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Grape Seed Extract Component B2G2 'Kills Prostate Cancer Cells'

Grape Seed Extract Component B2G2 'Kills Prostate Cancer Cells' | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
A compound found in grape seed extract, called B2G2, can successfully kill human prostate cancer cells, according to a study from the University of Colorado Cancer Center.

Via Graham Player Ph.D.
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Graham Player Ph.D.'s curator insight, December 8, 2013 11:44 AM

A study published in the journal Nutrition and Cancer has found that a component found in grape seed extract is effective in killing prostate cancer cells. The researchers discovered that the component of grape seed extract called B2G2 is the most active against cancer cells. B2G2 was found to induce cancer cell death but left healthy cells unharmed.

xavier's curator insight, December 9, 2013 3:52 PM

grape

 

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Herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health. Scuola Viterbese di Fitoterapia - Italia
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Rescooped by Pasquale Valente from A Tale of Two Medicines
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Cancer chemoprevention by dietary chlorophylls: a 12,000-animal dose-dose matrix biomarker and tumor study.

Cancer chemoprevention by dietary chlorophylls: a 12,000-animal dose-dose matrix biomarker and tumor study. | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Recent pilot studies found natural chlorophyll (Chl) to inhibit carcinogen uptake and tumorigenesis in rodent and fish models, and to alter uptake and biodistribution of trace (14)C-aflatoxin B1 in human volunteers. The present study extends these promising findings, using a dose-dose matrix design to examine Chl-mediated effects on dibenzo(def,p)chrysene (DBC)-induced DNA adduct formation, tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and changes in gene regulation in the trout. The dose-dose matrix design employed an initial 12,360 rainbow trout, which were treated with 0-4000ppm dietary Chl along with 0-225ppm DBC for up to 4weeks. Dietary DBC was found to induce dose-responsive changes in gene expression that were abolished by Chl co-treatment, whereas Chl alone had no effect on the same genes. Chl co-treatment provided a dose-responsive reduction in total DBC-DNA adducts without altering relative adduct intensities along the chromatographic profile. In animals receiving DBC alone, liver tumor incidence (as logit) and tumor multiplicity were linear in DBC dose (as log) up to their maximum-effect dose, and declined thereafter. Chl co-treatment substantially inhibited incidence and multiplicity at DBC doses up to their maximum-effect dose. These results show that Chl concentrations encountered in Chl-rich green vegetables can provide substantial cancer chemoprotection, and suggest that they do so by reducing carcinogen bioavailability. However, at DBC doses above the optima, Chl co-treatments failed to inhibit tumor incidence and significantly enhanced multiplicity. This finding questions the human relevance of chemoprevention studies carried out at high carcinogen doses that are not proven to lie within a linear, or at least monotonic, endpoint dose-response range.

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Rescooped by Pasquale Valente from Natural Products Chemistry Breaking News
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Antiviral Activity of Diterpene Esters on Chikungunya Virus and HIV Replication

Antiviral Activity of Diterpene Esters on Chikungunya Virus and HIV Replication | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Recently, new daphnane, tigliane, and jatrophane diterpenoids have been isolated from various Euphorbiaceae species, of which some have been shown to be potent inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. To further explore this type of compound, the antiviral activity of a series of 29 commercially available natural diterpenoids was evaluated. Phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (11) proved to be the most potent inhibitor, with an EC50 value of 6.0 ± 0.9 nM and a selectivity index (SI) of 686, which is in line with the previously reported anti-CHIKV potency for the structurally related 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (13). Most of the other compounds exhibited low to moderate activity, including an ingenane-type diterpene ester, compound 28, with an EC50 value of 1.2 ± 0.1 μM and SI = 6.4. Diterpene compounds are known also to inhibit HIV replication, so the antiviral activities of compounds 1–29 were evaluated also against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Tigliane- (4β-hydroxyphorbol analogues 10, 11, 13,15, 16, and 18) and ingenane-type (27 and 28) diterpene esters were shown to inhibit HIV replication in vitro at the nanomolar level. A Pearson analysis performed with the anti-CHIKV and anti-HIV data sets demonstrated a linear relationship, which supported the hypothesis made that PKC may be an important target in CHIKV replication.


Louis-Félix Nothias-Scaglia †‡, Christophe Pannecouque §, Franck Renucci †, Leen Delang §, Johan Neyts §, Fanny Roussi ‡, Jean Costa †, Pieter Leyssen §, Marc Litaudon *‡, and Julien Paolini J. Nat. Prod., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00073Publication Date (Web): May 13, 2015





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Paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via a TLR4-dependent pathway. - PubMed - NCBI

Paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via a TLR4-dependent pathway. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

Paeonia lactiflora Pall is one of the most well-known herbs in China, Korea, and Japan for more than 1,200 years. Paeoniflorin, the major bioactive component of peony root, has recently been reported to have anticolitic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. The present study was to explore the possible mechanism of paeoniflorin in attenuating dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Pre- and coadministration of paeoniflorin significantly reduced the severity of colitis and resulted in downregulation of several inflammatory parameters in the colon, including the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and the mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators (MCP-1, Cox2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17). The decline in the activation of NF-κB p65, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK correlated with a decrease in mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 or TLR5 expression. In accordance with the in vivo results, paeoniflorin downregulated TLR4 expression, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and reduced the production of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Transient transfection assay performed in LPS-stimulated human colon cancer HT-29 cells indicated that paeoniflorin inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. TLR4 knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrated a requirement for TLR4 in paeoniflorin-mediated downregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, for the first time, the present study indicates that paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via decreasing the expression of TLR4 and suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

paeoniflorin regulated the key molecules involved in inflammation

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Curcumin Attenuates Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Curcumin Attenuates Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

The baseline level of PMS symptoms of before intervention did not differ between groups. While after three consecutive cycles treatment with Curcumin, total severity of PMS score had reduced from 102.06 ± 39.64 to 42.47 ± 16.37 (mean change: 59.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 46.19-72.99) and in Placebo, total severity of PMS score changed from 106.06 ± 44.12 to 91.60 ± 43.56 (mean change: 14.45; 95% CI: 2.69 to 26.22). Furthermore, difference between mean changes was significant (mean difference: 45.14; 95% CI: 6.10—14.98).

 

Our results for the first time showed a potential advantageous effect of curcumin in attenuating severity of PMS symptoms, which were probably mediated by modulation of neurotransmitters and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin.


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Steamed ginger (Zingiber officinale): Changed chemical profile and increased anticancer potential

Ginger, from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosco (Zingiberaceae), is a common condiment for foods and beverages. In this work, we tested a hypothesis that a steaming process affects the chemical profile and anticancer potential of ginger. An HPLC method with TOF/MS and DAD was developed to analyse the chemical constituents in ginger. The antiproliferative effect of fresh, dried and steamed gingers was evaluated using human Hela cancer cells. The results showed that the antiproliferative effect of steamed ginger at 120 °C for 4 h was approximately 1.5- and 2-fold higher than that of dried and fresh ginger, respectively. Twenty-two components were characterised in the steamed ginger. The decreased concentration of gingerols and increased levels of shogaols contributed to the improved anticancer potential of the steamed ginger. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and anticancer activity, and developed an optimised processed ginger extract for chemoprevention.


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Nanotechnology-Applied Curcumin for Different Diseases Therapy

Nanotechnology-Applied Curcumin for Different Diseases Therapy | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Curcumin is a lipophilic molecule with an active ingredient in the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It is used by different folks for treatment of many diseases. Recent studies have discussed poor bioavailability of curcumin because of poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that is potentially changing the way we can treat diseases through drug delivery with curcumin. The recent investigations established several approaches to improve the bioavailability, to increase the plasma concentration, and to enhance the cellular permeability processes of curcumin. Several types of nanoparticles have been found to be suitable for the encapsulation or loading of curcumin to improve its therapeutic effects in different diseases. Nanoparticles such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, niosomes, cyclodextrins, dendrimers, silvers, and solid lipids are emerging as one of the useful alternatives that have been shown to deliver therapeutic concentrations of curcumin. This review shows that curcumin's therapeutic effects may increase to some extent in the presence of nanotechnology. The presented board of evidence focuses on the valuable special effects of curcumin on different diseases and candidates it for future clinical studies in the realm of these diseases.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Curcumin, an excellent representative derived from traditional natural compounds, has been proven to be effectual in long-term application and preclinical trials. There is no doubt that advance of novel delivery systems of curcumin with better therapeutic effects will be vital for future improvement of curcumin as a therapeutic agent."

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Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.- PubMed - NCBI

Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.- PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa officinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations.OBJECTIVE: Heart palpitation is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difficult to treat. Herbal medicines provide an alternative to conventional drugs for treating various kinds of diseases. This study was done as a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dried extract of M. officinalis on adults suffering from benign palpitations.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as outpatients to a fourteen day treatment with 500mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves (or placebo). Participants in the tests, physicians and researchers were blind to group assignments. Both primary and secondary outcomes were patient-reported. Primary outcomes were obtained from two measures: mean frequency of palpitation episodes per week, derived from patients' diaries, and mean intensity of palpitation estimated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in a self-report questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression) were evaluated as secondary outcomes by General Health Questionnaire-28(GHQ-28), before and after intervention.RESULTS: Fifty-five volunteers out of seventy-one recruited study subjects completed the trial. Results showed that 14-days of treatment with lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and significantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo (P=0.0001, P=0.004resp.). Also, M. officinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects.CONCLUSION: Lyophilized aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis leaves may be a proper and safe herbal drug for the treatment of benign palpitations.
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Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential - PubMed - NCBI

Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract
BACKGROUND:Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status.METHODS:

Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods.

RESULTS:

In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of physiological defense mechanisms.

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Anti-HCV activity of the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-HCV activity of the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global health problem. Although the sustained virologic response rate in the treatment of genotype 1 using new triple therapy (pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir/boceprevir) has been improved by more than 70%, several severe side effects such as skin rash/ageusia and advanced anemia have become a problem. Under these circumstances, a new type of anti-HCV oral drug with few side effects is needed. Our recently developed HCV drug assay systems, including the HuH-7 cell line-derived OR6 and AH1R, and the Li23 cell line-derived ORL8 and ORL11, allow genome-length HCV RNAs (several strains of genotype 1b) encoding renilla luciferase to replicate efficiently. Using these systems as anti-HCV candidates, we have identified numerous existing medicines that can be used against HCV with few side effects, such as statins and teprenon. To obtain additional anti-HCV candidates, we evaluated a number of oral health supplements, and found that the capsule but not the liquid form of Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Ascomycotinanorth, North Chinese caterpillar fungus), which is used as a Chinese herbal medicine, exhibited moderate anti-HCV activity. In combination with interferon-α or ribavirin, CM exhibited an additive inhibitory effect. Among the main components of CM, cordycepin, but not ergosterol, contributed to the anti-HCV activity of CM. In consideration of all these results, we suggest that CM would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"cordyceps militaris would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin."

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Pasquale Valente's curator insight, December 29, 2014 2:40 AM

 "cordyceps militaris would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin"

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Potential nephroprotective effects of the Chinese herb Angelica sinensis against cisplatin tubulotoxicity. - PubMed - NCBI

Potential nephroprotective effects of the Chinese herb Angelica sinensis against cisplatin tubulotoxicity. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Abstract Context: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often encountered in patients receiving cisplatin (CisPt), a chemotherapeutic drug that induces numerous toxic side effects. Techniques used to limit nephrotoxicity during CisPt treatment are not fully effective; about a third of patients experience AKI. New nephroprotective strategies, including pharmacological approaches, must be developed. Objective: The present study investigated the nephroprotective potential of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Apiaceae) root towards CisPt tubulotoxicity. Materials and methods: HK-2 cells were incubated with CisPt (10 µM) and/or with a methanolic extract of A. sinensis (AS). Nephroprotective capacity was evaluated by means of cellular viability (resazurin assay) and apoptosis (annexin-V/PI staining), oxidative stress generation (H2DCF-DA oxidation), Ki-67 index (immunofluorescence), cell cycle analysis (DNA staining), cell migration rate (scratch assay), extracellular matrix deposition (collagen determination), and β-catenin relocalization. Results: CisPt decreased cell viability [76% versus Ctrl], which was associated with an increased apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with 50 µg/ml AS enhanced cell survival [84% versus Ctrl] and decreased the apoptosis rate. AS could not alleviate CisPt-induced oxidative stress; but doses of 5 and 50 µg/ml raised the Ki-67 index [135 and 244% versus Ctrl] and cell migration rates [1.2 and 1.3-fold versus Ctrl]. Finally, both doses of AS limited the amount of collagen deposition [121.6 and 119.6% for 5 and 50 µg/ml, respectively, versus 131.0% for CisPt-treated cells] and prevented the relocalization of β-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus. Conclusion: These results confirm the nephroprotective potential of A. sinensis and require further investigations aiming at identifying its active compounds.

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Salvianolic acid B promotes bone formation by increasing activity of alkaline phosphatase in a rat tibia fracture model: a pilot study. - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae is a herb frequently used within traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular- and trauma-related diseases. Danshen is the dried root of Salviae miltiorrhizae, from which the polyphenolic compound Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) can be obtained. Sal B is a key component of Danshen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Sal B on the healing of long bones following trauma in a rat tibia fracture model.

METHODS:

Tibia fractures were created in 20 male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were divided into two groups: (1) experimental group (n = 10); and (2) control group (n = 10). Rats in the experimental group were intraperitoneally administered with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d) for 3 weeks, while rats in the control group received an identical volume of physiological saline solution, administered in the same way. X-ray photographs were taken of all animals at the time points. Rats were euthanized at weeks 1, 3, 8 and 12 post-fracture. Fracture calluses were measured and callus sections were obtained and stained using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and the calcium cobalt method. HE stained sections were observed and evaluated according to different grades of bone remodeling. Sections stained using the calcium cobalt method were analyzed with an imagine analysis system.

RESULTS:

Data showed that callus growth was significantly greater in the experimental group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, histological scores in the Sal B-treated group were statistically higher than in the saline treated group at weeks 1, 3 and 8 post-fracture (P < 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was enhanced in the experimental group at weeks 1 and 3 post-fracture (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that Sal B may accelerate early-stage fracture healing. Increased activity of ALP may be one factor which promotes the healing process. This pilot study provides brief insight into the effect of Sal B in fracture healing. These findings will contribute to the development of more and enhanced treatment options for trauma fracture patients.

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Mistletoe extract doubles survival time of pancreatic cancer patients

Mistletoe extract doubles survival time of pancreatic cancer patients | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

This new Phase III clinical trial was randomized, open-label and carried out in Serbia on 220 patients. All patients received Best Supportive Care. Patients in the treatment group also received subcutaneous injections of mistletoe extract three times weekly with dosages escalating from 0.01 mg up to a constant 10 mg after the twenty-second dose. Patients who started the study with a ‘good prognosis’ saw their survival times more than double from 3.2 months (if untreated) to 6.6 months if treated with mistletoe. Likewise, patients with a ‘poor prognosis’ averaged 2.0 months survival if untreated, but 3.4 months if treated with mistletoe. Remarkably, the group treated with mistletoe experienced only 16 adverse events compared to 53 adverse events in the untreated group. Rather than carrying negative side effects as chemo drugs do, the mistletoe treatment actually decreased the likelihood of painful or undesirable effects (adverse events) by 75 percent. And none of the adverse events in the mistletoe group were caused by the mistletoe itself.


Via Jonathan Middleton
Pasquale Valente's insight:

VaL therapy showed a significant and clinically relevant prolongation of OS. The study findings suggest VaL to be a non-toxic and effective second-line therapy that offers a prolongation of OS as well as less disease-related symptoms for patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890767

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Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI

Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is a hydrophilic component isolated from the Chinese herb Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been used clinically for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Platelets-mediated vascular inflammatory response contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper, we focus on the modulating effects of SAB on the inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells triggered by activated platelets. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were pretreated with SAB followed by co-culture with ADP-activated platelets. Adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells was observed by amorphological method. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B was evaluated by NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and the protein phosphorylation. A determination of the pro-inflammatory mediators (ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1) mRNA and protein were also conducted. In addition, the inhibitory effects of SAB on platelets activation were also evaluated using a platelet aggregation assay and assessing the release level of soluble P-selectin. The results showed that SAB dose-dependently inhibited ADP- or α-thrombin-induced human platelets aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) samples, and significantly decreased soluble P-selectin release from both agonists stimulated washed platelets. It was also found that pre-treatment with SAB reduced adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to EA.hy926 cells and inhibited NF-κB activation. In addition, SAB significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory mediators mRNA and protein in EA.hy926 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that, in addition to its inhibitory effects on platelets activation, SAB was able to attenuate platelets-mediated inflammatory responses in endothelial cells even if the platelets had already been activated. This anti-inflammatory effect was related to the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Our findings suggest that SAB may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various atherosclerotic diseases.

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Antiviral Effects of Novel Herbal Medicine KIOM-C, on Diverse Viruses

Antiviral Effects of Novel Herbal Medicine KIOM-C, on Diverse Viruses | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
In order to identify new potential antiviral agents, recent studies have advocated thorough testing of herbal medicines or natural substances that are traditionally used to prevent viral infections. Antiviral activities and the mechanism of action of ...
Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The present study revealed that total aqueous extract preparation of KIOM-C stimulates an antiviral state in murine macrophage cells and in mice leading to inhibition of viral infection and protection against lethal challenges."

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Potent natural products and herbal medicines for treating liver fibrosis. - PubMed - NCBI

Potent natural products and herbal medicines for treating liver fibrosis. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response to chronic liver injury characterized by progressive inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix components. The pathological condition of liver fibrosis involves secretion of extracellular matrix proteins and formation of scar tissue. The major regulators involved in hepatic fibrogenesis are the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/SMAD and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-initiated myeloid differentiation primary response 88 gene (MyD88)/NF-ĸB cell signaling pathways. This article reviews natural products and herbal medicines that have demonstrated activity against liver fibrosis through different mechanisms of action, including anti-hepatitis B and C virus activity, anti-inflammation, inhibition of cytokine production and nuclear receptor activation, and free radical scavenging.

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Mediterranean diet plus olive oil or nuts associated with improved cognitive function | KurzweilAI

Mediterranean diet plus olive oil or nuts associated with improved cognitive function | KurzweilAI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Supplementing the plant-based Mediterranean diet with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil or mixed nuts has been associated with improved cognitive function in a study of older adults in Spain, according to an open-access article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Previous research suggests following a Mediterranean diet may be associated with better cognitive function and a lower risk of dementia. However, the observational studies that have examined these associations have limitations.

The researchers compared a Mediterranean diet supplemented with olive oil or nuts with a low-fat control diet.

The randomized clinical trial included 447 cognitively healthy volunteers (223 were women; average age was nearly 67 years) who were at high cardiovascular risk and were enrolled in the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea nutrition intervention.

Of the participants, 155 individuals were assigned to supplement a Mediterranean diet with one liter of extra virgin olive oil per week; 147 were assigned to supplement a Mediterranean diet with 30 grams per day of a mix of walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds; and 145 individuals were assigned to follow a low-fat control diet.

The authors measured cognitive change over time with a battery of neuropsychological tests and they constructed three cognitive composites for memory, frontal cognition (attention and executive function), and global cognition.

Mediterranean-diet subjects showed improved memory or cognition

The study found that individuals assigned to the low-fat control diet had a significant decrease from baseline in all composites of cognitive function. Compared with the control group, the memory composite improved significantly in the Mediterranean diet plus nuts group, while frontal and global cognition improved in the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil group.

At the end of the follow-up, there were 37 cases of mild cognitive impairment: 17 (13.4 percent) in the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil group; eight (7.1 percent) in the Mediterranean diet plus nuts group; and 12 (12.6 percent) in the low-fat control group. No dementia cases were documented in patients who completed study follow-up.

“Our results suggest that in an older population, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with olive oil or nuts may counteract age-related cognitive decline,” the researchers suggest.

“The lack of effective treatments for cognitive decline and dementia points to the need of preventive strategies to delay the onset and/or minimize the effects of these devastating conditions. The present results with the Mediterranean diet are encouraging but further investigation is warranted.”

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Dietary curcumin may boost brain DHA: Study

Dietary curcumin may boost brain DHA: Study | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Increased intake of curcumin could boost levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain by enhancing its conversion from other omega-3 precursors in the liver, say researchers.

Via Mark Kaylor
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The gut microbiome: how does it affect our health?

The gut microbiome: how does it affect our health? | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
The tens of trillions of microbes that live in the gut have some important implications for health, but do you know what they are? We investigate.

Via ClickTell Consulting
Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Findings show that specific groups of microbes living in our gut could be protective against obesity - and that their abundance is influenced by our genes. The human microbiome represents an exciting new target for dietary changes and treatments aimed at combating obesity"  Tim Spector

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Glycyrrhizic acid in the treatment of liver diseases: literature re... - PubMed - NCBI

Glycyrrhizic acid in the treatment of liver diseases: literature re... - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions.

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Resources and Biological Activities of Natural Polyphenols. - PubMed - NCBI

Resources and Biological Activities of Natural Polyphenols. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

The oxidative stress imposed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in many chronic and degenerative diseases. As an important category of phytochemicals, phenolic compounds universally exist in plants, and have been considered to have high antioxidant ability and free radical scavenging capacity, with the mechanism of inhibiting the enzymes responsible for ROS production and reducing highly oxidized ROS. Therefore, phenolic compounds have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for preventing and treating many oxidative stress-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, ageing, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge of naturalpolyphenols, including resource, bioactivities, bioavailability and potential toxicity.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"This review provided a current understanding on the bioactivities of natural polyphenols and the benefits to human health"

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Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model - PubMed - NCBI

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The antibacterial potential of essential oils’ components tested can be presented as: Linalyl acetate < limonene < β-pinene < α-pinene < camphor < linalool < 1,8-cineole < menthol < thymol < carvacrol"

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Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Four Salvia Essential Oils and Individual Compounds against Two Species of Mosquitoes- PubMed - NCBI

Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Four Salvia Essential Oils and Individual Compounds against Two Species of Mosquitoes- PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

Chemical composition of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), -pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%) and -pinene (3.8%) in S. apiana; borneol (17.4%), -eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%) and guaiol (4.8%) in S. elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), -caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%) and spathulenol (7.0%) in S. leucantha; -thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), -thujene (5.7%) and camphor (6.4%) in S. officinalis. In biting deterrent bioassays, essential oil of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 µg/cm2 showed activity similar to DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) in both the species of mosquitoes whereas activity of S. officinalis and S. apiana was lower than the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm2 whereas activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than β-eudesmol, guaiol or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except S. apiana which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. Based on 95% CIs, all the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than Aedes aegypti. Essential oil of S. leucantha with LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus

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Antimetastatic and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Essential Oil from Edible Ocimum sanctum Leaves

Abstract

Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO) have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250μg/mL and above showed a significant (*P < 0.05) decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer.

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Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

We performed a systematic review for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] as defined by the National Institute of Health in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], ie Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements, and manipulative therapies.

METHODS:

A computerized search of databases [Cochrane Library, Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Scopus] through March 2014 was performed. We screened the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews in English language for CAM in IBD, CD and UC. Randomized controlled trials [RCT] and controlled trials [CT] were referred and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.

RESULTS:

A total of: 26 RCT and 3 CT for herbal medicine, eg aloe-vera gel, andrographis paniculata, artemisia absinthium, barley foodstuff, boswellia serrata, cannabis, curcumin, evening primrose oil, Myrrhinil intest®, plantago ovata, silymarin, sophora, tormentil, wheatgrass-juice and wormwood; 1 RCT for trichuris suis ovata; 7 RCT for mind/body interventions such as lifestyle modification, hypnotherapy, relaxation training and mindfulness; and 2 RCT in acupuncture; were found. Risk of bias was quite heterogeneous. Best evidence was found for herbal therapy, ie plantago ovata and curcumin in UC maintenance therapy, wormwood in CD, mind/body therapy and self-intervention in UC, and acupuncture in UC and CD.

CONCLUSIONS:

Complementary and alternative therapies might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases; however, given the low number of trials and the heterogeneous methodological quality of trials, further in-depth research is necessary.

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Ginsenoside 20(S)‑Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect through STAT3 pathways in ovarian cancer cells- PubMed - NCBI

Ginsenoside 20(S)‑Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect through STAT3 pathways in ovarian cancer cells- PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

Cancer cells prefer to metabolize glucose through aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. It plays a crucial role in proliferation and progression of cancer cells. However, the complete mechanism remains elusive. In recent studies, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling has been discovered to have roles in cancer‑associated changes in metabolism. In this study, we find that the ginsenoside 20(S)‑Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng, inhibits glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells by regulating hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). We also show that 20(S)‑Rg3 regulates HK2 through downregulation of p‑STAT3 (Tyr705). Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells weakened the suppression of Warburg effect induced by 20(S)‑Rg3. Importantly, 20(S)‑Rg3 treatment represses HK2 expression in nude mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results show that 20(S)‑Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect by targeting STAT3/HK2 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, highlighting the potentiality of 20(S)‑Rg3 to be used as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

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