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Paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via a TLR4-dependent pathway. - PubMed - NCBI

Paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via a TLR4-dependent pathway. - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Paeonia lactiflora Pall is one of the most well-known herbs in China, Korea, and Japan for more than 1,200 years. Paeoniflorin, the major bioactive component of peony root, has recently been reported to have anticolitic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. The present study was to explore the possible mechanism of paeoniflorin in attenuating dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Pre- and coadministration of paeoniflorin significantly reduced the severity of colitis and resulted in downregulation of several inflammatory parameters in the colon, including the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and the mRNA expression of proinflammatory mediators (MCP-1, Cox2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-17). The decline in the activation of NF-κB p65, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK correlated with a decrease in mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not TLR2 or TLR5 expression. In accordance with the in vivo results, paeoniflorin downregulated TLR4 expression, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and reduced the production of IL-6 in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Transient transfection assay performed in LPS-stimulated human colon cancer HT-29 cells indicated that paeoniflorin inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. TLR4 knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrated a requirement for TLR4 in paeoniflorin-mediated downregulation of inflammatory cytokines. Thus, for the first time, the present study indicates that paeoniflorin abrogates DSS-induced colitis via decreasing the expression of TLR4 and suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

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paeoniflorin regulated the key molecules involved in inflammation

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Anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in lipopolysa... [Life Sci. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in lipopolysa... [Life Sci. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

AIMS:

Anethole, the major component of the essential oil of star anise, has been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and anesthetic properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of anethole in a mouse model of acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

MAIN METHODS:

BALB/C mice were intraperitoneally administered anethole (62.5, 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg) 1 h before intratracheal treatment with LPS (1.5 mg/kg) and sacrificed after 4 h. The anti-inflammatory effects of anethole were assessed by measuring total protein and cell levels and inflammatory mediator production and by histological evaluation and Western blot analysis.

KEY FINDINGS:

LPS significantly increased total protein levels; numbers of total cells, including macrophages and neutrophils; and the production of inflammatory mediators such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and nitric oxide (NO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Anethole (250 mg/kg) decreased total protein concentrations; numbers of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; and the inflammatory mediators MMP-9, TNF-α and NO. In addition, pretreatment with anethole decreased LPS-induced histopathological changes. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of anethole in LPS-induced acute lung injury was assessed by investigating the effects of anethole on NF-κB activation. Anethole suppressed the activation of NF-κB by blocking IκB-α degradation.

SIGNIFICANCE:

These results, showing that anethole prevents LPS-induced acute lung inflammation in mice, suggest that anethole may be therapeutically effective in inflammatory conditions in humans.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

Anethole (250 mg/kg) decreased total protein concentrations; numbers of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; and the inflammatory mediators MMP-9, TNF-α and NO.

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Effect of lingguizhugan decoction on myocardial nuclear factor kappa B protein expression in rats with chronic heart failure. [J Tradit Chin Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the effect of Lingguizhugan decoction (LGZGD) on changes of cardiac structure and function, and its putative mechanism of action, by investigating mRNA and protein expression of myocardial nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and the plasma content of NF-kappaB in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF)

Pasquale Valente's insight:

In CHF rats, LGZGD improves changes of cardiac structure and function via its inhibition of NF-kappaB.

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Clove and eugenol in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages. [J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Clove and eugenol in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages. [J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The extract and essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) are widely used because of their medicinal properties. Eugenol is the most important component of clove, showing several biological properties. Herein we have analysed the immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effect of clove and eugenol on cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10) in vitro.

METHODS:

Macrophages were incubated with clove or eugenol (5, 10, 25, 50 or 100µg/well) for 24h. Concentrations that inhibited the production of cytokines were used before or after incubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to verify a preventive or therapeutic effect. Culture supernatants were harvested for measurement of cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

KEY FINDINGS:

Clove (100µg/well) inhibited IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 production and exerted an efficient action either before or after LPS challenge for all cytokines. Eugenol did not affect IL-1β production but inhibited IL-6 and IL-10 production. The action of eugenol (50 or 100µg/well) on IL-6 production prevented efficiently effects of LPS either before or after its addition, whereas on IL-10 production it counteracted significantly LPS action when added after LPS incubation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Clove exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS action. A possible mechanism of action probably involved the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway by eugenol, since it was the major compound found in clove extract.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"Clove exerted immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS action. A possible mechanism of action probably involved the suppression of the nuclear factor-κB pathway by eugenol, since it was the major compound found in clove extract."

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Pronounced transcriptional regulation of apoptotic and TNF-NF-kappa-B signaling genes during the course of thymoquinone mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

This study implicates the role of TQ in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and migration. At the same time, the results strongly suggest that TQ intervenes with TNF and NF-kappa-B signaling during TQ-mediated induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

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Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI

Salvianolic acid B inhibits platelets-mediated inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells. PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it
Abstract

Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is a hydrophilic component isolated from the Chinese herb Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been used clinically for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Platelets-mediated vascular inflammatory response contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In this paper, we focus on the modulating effects of SAB on the inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells triggered by activated platelets. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were pretreated with SAB followed by co-culture with ADP-activated platelets. Adhesion of platelets to endothelial cells was observed by amorphological method. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B was evaluated by NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and the protein phosphorylation. A determination of the pro-inflammatory mediators (ICAM-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1) mRNA and protein were also conducted. In addition, the inhibitory effects of SAB on platelets activation were also evaluated using a platelet aggregation assay and assessing the release level of soluble P-selectin. The results showed that SAB dose-dependently inhibited ADP- or α-thrombin-induced human platelets aggregation in platelet rich plasma (PRP) samples, and significantly decreased soluble P-selectin release from both agonists stimulated washed platelets. It was also found that pre-treatment with SAB reduced adhesion of ADP-activated platelets to EA.hy926 cells and inhibited NF-κB activation. In addition, SAB significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory mediators mRNA and protein in EA.hy926 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that, in addition to its inhibitory effects on platelets activation, SAB was able to attenuate platelets-mediated inflammatory responses in endothelial cells even if the platelets had already been activated. This anti-inflammatory effect was related to the inhibition of NF-κB activation. Our findings suggest that SAB may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various atherosclerotic diseases.

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A New Herbal Formula, KSG-002, Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Targeting NF- κ B-Dependent TNF α Production in Macrophages. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

A New Herbal Formula, KSG-002, Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Targeting NF- κ B-Dependent TNF α Production in Macrophages. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor microenvironment regulate cancer progression and metastases. In breast cancer, macrophage infiltration is correlated with a poor prognosis. While metastatic breast cancer is poor prognostic with a severe mortality, therapeutic options are still limited. In this study, we demonstrate that KSG-002, a new herbal composition of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas, suppresses breast cancer via inhibiting TAM recruitment. KSG-002, an extract of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas at 3 : 1 ratio, respectively, inhibited MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in nude mice, while KSG-001, another composition (1 : 1 ratio, w/w), enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis, in vivo. KSG-002 further decreased the infiltrated macrophage numbers in xenograft tumor cohorts. In Raw264.7 cells, KSG-002 but not KSG-001 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and reduced TNF-alpha (TNF α ) production by inhibiting NF- κ B pathway. Furthermore, a combinatorial treatment of KSG-002 with TNF α inhibited a proliferation and migration of both MDA-MB-231 and Raw264.7 cells. Taken together, we conclude that KSG-002 suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through targeting NF- κ B-mediated TNF α production in macrophages.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

"extract of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas at 3 : 1 ratio, respectively, inhibited MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in nude mice"

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Citral is renoprotective for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and activating nrf2 pathway in mice. [PLoS One. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

Abstract

The pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is considered to be associated with oxidative stress, mononuclear leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, and matrix production and/or matrix degradation, although the exact etiology and pathogenic pathways remain to be determined. Establishment of a pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategy for the disease is clinically warranted. Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Litseacubeba, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, can inhibit oxidant activity, macrophage and NF-κB activation. In the present study, first, we used a mouse model of FSGS with the features of glomerular epithelial hyperplasia lesions (EPHLs), a key histopathology index of progression of FSGS, peri-glomerular inflammation, and progressive glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis. When treated with citral for 28 consecutive days at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg of body weight by gavage, the FSGS mice showed greatly reduced EPHLs, glomerular hyalinosis/sclerosis and peri-glomerular mononuclear leukocyte infiltration, suggesting that citral may be renoprotective for FSGS and act by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and early activating the Nrf2 pathway. Meanwhile, a macrophage model involved in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities was employed and confirmed the beneficial effects of citral on the FSGS model.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), a major active compound in Litseacubeba, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, can inhibit oxidant activity, macrophage and NF-κB activation.  Citral may be renoprotective and act by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis and early activating the Nrf2 pathway. 

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The Antiinflammatory Mechanism of Igongsan in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages via Suppression of NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation. [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI

The Antiinflammatory Mechanism of Igongsan in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages via Suppression of NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation. [Phytother Res. 2013] - PubMed - NCBI | Vitae Herbae (herbal, natural, integrative medicine  & health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Igongsan (IGS), which is an herbal prescription composed of five different herbs, Ginseng Radix (root of Panax ginseng, Araliaceae), Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (rhizome of Atractylodes Macrocephala, Compositae), Poria Sclerotium (sclerotium of Poria cocos, Polyporaceae), Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (root and rhizome of Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Leguminosae), and Citri Unshius Pericarpium (Peel of Citrus unshiu, Rutaceae), has been traditionally used in Korea to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated to elucidate the mechanism responsible for IGS's antiinflammatory effect in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The findings demonstrate that IGS inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandins E2 . IGS inhibited the enhanced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, it was shown that the antiinflammatory effect of IGS is through regulating the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and caspase-1 in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. Discussion and conclusion: These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of IGS as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pasquale Valente's insight:

 The findings demonstrate that IGS inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandins E2 . IGS inhibited the enhanced levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Additionally, it was shown that the antiinflammatory effect of IGS is through regulating the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and caspase-1

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