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Resveratrol protects astrocytes against traumatic brain injury through inhibiting apoptotic and autophagic cell death

Resveratrol protects astrocytes against traumatic brain injury through inhibiting apoptotic and autophagic cell death | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often caused by accidents that damage the brain. TBI can induce glutamate excitotoxicity and lead to neuronal and glial cell death. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cell death during the secondary damage caused by TBI in vivo and in vitro, as well as the protective effect of resveratrol (RV). 


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the results indicated that resveratrol may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of Traumatic brain injury (TBI).

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Painkiller in brain buffers social snubs - Futurity

Painkiller in brain buffers social snubs - Futurity | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Research shows the brain releases natural painkillers during rejection to ease emotional pain. The discovery may help our understanding of depression and social anxieties.

What’s more, people who score high on a personality trait called resilience—the ability to adjust to environmental change—had the highest amount of natural painkiller activation.

The research team, based at the University of Michigan’s Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, combined advanced brain-scanning that can track chemical release in the brain with a model of social rejection based on online dating.

They focused on the mu-opioid receptor system in the brain—the same system that the team has studied for years in relation to response to physical pain. Over more than a decade, their work has shown that when a person feels physical pain, their brains release chemicals called opioids into the space between neurons, dampening pain signals.

David T. Hsu, the lead author of the new paper that appears in the journal Nature, says the research on social rejection grew out of recent studies by others, which suggest that the brain pathways that are activated during physical pain and social pain are similar.

This is the first study to peer into the human brain to show that the opioid system is activated during social rejection,” says Hsu, a research assistant professor of psychiatry. “In general, opioids have been known to be released during social distress and isolation in animals, but where this occurs in the human brain has not been shown until now.”


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Smell and the Degenerating Brain | The Scientist Magazine®

Smell and the Degenerating Brain | The Scientist Magazine® | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
An impaired sense of smell is one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and some other neurodegenerative diseases. Could it be a useful diagnostic tool?
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Evaluation of olfactory ability can help ensure the correct diagnosis and treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disease. 

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Neurohormones, rikkunshito and hypothalamic neurons interactively control appetite and anorexia.

Abstract

Ghrelin is the orexigenic peptide produced in the periphery, and its plasma level shows remarkable pre/postprandial changes. Ghrelin is considered a pivotal signal to the brain to stimulate feeding. Hence, characterizing the target neurons for ghrelin in the hypothalamic feeding center and the signaling cascade in the target neurons are essential for understanding the mechanisms regulating appetite. Anorexia and cachexia associated with gastric surgery, stress-related diseases, and use of anti-cancer drugs cause the health problems, markedly deteriorating the quality of life. The anorexia involves several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the hypothalamic feeding center, in which corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortine, serotonin (5HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play a pivotal role. A Japanese herbal medicine, rikkunshito, has been reported to ameliorate the anorexia by promoting the appetite. This review describes 1) the interaction of ghrelin with the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and underlying signaling cascade in NPY neurons, 2) the anorectic pathway driven by BDNF-CRH/urocortine and 5HTCRH/ urocortine pathways, 3) the effect of rikkunshito on the interaction of ghrelin and NPY neurons in ARC, and 4) the effect of rikkunshito on the interaction of 5HT on CRH neurons in paraventricular nucleus (PVN).

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La poesia è come musica per il cervello

La poesia è  come musica  per il cervello | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
La poesia attiva le stesse aree cerebrali che rispondono all'ascolto della musica. La scoperta, prima...
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Interim report #BRAIN initiative (advisory committee to NIH director)


Via Nima Dehghani, Chang Eop Kim
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Paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal injury and brain microglial inflammatory response.

Abstract

Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. Paeoniflorin(PF), a water-soluble monoterpene glycoside found in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Neuroprotective potential of PF has also been demonstrated in animal models of neuropathologies. Here, we have examined the efficacy of PF in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial inflammatory response. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, PF significantly blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hippocampal cell death and productions of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β. PF also inhibited the LPS-stimulated productions of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β from primary microglial cells. These results suggest that PF possesses neuroprotective activity by reducing the production of proinflammatory factors from activated microglial cells.

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