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Citronellol reduces orofacial nociceptive behaviour in mice [Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Citronellol reduces orofacial nociceptive behaviour in mice [Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Citronellol (CT) is a monoterpenoid alcohol present in the essential oil of many medicinal plants, such as Cymbopogon citratus. We evaluated the antinociceptive effects of CT on orofacial nociception in mice and investigated the central pathway involved in the effect. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with CT (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.), morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (saline + tween 80 0.2%). Thirty minutes after the treatment, we injected formalin (20 μl, 2%), capsaicin (20 μl, 2.5 μg) or glutamate (40 μl, 25 μM) into the right limb. For the action in the CNS, ninety minutes after the treatment, the animals were perfused, the brains collected, crioprotected, cut in a criostate and submitted in an immunofluorescence protocol for Fos protein. CT produced significant (p < 0.01) antinociceptive effect, in all doses, in the formalin, capsaicin and glutamate tests. The immunofluorescence showed that the CT activated significantly (p < 0.05) the olfactory bulb, the piriform cortex, the retrosplenial cortex and the periaqueductal grey of the CNS. Together, our results provide first-time evidence that this monoterpene attenuates orofacial pain at least, in part, through an activation of CNS areas, mainly retrosplenial cortex and periaqueductal grey

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"results provide first-time evidence that this monoterpene attenuates orofacial pain at least, in part, through an activation of CNS areas, mainly retrosplenial cortex and periaqueductal grey"

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Paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal injury and brain microglial inflammatory response.

Abstract

Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. Paeoniflorin(PF), a water-soluble monoterpene glycoside found in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Neuroprotective potential of PF has also been demonstrated in animal models of neuropathologies. Here, we have examined the efficacy of PF in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial inflammatory response. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, PF significantly blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hippocampal cell death and productions of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β. PF also inhibited the LPS-stimulated productions of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β from primary microglial cells. These results suggest that PF possesses neuroprotective activity by reducing the production of proinflammatory factors from activated microglial cells.

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Paeoniflorin inhibits proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes through suppressing G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2

Abstract

Paeoniflorin (Pae) is a monoterpene glucoside and the main component of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) extracted from the roots of Paeonialactiflora. Its anti-inflammatory effect is associated with regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signaling. The aim of this study was to explore the expression change of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and the effect of Pae. Pae was obtained and purified from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora. We investigated the expression of GRK2 in synovium during the inflammatory process and assessed the effects of a specific GRK2 inhibitor and Pae on proliferation, cAMP level, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity of FLS in vitro. Additionally, the effect of Pae on GRK2 expression in FLS was detected in vitro. Expression of GRK2 in synovium from CIA rats increased during the inflammatory process. The specific GRK2 inhibitor suppressed proliferation and increased the cAMP level as well as PKA activity of FLS, and Pae had the same effects. Furthermore, Pae decreased GRK2 expression in FLS in vitro. Our results indicate that a chronic inflammatory process in CIA induces upregulation of GRK2 expression in FLS, and Pae can reverse this change, which might be one of the important mechanisms for Pae regulating GPCRs signaling and suppressing the proliferation of FLS in CIA.

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Paeoniflorin attenuates amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity by ameliorating oxidative stress and regulating the NGF-mediated signaling in rats.

Abstract

Paeoniflorin is a monoterpene glycoside isolated from the aqueous extract of the dry root of Paeonia. It has been identified to exhibit many pharmacological effects including enhancing the cognitive ability, producing anti-depressant-like effect and reducing the MTPT-induced toxicity. In our previous study, it has shown that paeoniflorin improved the cognitive ability and attenuated the oxidative stress in the Aβ((1-42))-treated rats. In order to further elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms of paeoniflorin on the cognitive ability, rats were injected with Aβ((1-42)) (1μg/μL) and later with paeoniflorin (15mg/kg and 30mg/kg, i.p.) and donepezil hydrochloride (2mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 20 days in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of paeoniflorin or donepezil enhanced the cognitive performances in the Morris water maze test, restored the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the increased level of malondialdehyde, and reversed the alterations of matrix metallopeptidase-9 and tissue-inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the hippocampus of Aβ((1-42))-treated rats. Paeoniflorin also up-regulated the activity of choline acetyltrasferase and the expression of tyrosine kinase A receptor, and down-regulated the activity of acetylcholine esterase in the hippocampus of Aβ((1-42))-treated rats. These results demonstrate that paeoniflorin ameliorates the spatial learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the nerve growth factor-mediated signaling to reinforce cholinergic functions in the hippocampus of the Aβ((1-42))-treated rats.

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The antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mouse models.

The antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mouse models. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Peony is often used in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression-like disorders. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the total glycosides of peony exert antidepressant-like effects in animal models. Paeoniflorin is the main active glycoside of peony. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mice, as well as its active mechanisms. The results revealed that intraperitoneally injectedpaeoniflorin significantly reduced the duration of immobility in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The doses that affected the immobility response did not affect locomotor activity. Furthermore, paeoniflorin antagonized reserpine-induced ptosis, akinesia and hypothermia. Paeoniflorinalso significantly increased the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that the upregulation of serotonergic systems may be an important mechanism for the antidepressant-like effects of paeoniflorin in mice.

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