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Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer [Br J Cancer. 2014] - NCBI

Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer [Br J Cancer. 2014]  - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Background:

There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.


Methods:

A cohort of 477312 men and women mostly aged 35–70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases.


Results:

During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n=430) and non-aggressive (n=413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5–Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61–0.91; P-trend=0.009) and lignans (HRQ5–Q1 0.78, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96; P-trend=0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC.


Conclusions:

Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer"

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Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism. [Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism. [Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with powerful biological properties. This review aims to summarize recent advances towards understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to regulate lipid metabolism and other metabolic parameters relevant to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin, have emerged as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies report that intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods attenuates cardiovascular diseases. Experimental and a limited number of clinical studies reveal lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. In animal models, citrus flavonoid supplements prevent hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and insulin sensitivity primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose tissue, kidney and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters and also through direct impact on the vessel wall.

SUMMARY:

These recent studies suggest an important role of citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepaticsteatosis, obesity and atherosclerosis. The favorable outcomes are achieved through multiple mechanisms. Human studies focussed on dose, bioavailability, efficacy and safety are required to propel the use of these promising therapeutic agents into the clinical arena.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"These recent studies suggest an important role of citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity and atherosclerosis."

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Advances in Neuroprotective Ingredients of Medicinal Herbs by Using Cellular and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder, which is neuropathologically identified by age-dependent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Development of symptomatic treatments has been partly successful for PD research, but there remain a number of inadequacies in therapeutic strategies for the disease. The pathogenesis of PD remains intricate, and the present anti-PD treatments appears to be clinically insufficient. Comprehensive research on discovery of novel drug candidates has demonstrated that natural products, such as medicinal herbs, plant extracts, and their secondary metabolites, have great potential as therapeutics with neuroprotective activity in PD. Recent preclinical studies suggest that a number of herbal medicines and their bioactive ingredients can be developed into optimum pharmaceuticals for treating PD. In many countries, traditional herbal medicines are used to prevent or treat neurodegenerative disorders, and some have been developed as nutraceuticals or functional foods. Here we focus on recent advances of the evidence-linked neuroprotective activity of bioactive ingredients of herbal origin in cellular and animal models of PD research.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Bioactive constituents listed in this current write-up belong to different chemical classes like including, Terpenes (ginsenoside Rg1, tenuigenin, astragaloside IV), flavones (puerarin, luteolin and baicalein, morin), stilbenoids (resveratrol), phenylpropanoid (echinacoside), phenylethyl glycoside (acteoside), coumarin (umbelliferone and esculetin), and catechol (curcumin and protocatechuic acid).  All the mentioned bioactive compounds have demonstrated a significant neuroprotective effect in PD models. "

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[Study on in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of total flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its ingredients].

[Study on in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of total flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its ingredients]. | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:To examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of total flavonoids of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (TFGR) and its ingredient on IFN-gamma and LPS-induced macrophage RAW264.7.METHOD:

Solvent extraction and macroporous resin enrichment were adopted for preparing ethanol extracts of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, components and total flavonoids. Ultraviolet spectroscopy was used to determine the content of total flavonoids. An IFN-gamma and LPS-induced cell inflammatory model was established. Griess reaction was used for detecting the effect of extracts at all levels and flavonoid monomers on nitrite content in cell culture supernatant. FRAP was used for measuring anti-oxidation capacity. RT-PCR was used for determining the effect of TFGR and isoliquiritigenins on intracellular inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS, COX-2, IL-6 and PPAR-gamma. Western blot was used for detecting the effect of TFGR and isoliquiritigenins on iNOS, COX-2 and MAPK signal transduction pathways.

RESULT:

Compared with other extracts, ethyl acetate fractions from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma showed the highest inhibition ratio on nitrite content at the same concentration. After being enriched with macroporous resin, TFGR (60. 08% of liquiritin) of ethyl acetate extracts from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma showed dose-dependence, and inhibited the nitrite content in cell culture supernatant, which was superior to ethyl acetate extracts, and had the protective effect on post-stimulated cell activity, with a stronger total anti-oxidation than other extracts. TFGR inhibited iNOS, IL-6 mRNA, protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and IL-6. Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid monomer, could inhibited iNOS, COX-2 gene and protein expression and gene expressions of IL-1beta and IL-6, and upside-regulated gene expression of PPAR-gamma.

CONCLUSION:

Activity-oriented extraction suggests that ethyl acetate fractions from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is one of components with anti-inflammatory activity. TFGR obtained by enriching the active component showed dose-dependence, and inhibited the nitrite content in cell culture supernatant. The anti-inflammatory effect is partially achieved by regulating ERK signal pathway and inhibiting iNOS and COX-2 gene and protein expressions through extracellular signals of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Specifically, isoliquiritigenin may be a component with TFGR anti-inflammatory activity.

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Flavanoids induce expression of the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) gene and suppress IL-6-activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in vascular en...

Flavanoids induce expression of the suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) gene and suppress IL-6-activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation in vascular en... | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
The Biochemical Journal publishes important new findings and reviews across all areas of the molecular biosciences by authors in the international scientific community
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Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals

Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.


Via Jonathan Middleton
Pasquale Valente's insight:

"The natural combination of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables is responsible for their potent antioxidant activity"

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Neuroprotective effects of hesperidin ... [Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Neuroprotective effects of hesperidin ... [Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

 The current study was carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of hesperidin, a citrus fruit flavanol, against rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. 

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"data suggests that hesperidin exerts its neuroprotective effect against rotenone due to its antioxidant, maintenance of mitochondrial function, and antiapoptotic properties in a neuroblastoma cell line."

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The Sophora flavescens flavonoid compound trifolirhizin inhibits acetylcholine induced airway smooth muscle contraction. [Phytochemistry. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

The Sophora flavescens flavonoid compound trifolirhizin inhibits acetylcholine induced airway smooth muscle contraction. [Phytochemistry. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Asthma is a serious health problem worldwide, particularly in industrialized countries. Despite a better understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma, there are still considerable gaps in knowledge as well as a need for classes of drugs. ASHMI™ (Anti-asthma Herbal Medicine Intervention) is an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst (Ling Zhi), Sophora flavescens Aiton (Ku Shen) and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC (Gan Cao). It prevents allergic asthma airway hyper-reactivity in mice and inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction in tracheal rings from allergic asthmatic mice. The purpose of this research was to identify individual herb(s) and their active compound(s) that inhibit ASM contraction. It was found that S. flavescens, but not G. lucidum or G. uralensis aqueous extracts, inhibited ASM contraction in tracheal rings from asthmatic mice. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of flavonoid fractions/compound(s) via methylene chloride extraction, preparative HPLC fractionation, and LC-MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses showed that trifolirhizin is an active constituent that inhibits acetylcholine mediated ASM contraction or directly relaxes pre-contracted ASM independent of β2-adrenoceptors.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

trifolirhizin  inhibits acetylcholine mediated airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction or directly relaxes pre-contracted ASM independent of β2-adrenoceptors.

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Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of six flavonoids separated from licorice.

Abstract

Licorice, the roots and rhizomes of several Glycyrrhiza species (Leguminosae), is an important natural sweetening agent and a widely used herbalmedicine. In this work, six flavonoids, 5-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-3,4,4'-trihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone (1), licochalcone B (2), licochalcone A (3), echinatin (4), glycycoumarin (5) and glyurallin B (6), were isolated from the extracts of licorice (Glycyrrhiza inflata and Glycyrrhiza uralensis). Their structures were elucidated using various spectroscopic methods. To our knowledge, compound 1 was isolated from natural plants for the first time. All the isolates were tested by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays. Compounds 2, 4 and 5 showed strong scavenging activity toward the ABTS(+) radical, and compounds 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes compared with the reference controls. Compounds 1-4 dose-dependently inhibited LPS induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, compounds 1-5 were demonstrated to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Moreover, the contents of the six compounds, in different Glycyrrhiza species, were quantified by HPLC-MS.

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