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Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI

Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is a hydrophilic component isolated from the Chinese herb Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been used clinically for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Platelets-mediated vascular inflammatory response contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper, we focus on the modulating effects of SAB on the inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells triggered by activated platelets. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were pretreated with SAB followed by co-culture with ADP-activated platelets. Adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells was observed by amorphological method. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B was evaluated by NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and the protein phosphorylation. A determination of the pro-inflammatory mediators (ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1) mRNA and protein were also conducted. In addition, the inhibitory effects of SAB on platelets activation were also evaluated using a platelet aggregation assay and assessing the release level of soluble P-selectin. The results showed that SAB dose-dependently inhibited ADP- or α-thrombin-induced human platelets aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) samples, and significantly decreased soluble P-selectin release from both agonists stimulated washed platelets. It was also found that pre-treatment with SAB reduced adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to EA.hy926 cells and inhibited NF-κB activation. In addition, SAB significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory mediators mRNA and protein in EA.hy926 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that, in addition to its inhibitory effects on platelets activation, SAB was able to attenuate platelets-mediated inflammatory responses in endothelial cells even if the platelets had already been activated. This anti-inflammatory effect was related to the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Our findings suggest that SAB may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various atherosclerotic diseases.

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D-Limonene: Help for Digestion, Metabolism, Detoxification, Anxiety & Breast Cancer Prevention

D-Limonene: Help for Digestion, Metabolism, Detoxification, Anxiety & Breast Cancer Prevention | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
D-Limonene, an oil nutrient called a terpene, is an amazing natural compound found in lemon and orange peels.
Pasquale Valente's insight:

 d-Limonene exerts its anti-cancer activity by multiple mechanisms including improved immune response, improved antioxidant defense system, improved detoxification, reduction in inflammation, better regulation of the cell cycle, and induction of death signals in cancer cells.

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Clove and eugenol in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages. [J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Clove and eugenol in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages. [J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The extract and essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) are widely used because of their medicinal properties. Eugenol is the most important component of clove, showing several biological properties. Herein we have analysed the immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effect of clove and eugenol on cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in vitro.

METHODS:

Macrophages were incubated with clove or eugenol (5, 10, 25, 50 or 100µg/well) for 24h. Concentrations that inhibited the production of cytokines were used before or after incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to verify a preventive or therapeutic effect. Culture supernatants were harvested for measurement of cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

KEY FINDINGS:

Clove (100µg/well) inhibited IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 production and exerted an efficient action either before or after LPS challenge for all cytokines. Eugenol did not affect IL-1β production but inhibited IL-6 and IL-10 production. The action of eugenol (50 or 100µg/well) on IL-6 production prevented efficiently effects of LPS either before or after its addition, whereas on IL-10 production it counteracted significantly LPS action when added after LPS incubation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Clove exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS action. A possible mechanism of action probably involved the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway by eugenol, since it was the major compound found in clove extract.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Clove exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS action. A possible mechanism of action probably involved the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway by eugenol, since it was the major compound found in clove extract."

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Antihyperalgesic and Antiedematous Activities of Bisabolol-Oxides-Rich Matricaria Oil in a Rat Model of Inflammation. [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Antihyperalgesic and Antiedematous Activities of Bisabolol-Oxides-Rich Matricaria Oil in a Rat Model of Inflammation.  [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

From the dried flower heads of Matricaria recutita L., essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation, and in the obtained blue oil, α-bisabolol oxide A (21.5%), α-bisabolol oxide B (25.5%) and (Z)-spiroether (cis-en-yn-spiroether) (10.3%) were identified as the main compounds, by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analyses. The antihyperalgesic effects of this oil were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, through a modified 'paw-pressure' test. Antiedematous effects were examined in a rat model of inflammation induced by carrageenan, dextran and histamine, through plethysmometry. Matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction of hyperalgesia and edema induced by carrageenan in both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment schemes. It was more efficacious in the prophylactic treatment scheme, and the corresponding median effective dose (ED50 ) ± standard error of the mean (SEM) values were 49.8 ± 6.0 and 42.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg for antihyperalgesic and antiedematous effects, respectively. Prophylactic treatments with matricaria oil (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant dose-dependent antiedematous effect in dextran-induced edema with lower efficacy than in the carrageenan model. In a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., matricaria oil caused a slight reduction of histamine-induced edema. These results suggest that bisabolol-oxide-rich matricaria oilmay be effective against pain and edema present in various inflammatory conditions, which supports matricaria traditional uses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

The results suggest that bisabolol-oxide-rich matricaria oil may be effective against pain and edema present in various inflammatory conditions. 

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Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L.

Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Echinacea purpurea L. is a medicinal plant originally from North America. It has become a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide because it contains various biologically active compounds. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from E. purpurea in both mice and rats. The extract was obtained from flower of E. purpurea by steam distillation. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in vivo by using different animal models such as xylene-induced mouse ear edema, egg-white-induced rat paw edema, and cotton-induced granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation in mice. The serial dosages were used in vivo: the low dosage, the medium dosage and the high dosage. The low, medium and high dosages of extracts produced inhibitions of 39.24%, 47.22% and 44.79% respectively in the ear edema induced by xylene when compare with the control group. Only the high dosage group showed statistically significant inhibition (48.51%) of paw edema formation induced three hours by egg white compared with the control group (P<0.01). Moreover, the granulation formation was also significantly reduced the most by 28.52% in the high dose groups compared with the control group (P <0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α in the blood were reduced in the treated groups. The essential oils from extracts of E. purpurea have anti-inflammatory effects.

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Paeoniflorin inhibits proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes through suppressing G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2

Abstract

Paeoniflorin (Pae) is a monoterpene glucoside and the main component of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) extracted from the roots of Paeonialactiflora. Its anti-inflammatory effect is associated with regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signaling. The aim of this study was to explore the expression change of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and the effect of Pae. Pae was obtained and purified from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora. We investigated the expression of GRK2 in synovium during the inflammatory process and assessed the effects of a specific GRK2 inhibitor and Pae on proliferation, cAMP level, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity of FLS in vitro. Additionally, the effect of Pae on GRK2 expression in FLS was detected in vitro. Expression of GRK2 in synovium from CIA rats increased during the inflammatory process. The specific GRK2 inhibitor suppressed proliferation and increased the cAMP level as well as PKA activity of FLS, and Pae had the same effects. Furthermore, Pae decreased GRK2 expression in FLS in vitro. Our results indicate that a chronic inflammatory process in CIA induces upregulation of GRK2 expression in FLS, and Pae can reverse this change, which might be one of the important mechanisms for Pae regulating GPCRs signaling and suppressing the proliferation of FLS in CIA.

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Mediators of Inflammation-Induced Bone Damage in Arthritis and Their Control by Herbal Products

Mediators of Inflammation-Induced Bone Damage in Arthritis and Their Control by Herbal Products | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in lipopolysa... [Life Sci. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in lipopolysa... [Life Sci. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

AIMS:

Anethole, the major component of the essential oil of star anise, has been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anesthetic properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in a mouse model of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

MAIN METHODS:

BALB/C mice were intraperitoneally administered anethole (62.5, 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg) 1 h before intratracheal treatment with LPS (1.5 mg/kg) and sacrificed after 4 h. The anti-inflammatory effects of anethole were assessed by measuring total protein and cell levels and inflammatory mediator production and by histological evaluation and Western blot analysis.

KEY FINDINGS:

LPS significantly increased total protein levels; numbers of total cells, including macrophages and neutrophils; and the production of inflammatory mediators such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Anethole (250 mg/kg) decreased total protein concentrations; numbers of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; and the inflammatory mediators MMP-9, TNF-α and NO. In addition, pretreatment with anethole decreased LPS-induced histopathological changes. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of anethole in LPS-induced acute lung injury was assessed by investigating the effects of anethole on NF-κB activation. Anethole suppressed the activation of NF-κB by blocking IκB-α degradation.

SIGNIFICANCE:

These results, showing that anethole prevents LPS-induced acute lung inflammation in mice, suggest that anethole may be therapeutically effective in inflammatory conditions in humans.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

Anethole (250 mg/kg) decreased total protein concentrations; numbers of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; and the inflammatory mediators MMP-9, TNF-α and NO.

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Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

Achillea millefolium L. Essential Oil Inhibits LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress and Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Achillea millefolium L. is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine in many countries. In this study, 19 compounds in A. millefolium essential oil (AM-EO) have been identified; the major components are artemisia ketone (14.92%), camphor (11.64%), linalyl acetate (11.51%) and 1,8-cineole (10.15%). AM-EO can suppress the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, including decreased levels of cellular nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion production, lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) concentration. This antioxidant activity is not a result of increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, but rather occurs as a result of the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, thus reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, AM-EO can be utilized in many applications, including the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the future.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

L' O.E. dell'A. ha mostrato di avere attività antiossidante e antinfiammatoria, interferendo nella regolazione di NOS, COX-2, TNF- α e IL-6.


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Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from ginger. [Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Jan-Mar] - PubMed - NCBI

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from ginger.  [Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Jan-Mar] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Chemical compositions of ginger oil as well as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential were evaluated in the present study. The main constituents as detected by GC/MS analysis was alpha-zingiberene which constituted 31% of the total area, ar-curcumene (15.4%) and a -sesquiphellandrene (14.02%). Ginger oil scavenged superoxide, DPPH, hydroxyl radicals and inhibited tissue lipid peroxidation in vitro. Intraperitoneal administration of ginger oil was found to inhibit phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induced superoxide radicals elicited by macrophages. Oral administration of ginger oil for one month, significantly increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione reductase enzymes level (P < 0.001) in blood of mice and glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes in liver. Ginger oil produced significant reduction in acute inflammation produced by carrageenan and dextran and formalin induced chronic inflammation (P < 0.001). It also exhibited significant reduction in acetic acid induced writhing movements (P < 0.001). The present report revealed that ginger oil possesses antioxidant activity as well as significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive property.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The present report revealed that ginger oil possesses antioxidant activity as well as significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive property."

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The Antiinflammatory Mechanism of Igongsan in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages via Suppression of NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation. [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

The Antiinflammatory Mechanism of Igongsan in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages via Suppression of NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation. [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Igongsan (IGS), which is an herbal prescription composed of five different herbs, Ginseng Radix (root of Panax ginseng, Araliaceae), Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (rhizome of Atractylodes Macrocephala, Compositae), Poria Sclerotium (sclerotium of Poria cocos, Polyporaceae), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (root and rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Leguminosae), and Citri Unshius Pericarpium (Peel of Citrus unshiu, Rutaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated to elucidate the mechanism responsible for IGS's antiinflammatory effect in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The findings demonstrate that IGS inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandins E2 . IGS inhibited the enhanced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, it was shown that the antiinflammatory effect of IGS is through regulating the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and caspase-1 in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. Discussion and conclusion: These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

 The findings demonstrate that IGS inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandins E2 . IGS inhibited the enhanced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, it was shown that the antiinflammatory effect of IGS is through regulating the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and caspase-1

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Herbal medicinal products target defined biochemical and molecular mediators of inflammatory autoimmune arthritis.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating disease characterized by synovial inflammation, damage to cartilage and bone, and deformities of the joints. Several drugs possessing anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties are being used in the conventional (allopathic) system of medicine to treat RA. However, the long-term use of these drugs is associated with harmful side effects. Therefore, newer drugs with low or no toxicity for the treatment of RA are actively being sought. Interestingly, several herbs demonstrate anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity. In this review, we describe the role of the major biochemical and molecular mediators in the pathogenesis of RA, and highlight the sites of action of herbal medicinal products that have anti-arthritic activity. With the rapidly increasing use of CAM products by patients with RA and other inflammation-related disorders, our review presents timely information validating the scientific rationale for the use of natural therapeutic products.

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Ursolic acid in cancer prevention and treatment: molecular targets, pharmacokinetics and clinical studies.

Abstract

Discovery of bioactive molecules and elucidation of their molecular mechanisms open up an enormous opportunity for the development of improved therapy for different inflammatory diseases, including cancer. Triterpenoids isolated several decades ago from various medicinal plants now seem to have a prominent role in the prevention and therapy of a variety of ailments and some have already entered Phase I clinical trials. One such important and highly investigated pentacyclic triterpenoid, ursolic acid has attracted great attention of late for its potential as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in various types of cancer. Ursolic acid has been shown to target multiple proinflammatory transcription factors, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, kinases, cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and inflammatory enzymes. These targets can potentially mediate the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of ursolic acid by inhibiting the initiation, promotion and metastasis of cancer. This review not only summarizes the diverse molecular targets of ursolic acid, but also provides an insight into the various preclinical and clinical studies that have been performed in the last decade with this promising triterpenoid.

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