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The new use of an ancient remedy: a double-blinded randomized study on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. [Am J Chin Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

The new use of an ancient remedy: a double-blinded randomized study on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.  [Am J Chin Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease with unknown causes and unknown cures in Western medicine. This double-blinded study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (Paeoniflorin (PAE) plus cervus and cucumis polypeptide injection (CCPI) using disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) as a control (methotrexate (MTX) plus leflunomide (LEF)). Patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: PAE + CCPI, MTX + LEF, and MTX + LEF + CCPI. The primary end point was the American College of Rheumatology 20% improvement response criteria (ACR20). The secondary end point was that of adverse effect frequencies and the speed of onset action. Our results showed that more patients in the CCPI-containing groups responded to the ACR20 during early treatment. After six months, ACR20 showed no significant difference among the three treatments. The maximum improvement in the two DMARD groups was significantly higher than that in the PAE + CCPI group (p < 0.01). CCPI made the onset action of the DMARD therapy 4.6 times faster. PAE + CCPI had significantly lower adverse event incidences than the two DMARD groups. These results indicate that PAE + CCPI appear to be a more acceptable alternative to DMARDs when patients cannot use DMARDs. CCPI appears to be a beneficial add-on to DMARDs that makes the onset of action faster, especially when patients need to relieve RA symptoms as soon as possible. Although not as effective as DMARDs, PAE appears to be a safer option to substitute DMARDs for long-term RA treatment when DMARD toxicity is an issue.

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Paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal injury and brain microglial inflammatory response.

Abstract

Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. Paeoniflorin(PF), a water-soluble monoterpene glycoside found in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Neuroprotective potential of PF has also been demonstrated in animal models of neuropathologies. Here, we have examined the efficacy of PF in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial inflammatory response. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, PF significantly blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hippocampal cell death and productions of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β. PF also inhibited the LPS-stimulated productions of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β from primary microglial cells. These results suggest that PF possesses neuroprotective activity by reducing the production of proinflammatory factors from activated microglial cells.

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Paeoniflorin inhibits proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes through suppressing G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2

Abstract

Paeoniflorin (Pae) is a monoterpene glucoside and the main component of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) extracted from the roots of Paeonialactiflora. Its anti-inflammatory effect is associated with regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signaling. The aim of this study was to explore the expression change of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and the effect of Pae. Pae was obtained and purified from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora. We investigated the expression of GRK2 in synovium during the inflammatory process and assessed the effects of a specific GRK2 inhibitor and Pae on proliferation, cAMP level, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity of FLS in vitro. Additionally, the effect of Pae on GRK2 expression in FLS was detected in vitro. Expression of GRK2 in synovium from CIA rats increased during the inflammatory process. The specific GRK2 inhibitor suppressed proliferation and increased the cAMP level as well as PKA activity of FLS, and Pae had the same effects. Furthermore, Pae decreased GRK2 expression in FLS in vitro. Our results indicate that a chronic inflammatory process in CIA induces upregulation of GRK2 expression in FLS, and Pae can reverse this change, which might be one of the important mechanisms for Pae regulating GPCRs signaling and suppressing the proliferation of FLS in CIA.

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Paeoniflorin attenuates amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress and regulating the NGF-mediated signaling in rats.

Abstract

Paeoniflorin is a monoterpene glycoside isolated from the aqueous extract of the dry root of Paeonia. It has been identified to exhibit many pharmacological effects including enhancing the cognitive ability, producing anti-depressant-like effect and reducing the MTPT-induced toxicity. In our previous study, it has shown that paeoniflorin improved the cognitive ability and attenuated the oxidative stress in the Aβ((1-42))-treated rats. In order to further elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms of paeoniflorin on the cognitive ability, rats were injected with Aβ((1-42)) (1μg/μL) and later with paeoniflorin (15mg/kg and 30mg/kg, i.p.) and donepezil hydrochloride (2mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 20 days in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of paeoniflorin or donepezil enhanced the cognitive performances in the Morris water maze test, restored the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the increased level of malondialdehyde, and reversed the alterations of matrix metallopeptidase-9 and tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the hippocampus of Aβ((1-42))-treated rats. Paeoniflorin also up-regulated the activity of choline acetyltrasferase and the expression of tyrosine kinase A receptor, and down-regulated the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the hippocampus of Aβ((1-42))-treated rats. These results demonstrate that paeoniflorin ameliorates the spatial learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the nerve growth factor-mediated signaling to reinforce cholinergic functions in the hippocampus of the Aβ((1-42))-treated rats.

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The antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mouse models.

The antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mouse models. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Peony is often used in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression-like disorders. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the total glycosides of peony exert antidepressant-like effects in animal models. Paeoniflorin is the main active glycoside of peony. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mice, as well as its active mechanisms. The results revealed that intraperitoneally injectedpaeoniflorin significantly reduced the duration of immobility in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The doses that affected the immobility response did not affect locomotor activity. Furthermore, paeoniflorin antagonized reserpine-induced ptosis, akinesia and hypothermia. Paeoniflorinalso significantly increased the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that the upregulation of serotonergic systems may be an important mechanism for the antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mice.

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