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Prakriti-based medicine: A step towards personalized medicine.

Abstract

The concept of personalized medicine has been around for as long as people have been practicing medicine. From Charaka to Hippocrates, all have practiced the personalized approach for treating a disease. In the 21(st) century, personalized medicine is all about DNA. Whereas the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenetic factors influence drug response and form the basis of personalized medicine, the tridosha theory forms the basis of Prakriti-based medicine. It is well established by now that western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises, whereas Ayurveda has successfully demonstrated an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to cure. With effective integration of 'omics' Prakriti-based medicine can play a vital role in this changing scenario of global health wisdom as Ayurveda offers its modalities by way of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), and aushadhi (medication), which are the three pillars of prakriti-based medicine making it a holistic science. Prakriti-based medicine and other traditional medicine systems have the potential to offer remedies to the challenging health issues like adverse drug reactions, drug withdrawals, and economic disparities among few. An integrative global approach could do wonders to health sciences benefiting a broad spectrum of patients.

KEYWORDS:

Ayurgenomics, epigenetics, personaliz

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Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model - PubMed - NCBI

Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The antibacterial potential of essential oils’ components tested can be presented as: Linalyl acetate < limonene < β-pinene < α-pinene < camphor < linalool < 1,8-cineole < menthol < thymol < carvacrol"

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Steamed ginger (Zingiber officinale): Changed chemical profile and increased anticancer potential

Ginger, from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosco (Zingiberaceae), is a common condiment for foods and beverages. In this work, we tested a hypothesis that a steaming process affects the chemical profile and anticancer potential of ginger. An HPLC method with TOF/MS and DAD was developed to analyse the chemical constituents in ginger. The antiproliferative effect of fresh, dried and steamed gingers was evaluated using human Hela cancer cells. The results showed that the antiproliferative effect of steamed ginger at 120 °C for 4 h was approximately 1.5- and 2-fold higher than that of dried and fresh ginger, respectively. Twenty-two components were characterised in the steamed ginger. The decreased concentration of gingerols and increased levels of shogaols contributed to the improved anticancer potential of the steamed ginger. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and anticancer activity, and developed an optimised processed ginger extract for chemoprevention.


Via Jonathan Middleton
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Nanotechnology-Applied Curcumin for Different Diseases Therapy

Nanotechnology-Applied Curcumin for Different Diseases Therapy | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Curcumin is a lipophilic molecule with an active ingredient in the herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric. It is used by different folks for treatment of many diseases. Recent studies have discussed poor bioavailability of curcumin because of poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that is potentially changing the way we can treat diseases through drug delivery with curcumin. The recent investigations established several approaches to improve the bioavailability, to increase the plasma concentration, and to enhance the cellular permeability processes of curcumin. Several types of nanoparticles have been found to be suitable for the encapsulation or loading of curcumin to improve its therapeutic effects in different diseases. Nanoparticles such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, niosomes, cyclodextrins, dendrimers, silvers, and solid lipids are emerging as one of the useful alternatives that have been shown to deliver therapeutic concentrations of curcumin. This review shows that curcumin's therapeutic effects may increase to some extent in the presence of nanotechnology. The presented board of evidence focuses on the valuable special effects of curcumin on different diseases and candidates it for future clinical studies in the realm of these diseases.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Curcumin, an excellent representative derived from traditional natural compounds, has been proven to be effectual in long-term application and preclinical trials. There is no doubt that advance of novel delivery systems of curcumin with better therapeutic effects will be vital for future improvement of curcumin as a therapeutic agent."

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Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.- PubMed - NCBI

Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.- PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa officinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations.OBJECTIVE: Heart palpitation is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difficult to treat. Herbal medicines provide an alternative to conventional drugs for treating various kinds of diseases. This study was done as a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dried extract of M. officinalis on adults suffering from benign palpitations.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as outpatients to a fourteen day treatment with 500mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves (or placebo). Participants in the tests, physicians and researchers were blind to group assignments. Both primary and secondary outcomes were patient-reported. Primary outcomes were obtained from two measures: mean frequency of palpitation episodes per week, derived from patients' diaries, and mean intensity of palpitation estimated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in a self-report questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression) were evaluated as secondary outcomes by General Health Questionnaire-28(GHQ-28), before and after intervention.RESULTS: Fifty-five volunteers out of seventy-one recruited study subjects completed the trial. Results showed that 14-days of treatment with lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and significantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo (P=0.0001, P=0.004resp.). Also, M. officinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects.CONCLUSION: Lyophilized aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis leaves may be a proper and safe herbal drug for the treatment of benign palpitations.
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Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential - PubMed - NCBI

Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract
BACKGROUND:Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status.METHODS:

Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods.

RESULTS:

In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of physiological defense mechanisms.

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Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Four Salvia Essential Oils and Individual Compounds against Two Species of Mosquitoes- PubMed - NCBI

Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Four Salvia Essential Oils and Individual Compounds against Two Species of Mosquitoes- PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Chemical composition of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), -pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%) and -pinene (3.8%) in S. apiana; borneol (17.4%), -eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%) and guaiol (4.8%) in S. elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), -caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%) and spathulenol (7.0%) in S. leucantha; -thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), -thujene (5.7%) and camphor (6.4%) in S. officinalis. In biting deterrent bioassays, essential oil of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 µg/cm2 showed activity similar to DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) in both the species of mosquitoes whereas activity of S. officinalis and S. apiana was lower than the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm2 whereas activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than β-eudesmol, guaiol or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except S. apiana which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. Based on 95% CIs, all the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than Aedes aegypti. Essential oil of S. leucantha with LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus

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Antimetastatic and Anti-Inflammatory Potentials of Essential Oil from Edible Ocimum sanctum Leaves

Abstract

Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO) have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250μg/mL and above showed a significant (*P < 0.05) decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer.

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Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:

We performed a systematic review for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [CAM] as defined by the National Institute of Health in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD], ie Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC], with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements, and manipulative therapies.

METHODS:

A computerized search of databases [Cochrane Library, Pubmed/Medline, PsychINFO, and Scopus] through March 2014 was performed. We screened the reference sections of original studies and systematic reviews in English language for CAM in IBD, CD and UC. Randomized controlled trials [RCT] and controlled trials [CT] were referred and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.

RESULTS:

A total of: 26 RCT and 3 CT for herbal medicine, eg aloe-vera gel, andrographis paniculata, artemisia absinthium, barley foodstuff, boswellia serrata, cannabis, curcumin, evening primrose oil, Myrrhinil intest®, plantago ovata, silymarin, sophora, tormentil, wheatgrass-juice and wormwood; 1 RCT for trichuris suis ovata; 7 RCT for mind/body interventions such as lifestyle modification, hypnotherapy, relaxation training and mindfulness; and 2 RCT in acupuncture; were found. Risk of bias was quite heterogeneous. Best evidence was found for herbal therapy, ie plantago ovata and curcumin in UC maintenance therapy, wormwood in CD, mind/body therapy and self-intervention in UC, and acupuncture in UC and CD.

CONCLUSIONS:

Complementary and alternative therapies might be effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases; however, given the low number of trials and the heterogeneous methodological quality of trials, further in-depth research is necessary.

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Ginsenoside 20(S)‑Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect through STAT3 pathways in ovarian cancer cells- PubMed - NCBI

Ginsenoside 20(S)‑Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect through STAT3 pathways in ovarian cancer cells- PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Cancer cells prefer to metabolize glucose through aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. It plays a crucial role in proliferation and progression of cancer cells. However, the complete mechanism remains elusive. In recent studies, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling has been discovered to have roles in cancer‑associated changes in metabolism. In this study, we find that the ginsenoside 20(S)‑Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng, inhibits glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells by regulating hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2). We also show that 20(S)‑Rg3 regulates HK2 through downregulation of p‑STAT3 (Tyr705). Furthermore, overexpression of STAT3 in ovarian cancer cells weakened the suppression of Warburg effect induced by 20(S)‑Rg3. Importantly, 20(S)‑Rg3 treatment represses HK2 expression in nude mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer. Taken together, our results show that 20(S)‑Rg3 inhibits the Warburg effect by targeting STAT3/HK2 pathway in ovarian cancer cells, highlighting the potentiality of 20(S)‑Rg3 to be used as a therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer.

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The effect of most important medicinal plants on two importnt psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression)-a review

Pasquale Valente's insight:
Abstract

Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid psychiatric conditions that the prevalence will be increased to the second greatest risk of morbidity, causing a significant socioeconomic burden. Due to side effects and destructive effects of some chemical drugs, many patients prefer herbal medicines to treat diseases. Although there are key review papers in the area of medicinal plants and psychiatry disorders, they have either covered the area in a relatively cursory manner or focused on a specific plant medicine. In the present study, we tried to present the effect of most important medicinal plants on two important highly comorbid psychiatric conditions-anxiety and depression.

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Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

Abstract

The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum

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If You Do Ecstasy (MDMA) Consider Ginger

If You Do Ecstasy (MDMA) Consider Ginger | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Ginger May Salvage the Brains of Those Ectasy (MDMA)


Via Tonya Scholz
Pasquale Valente's insight:

The new study published in the journal Basic Clinical Neuroscience titled "Ecstasy-induced caspase expression alters following ginger treatment," used an animal model administering to the body cavities (intraperitoneally) of 15 male rats 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, for 7 days.  When their brains were analyzed for markers of neurological injury and inflammation (caspases 3,8 and 9), the ginger + MDMA group was found to have significantly reduced  MDMA-induced cell death (apoptosis) in the hippocampus (an important brain structure substantially involved in learning and memory) of the male rats, leading the researchers to conclude: "Therefore, ginger appears to be a useful medicinal herb as a potential treatment for the MDMA- associated adverse effects."

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Tsang Xiang's curator insight, November 28, 2014 8:40 PM

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Study of curcumin immunomodulatory effects on reactive astrocyte cell function.- PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which most often presents as relapsing-remitting episodes. Recent evidence suggests that activated astrocytes play a dual functional role in CNS inflammatory disorders such as MS. In this study, we tried to induce anti-inflammatory functions of astrocytes by curcumin. The effects of curcumin were examined on human a astrocyte cell line (U373-MG) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity was assessed by gelatin zymography. Cytokine levels were evaluated by quantitative ELISA method and mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. We found thatcurcumin decreased the release of IL-6 and reduced MMP-9 enzyme activity. It down-regulated MCP-1 mRNA expression too. However, curcumin did not have significant effects on the expression of neurotrophin (NT)-3 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 mRNAs. Results suggest that curcuminmight beneficially affect astrocyte population in CNS neuroinflammatory environment lean to anti-inflammatory response and help to components in respects of CNS repair. Our findings offer curcumin as a new therapeutic agent with the potential of regulating astrocyte-mediated inflammatory diseases in the CNS.

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Dietary curcumin may boost brain DHA: Study

Dietary curcumin may boost brain DHA: Study | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Increased intake of curcumin could boost levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain by enhancing its conversion from other omega-3 precursors in the liver, say researchers.

Via Mark Kaylor
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The gut microbiome: how does it affect our health?

The gut microbiome: how does it affect our health? | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
The tens of trillions of microbes that live in the gut have some important implications for health, but do you know what they are? We investigate.

Via ClickTell Consulting
Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Findings show that specific groups of microbes living in our gut could be protective against obesity - and that their abundance is influenced by our genes. The human microbiome represents an exciting new target for dietary changes and treatments aimed at combating obesity"  Tim Spector

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Glycyrrhizic acid in the treatment of liver diseases: literature re... - PubMed - NCBI

Glycyrrhizic acid in the treatment of liver diseases: literature re... - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions.

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Resources and Biological Activities of Natural Polyphenols. - PubMed - NCBI

Resources and Biological Activities of Natural Polyphenols. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

The oxidative stress imposed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in many chronic and degenerative diseases. As an important category of phytochemicals, phenolic compounds universally exist in plants, and have been considered to have high antioxidant ability and free radical scavenging capacity, with the mechanism of inhibiting the enzymes responsible for ROS production and reducing highly oxidized ROS. Therefore, phenolic compounds have attracted increasing attention as potential agents for preventing and treating many oxidative stress-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, ageing, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes current knowledge of naturalpolyphenols, including resource, bioactivities, bioavailability and potential toxicity.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"This review provided a current understanding on the bioactivities of natural polyphenols and the benefits to human health"

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Anti-HCV activity of the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-HCV activity of the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases and is a global health problem. Although the sustained virologic response rate in the treatment of genotype 1 using new triple therapy (pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir/boceprevir) has been improved by more than 70%, several severe side effects such as skin rash/ageusia and advanced anemia have become a problem. Under these circumstances, a new type of anti-HCV oral drug with few side effects is needed. Our recently developed HCV drug assay systems, including the HuH-7 cell line-derived OR6 and AH1R, and the Li23 cell line-derived ORL8 and ORL11, allow genome-length HCV RNAs (several strains of genotype 1b) encoding renilla luciferase to replicate efficiently. Using these systems as anti-HCV candidates, we have identified numerous existing medicines that can be used against HCV with few side effects, such as statins and teprenon. To obtain additional anti-HCV candidates, we evaluated a number of oral health supplements, and found that the capsule but not the liquid form of Cordyceps militaris (CM) (Ascomycotinanorth, North Chinese caterpillar fungus), which is used as a Chinese herbal medicine, exhibited moderate anti-HCV activity. In combination with interferon-α or ribavirin, CM exhibited an additive inhibitory effect. Among the main components of CM, cordycepin, but not ergosterol, contributed to the anti-HCV activity of CM. In consideration of all these results, we suggest that CM would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"cordyceps militaris would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin."

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Pasquale Valente's curator insight, December 29, 2014 2:40 AM

 "cordyceps militaris would be useful as an oral anti-HCV agent in combination with interferon-α and/or ribavirin"

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Potential nephroprotective effects of the Chinese herb Angelica sinensis against cisplatin tubulotoxicity. - PubMed - NCBI

Potential nephroprotective effects of the Chinese herb Angelica sinensis against cisplatin tubulotoxicity. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Abstract Context: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often encountered in patients receiving cisplatin (CisPt), a chemotherapeutic drug that induces numerous toxic side effects. Techniques used to limit nephrotoxicity during CisPt treatment are not fully effective; about a third of patients experience AKI. New nephroprotective strategies, including pharmacological approaches, must be developed. Objective: The present study investigated the nephroprotective potential of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Apiaceae) root towards CisPt tubulotoxicity. Materials and methods: HK-2 cells were incubated with CisPt (10 µM) and/or with a methanolic extract of A. sinensis (AS). Nephroprotective capacity was evaluated by means of cellular viability (resazurin assay) and apoptosis (annexin-V/PI staining), oxidative stress generation (H2DCF-DA oxidation), Ki-67 index (immunofluorescence), cell cycle analysis (DNA staining), cell migration rate (scratch assay), extracellular matrix deposition (collagen determination), and β-catenin relocalization. Results: CisPt decreased cell viability [76% versus Ctrl], which was associated with an increased apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with 50 µg/ml AS enhanced cell survival [84% versus Ctrl] and decreased the apoptosis rate. AS could not alleviate CisPt-induced oxidative stress; but doses of 5 and 50 µg/ml raised the Ki-67 index [135 and 244% versus Ctrl] and cell migration rates [1.2 and 1.3-fold versus Ctrl]. Finally, both doses of AS limited the amount of collagen deposition [121.6 and 119.6% for 5 and 50 µg/ml, respectively, versus 131.0% for CisPt-treated cells] and prevented the relocalization of β-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus. Conclusion: These results confirm the nephroprotective potential of A. sinensis and require further investigations aiming at identifying its active compounds.

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Salvianolic acid B promotes bone formation by increasing activity of alkaline phosphatase in a rat tibia fracture model: a pilot study. - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae is a herb frequently used within traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular- and trauma-related diseases. Danshen is the dried root of Salviae miltiorrhizae, from which the polyphenolic compound Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) can be obtained. Sal B is a key component of Danshen. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Sal B on the healing of long bones following trauma in a rat tibia fracture model.

METHODS:

Tibia fractures were created in 20 male Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were divided into two groups: (1) experimental group (n = 10); and (2) control group (n = 10). Rats in the experimental group were intraperitoneally administered with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d) for 3 weeks, while rats in the control group received an identical volume of physiological saline solution, administered in the same way. X-ray photographs were taken of all animals at the time points. Rats were euthanized at weeks 1, 3, 8 and 12 post-fracture. Fracture calluses were measured and callus sections were obtained and stained using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and the calcium cobalt method. HE stained sections were observed and evaluated according to different grades of bone remodeling. Sections stained using the calcium cobalt method were analyzed with an imagine analysis system.

RESULTS:

Data showed that callus growth was significantly greater in the experimental group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, histological scores in the Sal B-treated group were statistically higher than in the saline treated group at weeks 1, 3 and 8 post-fracture (P < 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was enhanced in the experimental group at weeks 1 and 3 post-fracture (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that Sal B may accelerate early-stage fracture healing. Increased activity of ALP may be one factor which promotes the healing process. This pilot study provides brief insight into the effect of Sal B in fracture healing. These findings will contribute to the development of more and enhanced treatment options for trauma fracture patients.

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Mistletoe extract doubles survival time of pancreatic cancer patients

Mistletoe extract doubles survival time of pancreatic cancer patients | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

This new Phase III clinical trial was randomized, open-label and carried out in Serbia on 220 patients. All patients received Best Supportive Care. Patients in the treatment group also received subcutaneous injections of mistletoe extract three times weekly with dosages escalating from 0.01 mg up to a constant 10 mg after the twenty-second dose. Patients who started the study with a ‘good prognosis’ saw their survival times more than double from 3.2 months (if untreated) to 6.6 months if treated with mistletoe. Likewise, patients with a ‘poor prognosis’ averaged 2.0 months survival if untreated, but 3.4 months if treated with mistletoe. Remarkably, the group treated with mistletoe experienced only 16 adverse events compared to 53 adverse events in the untreated group. Rather than carrying negative side effects as chemo drugs do, the mistletoe treatment actually decreased the likelihood of painful or undesirable effects (adverse events) by 75 percent. And none of the adverse events in the mistletoe group were caused by the mistletoe itself.


Via Jonathan Middleton
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VaL therapy showed a significant and clinically relevant prolongation of OS. The study findings suggest VaL to be a non-toxic and effective second-line therapy that offers a prolongation of OS as well as less disease-related symptoms for patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23890767

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Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI

Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is a hydrophilic component isolated from the Chinese herb Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been used clinically for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Platelets-mediated vascular inflammatory response contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper, we focus on the modulating effects of SAB on the inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells triggered by activated platelets. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were pretreated with SAB followed by co-culture with ADP-activated platelets. Adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells was observed by amorphological method. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B was evaluated by NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and the protein phosphorylation. A determination of the pro-inflammatory mediators (ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1) mRNA and protein were also conducted. In addition, the inhibitory effects of SAB on platelets activation were also evaluated using a platelet aggregation assay and assessing the release level of soluble P-selectin. The results showed that SAB dose-dependently inhibited ADP- or α-thrombin-induced human platelets aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) samples, and significantly decreased soluble P-selectin release from both agonists stimulated washed platelets. It was also found that pre-treatment with SAB reduced adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to EA.hy926 cells and inhibited NF-κB activation. In addition, SAB significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory mediators mRNA and protein in EA.hy926 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that, in addition to its inhibitory effects on platelets activation, SAB was able to attenuate platelets-mediated inflammatory responses in endothelial cells even if the platelets had already been activated. This anti-inflammatory effect was related to the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Our findings suggest that SAB may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various atherosclerotic diseases.

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Epigenetic impact of dietary polyphenols in cancer chemoprevention: lifelong remodeling of our epigenomes.


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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug activated gene-1 (NAG-1) modula... - PubMed - NCBI

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Review of the regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines... - PubMed - NCBI

Chin J Integr Med. 2014 Dec;20(12):883-93. doi: 10.1007/s11655-014-2024-y. Epub 2014 Nov 27.
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