, science news, and chances to chat with the TV personality and science star himself.@phalpern: Physicist and science writer Paul Halpern makes this Twitter feed his home. Read through it to learn about exciting physics news.@orbitingfrog: Can’t get enough of astrophysics? Follow this Oxford expert on the field to learn more. Health and Medicine Check out these feeds to read up on the latest in medical and health care research. @HansRosling: Professor of global health and founder of the Gapminder Foundation Hans Rosling posts about a wide range of global health issues here, from fertility to disease.@bengoldacre: Ben Goldacre is a physician who spends a great deal of time debunking bad science. Read his feed to learn more about the myths that pervade in many areas of health care.@DrVes: Assistant Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics at University of Chicago specializing in allergies and immunology, Dr. Ves Dimov is a leader in his field. Here, he offers up some of the best medical stories.@aetiology: Love those nefarious infectious diseases? You can learn more about them and what it’s like to work as a microbiologist and epidemiologist here.@profvrr: Professor Vincent Racaniello is an expert on viruses and tweets news and commentary on recent research here.@cells_nnm: Follow Dr. Alexy Bersenev to learn more about stem cell research.@TwistedBacteria: Microbiologist Cesar Sanchez shares information (in both Spanish and English) on bacterial diseases, medications, and research.@cupton1: Followers of this feed will find lots of great content on health and biology issues from virus expert Chris Upton.@Atul_Gawande: Visit surgeon and researcher Atul Gawande’s feed for updates on medical news, inspiration quotes, and more.@LabSpaces: Dr. Brian Krueger offers up the latest news in medical research here.@influenza_bits: This biologist shares interesting tidbits about the flu virus, including how it’s spread, immunity, and other related topics.@sanjayguptaCNN: One of the best-known physicians in the U.S., Gupta uses his feed to share interesting stories about health, fitness, and medicine. Technology Computer science, information technology, and robotics are all covered by these interesting tech-focused scientists. @timberners_lee: It’s only appropriate that the man who helped to create the Internet have a major presence on it. Follow this groundbreaking scientist here.@geminodreal: Hiroshi Ishiguro is an expert in the field of robotics. This professor and researcher is world famous for his tech genius, which you can get insight to here.@SebastianThrun: Stanford professor, VP at Google, and member of the National Academy of Engineering, this tech guru is a great person to follow to keep up with the latest in tech innovation.@BobMetcalfe: UT Austin professor of innovation and MIT trustee Bob Metcalfe posts on politics, science and business here.@lemire: A computer scientist focusing on open information, Daniel Lemire talks about a wide range of topics on his feed, from computers to politics.@fortnow: Read up on computer science through the feed of Northwestern University computer science professor Lance Fortnow.@geomblog: This computer science professor shares his interest in algorithms, geometry, and CS theory.@DrQz: Neil Gunther is a computer performance analyst who also has a love for math and physics. Brain Science The human brain is a complicated organ and these neuroscientists and psychologists are working hard to unravel its mysteries. @danariely: Dan Ariely is well-known for his talks on TED. This professor of psychology and behavioral economics posts some interesting stuff in his feed well worth reading.@mocost: Neuroscientist and writer Mo Costandi posts about all things brain-related here.@noahWG: Nature editor and neuroscientist Noah Gray shares his thoughts on science, the brain, and academia through his feed.@scicurious: Follow this feed to learn more about neuroscience from an expert in neurophysiology.@mrwdawson: You’ll enjoy reading through the tweets of cognitive scientist Michael Dawson, found here.@RichardWiseman: Get some great insights into the field of psychology from noted psychologist Richard Wiseman.@vaughanbell: Located in Bogata, Columbia, this expert in neuroscience and psychology tweets some pretty interesting links to new research in the fields.@danlevitin: Author and psychology and neuroscience professor Daniel Levitin talks about music, the brain, and loads of other interesting topics.@jgold85: Ever wonder how your brain got to be how it is? Get some insights into the evolution of the brain here, as well as a wide range of other scientific topics.@Kubke: Neuroscientist Fabiana Kubke gives her perspective on brain science from the land down under.@brembs: Berlin-based neuroscientist Bjorn Brembs touches on issues pertinent to academia, research, and science at large.@hysell: Follow along with this neuroscientist’s studies on the brain, with a special emphasis on auditory and visual stimuli.@OliverSacks: Physician, author, and professor of neurology and psychology at Columbia, Oliver Sacks is a busy man. Yet he still takes time to keep up with his Twitter feed, posting interesting health-related content.@SamHarrisOrg: This author and neuroscientist stays busy reflecting on questions of faith, belief, and the workings of the brain.@michaelshermer: Michael Shermer has an MA in psychology and a Ph.D. in the history of science, but these days he spends most of his time being a skeptic, as you’ll see from his feed.
Science Writing and Promotion
These writers and personalities help bring science to the masses, and many started out in their careers as scientists themselves.
@TheScienceGuy: Who better to follow on Twitter if you love science than Bill Nye, the science guy? This passionate science educator shares great comments, links, and pictures.@carlzimmer: Carl Zimmer is one of the best-known science writers out there. Follow his feed to learn about his new projects and get links to some great science-related resources.@edyong209: Award-winning science writer Ed Yong has written for top publications, but you can get his thoughts in 140 characters or less on Twitter.@Jorge_Salazar: Follow this feed to hear from science journalist and broadcaster Jorge Salazar.@Bill_Romanos: Bill Romanos touches on topics like science, technology, space, philosophy, and writing on this feed.@QuantumDottie: Biomedical expert Beth Schachter is a well-regarded science writer and editor and you can connect with her, and some interesting stories, here.@Happy_Scientist: Robert Krampf believes science should be exciting and fun. Read through his feed to learn about fun experiments, see great photos, and to get enthused about all things scientific.
PubMed comprises more than 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Side Mission (blog) 'Sonic the Hedgehog' vid games coming to Nintendo KRQE Over the past 22 years, Sonic and his friends have starred in dozens of games, including the hallmark 1992 sequel "Sonic the Hedgehog 2," 1997 3-D racer "Sonic R," 2002...
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses divided into three subfamilies: Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaherpesvirinae. The process of herpesvirus transmission is mediated by a range of proteins, one of which is glycoprotein L (gL).
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