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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six flavonoids separated from licorice.

Abstract

Licorice, the roots and rhizomes of several Glycyrrhiza species (Leguminosae), is an important natural sweetening agent and a widely used herbalmedicine. In this work, six flavonoids, 5-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-3,4,4'-trihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone (1), licochalcone B (2), licochalcone A (3), echinatin (4), glycycoumarin (5) and glyurallin B (6), were isolated from the extracts of licorice (Glycyrrhiza inflata and Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods. To our knowledge, compound 1 was isolated from natural plants for the first time. All the isolates were tested by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 showed strong scavenging activity toward the ABTS(+) radical, and compounds 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes compared with the reference controls. Compounds 1-4 dose-dependently inhibited LPS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, compounds 1-5 were demonstrated to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Moreover, the contents of the six compounds, in different Glycyrrhiza species, were quantified by HPLC-MS.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modula... - PubMed - NCBI

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Review of the regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines... - PubMed - NCBI

Chin J Integr Med. 2014 Dec;20(12):883-93. doi: 10.1007/s11655-014-2024-y. Epub 2014 Nov 27.
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Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression

Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

The stem-like cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors (GSCs) are one of the important determinants of recurrence and drug resistance. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the anticancer effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on GBM cell lines, the association between OLE and TMZ responses, and the effect of OLE and the OLE-TMZ combination in GSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism of this effect on the expression of miRNAs related to cell death. The anti-proliferative activity of OLE and the effect of the OLE-TMZ combination were tested in the T98G, U-138MG and U-87MG GBM cell lines using WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed with Annexin V/FITC and TUNEL assays. The effects of OLE on the expression levels of miR-181b, miR-153, miR-145 and miR-137 and potential mRNA targets were analyzed in GSCs using RT-qPCR. OLE exhibited anti-proliferative effects via apoptosis and necrosis in the GBM cell lines. In addition, OLE significantly induced the expression of miR-153, miR-145, and miR-137 and decreased the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs in GSCs (p < 0.05). OLE causes cell death in GBM cells with different TMZ responses, and this effect is synergistically increased when the cells are treated with a combination of OLE and TMZ. This is the first study to indicate that OLE may interfere with the pluripotency of GSCs by modulating miRNA expression. Further studies are required, but we suggest that OLE may have a potential for advanced therapeutic cancer drug studies in GBM.


Via Jonathan Middleton
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Could Multiple Sclerosis Begin in the Gut?

Could Multiple Sclerosis Begin in the Gut? | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
MS researchers are focusing on the content of the gut’s microbiome as a possible contributor to the body’s autoimmune attack on its nervous system
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Curcumin Together With Cancer Inhibiting Peptides Shown to Reduce Cancer Severity in Mesothelioma

Curcumin Together With Cancer Inhibiting Peptides Shown to Reduce Cancer Severity in Mesothelioma | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

PIAS3 levels, which brought down STAT3 activity and caused mesothelioma cells to die. Their study served as proof of principle about the effectiveness of these two compounds in treating malignant mesothelioma, a first step in moving a treatment toward clinical trials.


Via Graham Player Ph.D.
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Graham Player Ph.D.'s curator insight, September 19, 1:42 PM

The culprit in sparking many cancers, particularly mesothelioma, is the intracellular protein and transcription factor STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). A signal transducer and activator is a pathway for instructing the growth and survival of cells, and a transcription factor is a protein that controls genetic information directing cells how to perform. STAT3 is notorious for sending signals to trigger the onset of human cancers and to fuel their continued growth.

The great neutralizer of STAT3 is PIAS3 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT3). PIAS3 possesses the strength to inhibit and block STAT3's ability to cause cancer. Scientists from Case Western Reserve University and the Georg-Speyer-Haus in Frankfurt, Germany, demonstrated that application of curcumin, a derivative of the spice turmeric, and cancer-inhibiting peptides increase PIAS3 levels, which brought down STAT3 activity and caused mesothelioma cells to die.

Their study served as proof of principle about the effectiveness of these two compounds in treating malignant mesothelioma, a first step in moving a treatment toward clinical trials.

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Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer [Br J Cancer. 2014] - NCBI

Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer [Br J Cancer. 2014]  - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Background:

There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.


Methods:

A cohort of 477312 men and women mostly aged 35–70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases.


Results:

During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5–Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5–Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC.


Conclusions:

Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer"

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Do Gut Bacteria Rule Our Minds? | ucsf.edu

Do Gut Bacteria Rule Our Minds? | ucsf.edu | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Pasquale Valente's insight:

Researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University and University of New Mexico concluded from a review of the recent scientific literature that microbes influence human eating behavior and dietary choices to favor consumption of the particular nutrients they grow best on, rather than simply passively living off whatever nutrients we choose to send their way.

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Pasquale Valente's curator insight, August 22, 4:54 AM

Researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University and University of New Mexico concluded from a review of the recent scientific literature that microbes influence human eating behavior and dietary choices to favor consumption of the particular nutrients they grow best on, rather than simply passively living off whatever nutrients we choose to send their way.

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An ‘Elixer of Long Life’ was dug up, and you’ll never guess what the main ingredients are!

An ‘Elixer of Long Life’ was dug up, and you’ll never guess what the main ingredients are! | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
When someone lives long enough to receive the title ”World’s Oldest Person,” they’re usually asked what their secret is. You hear a lot of answers, although inevitably many of those answers include some form of alcohol. A recent discovery in New York City of a 200-year-old bottle labeled “Elixir of Long Life” led researchers to…

Via Ingrid Long
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The antioxidant role of proteins containing selenium

The antioxidant role of proteins containing selenium | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
The prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America this week published an article by a research team led by University of Delaware biochemist Sharon Rozovsky, examining proteins containing selenium and their antioxidant role in human health.

Via ClickTell Consulting
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Cancer is a Metabolic Disease that Responds to Diet-Based Metabolic Therapy

Cancer is a Metabolic Disease that Responds to Diet-Based Metabolic Therapy | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Enjoy this free DigiVision Lecture from the ACAM 2013 conference in Hollywood Florida

Via Graham Player Ph.D.
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Graham Player Ph.D.'s curator insight, April 21, 8:55 AM

The belief of medical experts seems to be that cancer is a genetic disease. A belief that is expressed in our college education, biology textbooks, medical education, and top scientific journals. The belief is extended to suggest that if there is any metabolic component to the cause of cancer, then it is due to some genomic instability.

The origin of these beliefs dates back to 1914 with the work of Theodor Heinrich Boveri, a German biologist. However it turns out that he never actually studied cancer himself. Today many scientists have a different view of cancer and do not subscribe to the theory that cancer is genetic in origin. Cancer cells also are metabolically abnormal. Research has shown that transferring the nucleus of cancer cells into normal cells does not result in the normal cells becoming cancerous. Further research indicates that transferring normal mitochondria into cancer cells can also suppress the development of the cancer. This suggests that abnormalities which may exist in the nucleus, such as various genomic instabilities, are not the drivers of the cancer. These findings contradict the theory that the genes are driving the cancer.

So what does drive cancer? Typically the mitochondria in cancer cells are damaged and the integrity of their structure, and therefore function, is compromised. Some studies have shown that many tumor cells have no mitochondria. Thomas Seyfried , PhD, asserts that if the respiration function within the cell becomes damaged it can give rise to the development of cancer. Compromised respiration gives rise to increased fermentation which allows the cell to survive with defective respiration. His work, together with preclinical and case report studies, has led him to the conclusion that restricted diet can be an effective metabolic therapy for cancer, in place of the normal standard of care that involves radiation and chemotherapy.

Specifically he has found that the ketogenic diet is able to restrict and reduce cancer growth. It involves calorie restriction through lack (or severe restriction) of carbohydrates in the diet. The absence of glucose as a result of lack of carbohydrates is replaced by high fat content. The combination of lack of carbohydrates and high fat encourages the liver to make ketone bodies from the fats. The ketones become the food supply for the brain cells and other important organs such as the heart. Tumor cells cannot metabolize ketones so they gradually die off from lack of glucose.

However it is important that the ketogenic diet is maintained within restricted amounts. Unrestricted consumption of fats can have the effect of compromising the effect of insulin, and therefore result in high glucose levels which will then feed the cancer cells. Further, Dr. Seyfried has established that hyperbaric oxygen therapy together with the ketogenic diet has been found to have a very beneficial synergistic benefit on the reduction of cancer.

The process first involves getting people into the right metabolic state where their ketone production is increased and their glucose is reduced. This may involve a 3-day therapeutic fast, and then transition to a ketogenic diet. In this state the cancer cells become vulnerable to attack, and the normal cells are protected.

To learn more refer to Dr. Seyfried’s book “Cancer as a Metabolic Disease”.

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Prevention of allergic airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in mice by Astragali radix antiasthmatic decoction.

Prevention of allergic airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in mice by Astragali radix antiasthmatic decoction. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

AbstractBACKGROUND:

Astragali radix Antiasthmatic Decoction (AAD), a traditional Chinese medication, is found effective in treating allergic diseases and chronic cough. The purpose of this study is to determine whether this medication could suppress allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and remodeling in mice, and its possible mechanisms.

METHODS:

A mouse model of chronic asthma was used to investigate the effects of AAD on the airway lesions. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA), and the extent of AHR and airway remodeling were characterized. Cells and cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were examined.

RESULTS:

AAD treatment effectively decreased OVA-induced AHR, eosinophilic airway inflammation, and collagen deposition around the airway. It significantly reduced the levels of IL-13 and TGF-β1, but exerted inconsiderable effect on INF-γ and IL-10.

CONCLUSIONS:

AAD greatly improves the symptoms of allergic airway remodeling probably through inhibition of Th2 cytokines and TGF-β1.

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Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin) in Combination: A Possible Synergy

Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin) in Combination: A Possible Synergy | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

"Treatment with various doses of SLN and GLN significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and TBARS levels and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Our findings indicated that SLN and GLN have hepatoprotective effects against oxidative stress of the liver."

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"findings strongly suggest that the combination of drugs at higher doses, that is, SLN (200 mg/kg) and GLN (50 mg/kg), may have synergistic activity and confer the best hepatoprotective effects. "

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Resveratrol protects astrocytes against traumatic brain injury through inhibiting apoptotic and autophagic cell death

Resveratrol protects astrocytes against traumatic brain injury through inhibiting apoptotic and autophagic cell death | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often caused by accidents that damage the brain. TBI can induce glutamate excitotoxicity and lead to neuronal and glial cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cell death during the secondary damage caused by TBI in vivo and in vitro, as well as the protective effect of resveratrol (RV). 


Pasquale Valente's insight:

the results indicated that resveratrol may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of Traumatic brain injury (TBI).

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If You Do Ecstasy (MDMA) Consider Ginger

If You Do Ecstasy (MDMA) Consider Ginger | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Ginger May Salvage the Brains of Those Ectasy (MDMA)


Via Tonya Scholz
Pasquale Valente's insight:

The new study published in the journal Basic Clinical Neuroscience titled "Ecstasy-induced caspase expression alters following ginger treatment," used an animal model administering to the body cavities (intraperitoneally) of 15 male rats 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, for 7 days.  When their brains were analyzed for markers of neurological injury and inflammation (caspases 3,8 and 9), the ginger + MDMA group was found to have significantly reduced  MDMA-induced cell death (apoptosis) in the hippocampus (an important brain structure substantially involved in learning and memory) of the male rats, leading the researchers to conclude: "Therefore, ginger appears to be a useful medicinal herb as a potential treatment for the MDMA- associated adverse effects."

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Study of curcumin immunomodulatory effects on reactive astrocyte cell function.- PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which most often presents as relapsing-remitting episodes. Recent evidence suggests that activated astrocytes play a dual functional role in CNS inflammatory disorders such as MS. In this study, we tried to induce anti-inflammatory functions of astrocytes by curcumin. The effects of curcumin were examined on human a astrocyte cell line (U373-MG) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity was assessed by gelatin zymography. Cytokine levels were evaluated by quantitative ELISA method and mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. We found thatcurcumin decreased the release of IL-6 and reduced MMP-9 enzyme activity. It down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression too. However, curcumin did not have significant effects on the expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 mRNAs. Results suggest that curcuminmight beneficially affect astrocyte population in CNS neuroinflammatory environment lean to anti-inflammatory response and help to components in respects of CNS repair. Our findings offer curcumin as a new therapeutic agent with the potential of regulating astrocyte-mediated inflammatory diseases in the CNS.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Study on effect of astragali radix polysaccharides in improving learning and memory functions in aged rats and its mechanism

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Jun;39(11):2071-5. English Abstract; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Pasquale Valente's curator insight, October 29, 8:14 AM
Abstract

To observe the effect of Astragali Radix polysaccharides (APS) on the learning and memory functions of aged rats, in order to explore its mechanism for improving the learning and memory functions. Natural aging female SD rats were selected in the animal model and randomly divided into the control group, the APS low-dose group (50 mg x kg(-1)), the APS high-dose group (150 mg x kg(-1)) and the piracetam-treated group (560 mg x kg(-1)). They were orally administered with the corresponding drugs for consecutively 60 days. Besides, a young control group was set. The learning and memory functions of the rats were tested by the open-field test and the Morris water maze task. The Western-blot method was used to observe the levels of relevant neural plasticity protein N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) in hippocampus, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), protein kinase (PKA), the phosphorylation level of CAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF). In this study, the authors found that the learning and memory functions and the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression of the aged rat group were much lower than that of the young control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the aged rat group, the APS group showed the significant improvement in the impaired learning and memory functions of aged rats and the up-regulation in the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression. The results showed that APS may improve the learning and memory functions of aged rats by increasing the expressions of relevant neural plasticity proteins.

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A Phase II trial of a combination herbal supplement for men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:Men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer are typically observed or treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Non-hormonal, non-toxic treatments to slow the rise of PSA are desirable. We studied a combination herbal supplement, Prostate Health Cocktail (PHC), in prostate cancer cell lines and in a population of men with BCR.METHODS:PC3, LAPC3 and LNCaP cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of PHC suspension. Men previously treated for prostate cancer with surgery, radiation or both with rising PSA but no radiographic metastases were treated with three capsules of PHC daily; the primary end point was 50% PSA decline. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were identified using parylene membrane filters.RESULTS:PHC showed a strong dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect in androgen-sensitive and independent cell lines in vitro and suppression of androgen receptor expression. Forty eligible patients were enrolled in the clinical trial. Median baseline PSA was 2.8 ng ml-1 (1.1-84.1) and 15 men (38%) had a PSA decline on study (1-55% reduction); 25 (62%) had rising PSA on study. The median duration of PSA stability was 6.4 months. Two patients had grade 2/3 transaminitis; the only other grade 2 toxicities were hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia and flatulence. There were no significant changes in testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. CTCs were identified in 19 men (47%).CONCLUSIONS:Although the primary end point was not met, PHC was well tolerated and was associated with PSA declines and stabilization in a significant number of patients. We believe this is the first report of detecting CTCs in men with BCR prostate cancer. Randomized studies are needed to better define the effect of PHC in men with BCR.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease advance online publication, 23 September 2014; doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.37.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"PHC was well tolerated and was associated with PSA declines and stabilization in a significant number of patients."

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New Defense Mechanism Against Viruses Discovered

New Defense Mechanism Against Viruses Discovered | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Researchers have discovered that a known quality control mechanism in human, animal and plant cells is active against viruses. They think it might represent one of the oldest defense mechanisms against viruses in evolutionary history.

Via Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM
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Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components: can they play a role in reducing the risk of and improving the treatment of breast cancer? - Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism

Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components: can they play a role in reducing the risk of and improving the treatment of breast cancer? - Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
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Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival: Clinical Evidence | NutritionFacts.org

Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival: Clinical Evidence | NutritionFacts.org | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of flaxseeds in breast cancer patients finds flax appears to have the potential to reduce tumor growth in just a matter of weeks.

Via Ingrid Long
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Illicium verum extract suppresses IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 expression via blockade of JAK/STAT pathway in HaCaT human keratinocytes. [J Ethnopharmacol. 2013]

AbstractETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) signaling in keratinocytes plays an important role in mediating inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and contact dermatitis. Illicium verum Hook. f. has been used in traditional medicine for treating skin inflammation, rheumatism, asthma, and bronchitis in Asia.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and regulatory mechanisms of Illicium verum extract (IVE) in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

In this study, we examined the effect of IVE on IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 expression in HaCaT cells. The levels of IFN-γ receptor α (IFN-γRα), phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (pJak2), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (pSTAT1), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) were analyzed by western blot. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the HaCaT cells was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and cell-surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of IVE and its constituents on the adherence of T lymphocytes to IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells were also investigated.

RESULTS:

IVE significantly inhibited IFN-γ-induced mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1. IVE inhibited IFN-γ-induced IFN-γRα, pJak2 and pSTAT1 expression in HaCaT cells. The expression of SOCS1 was up-regulated by treatment of IVE. In addition, IVE and its constituents (p-anisaldehyde and trans-anethole) effectively suppressed IFN-γ-induced adherence of Jurkat T cells to HaCaT cells and ICAM-1 expression on the cell surface.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of IVE may contribute to therapeutic efficacy in IFN-γ-dependent inflammatory skin diseases by modulating the IFN-γ signal pathway

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Ginseng Exhibits Anti-Viral Properties, Study

Ginseng Exhibits Anti-Viral Properties, Study | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Ginseng, a plant tuber with medicinal properties is effective in treating and preventing influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) that infects the lungs and breathing passages, according to a Georgia State University study.

 

According to the World Health Organization, seasonal influenza, a respiratory disease, causes about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 deaths. Medical experts have claimed that existing influenza vaccines need to be updated as most of them provide no defense against pandemic strains and bird flu.

 

For example, the H1N1 influenza virus, also known as swine flu, surfaced in 2009 and spread rapidly to more than 74 countries.

 

On the other hand, there are no vaccines available for RSV, which  is the major cause of inflammatory bronchiolitis pneumonia and viral death in infants and elderly adults.

 

For the study, the researchers analyzed red ginseng extract for positive effects on influenza A virus and RSV infection.

 

In the first experiment, the researchers found that red ginseng enhances the endurance of human lung epithelial cells infected with influenza virus and shortens gene expressions that cause inflammation.


Via Jonathan Middleton
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Astragaloside IV prevents damage to human mesangial cells ... [Int J Mol Med. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

Astragaloside IV prevents damage to human mesangial cells ... [Int J Mol Med. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration are the two major pathological characteristics of the early stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which are respectively related to mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and a decrease in calcium influx conducted by canonical transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6). The marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia is the main sponsor of multiple pathological pathways in DN. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is an important source of ROS production in MCs. Astragaloside IV (AS‑IV) is an active ingredient of Radix Astragali which has a potent antioxidative effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether high glucose (HG)‑induced NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production contribute to MC proliferation and the downregulation of TRPC6 expression; we also wished to determine the effects of AS‑IV on MCs under HG conditions.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

 "Results suggest that AS‑IV inhibits HG‑induced mesangial cell proliferation and glomerular contractile dysfunction through the NADPH oxidase/ROS/Akt/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) pathway, providing a new perspective for the clinical treatment of DN."

  

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Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 ... [Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 ... [Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cancer preventives, in the inhibition of COX activity; however, side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pose unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated whether consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes that control prostaglandin E2 production, COX-1 and NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Thirty participants at normal and 20 participants at increased risk for CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and the end of the study. Tissue levels of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using western blotting

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Pasquale Valente's curator insight, April 2, 3:23 AM

"After ginger consumption, participants at increased risk for CRC had a significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8±41%) compared with the placebo group (18.9±52%; P=0.03)"