Visionario
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Visionario
Lo referente a la tecnología y la creatividad, saliendo de lo tradicional. Desde el reciclaje como arte hasta el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías sustentables
Curated by Arturo B
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Build Wind Generator Yourself | How to Build Wind Turbine DIY | Make Wind Turbines for Home

http://tinyurl.com/aa18y1485p9ea CLICK to LEARN MORE ABOUT RENEWABLE WIND ENERGY AT HOME IF YOU WANT TO SAVE BIG, CHOOSE DIY WIND ...
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Build a Laser 3D Printer - Stereolithography at Home

Build a Laser 3D Printer - Stereolithography at Home | Visionario | Scoop.it
Here is how to make a Stereolithography 3D Printer. It is still a bit of a work in progress but so far it is working pretty well. This is mainly an ...

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Escape of pathogens from the host immune response by mutations and mimicry. Possible means to improve vaccine performance

Escape of pathogens from the host immune response by mutations and mimicry. Possible means to improve vaccine performance | Visionario | Scoop.it
The ability of certain pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency, hepatitis C, herpes simplex, influenza viruses, Plasmodium falciparum, etc., to escape from host immune response is generally ascribed to high mutation rate of their genome. We challenge this assumption and propose that molecular mimicry of host antigens by these pathogens could also participate to this resistance. Several studies show that there is no correlation between the mutation rate value of a pathogen and the possibility to develop an effective vaccine. On the other hand, pathogens which do not respond to vaccine are usually reported to display host protein mimicry.

We propose to suppress in the thymus the epitopes of the self which are in common with the pathogen. This could be achieved by intrathymic injection of antibodies against this microorganism. These antibodies would be obtained by vaccination of a foreign animal species. It is expected that the negative selection of the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for these epitopes would be prevented, that the number of epitopes recognized as foreign to the host would be increased and that the immune response diversity would be enhanced.

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5 add-ons de Google Drive que mejoran tu productividad

5 add-ons de Google Drive que mejoran tu productividad | Visionario | Scoop.it
La semana pasada comentábamos que para mí Google Drive es la herramienta imprescindible de esta década para mejorar la eficiencia en nuestro trabajo, del m

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ACTIS :: Actions for Cooperation, Technology and Innovation Support

Analizador automático e interactivo de sistemas complejos de comunicación http://t.co/VCJ5EWY0Bo
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Buscan reflexionar uso de la bicicleta - El Siglo de Torreón

Buscan reflexionar uso de la bicicleta - El Siglo de Torreón | Visionario | Scoop.it
Bikes vs Cars, es un documental que habla de una crisis global de la que hace falta hablar y que tiene que ver con el clima, con los recursos naturales, con las ciudades cuyo espacio público es devora...
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Cómo utilizar los sistemas de pensamiento para descubrir oportunidades de innovación.

Cómo utilizar los sistemas de pensamiento para descubrir oportunidades de innovación. | Visionario | Scoop.it
Descubrir oportunidades de innovación. Mantenga los ojos abiertos - a mayor dificultad mayor cantidad de oportunidades de innovación
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How gut bacteria ensures a healthy brain – and could play a role in treating depression

How gut bacteria ensures a healthy brain – and could play a role in treating depression | Visionario | Scoop.it

One of medicine’s greatest innovations in the 20th century was the development of antibiotics. It transformed our ability to combat disease. But medicine in the 21st century is rethinking its relationship with bacteria and concluding that, far from being uniformly bad for us, many of these organisms are actually essential for our health.

Nowhere is this more apparent than in the human gut, where the microbiome – the collection of bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tract – plays a complex and critical role in the health of its host. The microbiome interacts with and influences organ systems throughout the body, including, as research is revealing, the brain. This discovery has led to a surge of interest in potential gut-based treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and a new class of studies investigating how the gut and its microbiome affect both healthy and diseased brains.

The microbiome consists of a startlingly massive number of organisms. Nobody knows exactly how many or what type of microbes there might be in and on our bodies, but estimates suggest there may be anywhere from three to 100 times more bacteria in the gut than cells in the human body. The Human Microbiome Project, co-ordinated by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), seeks to create a comprehensive database of the bacteria residing throughout the gastrointestinal tract and to catalogue their properties.

The lives of the bacteria in our gut are intimately entwined with our immune, endocrine and nervous systems. The relationship goes both ways: the microbiome influences the function of these systems, which in turn alter the activity and composition of the bacterial community. We are starting to unravel this complexity and gain insight into how gut bacteria interface with the rest of the body and, in particular, how they affect the brain.


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Construye IPN casa móvil con tecnologías limpias y renovables | Reporte Publico

Construye IPN casa móvil con tecnologías limpias y renovables | Reporte Publico | Visionario | Scoop.it
Revista politica, Reporte publico
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Sistemas de captación solar invisibles se vuelven una realidad

Sistemas de captación solar invisibles se vuelven una realidad | Visionario | Scoop.it
Investigadores de la Universidad Estatal de Michigan (MSU), desarrollaron un concentrador solar luminiscente transparente (LSC) que puede ser aplicado en ventanas y otras superficies.
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Megapost de reciclaje: más de 20 ideas para reutilizar y ahorrar - 20minutos.es

Megapost de reciclaje: más de 20 ideas para reutilizar y ahorrar - 20minutos.es | Visionario | Scoop.it
Otras entradas que podrían interesarte ¿Cómo convertir tus viejos Apple MAC G5 en mobiliario de lujo?
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El primer Geek investors Day: networking, sonrisas y paella - Infocif.es - La Red Social de Empresas

El primer Geek investors Day: networking, sonrisas y paella - Infocif.es - La Red Social de Empresas | Visionario | Scoop.it
Geek Investors Day es un evento que pretenden conectar las startups de su comunidad con los inversores
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Mini XY Laser Engraver

Mini XY Laser Engraver | Visionario | Scoop.it
As one of the most practical kits in Makeblock platform, XY Plotter functions as a drawing robot in its initial form and a laser engraver after adding an add-on pack. Makeblock XY Plotter has been highly acclaimed in various exhibitions, such as Maker Faire. However, the size of XY means it's not a portable machine, especially for people who need to present it during every business trip. Hence we designed this mini XY laser engraver for portability.

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The Role of Viral, Host, and Secondary Bacterial Factors in Influenza Pathogenesis - The American Journal of Pathology

Influenza A virus infections in humans generally cause self-limited infections, but can result in severe disease, secondary bacterial pneumonias, and death. Influenza viruses can replicate in epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tree and can cause tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, diffuse alveolar damage with pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and interstitial and airspace inflammation. The mechanisms by which influenza infections result in enhanced disease, including development of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress, are multifactorial, involving host, viral, and bacterial factors. Host factors that enhance risk of severe influenza disease include underlying comorbidities, such as cardiac and respiratory disease, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Viral parameters enhancing disease risk include polymerase mutations associated with host switch and adaptation, viral proteins that modulate immune and antiviral responses, and virulence factors that increase disease severity, which can be especially prominent in pandemic viruses and some zoonotic influenza viruses causing human infections. Influenza viral infections result in damage to the respiratory epithelium that facilitates secondary infection with common bacterial pneumopathogens and can lead to secondary bacterial pneumonias that greatly contribute to respiratory distress, enhanced morbidity, and death. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which influenza and secondary bacterial infections, coupled with the role of host risk factors, contribute to enhanced morbidity and mortality is essential to develop better therapeutic strategies to treat severe influenza.


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What's Coming Next in Digital and Social in the Enterprise?

What's Coming Next in Digital and Social in the Enterprise? | Visionario | Scoop.it
I've been taking a close look at what's over the enterprise horizon for much of the year as the pace of technology change continues to accelerate, as most experts have long predicated and which wil...

Via Fred Zimny, steve batchelder, L. García Aretio
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Local Food Represented as Social-Ecomomic Data by Susanne Jaschko and Moritz Stefaner

Local Food Represented as Social-Ecomomic Data by Susanne Jaschko and Moritz Stefaner | Visionario | Scoop.it

Moritz Stefaner is a data analyst and provides data in a different a way. He has worked with some well known clients such as FIFA, Skype and the World Economic


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Los Sistemas complejos y su relación con el entorno

Los Sistemas complejos y su relación con el entorno | Visionario | Scoop.it
Sistema = conjunto de elementos que interaccionan entre sí y con el entorno Los sistemas físicos reales sólo se mantienen viables importando energía y exportando entropía Cuantos más estados tenga ...
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¿Harto del transporte urbano? Los videojuegos pueden ser el mejor ... - Diario Gestión

¿Harto del transporte urbano? Los videojuegos pueden ser el mejor ... - Diario Gestión | Visionario | Scoop.it
(Bloomberg Business).- Los programadores de videojuegos deberían crear juegos online para contribuir a resolver problemas reales con el transporte urbano, dice el fabricante de autos Ford.
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Modelo matemático ayuda a pacientes con VIH - ElLitoral.com

Modelo matemático ayuda a pacientes con VIH - ElLitoral.com | Visionario | Scoop.it
Un equipo liderado por un investigador de Santa Fe propone un protocolo basado en un modelo matemático que baja en cinco meses el tiempo para determinar si un paciente que recibe tratamiento antirretroviral va a caer en fallo inmunológico.
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Fossa séptica biodigestora é apresentada a agricultores de Roraima - Portal Embrapa

Fossa séptica biodigestora é apresentada a agricultores de Roraima - Portal Embrapa | Visionario | Scoop.it
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Reciclar Cámaras de Bicicleta (Avance Golos, palos chinos o flower sticks)

SUSCRÍBETE!: http://goo.gl/CNeicz SIGUENOS EN: Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/TDCSH Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TDCSH Google+: https://plus.google.com/+TeDigoComoSeHacevideos ...
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La bicicleta “imposible” que podemos llevar en la mochila - Omicrono

La bicicleta “imposible” que podemos llevar en la mochila - Omicrono | Visionario | Scoop.it
¿Creéis en lo imposible? Puede parecer un término muy difícil de alcanzar, pero lo cierto es que, teniendo en cuenta la gran cantidad de cosas que se pueden hacer gracias a la tecnología, esa palabra...
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Wide Path Camper, una pequeña caravana específica para bicicletas

Wide Path Camper, una pequeña caravana específica para bicicletas | Visionario | Scoop.it
Una de las grandes ventajas que la bicicleta nos proporciona a la hora de realizar turismo (o cicloturismo, en este caso) es la de poder viajar sin depender [...]
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Quickly Adding a Metallic Finish to a 3D Print

This video shows how to make a 3D printed PLA object look like real metal using XTC-3D® epoxy. XTC-3D® is a protective coating for smoothing and finishing 3D printed parts. Aside from creating...
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Vertical Farming: Can Urban Agriculture Feed a Hungry World? - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International

Vertical Farming: Can Urban Agriculture Feed a Hungry World? - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International | Visionario | Scoop.it
Agricultural researchers believe that building indoor farms in the middle of cities could help solve the world's hunger problem.Experts say that vertical farming could feed up to 10 billion people and make agriculture independent of the weather and the need for land. There's only one snag: The urban farms need huge amounts of energy.

 

 

Vertical Farming

Can Urban Agriculture Feed a Hungry World?

By Fabian Kretschmer and Malte E. Kollenberg

Romses Architects

 

One day, Choi Kyu Hong might find himself in a vegetable garden on the 65th floor of a skyscraper. But, so far, his dream of picking fresh vegetables some 200 meters (655 feet) up has only been realized in hundreds of architectural designs.

In real life, the agricultural scientist remains far below such dizzying heights, conducting his work in a nondescript three-story building in the South Korean city of Suwon. The only thing that makes the squat structure stand out is the solar panels on its roof, which provide power for the prototype of a farm Choi is working on. If he and his colleagues succeed, their efforts may change the future of urban farming -- and how the world gets its food.From the outside, the so-called vertical farm has nothing in common with the luxury high-rises surrounding it. Inside the building, heads of lettuce covering 450 square meters (4,800 square feet) are being painstakingly cultivated. Light and temperature levels are precisely regulated. Meanwhile, in the surrounding city, some 20 million people are hustling among the high-rises and apartment complexes, going about their daily lives.

Every person who steps foot in the Suwon vertical farm must first pass through an "air shower" to keep outside germs and bacteria from influencing the scientific experiment. Other than this oddity, though, the indoor agricultural center closely resembles a traditional rural farm. There are a few more technological bells and whistles (not to mention bright pink lighting) which remind visitors this is no normal farm. But the damp air, with its scent of fresh flowers, recalls that of a greenhouse.

Heads of lettuce are lined up in stacked layers. At the very bottom, small seedlings are thriving while, further up, there are riper plants almost ready to be picked. Unlike in conventional greenhouses, the one in Suwon uses no pesticides between the sowing and harvest periods, and all water is recycled. This makes the facility completely organic. It is also far more productive than a conventional greenhouse.

Choi meticulously checks the room temperature. He carefully checks the wavelengths of the red, white and blue LED lights aimed at the tender plants. Nothing is left to chance when it comes to the laboratory conditions of this young agricultural experiment. The goal is to develop optimal cultivation methods -- and ones that can compete on the open market. Indeed, Korea wants to bring vertical farming to the free market.

Nine Billion People by 2050

Vertical farming is an old idea. Indigenous people in South America have long used vertically layered growing techniques, and the rice terraces of East Asia follow a similar principle. But, now, a rapidly growing global population and increasingly limited resources are making the technique more attractive than ever.

The Green Revolution of the late 1950s boosted agricultural productivity at an astounding rate, allowing for the explosive population growth still seen today. Indeed, since 1950, the Earth's population has nearly tripled, from 2.4 billion to 7 billion, and global demand for food has grown accordingly.

Until now, the agricultural industry could keep up well enough -- otherwise swelling population figures would have leveled off long ago. But scientists warn that agricultural productivity has its limits. What's more, much of the land on which the world's food is grown has become exhausted or no longer usable. Likewise, there is not an endless supply of areas that can be converted to agricultural use.

By 2050, the UN predicts that the global population will surpass 9 billion people. Given current agricultural productivity rates, the Vertical Farm Project estimates that an agricultural area equal in size to roughly half of South America will be needed to feed this larger population.

Vertical farming has the potential to solve this problem. The term "vertical farming" was coined in 1915 by American geologist Gilbert Ellis Bailey. Architects and scientists have repeatedly looked into the idea since then, especially toward the end of the 20th century. In 1999, Dickson Despommier, a professor emeritus of environmental health sciences and microbiology at New York's Columbia University seized upon the idea together with his students. After having grown tired of his depressing lectures on the state of the world, his students finally protested and asked Despommier to work with them on a more positive project.

From the initial idea of "rooftop farming," the cultivation of plants on flat roofs, the class developed a high-rise concept. The students calculated that rooftop-based rice growing would be able to feed, at most, 2 percent of Manhattan's population. "If it can't be done using rooftops, why don't we just grow the crops inside the buildings?" Despommier asked himself. "We already know how to cultivate and water plants indoors."

With its many empty high-rise buildings, Manhattan was the perfect location to develop the idea. Despommier's students calculated that a single 30-story vertical farm could feed some 50,000 people. And, theoretically, 160 of these structures could provide all of New York with food year-round, without being at the mercy of cold snaps and dry spells.

The Power Problem

Despite these promising calculations, such high-rise farms still only exist as small-scale models. Critics don't expect this to change anytime soon. Agricultural researcher Stan Cox of the Kansas-based Land Institute sees vertical farming as more of a project for dreamy young architecture students than a practical solution to potential shortages in the global food supply.

The main problem is light -- in particular, the fact that sunlight has to be replaced by LEDs. According to Cox's calculations, if you wanted to replace all of the wheat cultivation in the US for an entire year using vertical farming, you would need eight times the amount of electricity generated by all the power plants in the US over a single year -- and that's just for powering the lighting.

It gets even more difficult if you intend to rely exclusively on renewable energies to supply this power, as Despommier hopes to do. At the moment, renewable energy sources only generate about 2 percent of all power in the US. Accordingly, the sector would have to be expanded 400-fold to create enough energy to illuminate indoor wheat crops for an entire year. Despommier seems to have fallen in love with an idea, Cox says, without considering the difficulties of its actual implementation.

Getting Closer to Reality

Even so, Despommier still believes in his vision of urban agriculture. And recent developments, like the ones in South Korea, might mean his dream is not as remote as critics say. Ten years ago, vertical farming was only an idea. Today, it has developed into a concrete model. About two years ago, the first prototypes were created.

In fact, the concept seems to be working already, at least on a small scale. In the Netherlands, the first foods from a vertical farm are already stocking supermarket shelves. The PlantLab, a 10-year-old company based three floors underground in the southern city of Den Bosch, has cultivated everything from ornamental shrubs and roses to nearly every crop imaginable, including strawberries, beans, cucumbers and corn. "We manage completely without sunlight," says PlantLab's Gertjan Meeuws. "But we still manage to achieve a yield three times the size of an average greenhouse's." What's more, PlantLab uses almost 90 percent less water than a conventional farm.

As a country which has limited land resources but which possesses much of the necessary technology, the Netherlands seems to be an ideal place to develop vertical farming. This is especially true now that its residents are increasingly demanding organic, pesticide-free foods -- and are prepared to pay more for it.

'The Next Agricultural Revolution'

Despommier believes that entire countries will soon be able to use vertical farming to feed their populations. The South Korean government, at least, is interested in exploring the possibility. At the moment, the country is forced to import a large share of its food. Indeed, according to a 2005 OECD report, South Korea places fifth-to-last in a global ranking on food security. Increasing food prices, climate change and the possibility of natural disasters can compound the problem.These facts are not lost on the researchers in the vertical farming laboratory in Suwon. "We must be prepared to avert a catastrophe," Choi says.

Still, it will be some time before vertical farming is implemented on a commercial scale in South Korea. Choi's colleague Lee Hye Jin thinks that five more years of research are needed. "Only then will our vertical farm be ready for the free market," he says.


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