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Herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health. Scuola Viterbese di Fitoterapia - Italia
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Cinnamaldehyde/chemotherapeutic agents interaction and drug-metabolizing genes in colorectal cancer. [Mol Med Rep. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Cinnamaldehyde/chemotherapeutic agents interaction and drug-metabolizing genes in colorectal cancer. [Mol Med Rep. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Cinnamaldehyde is an active monomer isolated from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, a traditional oriental medicinal herb, which is known to possess marked antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential advantages of using cinnamaldehyde in combination with chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) therapy, as well as to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on chemotherapeutic-associated gene expression. The synergistic interaction of cinnamaldehyde and chemotherapeutic agents on human CRC HT-29 and LoVo cells was evaluated using the combination index (CI) method. The double staining with Annexin V conjugated to fluorescein-isothiocyanate and phosphatidylserine was employed for apoptosis detection. The expression of drug-metabolizing genes, including excision repair cross‑complementing 1 (ERCC1), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), thymidylate synthase (TS), breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and topoisomerase 1 (TOPO1), all in HT-29 and LoVo cells, with or without the addition of cinnamaldehyde, was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cinnamaldehyde had a synergistic effect on the chemotherapeutic agents cytotoxicity in HT-29 and LoVo cells. In addition, cinnamaldehyde suppressed BRCA1, TOPO1, ERCC1 and TS mRNA expression, except for OPRT expression, which was markedly upregulated. Our findings indicate that cinnamaldehyde appears to be a promising candidate as an adjuvant in combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (OXA), two chemotherapeutic agents used in CRC treatment. The possible mechanisms of its action may involve the regulation of drug‑metabolizing genes.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Cinnamaldehyde had a synergistic effect on the chemotherapeutic agents cytotoxicity in HT-29 and LoVo cells. In addition, cinnamaldehyde suppressed BRCA1, TOPO1, ERCC1 and TS mRNA expression, except for OPRT expression, which was markedly upregulated. "

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Inhibition of neuroinflammation by cinnamon and its main components. [Food Chem. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Inhibition of neuroinflammation by cinnamon and its main components. [Food Chem. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae | Scoop.it

Abstract

Uncontrolled activation of microglia contributes to neuroinflammation, which is highly involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Although cinnamon has neuro-protective properties, its capacity to inhibit neuroinflammation has not been investigated and its active compounds remain unclear. Therefore, the composition of cinnamon extract was analysed by LC-MS and the ability of cinnamon and its main constituents to inhibit neuroinflammation was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia culture system. In total, 50 μg/mL cinnamon extract decreased significantly the production and expression of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. Blocking of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was the most likely mechanism responsible for inhibition by cinnamon of neuroinflammation. Among the eight tested compounds, cinnamaldehyde had the greatest anti-neuroinflammatory capacity. Experimental results suggest that cinnamon may have a potential therapeutic effect against neurodegenerative diseases and its potent anti-neuroinflammatory capacity was primarily attributed to cinnamaldehyde.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Experimental results suggest that cinnamon may have a potential therapeutic effect against neurodegenerative diseases and its potent anti-neuroinflammatory capacity was primarily attributed to cinnamaldehyde."

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Antidiarrheal properties of different extracts of Chinese herbal medicine formula Bao-Xie-Ning. [J Integr Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Bao-Xie-Ning (BXN), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHMformula composed of Fructus Evodiae, Flos Caryophylli and Cortex Cinnamomi, and used for the treatment of infant diarrheal illness, was subject to systematic assessment for its putative multiple pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacological antidiarrheal mechanisms.

METHODS:

High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric/mass spectrometry was developed and validated for identification and quantification of the main constituents in different extracts of BXN. Male Kunming mice weighing 20 to 25 g were used for detecting the antidiarrheal activity of the extracts. Ethanolic extract (EE), volatile oil extract (VOE), and aqueous extract (AE) of BXN were respectively subjected to pharmacodynamic and pharmacological comparison in assessing antidiarrheal effects with senna-induced diarrhea, castor oil-induced diarrhea, acetic acid-induced writhing assay, and isolated duodenum test.

RESULTS:

The highest yields of three detected components of BXN, rutaecarpine, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde were observed in EE. EE showed the most remarkable antidiarrheal activity in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners in both senna- and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, and presented dose-dependent analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced algesthesia model. In addition, EE extract of BXN also exhibited strong antimobility action on the intestine and strongest depression on spontaneous contraction of isolated duodenum.

CONCLUSION:

Ethanol extraction is an efficient method to extract the active constituents of BXN. BXN extract demonstrated multiple pharmacological activities affecting the main mechanisms of diarrhea, which validated BXN's usage in the comprehensive clinical treatment of diarrhea.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

strong antimobility action on the intestine and strongest depression on spontaneous contraction of isolated duodenum.

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