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Virtual Communities of Practice in Primary Health Care
Short project for Researching about VCofP in Primary Healthcare and Family Medicine
Curated by Camilo Erazo
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Working Together: Communities of Practice in Family Medicine - Jan 2005 - Family Practice Management

Working Together: Communities of Practice in Family Medicine - Jan 2005 - Family Practice Management | Virtual Communities of Practice in Primary Health Care | Scoop.it
The article describes the "collaborative" model of learning, which goes beyond traditional didactic learning sessions and encourages participants to learn by doing and to share best practices with one another.


"Some examples of communities of practice in family medicine include clubs, committees, associations, academies, study groups, coalitions, e-mail discussion lists, medical staffs of local hospitals and community-oriented primary care groups. Communities of practice can exist in many different forms and professions, but all communities of practice share three key dimensions – a domain of knowledge, a community and a shared practice:


Domain of knowledge. In a community of practice specific to family medicine, the common domain of knowledge among all of its members may be the specialty of family medicine, a focus on specific populations, performance of specific procedures or a particular need or interest, such as becoming more competitive with other specialties or physicians.


Community. People in a community of practice share a voluntary commitment to relationship building.


Shared practice. In a shared practice, members develop and share knowledge and build expertise by compiling resources, tools and strategies that support future learning for all involved.


Communities of practice organize around one or more of the following functions: peer-to-peer problem-solving, sharing best practices, updating and sharing knowledge for daily practice and generating new ideas and innovations.2

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Plataforma Online Dirigida a la Promoción de la Salud | Riaño Pineda | RevistaeSalud.com

Plataforma Online Dirigida a la Promoción de la Salud | Riaño Pineda | RevistaeSalud.com | Virtual Communities of Practice in Primary Health Care | Scoop.it
Plataforma Online Dirigida a la Promoción de la Salud...


Por su parte, Pazos y cols (10) definen a la comunidad virtual como un entorno que se estructura sobre la Web, a través del cual se agrupan personas que tienen intereses comunes en una temática específica, a través de las cuales se generan listas de distribución de información y adicionalmente se comparten otros elementos como documentos o recursos de utilidad.


En cuanto a las ventajas que tiene el interactuar a través de estas comunidades Cabero (11) señala que:


  • Las comunidades virtuales son flexibles en cuanto facilitan la comunicación sincrónica y asincrónica, esto permite la interacción de sus miembros sin necesidad de estar en un mismo tiempo y espacio.
  • Facilita generar conocimiento, en la medida que se puede revisar el histórico de interacciones.
  • Permiten el flujo de grandes cantidades de información a una velocidad mínima y conectando espacios geográficos distantes.
  • El entorno de la comunidad virtual permite que las interacciones entre sus miembros sea ilimitada.
  • La comunicación tan solo depende de la disponibilidad de una conexión a la red, es por ello que puede hacerse prácticamente desde cualquier lugar.

No obstante, a pesar de las posibilidades que brindan estas características de las comunidades virtuales, se ha encontrado que en entornos como el de las asociaciones de pacientes por grupos de enfermedades, dichas ventajas se han sub-estimado, desperdiciándose de esta manera el potencial que tiene la red para generar vínculos entre pacientes y profesionales (12).


Al considerar la temática de cómo se pueden clasificar o generar una taxonomía de las comunidades virtuales, se encuentran múltiples tipologías. Sin embargo, Salinas (13) propone una clasificación de cuatro tipos:

  • De discurso: Compartir intereses y establecer diálogos mediados por la red y los ordenadores.
  • De práctica: En donde se forman grupos de trabajos a partir de una asignación de roles específicos.
  • De construcción de conocimiento: Se usa la actividad social para construir conocimiento.
  • De Aprendizaje: Cuando los miembros comparten el objetivo de aprender mancomunadamente sobre algunos aspectos.
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CoP en Atención Primaria

Taller en Comarca Interior para indagar sobre las posibilidades de implantar CoP profesionales.


Comment: En la atención primaria de salud. Otra de @Alorza

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BMC Health Services Research | Full text | How and why are communities of practice established in the healthcare sector? A systematic review of the literature

Communities of Practice (CoPs) are promoted in the healthcare sector as a means of generating and sharing knowledge and improving organisational performance. However CoPs vary considerably in the way they are structured and operate in the sector.


"Results
Thirty-one primary research papers and two systematic reviews were identified and reviewed in detail. There was a trend from descriptive to evaluative research. The focus of CoPs in earlier publications was on learning and exchanging information and knowledge, whereas in more recently published research, CoPs were used more as a tool to improve clinical practice and to facilitate the implementation of evidence-based practice. Means by which members communicated with each other varied, but in none of the primary research studies was the method of communication examined in terms of the CoP achieving its objectives. Researchers are increasing their efforts to assess the effectiveness of CoPs in healthcare, however the interventions have been complex and multifaceted, making it difficult to directly attribute the change to the CoP.


Conclusions
In keeping with Wenger and colleagues' description, CoPs in the healthcare sector vary in form and purpose. While researchers are increasing their efforts to examine the impact of CoPs in healthcare, cultivating CoPs to improve healthcare performance requires a greater understanding of how to establish and support CoPs to maximise their potential to improve healthcare.

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Virtual Communities of Practice for Health Care Professionals

Unfortunately, there is limited literature that examines
VCoP for health care professionals (Moule, 2006). This article
will review existing literature to determine the requirements
for establishing and maintaining an effective VCoP within
the health care context, in support of continuing professional
development. Specifically, the article will focus on
the benefits of a VCoPs, the characteristics of successful
VCoPs and examples of existing VCoPs with a focus on
health professionals.

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Entornos virtuales colaborativos en Sanidad |

Entornos virtuales colaborativos en Sanidad | | Virtual Communities of Practice in Primary Health Care | Scoop.it

(...) "El entorno sanitario constituye el paradigma de lo que es una organización del conocimiento, solo la presencia de profesionales de la salud ejerciendo su trabajo convierte un lugar en un centro de atención sanitaria. Una roulotte, una tienda de campaña, pueden ser un hospital; un maravilloso edificio de cinco plantas con veinte quirófanos dotados de la mejor tecnología, sin personal sanitario ejerciendo sus funciones no es más que una construcción cara.
Por eso en sanidad es más necesario que en otras empresas tener dispositivos de detección, gestión y difusión del conocimiento: el conocimiento no es en este caso el capital de la empresa, ES LA EMPRESA.


Si sabemos que la mayor parte del conocimiento necesario para el desarrollo de sus funciones se encuentra dentro de la misma institución, parece lógico pensar que lo más urgente es establecer mecanismos que permitan detectarlo primero y difundirlo después con un sistema que sea capaz de hacer llegar ese conocimiento a todo el colectivo. Hacerlo significará un ahorro de costes, a la vez que facilitará el establecimiento de un canal estable de formación continuada y contribuirá a la eficacia de la organización al dejarla en disposición de aplicar todo el conocimiento del que dispone a la toma de decisiones, así como de utilizarlo para actualizar circuitos, procesos y servicios, es decir para hacerla más competitiva y eficiente.


Un entorno virtual de gestión de conocimiento, diseñado a medida de cada institución, es la mejor opción para que todo lo anterior ocurra.


La transformación del conocimiento individual en conocimiento colectivo mediante el debate orientado a objetivos y la generación de ideas útiles (es decir aplicables) permite hacer planteamientos a corto, medio y largo plazo que mantengan a la institución en un nivel de calidad óptimo.


Asimismo, los circuitos virtuales al ser baratos y de fácil implementación, permiten su actualización continua, y la adaptación de la institución a los cambios y novedades, por muy veloces que estos sean.


En realidad, lo único que debemos hacer es facilitar a los profesionales espacios donde conversar, compartir y cocrear, en un ambiente de libertad y respeto, para obtener beneficios rápidos en el sistema, que deberemos valorar de forma adecuada y sin caer en errores tales como medir el éxito de un entorno en función de sus niveles de actividad, sin tener en cuenta sus avances en la consecución de los objetivos para los que fue diseñado." (...)

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Wikimedia Research Newsletter, March 2012 - Watching the Watchers.org

Wikimedia Research Newsletter, March 2012 - Watching the Watchers.org | Virtual Communities of Practice in Primary Health Care | Scoop.it
Wikimedia Research Newsletter, March 2012Watching the Watchers.orgCitations of open access articles in Wikipedia: An ArXiv preprint by researchers based at UNC-Chapel Hill and the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, studying "indicators of scholarly...

"User-to-user evaluations, the authors note, are jointly influenced by the properties of the evaluator and the target; as a result, differences in properties between the target and the evaluator should be expected to affect the evaluation. The study looks specifically at how differences in topic expertise and status affect peer evaluations. The Wikipedia case focuses on requests for adminship (RfAs), the most prominent example of peer evaluation in Wikipedia and a topic that has attracted considerable attention in the literature (Signpost research coverage: September 2011, October 2011, January 2012). Similarity is measured based on article co-authorship, and status as a function of an editor's number of contributions. Previous research by the same authors showed that the probability an evaluator will evaluate a target user positively drops dramatically when the status of the two users is very similar, and there is general evidence that homophily and similarity in editing activity have a strong influence on peer evaluation in RfAs. The study identifies two effects that jointly account for this singular finding:

  • "Elite" or high-status users are more likely to participate in evaluations about other users who are active in their areas of interest or expertise.
  • Low-status users tend to be judged differently than those with moderate or high status."


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Comunidades de práctica profesional: una concepción relacional del...

Comunidades de práctica profesional: una concepción relacional del... | Virtual Communities of Practice in Primary Health Care | Scoop.it
Jornada de Innovación Colaborativa: espacios de participación profesional Basurto, 22/04/09...


Comentario: Según Alberto Ortiz de Zárate, la Atención Primara sería un ámbito ideal para establecer CoP

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Evidence based guidelines or collectively constructed “mindlines?” Ethnographic study of knowledge management in primary care

Participants Nine doctors, three nurses, one phlebotomist, and associated medical staff in one practice provided the initial data; the emerging model was checked for transferability with general practitioners in the second practice.


Results Clinicians rarely accessed and used explicit evidence from research or other sources directly, but relied on “mindlines”—collectively reinforced, internalised, tacit guidelines. These were informed by brief reading but mainly by their own and their colleagues' experience, their interactions with each other and with opinion leaders, patients, and pharmaceutical representatives, and other sources of largely tacit knowledge. Mediated by organisational demands and constraints, mindlines were iteratively negotiated with a variety of key actors, often through a range of informal interactions in fluid “communities of practice,” resulting in socially constructed “knowledge in practice.”

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Virtual Communities of Practice: Explaining Different Effects in Two Organizational Contexts | Tremblay | Canadian Journal of Communication

Virtual Communities of Practice: Explaining Different Effects in Two Organizational Contexts...


Abstract: This paper presents results from a study on virtual communities of practice (CoPs) in Canada and highlights the main consequences of these new modes of communication, work organization, and knowledge creation through two case studies,1 which are analyzed in detail. The two case studies reveal the different effects observed and offer possible explanations for the variations in the results. Several factors explain the success of one community of practice and the relative difficulties involved in the other. In the first case, the participants were all volunteers and showed high levels of engagement and motivation to attain their objectives. In the second case, the participants were appointed and their project was somewhat more diffuse; the CoP experienced a turnover in leadership, contributing to a lesser degree of motivation and little interest in communicating with each other as a means of creating knowledge. This analysis contributes to organizational literature by highlighting some organizational conditions that lead to different effects in "virtual," or telecommuting, communities of practice.

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Online communities of practice for healthcare professionals: when hype meets reality (pdf)

Over the last few years, a major focus of my research has been online communities of
practice for healthcare CPD. I have performed a systematic literature review and
evaluated three online communities for public health professionals and general
practitioners. It is remarkable that the overall findings are so similar and several common themes have been identified that can inform future policy and practice.


The research noted that online interaction is generally low and many communities do not achieve their expected potential. Some users only want to form a network, with a quick answer to a problem, but others wish to engage in a discussion and form an online community of practice. A mismatch between the intention of the activity and the expectations of the user will quickly lead to poor interaction and the quick demise of the community. Sustainability of a sense of community requires substantial commitment by online users and this has major technology design consequences. In addition, problems with technology access and the organisational culture that relates to the use of online environments have been highlighted.

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