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Citral is renoprotective for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and activating nrf2 pathway in mice. [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

The pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is considered to be associated with oxidative stress, mononuclear leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, and matrix production and/or matrix degradation, although the exact etiology and pathogenic pathways remain to be determined. Establishment of a pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategy for the disease is clinically warranted. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Litseacubeba, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, can inhibit oxidant activity, macrophage and NF-κB activation. In the present study, first, we used a mouse model of FSGS with the features of glomerular epithelial hyperplasia lesions (EPHLs), a key histopathology index of progression of FSGS, peri-glomerular inflammation, and progressive glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis. When treated with citral for 28 consecutive days at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight by gavage, the FSGS mice showed greatly reduced EPHLs, glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis and peri-glomerular mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, suggesting that citral may be renoprotective for FSGS and act by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and early activating the Nrf2 pathway. Meanwhile, a macrophage model involved in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities was employed and confirmed the beneficial effects of citral on the FSGS model.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Litseacubeba, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, can inhibit oxidant activity, macrophage and NF-κB activation.  Citral may be renoprotective and act by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and early activating the Nrf2 pathway. 

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Comparative study on in vitro activities of citral, limonene and essential oils from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on yellow fever virus.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the antiviral activities in vitro of citral, limonene and essential oils (EOs) from Lippia citriodora and L. alba on the replication of yellow fever virus (YFV). Citral and EOs were active before and after virus adsorption on cells; IC50 values were between 4.3 and 25 microg/mL and SI ranged from 1.1 to 10.8. Results indicate that citral could contribute to the antiviral activity of the L. citriodora EO. Limonene was not active and seemed to play an insignificant role in the antiviral activity of the examined EOs.

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Herbal Antiseptic Oils Beats Chemical for Inhibiting Superbug Infections

Herbal Antiseptic Oils Beats Chemical for Inhibiting Superbug Infections | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

 

As the battle against superbugs like MRSA and other hospital-acquired infections rages on, researchers have determined that oils derived from plants outperform the antiseptic chlorhexidine and even ethanol in the inhibition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

 

The researchers - from Australia's Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital - tested a number of extracts derived from plants, including Tea Tree oil, Lemongrass oil, and Eucalyptus oil - against several of the most deadly antibiotic-resistant superbugs. These included Klebsiella pneumoniae, MRSA - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,  VRE - vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The testing was carried out in a laboratory.

The researchers also tested the same bacteria strains against the two most popular antiseptic products used to disinfect hands, hospital equipment and bedsides - chlorhexidine and ethanol, commonly termed rubbing alcohol. The concentration of these were standard issue – 0.1% chlorhexidine and 70% ethanol. The researchers also tested olive oil – as olive oil is also used in some settings to repel bacteria.

 

The researchers measured what is referred to as the zone of inhibition. This is the distance to which a substance will repel the bacteria - preventing microbiological activity. A larger zone of inhibition relates to a stronger antiseptic/antibiotic agent.


Via Jonathan Middleton
Pasquale Valente's insight:

"In particular, the research found that Lemongrass oil significantly inhibited gram-positive bacteria while Tea Tree significantly inhibited gram-negative bacteria."

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