Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and loss of neurons. Recently, a growing body of evidences have indicated that as a herbal compound naturally derived from grapes, resveratrol modulates the pathophysiology of AD, however, with a largely unclear mechanism. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protection of resveratrol against the neurotoxicity of β-amyloid peptide 25-35 (Aβ(25-35)) and further explore its underlying mechanism in the present study. PC12 cells were injuried by Aβ(25-35), and resveratrol at different concentrations was added into the culture medium. We observed that resveratrol increased cell viability through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) colorimetric assays. Flow cytometry indicated the reduction of cell apoptosis by resveratrol. Moreover, resveratrol also stabilized the intercellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and attenuated Aβ(25-35) neurotoxicity. Additionally, Aβ(25-35)-suppressed silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) activity was significantly reversed by resveratrol, resulting in the downregulation of Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1). Our results clearly revealed that resveratrol significantly protected PC12 cells and inhibited the β-amyloid-induced cell apoptosis through the upregulation of SIRT1. Moreover, as a downstream signal molecule, ROCK1 was negatively regulated by SIRT1. Taken together, our study demonstrated that SIRT1-ROCK1 pathway played a critical role in the pathomechanism of AD.