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Cinnamaldehyde/chemotherapeutic agents interaction and drug-metabolizing genes in colorectal cancer. [Mol Med Rep. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Cinnamaldehyde/chemotherapeutic agents interaction and drug-metabolizing genes in colorectal cancer. [Mol Med Rep. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Cinnamaldehyde is an active monomer isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which is known to possess marked antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential advantages of using cinnamaldehyde in combination with chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) therapy, as well as to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on chemotherapeutic-associated gene expression. The synergistic interaction of cinnamaldehyde and chemotherapeutic agents on human CRC HT-29 and LoVo cells was evaluated using the combination index (CI) method. The double staining with Annexin V conjugated to fluorescein-isothiocyanate and phosphatidylserine was employed for apoptosis detection. The expression of drug-metabolizing genes, including excision repair cross‑complementing 1 (ERCC1), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), thymidylate synthase (TS), breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and topoisomerase 1 (TOPO1), all in HT-29 and LoVo cells, with or without the addition of cinnamaldehyde, was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cinnamaldehyde had a synergistic effect on the chemotherapeutic agents cytotoxicity in HT-29 and LoVo cells. In addition, cinnamaldehyde suppressed BRCA1, TOPO1, ERCC1 and TS mRNA expression, except for OPRT expression, which was markedly upregulated. Our findings indicate that cinnamaldehyde appears to be a promising candidate as an adjuvant in combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (OXA), two chemotherapeutic agents used in CRC treatment. The possible mechanisms of its action may involve the regulation of drug‑metabolizing genes.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Cinnamaldehyde had a synergistic effect on the chemotherapeutic agents cytotoxicity in HT-29 and LoVo cells. In addition, cinnamaldehyde suppressed BRCA1, TOPO1, ERCC1 and TS mRNA expression, except for OPRT expression, which was markedly upregulated. "

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Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and prevents AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer in mice. [Int J Oncol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Baicalein, an active component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells and prevents AOM/DSS-induced colon cancer in mice. [Int J Oncol. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Flavonoids have been demonstrated to provide health benefits in humans. Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is a phenolic flavonoid compound derived mainly from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, a medicinal plant traditionally used in oriental medicine. Baicalein is widely used in Korean and Chinese herbal medicines as anti-inflammatory and anticancer therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms of its activity remain poorly understood and warrant further investigation. This study was performed to investigate the anticancer effect of baicalein on HCT116 human colon cancer cells and the tumor preventing capacity of baicalein on colitis-associated cancer in mice. In in vivo experiments, we induced colon tumors in mice by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and evaluated the effects of baicalein on tumor growth. Baicalein treatment on HCT116 cells resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptotic cell death. The induction of apoptosis was determined by morphological changes and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Baicalein also suppressed the activation of NF-κB through PPARγ activation. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalein may be mediated through PPARγ activation. Finally, administration with baicalein significantly decreased the incidence of tumor formation with inflammation. Our findings suggest that baicalein is one of the candidates for the prevention of inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

Baicalein treatment resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptotic cell death. 

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Prevention and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer by Natural Agents From Mother Nature.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States after cancers of the lung and the breast/prostate. While the incidence of CRC in the United States is among the highest in the world (approximately 52/100,000), its incidence in countries in India is among the lowest (approximately 7/100,000), suggesting that lifestyle factors may play a role in development of the disease. Whereas obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, a high-calorie diet, and a lack of physical activity promote this cancer, evidence indicates that foods containing folates, selenium, Vitamin D, dietary fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, spices, vegetables, and fruits are protective against CRC in humans. Numerous agents from "mother nature" (also called "nutraceuticals,") that have potential to both prevent and treat CRC have been identified. The most significant discoveries relate to compounds such as cardamonin, celastrol, curcumin, deguelin, diosgenin, thymoquinone, tocotrienol, ursolic acid, and zerumbone. Unlike pharmaceutical drugs, these agents modulate multiple targets, including transcription factors, growth factors, tumor cell survival factors, inflammatory pathways, and invasion and angiogenesis linked closely to CRC. We describe the potential of these dietary agents to suppress the growth of human CRC cells in culture and to inhibit tumor growth in animal models. We also describe clinical trials in which these agents have been tested for efficacy in humans. Because of their safety and affordability, these nutraceuticals provide a novel opportunity for treatment of CRC, an "old age" disease with an "age old" solution.

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Resveratrol Inhibits Invasion and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Cells via MALAT1 Mediated Wnt/β-Catenin Signal Pathway

Resveratrol Inhibits Invasion and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer Cells via MALAT1 Mediated Wnt/β-Catenin Signal Pathway | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Resveratrol, extracted from Chinese herbal medicine Polygonum cuspidatum, is known to inhibit invasion and metastasis of human colorectal cancer (CRC), in which long non-coding Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1 (RNA-MALAT1) also plays an important role. Using MALAT1 lentiviral shRNA and over-expression constructs in CRC derived cell lines, LoVo and HCT116, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on CRC are through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thus the expression of its target genes such as c-Myc, MMP-7, as well as the expression of MALAT1. In detail, resveratrol down-regulates MALAT1, resulting in decreased nuclear localization of β-catenin thus attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which leads to the inhibition of CRC invasion and metastasis.This finding of ours surely provides important pre-clinical evidence supporting future use of resveratrol in prevention and treatment of CRC.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

 "results uncovered the mechanisms by which resveratrol regulates MALAT1, in turn alters the nuclear localization of β-catenin, resulting in lowered Wnt/β-catenin signaling and eventual inhibition of invasion and metastasis. This discovery will surely provide vital pre-clinical evidence supporting future use of resveratrol in prevention and treatment of CRC."

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Ursolic acid promotes colorectal cancer cell apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation via modulation of multiple signaling pathways.

Abstract The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) is strongly correlated with the aberrant activation of multiple intracellular signaling transduction cascades including STAT3, ERK, JNK and p38 pathways which usually function redundantly. In addition, crosstalk between these pathways forms a complicated signaling network that is regulated by compensatory mechanisms. Therefore, most of the currently used and single-target-based antitumor agents might not always be therapeutically effective. Moreover, long-term use of these agents often generates drug resistance. These problems highlight the urgent need for the development of novel anticancer chemotherapies. Ursolic acid (UA) is a major active compound present in many medicinal herbs that have long been used for the clinical treatment of CRC. Although previous studies have demonstrated an antitumor effect for UA, the precise mechanisms of its tumoricidal activity are not well understood. In the present study, using CRC mouse xenograft model and the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line, we evaluated the efficacy of UA against tumor growth in vivo and in vitro and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that UA inhibits cancer growth without apparent toxicity. Furthermore, UA significantly suppresses the activation of several CRC-related signaling pathways and alters the expression of critical target genes. These molecular effects lead to the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cellular proliferation. These data demonstrate that UA possesses a broad range of anticancer activities due to its ability to affect multiple intracellular targets, suggesting that UA could be a novel multipotent therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.
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