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The Antiinflammatory Mechanism of Igongsan in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages via Suppression of NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation. [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

The Antiinflammatory Mechanism of Igongsan in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages via Suppression of NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation. [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Igongsan (IGS), which is an herbal prescription composed of five different herbs, Ginseng Radix (root of Panax ginseng, Araliaceae), Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (rhizome of Atractylodes Macrocephala, Compositae), Poria Sclerotium (sclerotium of Poria cocos, Polyporaceae), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (root and rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Leguminosae), and Citri Unshius Pericarpium (Peel of Citrus unshiu, Rutaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated to elucidate the mechanism responsible for IGS's antiinflammatory effect in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The findings demonstrate that IGS inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandins E2 . IGS inhibited the enhanced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, it was shown that the antiinflammatory effect of IGS is through regulating the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and caspase-1 in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. Discussion and conclusion: These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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 The findings demonstrate that IGS inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandins E2 . IGS inhibited the enhanced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, it was shown that the antiinflammatory effect of IGS is through regulating the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and caspase-1

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Systematic review: the efficacy of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease.[Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

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Randomised controlled trials of herbal therapy for the treatment of IBD show encouraging results but studies remain limited and heterogenous. 

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Traditional Chinese medicine: a promising candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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Latest research progress on TCM showing their possible role of treatment of AD and other demented diseases and possible pharmacological actions

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Toxicity evaluation of standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino.

A
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Standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum did not cause death or any toxic signs in rats. The daily administration of the extract for 90 days did not produce lethal or harmful effects. 

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Turmeric Extract Significantly Beneficial in Diabetes Prevention ("the wonder spice for daily use")

Turmeric Extract Significantly Beneficial in Diabetes Prevention ("the wonder spice for daily use") | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Another study has found that turmeric extract, curcumin, could significantly help ward off the development of diabetes.

Via Bert Guevara
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Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22773702

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Extracts from Astragalus membranaceus limit myocardial cell death and improve cardiac function in a rat model of myocardial ischemia.

Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

The root of Astragalus membranaceus, known as "huang-qi", is one of the most widely used Chineseherbal medicines for the prevention and treatment of myocardial ischemic diseases. However, the mechanisms governing its therapeutic effects are largely unknown.

AIMS OF THE STUDY:

The aims of the present study were to investigate the cardioprotective effect of the root extract of A. membranaceus (EAM) in myocardial ischemia and to explore its underlying mechanisms in ROS-mediated signaling cascade in vivo and in vitro.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The saponins in EAM were analyzed using HPLC. The tests for the cardioprotective effects of EAM and its mechanisms were performed in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, the rat model of persistent myocardial ischemia was produced by occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. In vitro, the cardiomyocyte model of oxidative stress was mimicked by the direct free radical donor, H2O2.

RESULTS:

In vivo, the increased myocardial infarct size and the increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase isoform MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin (cTnI) were significantly decreased by pre-treatment with EAM. Moreover, cardiac function, as assessed by±dP/dt, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), was dramatically improved. An oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), was reduced, and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) was induced. In vitro, H2O2-triggered myocardial cell death and cytoplasm Ca2+ overload were blocked by treatment with EAM. Furthermore, the KATP channel blocker (5-HD, glibenclamide) blocked the anti-apoptotic protective effect of EAM on cardiomyocytes injured by H2O2.

CONCLUSIONS:

The cardioprotection of EAM was manifested as a protection of tissue structure and as a decrease in serum markers of ischemic injury. The mechanisms underlying the EAM-mediated protective effects may involve improving cardiac function, attenuating the oxidative injury via a decrease in MDA, a maintenance in SOD, and a reduction in free radical-induced myocardial cell injury. Additionally, EAM enhanced the myocardial cell viability via arresting the influx of Ca2+ to block cell death and opening mitochondrial KATP channels to reduce cell apoptosis.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Anti-inflammatory effects of a Chinese herbal medicine in atherosclerosis via estrogen receptor [beta] mediating nitric oxide production and NF-[kappa]B suppression in endothelial cells.

Anti-inflammatory effects of a Chinese herbal medicine in atherosclerosis via estrogen receptor [beta] mediating nitric oxide production and NF-[kappa]B suppression in endothelial cells. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
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Unexpected Benefits of Olive Leaf Extract - Life Extension

Unexpected Benefits of Olive Leaf Extract - Life Extension | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Scientists have isolated a unique molecule in olive oil that provides its cardio-protective benefits.
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Essential oil of Perilla frutescens-induced change in hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in chronic unpredictable mild stress in mice.

Abstract
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Perilla frutescens (Perilla leaf), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been used for centuries to treat various conditions including depression. A previous study of the authors demonstrated that essential oil of Perilla frutescens (EOPF) attenuated the depressive-like behavior in mice.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

This study was undertaken to explore the dynamic change of behaviors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and improved by EOPF.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Four separate CUMS experimental groups (1-week, 2-week, 3-week and 4-week treatment) were treated with EOPF (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o.), followed by sucrose preference, locomotor activity, immobility and hippocampal BDNF measurement.

RESULTS:

EOPF, as well as fluoxetine, restored the CUMS-induced decreased sucrose preference and increased immobility time, without affecting body weight gain and locomotor activity. Furthermore, CUMS (3 or 4-week) produced a reduction in both BDNF mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus, which were ameliorated by EOPF (4-week) and fluoxetine (3 or 4-week) treatment.

CONCLUSION:

These results presented here show that BDNF is expressed depending on length of CUMS procedure and EOPF administration. And this study might contribute to the underlying reason for the slow onset of antidepressant activity in clinic.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L.

Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Echinacea purpurea L. is a medicinal plant originally from North America. It has become a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide because it contains various biologically active compounds. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from E. purpurea in both mice and rats. The extract was obtained from flower of E. purpurea by steam distillation. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in vivo by using different animal models such as xylene-induced mouse ear edema, egg-white-induced rat paw edema, and cotton-induced granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation in mice. The serial dosages were used in vivo: the low dosage, the medium dosage and the high dosage. The low, medium and high dosages of extracts produced inhibitions of 39.24%, 47.22% and 44.79% respectively in the ear edema induced by xylene when compare with the control group. Only the high dosage group showed statistically significant inhibition (48.51%) of paw edema formation induced three hours by egg white compared with the control group (P<0.01). Moreover, the granulation formation was also significantly reduced the most by 28.52% in the high dose groups compared with the control group (P <0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α in the blood were reduced in the treated groups. The essential oils from extracts of E. purpurea have anti-inflammatory effects.

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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six flavonoids separated from licorice.

Abstract

Licorice, the roots and rhizomes of several Glycyrrhiza species (Leguminosae), is an important natural sweetening agent and a widely used herbalmedicine. In this work, six flavonoids, 5-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-3,4,4'-trihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone (1), licochalcone B (2), licochalcone A (3), echinatin (4), glycycoumarin (5) and glyurallin B (6), were isolated from the extracts of licorice (Glycyrrhiza inflata and Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods. To our knowledge, compound 1 was isolated from natural plants for the first time. All the isolates were tested by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 showed strong scavenging activity toward the ABTS(+) radical, and compounds 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes compared with the reference controls. Compounds 1-4 dose-dependently inhibited LPS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, compounds 1-5 were demonstrated to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Moreover, the contents of the six compounds, in different Glycyrrhiza species, were quantified by HPLC-MS.

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Pronounced transcriptional regulation of apoptotic and TNF-NF-kappa-B signaling genes during the course of thymoquinone mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells.

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This study implicates the role of TQ in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and migration. At the same time, the results strongly suggest that TQ intervenes with TNF and NF-kappa-B signaling during TQ-mediated induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

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Carcinogenicity of some drugs and herbal products : The Lancet Oncology

Carcinogenicity of some drugs and herbal products : The Lancet Oncology | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Carcinogenicity of some drugs and herbal products. By - Yann Grosse, Dana Loomis, Béatrice Lauby-Secretan, Fatiha El Ghissassi, Véronique Bouvard, Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa, Neela Guha, Robert Baan, H...
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Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

Sarris JMcIntyre ECamfield DA.

A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract).

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"Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium amoenum."

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Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of a Novel Proteoglycan from Ganoderma Lucidum Fruiting Bodies on db/db Mice and the Possible Mechanism. [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of a Novel Proteoglycan from Ganoderma Lucidum Fruiting Bodies on db/db Mice and the Possible Mechanism. [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Previously, we screened a proteoglycan for anti-hyperglycemic, named FYGL, from Ganoderma Lucidum. For further research of the antidiabetic mechanisms of FYGL in vivo, the glucose homeostasis, activities of insulin-sensitive enzymes, glucose transporter expression and pancreatic function were analyzed using db/db mice as diabetic models in the present work. FYGL not only lead to a reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, but also an increase in insulin and C-peptide level, whereas a decrease in glucagons level and showed a potential for the remediation of pancreatic islets. FYGL also increased the glucokinase activities, and simultaneously lowered the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase activities, accompanied by a reduction in the expression of hepatic glucose transporter protein 2, while the expression of adipose and skeletal glucose transporter protein 4 was increased. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities were also increased by FYGL treatment. Thus, FYGL was an effective antidiabetic agent by enhancing insulin secretion and decreasing hepatic glucose output along with increase of adipose and skeletal muscle glucose disposal in the late stage of diabetes. Furthermore, FYGL is beneficial against oxidative stress, thereby being helpful in preventing the diabetic complications.

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Broccoli may trump genetics when it comes to arthritis

Broccoli may trump genetics when it comes to arthritis | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
More than one in five Irish people have some form of the disease
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Salvianolic acid B inhibits the amyloid formation of human islet amyloid polypeptide and protects pancreatic beta-cells against cytotoxicity.

Abstract

The misfolding of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is regarded as one of the causative factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), one of the most commonly used of traditional Chinese medicines, is often used in Compound Recipes for treating diabetes, however with unclear mechanisms. Since salvianolic acid B (SalB) is the most abundant bioactive ingredient of salvia miltiorrhiza water-extract. In this study, we tested whether SalB has any effect on the amyloidogenicity of hIAPP. Our results clearly suggest that SalB can significantly inhibit the formation of hIAPP amyloid and disaggregate hIAPP fibrils. Furthermore, photo-crosslinking based oligomerization studies suggest SalB significantly suppresses the toxic oligomerization of hIAPP monomers. Cytotoxicity protection effects on pancreatic INS-1 cells by SalB were also observed using MTT-based assays, potentially due to the inhibition on the membrane disruption effects and attenuated mitochondria impairment induced by hIAPP. These results provide evidence that SalB may further be studied on the possible pharmacological treatment for T2DM.

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High-fiber foods - MayoClinic.com

High-fiber foods - MayoClinic.com | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Eating enough high-fiber foods? Find out the dietary fiber content of some common foods.
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Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Studies of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Rat and Mouse: Liver, Thyroid, and Nose Are Targets.

Abstract

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular herbal supplement that is used to improve circulation and brain function. In spite of widespread human exposure to relatively high doses over potentially long periods of time, there is a paucity of data from animal studies regarding the toxicity and carcinogenicity associated with GBE. In order to fill this knowledge gap, 3-month and 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with GBE administered by oral gavage to B6C3F1/N mice and F344/N rats were performed as part of the National Toxicology Program's Dietary Supplements and Herbal Medicines Initiative. The targets of GBE treatment were the liver, thyroid, and nose. These targets were consistent across exposure period, sex, and species, albeit with varying degrees of effect observed among studies. Key findings included a notably high incidence of hepatoblastomas in male and female mice and evidence of carcinogenic potential in the thyroid gland of both mice and rats. Various nonneoplastic lesions were observed beyond control levels in the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rats and mice administered GBE. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to humans, the findings fill an important data gap in assessing risk associated with GBE use.

KEYWORDS:

hepatocarcinogenicity, herbal, nasal lesions., natural medicine, thyroid tumors

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Comparative study on in vitro activities of citral, limonene and essential oils from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on yellow fever virus.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the antiviral activities in vitro of citral, limonene and essential oils (EOs) from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on the replication of yellow fever virus (YFV). Citral and EOs were active before and after virus adsorption on cells; IC50 values were between 4.3 and 25 microg/mL and SI ranged from 1.1 to 10.8. Results indicate that citral could contribute to the antiviral activity of the L. citriodora EO. Limonene was not active and seemed to play an insignificant role in the antiviral activity of the examined EOs.

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[Study on in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of total flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its ingredients].

[Study on in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of total flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its ingredients]. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of total flavonoids of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (TFGR) and its ingredient on IFN-gamma and LPS-induced macrophage RAW264.7.METHOD:

Solvent extraction and macroporous resin enrichment were adopted for preparing ethanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, components and total flavonoids. Ultraviolet spectroscopy was used to determine the content of total flavonoids. An IFN-gamma and LPS-induced cell inflammatory model was established. Griess reaction was used for detecting the effect of extracts at all levels and flavonoid monomers on nitrite content in cell culture supernatant. FRAP was used for measuring anti-oxidation capacity. RT-PCR was used for determining the effect of TFGR and isoliquiritigenins on intracellular inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and PPAR-gamma. Western blot was used for detecting the effect of TFGR and isoliquiritigenins on iNOS, COX-2 and MAPK signal transduction pathways.

RESULT:

Compared with other extracts, ethyl acetate fractions from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma showed the highest inhibition ratio on nitrite content at the same concentration. After being enriched with macroporous resin, TFGR (60. 08% of liquiritin) of ethyl acetate extracts from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma showed dose-dependence, and inhibited the nitrite content in cell culture supernatant, which was superior to ethyl acetate extracts, and had the protective effect on post-stimulated cell activity, with a stronger total anti-oxidation than other extracts. TFGR inhibited iNOS, IL-6 mRNA, protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and IL-6. Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid monomer, could inhibited iNOS, COX-2 gene and protein expression and gene expressions of IL-1beta and IL-6, and upside-regulated gene expression of PPAR-gamma.

CONCLUSION:

Activity-oriented extraction suggests that ethyl acetate fractions from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is one of components with anti-inflammatory activity. TFGR obtained by enriching the active component showed dose-dependence, and inhibited the nitrite content in cell culture supernatant. The anti-inflammatory effect is partially achieved by regulating ERK signal pathway and inhibiting iNOS and COX-2 gene and protein expressions through extracellular signals of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Specifically, isoliquiritigenin may be a component with TFGR anti-inflammatory activity.

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Molecular Pathways: Adipose Inflammation as a Mediator of Obesity-Associated Cancer

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Elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators cause both local and systemic effects. Of particular relevance with regard to breast cancer is increased transcription of the CYP19 gene encoding aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen synthesis. Notably, this obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis provides a plausible explanation for increased rates of post-menopausal, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer associated with obesity and hence may offer targets for interventions to attenuate risk or improve prognosis. Potential approaches include weight reduction, exercise, and suppression of obesity-driven signaling pathways using pharmaceutical or dietary agents. 

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