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Herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health. Scuola Viterbese di Fitoterapia - Italia
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Astragaloside IV prevents damage to human mesangial cells ... [Int J Mol Med. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI

Astragaloside IV prevents damage to human mesangial cells ... [Int J Mol Med. 2014] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration are the two major pathological characteristics of the early stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which are respectively related to mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and a decrease in calcium influx conducted by canonical transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6). The marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia is the main sponsor of multiple pathological pathways in DN. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is an important source of ROS production in MCs. Astragaloside IV (AS‑IV) is an active ingredient of Radix Astragali which has a potent antioxidative effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether high glucose (HG)‑induced NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production contribute to MC proliferation and the downregulation of TRPC6 expression; we also wished to determine the effects of AS‑IV on MCs under HG conditions.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

 "Results suggest that AS‑IV inhibits HG‑induced mesangial cell proliferation and glomerular contractile dysfunction through the NADPH oxidase/ROS/Akt/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) pathway, providing a new perspective for the clinical treatment of DN."

  

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Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism. [Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism. [Curr Opin Lipidol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with powerful biological properties. This review aims to summarize recent advances towards understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to regulate lipid metabolism and other metabolic parameters relevant to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperidin, nobiletin and tangeretin, have emerged as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies report that intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods attenuates cardiovascular diseases. Experimental and a limited number of clinical studies reveal lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. In animal models, citrus flavonoid supplements prevent hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and insulin sensitivity primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose tissue, kidney and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters and also through direct impact on the vessel wall.

SUMMARY:

These recent studies suggest an important role of citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepaticsteatosis, obesity and atherosclerosis. The favorable outcomes are achieved through multiple mechanisms. Human studies focussed on dose, bioavailability, efficacy and safety are required to propel the use of these promising therapeutic agents into the clinical arena.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"These recent studies suggest an important role of citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity and atherosclerosis."

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Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: Gene expression - Shishodia - 2012 - BioFactors - Wiley Online Library

Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: Gene expression - Shishodia - 2012 - BioFactors - Wiley Online Library | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties...


Curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1), growth factors (e.g., VEGF, EGF, FGF), growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, HER-2, AR), enzymes (e.g., COX-2, LOX, MMP9, MAPK, mTOR, Akt), adhesion molecules (e.g., ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), apoptosis related proteins (e.g., Bcl-2, caspases, DR, Fas), and cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1). Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1, STAT) and their signaling pathways.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"curcumin has the potential for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancers, arthritis, allergies, atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative disease, hepatic disorders, obesity, diabetes, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of modulation of gene expression by curcumin."

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Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, -cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (re)absorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s). Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.


Pasquale Valente's insight:

Based on safety and their multiple targeting actions, herbal therapies are potent therapeutic means in T2D. The chemistry and biology of nearly 40 extracts and compounds of plant origin that have been demonstrated to prevent and treat T2D via the regulation of insulin resistance, beta-cell function, incretin pathways, and glucose (re)absorption are here summarized. 

http://world.einnews.com/article/169809253/k6cJpDxF_lvhkh8X

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Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies | BMJ

Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies | BMJ | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Objective To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.

Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study.

Setting Health professionals in the United States.

Participants 66 105 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984-2008), 85 104 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2009), and 36 173 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008) who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in these studies.

Main outcome measure Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and confirmed by supplementary questionnaires.

Results During 3 464 641 person years of follow-up, 12 198 participants developed type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for personal, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors of diabetes, the pooled hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week of total whole fruit consumption was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 0.99). With mutual adjustment of individual fruits, the pooled hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week were 0.74 (0.66 to 0.83) for blueberries, 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93) for grapes and raisins, 0.89 (0.79 to 1.01) for prunes, 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) for apples and pears, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.98) for bananas, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.99) for grapefruit, 0.97 (0.92 to 1.02) for peaches, plums, and apricots, 0.99 (0.95 to 1.03) for oranges, 1.03 (0.96 to 1.10) for strawberries, and 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18) for cantaloupe. The pooled hazard ratio for the same increment in fruit juice consumption was 1.08 (1.05 to 1.11). The associations with risk of type 2 diabetes differed significantly among individual fruits (P<0.001 in all cohorts).

Conclusion Our findings suggest the presence of heterogeneity in the associations between individual fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Greater consumption of specific whole fruits, particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples, is significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas greater consumption of fruit juice is associated with a higher risk.

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Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of a Novel Proteoglycan from Ganoderma Lucidum Fruiting Bodies on db/db Mice and the Possible Mechanism. [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of a Novel Proteoglycan from Ganoderma Lucidum Fruiting Bodies on db/db Mice and the Possible Mechanism. [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Previously, we screened a proteoglycan for anti-hyperglycemic, named FYGL, from Ganoderma Lucidum. For further research of the antidiabetic mechanisms of FYGL in vivo, the glucose homeostasis, activities of insulin-sensitive enzymes, glucose transporter expression and pancreatic function were analyzed using db/db mice as diabetic models in the present work. FYGL not only lead to a reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, but also an increase in insulin and C-peptide level, whereas a decrease in glucagons level and showed a potential for the remediation of pancreatic islets. FYGL also increased the glucokinase activities, and simultaneously lowered the phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase activities, accompanied by a reduction in the expression of hepatic glucose transporter protein 2, while the expression of adipose and skeletal glucose transporter protein 4 was increased. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities were also increased by FYGL treatment. Thus, FYGL was an effective antidiabetic agent by enhancing insulin secretion and decreasing hepatic glucose output along with increase of adipose and skeletal muscle glucose disposal in the late stage of diabetes. Furthermore, FYGL is beneficial against oxidative stress, thereby being helpful in preventing the diabetic complications.

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Cinnamon regulates your blood sugar: Research-proven

Cinnamon regulates your blood sugar: Research-proven | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Cinnamon regulates your blood sugar: Research-proven
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The pentacyclic triterpenoids in herbal medicines and their pharmacological activities in diabetes and diabetic complications.

Abstract

Pentacyclic triterpenoids including the oleanane, ursane and lupane groups are widely distributed in many medicinal plants, such as Glycyrrhiza species, Gymnema species, Centella asiatica, Camellia sinensis, Crataegus species and Olea europaea, which are commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications. A large number of bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoids, such as oleanolic acid, glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, ursolic acid, betulin, betulinic acid and lupeol have shown multiple biological activities with apparent effects on glucose absorption, glucose uptake, insulin secretion, diabetic vascular dysfunction, retinopathy and nephropathy. The versatility of the pentacyclic triterpenes provides a promising approach for diabetes management

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Jiao Tai Wan Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Jiao Tai Wan Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Jiao Tai Wan (JTW), a Chinese herbal formula containing Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, has been used for diabetic treatment for many years. The aim of this study was to determine the main components in JTW and to investigate the effects of JTW on hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. JTW extract was prepared and the main components were assayed by HPLC. An animal model of diabetes mellitus was established and JTW was administered intragastrically. In the clinical study, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were treated with JTW. Blood glucose and lipid parameters, liver histology, hepatic triglyceride content and lipogenic gene expression were examined. Our data demonstrated that JTW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats. This was accompanied by the down-regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expressions, and the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated-ACC (pACC) protein expressions in the liver tissues. Diabetic patients also exhibited decreases in their hepatic triglyceride content. The results suggest that JTW attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. These beneficial effects are possibly associated with the inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in the liver.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

The results suggest that JTW attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. These beneficial effects are possibly associated with the inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in the liver.

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Therapeutic Roles of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Metabolic Diseases: Curcumin and Resveratrol Analogues as Possible Inducers of Heme Oxygenase-1.[Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

Metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and obesity, are associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammatory stress), oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Because the integration of these stresses is critical to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, agents and cellular molecules that can modulate these stress responses are emerging as potential targets for intervention and treatment of metabolic diseases. It has been recognized that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in cellular protection. Because HO-1 can reduce inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and ER stress, in part by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, HO-1 has been suggested to play important roles in pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In the present review, we will explore our current understanding of the protective mechanisms of HO-1 in metabolic diseases and present some emerging therapeutic options for HO-1 expression in treating metabolic diseases, together with the therapeutic potential of curcumin and resveratrol analogues that have their ability to induce HO-1 expression

Pasquale Valente's insight:

Cur and Res, reduce the incidence of metabolic diseases
viaNrf2-dependentHO-1 expression,which allows them to be considered as HO-1 inducers that may provide an alternative strategy for controlling the initiation and progression of metabolic diseases.

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Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review

Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics.

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Walnut consumption is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women. [J Nutr. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Walnut consumption is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women.  [J Nutr. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Walnuts are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and have been shown to improve various cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed to investigate the association between walnut intake and incident type 2 diabetes in 2 large cohort studies: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHS II. We prospectively followed 58,063 women aged 52-77 y in NHS (1998-2008) and 79,893 women aged 35-52 y in NHS II (1999-2009) without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Consumption of walnuts and other nuts was assessed every 4 y using validated food frequency questionnaires. Self-reported type 2 diabetes was confirmed by a validated supplemental questionnaire. We documented a total of 5930 incident type 2 diabetes cases during 10 y of follow-up. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model without body mass index (BMI), walnut consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, and the HRs (95% CIs) for participants consuming 1-3 servings/mo (1 serving = 28 g), 1 serving/wk, and ≥2 servings/wk of walnuts were 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.81 (0.70-0.94), and 0.67 (0.54-0.82) compared with women who never/rarely consumed walnuts (P-trend < 0.001). Further adjustment for updated BMI slightly attenuated the association and the HRs (95% CIs) were 0.96 (0.90-1.02), 0.87 (0.75-1.01), and 0.76 (0.62-0.94), respectively (P-trend = 0.002). The consumption of total nuts (P-trend < 0.001) and other tree nuts (P-trend = 0.03) was also inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, and the associations were largely explained by BMI. Our results suggest that higher walnut consumption is associated with a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"results suggest that higher walnut consumption is associated with a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women."

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Pasquale Valente's comment, September 5, 2013 8:58 AM
mice that eat an abundance of walnuts may be less likely to develop breast cancer http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=walnuts-ward-off-breast-cancer-in-m-2009-04-22
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Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases. [J Sci Food Agric. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases. [J Sci Food Agric. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Abstract

Vegetarian diet generally includes plenty of vegetables and fruits, which are rich in phytochemicals, antioxidants, fiber, magnesium, vitamins C and E, Fe3+ , folic acid and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and low in cholesterol, total fat and saturated fatty acid, sodium, Fe2+ , zinc, vitamin A, B12 and D, and especially n-3 PUFA. Mortalities from all-cause, ischemic heart disease, circulatory and cerebrovascular diseases were significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivorous populations. Compared with omnivores, the incidence of cancer and type 2 diabetes were also significantly lower in vegetarians. However, vegetarians have a number of increased risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as increased plasma homocysteine, mean platelet volume and platelet aggregability compared with omnivores, which are associated with low intake of vitamin B12 and n-3 PUFA. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for vegetarians to carefully design their diet, specifically focusing on increasing their intake of vitamin B12 and n-3 PUFA to further reduce already low mortality and morbidity of non-communicable diseases.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

cancer, homocysteine, ischemic heart disease, mean platelet volume, mortality, non-communicable diseases, platelet aggregation, type 2 diabetes, vegetarian

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Turmeric Extract Significantly Beneficial in Diabetes Prevention ("the wonder spice for daily use")

Turmeric Extract Significantly Beneficial in Diabetes Prevention ("the wonder spice for daily use") | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it
Another study has found that turmeric extract, curcumin, could significantly help ward off the development of diabetes.

Via Bert Guevara
Pasquale Valente's insight:

Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22773702

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HerbClip: Meta-analysis of the Glycemic Effects of Cinnamon in Type 2 Diabetics

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Effect of Berberine Administration on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion

Abstract

Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients with a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Glucose and insulin levels after a dextrose load were measured. Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations at baseline were also measured. Twelve patients received berberine hydrochloride (500 mg) three times daily before meals for 3 months. The remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first-phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Results: After berberine administration, patients had a remission of 36% (P=0.037) in the presence of metabolic syndrome and a significant decrease in waist circumference in females (106±4 vs. 103±3 cm, P<0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (123±7 vs. 115±9 mmHg, P<0.01), triglycerides (2.4±0.7 vs. 1.4±0.5 mmol/L, P<0.01), area under the curve (AUC) of glucose (1182.1±253.6 vs. 1069.5±172.4 mmol/l, P<0.05), AUC of insulin (92,056±72,148 vs. 67,407±46,441 pmol/L, P<0.01), and insulinogenic index (0.78±0.69 vs. 0.62±0.46, P<0.05), as well as an increase in the Matsuda index (2.1±1.0 vs. 3.1±1.6, P<0.01). Conclusions: Administration of berberine leads to remission of metabolic syndrome and decreases in waist circumference, SBP, triglycerides, and total insulin secretion, with an increase in insulin sensitivity.

  
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