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Pharmacosomes: An Emerging Novel Vesicular Drug Delivery System for Poorly Soluble Synthetic and Herbal Drugs. [ISRN Pharm. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

In the arena of solubility enhancement, several problems are encountered. A novel approach based on lipid drug delivery system has evolved, pharmacosomes. Pharmacosomes are colloidal, nanometric size micelles, vesicles or may be in the form of hexagonal assembly of colloidal drug dispersions attached covalently to the phospholipid. They act as befitting carrier for delivery of drugs quite precisely owing to their unique properties like small size, amphiphilicity, active drug loading, high entrapment efficiency, and stability. They help in controlled release of drug at the site of action as well as in reduction in cost of therapy, drug leakage and toxicity, increased bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, and restorative effects. There has been advancement in the scope of this delivery system for a number of drugs used for inflammation, heart diseases, cancer, and protein delivery along with a large number of herbal drugs. Hence, pharmacosomes open new challenges and opportunities for improved novel vesicular drug delivery system.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Vesicular systems are the emerging carrier systems in the pharmaceutical industry"

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Probiotics 'soothe colicky babies'

Probiotics 'soothe colicky babies' | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Probiotic drops soothe some babies suffering from colic, research reveals.

Via ClickTell Consulting
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probiotics helped breastfed babies

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Herbal therapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis - The Cochrane Library - Cameron - Wiley Online Library

Herbal therapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis - The Cochrane Library - Cameron - Wiley Online Library | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Authors' conclusions

Several herbal interventions are inadequately justified by single studies or non-comparable studies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. There is moderate evidence that oils containing GLA (evening primrose, borage, or blackcurrant seed oil) afford some benefit in relieving symptoms for RA, while evidence for Phytodolor® N is less convincing.Tripterygium wilfordii products may reduce some RA symptoms, however, oral use may be associated with several side effects. Many trials of herbal therapies are hampered by research design flaws and inadequate reporting.

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Interim report #BRAIN initiative (advisory committee to NIH director)


Via Nima Dehghani, Chang Eop Kim
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America's Largest Professional Society of Medicinal Plant Research Experts Endorses Botanical Adulteration Education Program

America's Largest Professional Society of Medicinal Plant Research Experts Endorses Botanical Adulteration Education Program | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

The American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) has announced its endorsement of the ABC-AHP-NCNPR Botanical Adulterants Program. This is an educational program designed to increase the herb, dietary supplements, and natural products industries' awareness of the need for enhanced scrutiny via laboratory analysis of herbal raw materials, extracts, and essential oils that may be accidentally or purposefully adulterated with lower-cost, non-disclosed ingredients. The Program is headed by three nonprofit groups focused on research and education on medical herbs and other beneficial plants: the American Botanical Council (ABC), the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP), and the National Center for Natural Products Research (NCNPR) at the University of Mississippi.

 

ASP is North America's leading organization of scientists involved with research on medicinal plants, fungi, marine organisms, and other natural materials used in the production of new medicines, comprising the essence of the science of pharmacognosy. Founded in 1959, ASP consists of more than 1,100 pharmacognosists, natural products chemists, botanists, molecular biologists, and other medicinal plant research experts from around the world.

 

Bradley Moore, PhD, president of ASP and a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California at San Diego, wrote in a letter to American Botanical Council Founder and Executive Director Mark Blumenthal,


Via Jonathan Middleton
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Smell and the Degenerating Brain | The Scientist Magazine®

Smell and the Degenerating Brain | The Scientist Magazine® | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
An impaired sense of smell is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and some other neurodegenerative diseases. Could it be a useful diagnostic tool?
Pasquale Valente's insight:

Evaluation of olfactory ability can help ensure the correct diagnosis and treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disease. 

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Exercise May Cut Hypertension Risk

Exercise May Cut Hypertension Risk | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Exercise May Cut Hypertension Risk MedPage Today Over a median follow-up of nearly a decade, the risk of developing hypertension was significantly lower for those with a moderate level of activity (relative risk 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.94) and a high...

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Activate Your Longevity Genes: Five Natural Compounds Simulate Caloric Restriction - 2 - Life Extension

Activate Your Longevity Genes: Five Natural Compounds Simulate Caloric Restriction - 2 - Life Extension | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Modern science has only recently begun to unravel the mystery behind how calorie restriction extends life span and improves overall health. Most people, however, find it difficult to sufficiently reduce the amount of food they consume.
Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The unique ability of these nutrients to modulate gene expression exerts system-wide effects that, in addition to influencing many of the same pathways activated by calorie restriction, can also significantly reduce degenerative disease risk."

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Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, -cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (re)absorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s). Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.


Pasquale Valente's insight:

Based on safety and their multiple targeting actions, herbal therapies are potent therapeutic means in T2D. The chemistry and biology of nearly 40 extracts and compounds of plant origin that have been demonstrated to prevent and treat T2D via the regulation of insulin resistance, beta-cell function, incretin pathways, and glucose (re)absorption are here summarized. 

http://world.einnews.com/article/169809253/k6cJpDxF_lvhkh8X

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Identifying Core Herbal Treatments for Children with Asthma: Implication from a Chinese Herbal Medicine Database in Taiwan

Identifying Core Herbal Treatments for Children with Asthma: Implication from a Chinese Herbal Medicine Database in Taiwan | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

A total of 108,362 patients had diagnosis of asthma at least once during 1997–2009, and a total of 401,149 ambulatory visits were made. 69,879 visits were made by the children aged from six to eighteen. Additionally, a total of 24,650 CHM prescriptions could be extracted for further analysis (Figure 1). In average, each prescription was composed of 4.2 CHM, and TCM physicians usually used up to three to four CHM in one prescription (Figure 2).

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Prevenire i tumori mangiando — AUSL di Bologna

Prevenire i tumori mangiando — AUSL di Bologna | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Un corso dell'Azienda USL di Bologna rivolto a professionisti del settore che si terrà il 3 ottobre alla Sala Auditorium della Regione Emilia-Romagna in Via Aldo Moro, 18 (I #tumori si prevengono anche con l'#alimentazione, 3 ottobre, convegno a Bologna...
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Citral is renoprotective for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and activating nrf2 pathway in mice. [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

The pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is considered to be associated with oxidative stress, mononuclear leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, and matrix production and/or matrix degradation, although the exact etiology and pathogenic pathways remain to be determined. Establishment of a pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategy for the disease is clinically warranted. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Litseacubeba, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, can inhibit oxidant activity, macrophage and NF-κB activation. In the present study, first, we used a mouse model of FSGS with the features of glomerular epithelial hyperplasia lesions (EPHLs), a key histopathology index of progression of FSGS, peri-glomerular inflammation, and progressive glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis. When treated with citral for 28 consecutive days at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight by gavage, the FSGS mice showed greatly reduced EPHLs, glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis and peri-glomerular mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, suggesting that citral may be renoprotective for FSGS and act by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and early activating the Nrf2 pathway. Meanwhile, a macrophage model involved in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities was employed and confirmed the beneficial effects of citral on the FSGS model.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Litseacubeba, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, can inhibit oxidant activity, macrophage and NF-κB activation.  Citral may be renoprotective and act by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and early activating the Nrf2 pathway. 

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Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The results of studies investigating the effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in humans are inconsistent. Objective: We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity.

DESIGN:

We performed a strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to January 2013) for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of green tea and green tea extract on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed by using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in glycemic measures by using fixed-effects or random-effects models. We conducted prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses to explore potential heterogeneity. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to investigate dose effects of green tea on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations.

RESULTS:

Seventeen trials comprising a total of 1133 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. Green tea consumption significantly reduced the fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) concentrations by -0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.15, -0.03 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and -0.30% (95% CI: -0.37, -0.22%; P < 0.01), respectively. Further stratified analyses from high Jadad score studies showed that green tea significantly reduced fasting insulin concentrations (-1.16 μIU/mL; 95% CI: -1.91, -0.40 μIU/mL; P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS:

This meta-analysis suggested that green tea had favorable effects, ie, decreased fasting glucose and Hb A1c concentrations. Subgroup analyses showed a significant reduction in fasting insulin concentrations in trials with high Jadad scores.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Seventeen trials comprising a total of 1133 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. Green tea consumption significantly reduced the fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) concentrations"

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Turmeric Produces 'Remarkable' Recovery in Alzheimer's Patients

Turmeric Produces 'Remarkable' Recovery in Alzheimer's Patients | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Turmeric has been used in India for over 5,000 years, which is likely why still today both rural and urban populations have some of the lowest prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the world.

Via Ingrid Long
Pasquale Valente's insight:

three patients with the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) whose behavioral symptoms were improved remarkably as a result of the turmeric treatment

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665200/

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Sandy Williams Spencer's curator insight, October 9, 2013 4:25 PM

I read great health results about Turmeric a few years ago. I've been giving a "sprinkle" on most meat dishes ever since. I do it only once a day, though, as I've also read articles that warn of overdose. Apparently a dash of turmeric a day is all you need.  Be cautious!

yon heroz's curator insight, October 11, 2013 3:02 AM

TUMERIC -SO GOOD FOR LIVER HEALTH

Cynthia J. Coan's curator insight, November 21, 2013 8:55 AM

Can turmeric play a role in fighting Alzheimer's?

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The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Press Release

The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Press Release | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly to James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman  and Thomas C. Südhof for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic,  a major transport system in our cells

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The three Nobel Laureates have discovered a fundamental process in cell physiology. These discoveries have had a major impact on our understanding of how cargo is delivered with timing and precision within and outside the cell. "

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Microarray analysis reveals the molecular basis of antiarthritic activity of huo-luo-xiao-ling dan. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Microarray analysis reveals the molecular basis of antiarthritic activity of huo-luo-xiao-ling dan. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of autoimmune origin. Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan (HLXL) is an herbal mixture that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine over several decades to treat chronic inflammatory diseases including RA. However, the mechanism of the anti-arthritic action of this herbal remedy is poorly understood at the molecular level. In this study, we determined by microarray analysis the effects of HLXL on the global gene expression profile of the draining lymph node cells (LNC) in the rat adjuvant arthritis (AA) model of human RA. In LNC restimulated in vitro with the disease-related antigen mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65), 84 differentially expressed genes (DEG) (64 upregulated and 20 downregulated) versus 120 DEG (94 upregulated and 26 downregulated) were identified in HLXL-treated versus vehicle (Water)-treated rats, respectively, and 62 DEG (45 upregulated and 17 downregulated) were shared between the two groups. The most affected pathways in response to HLXL treatment included immune response, inflammation, cellular proliferation and apoptosis, and metabolic processes, many of which are directly relevant to arthritis pathogenesis. These results would advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the anti-arthritic activity of HLXL.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

The maximum changes were observed in immune activity-related genes, including an overexpression of innate/adaptive immune response genes and downregulation of genes involved in inflammatory response, antigen processing and presentation, costimulation, and IFN-γ response genes.

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Chinese Herbal Medicine

Chinese Herbal Medicine | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
I’m often asked about Chinese herbal medicine.  I use herbal formulas for patients, when needed, and they wonder how these formulas are different from herbs you purchase at health food markets and...
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Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

L' O.E. dell'A. ha mostrato di avere attività antiossidante e antinfiammatoria, interferendo nella regolazione di NOS, COX-2, TNF- α e IL-6.


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FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.[Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.[Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns"

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Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. 

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds."


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Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy ? [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Can medical herbs stimulate regeneration or neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy ? [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Experimental and clinical studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice for the treatment of CIPN, but from this literature review, a lot of promising substances, mainly Chinese medical herbs with possible effect in CIPN or a putative influence on mechanisms of CIPN, have been identified in the last years."

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3747437/ 

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Advances in Neuroprotective Ingredients of Medicinal Herbs by Using Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is neuropathologically identified by age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Development of symptomatic treatments has been partly successful for PD research, but there remain a number of inadequacies in therapeutic strategies for the disease. The pathogenesis of PD remains intricate, and the present anti-PD treatments appears to be clinically insufficient. Comprehensive research on discovery of novel drug candidates has demonstrated that natural products, such as medicinal herbs, plant extracts, and their secondary metabolites, have great potential as therapeutics with neuroprotective activity in PD. Recent preclinical studies suggest that a number of herbal medicines and their bioactive ingredients can be developed into optimum pharmaceuticals for treating PD. In many countries, traditional herbal medicines are used to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders, and some have been developed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Here we focus on recent advances of the evidence-linked neuroprotective activity of bioactive ingredients of herbal origin in cellular and animal models of PD research.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Bioactive constituents listed in this current write-up belong to different chemical classes like including, Terpenes (ginsenoside Rg1, tenuigenin, astragaloside IV), flavones (puerarin, luteolin and baicalein, morin), stilbenoids (resveratrol), phenylpropanoid (echinacoside), phenylethyl glycoside (acteoside), coumarin (umbelliferone and esculetin), and catechol (curcumin and protocatechuic acid).  All the mentioned bioactive compounds have demonstrated a significant neuroprotective effect in PD models. "

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What's that smell? New research sniffs out odor categories with math | e! Science News

What's that smell? New research sniffs out odor categories with math | e! Science News | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Taste can be classified into five flavors that we sense, but how many odors can we smell?
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Gastroprotective and anti-Helicobacter pylori potential of herbal formula HZJW: safety and efficacy assessment. [BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula, HZJW, has been applied in clinics in China for gastrointestinal disorders. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying its efficacy and safety remained to be defined. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the formula HZJW for its gastroprotective potential, possible effect on Helicobacter pylori along with safety to justify its anti-ulcer action and safe clinical application.
METHODS: The gastroduodenal cytoprotective potential was evaluated in rodent experimental models (HCl/Ethanol and NSAID-induced ulcer protocols). The anti-H. pylori property was assessed by agar dilution assay in vitro and analysis in vivo including rapid urease test, immunogold test and histopathology. For toxicity assessment, acute toxicity study was performed according to fixed dose procedure with a single oral administration of HZJW to mice. In the oral chronic toxicity, rats (80 males, 80 females) were administrated HZJW orally in 0, 1000, 2500, or 5000 mg/kg/day doses for 26 weeks (n = 40/group of each sex). Clinical signs, mortality, body weights, feed consumption, ophthalmology, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross findings, organ weights and histopathology were examined at the end of the 13- and 26-week dosing period, as well as after the 4-week recovery period.
RESULTS: In the HCl/Ethanol-induced ulcer model, it was observed that oral administration with HZJW (260, 520 and 1040 mg/kg) and ranitidine (250 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesion index (116.70 ± 36.4, 102.20 ± 18.20, 84.10 ± 12.1 and 73.70 ± 16.70) in a dose-dependent manner, respectively, with respect to control group (134.10 ± 31.69). Significant inhibition was also observed in ulcerative index from aspirin-induced ulcer model, with decreases of 35.40 ± 5.93, 31.30 ± 8.08, 26.80 ± 8.27and 20.40 ± 6.93 for the groups treated with HZJW and ranitidine, in parallel to controls (41.60 ± 10.80). On the other hand, treatment with HZJW efficaciously eradicated H. pylori in infected mice in rapid urease test (RUT) and immunogold antibody assay, as further confirmed by reduction of H. pylori presence in histopathological analysis. In the in vitro assay, MICs for HZJW and amoxicillin (positive control) were 125 and 0.12 μg/mL respectively. The LD50 of HZJW was over 18.0 g/kg for mice. No drug-induced abnormalities were found as clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemistry, ophthalmology and histopathology results across three doses. No target organ was identified. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of HZJW was determined to be 5,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, a dose that was equivalent to 50 times of human dose.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested the efficacy and safety of HZJW in healing peptic ulcer and combating H. pylori, which corroborated their conventional indications and contributed to their antiulcer pharmacological validation, lending more credence to its clinical application for the traditional treatment of stomach complaints symptomatic of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). HZJW might have the potential for further development as a safe and effective alternative/complementary to conventional medication in treating gastrointestinal (GI) disorders.

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