Virology News
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Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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Hendra virus vaccine scientist fears horses being 'over-medicated'

Hendra virus vaccine scientist fears horses being 'over-medicated' | Virology News | Scoop.it
The CSIRO scientist who developed the Hendra virus vaccine is recommending fewer injections be given to horses to protect against the deadly illness.
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Researchers find unsuspected DNA virus associated with HCC

Researchers find unsuspected DNA virus associated with HCC | Virology News | Scoop.it
Nault J-C, et al. Nat Genet. 2015;doi:10.1038/ng.3389.

Researchers, including Jessica Zucman-Rossi, MD, PhD, professor and hospital practitioner at Paris Descartes University, and director of Unit 1162 at the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale in France, analyzed tumor cells of 193 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The analysis was designed to screen the cells for the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, thought to be a common and frequent genetic alteration in HCC cells. However, the researchers identified a 208-bp insertion of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2).

 

 

Jessica Zucman-Rossi

 

 

“Early studies showed that during infection, the AAV2 DNA integrates into the human genome, where it remains quiescent until a new parvovirus infection occurs,” the researchers wrote. “To investigate the functional consequences of viral integration, we generated a construct based on the pGL3 reporter vector, reproducing the exact AAV2 inserted sequence.”

The researchers compared gene mutations of the positive tumor samples with nontumor liver samples. They found clonal integration of AAV2 in 11 of the HCC samples. The AAV2 integrations occurred in multiple cancer driver genes including cyclin A2 (n = 4), TERT (n = 1), cyclin E1 (n = 3), tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 10 (n = 2) and lysine-specific methyltransferase 2B (n = 1). These integrations led to the overexpression of the target genes, according to the research.

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No Room for Complacency as Vaccine-Derived Viruses Can Lead to Polio's Return

No Room for Complacency as Vaccine-Derived Viruses Can Lead to Polio's Return | Virology News | Scoop.it
Vaccine-derived polio viruses excreted by people with low immunity could lead to polio re-emergence in the post-eradication era, especially as there is currently no effective strategy to treat thes...
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Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa - July 1995

Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa - July 1995 | Virology News | Scoop.it

Members of the family Filoviridae, which currently consists of Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates. The recent isolation and identification of a new Ebola virus from a single nonfatal human case in Côte d'Ivoire (1) and the more recent outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in and around Kikwit, Zaire (2,3), have raised concerns about the public health threat of these human pathogens. Filoviruses are classified as biosafety level 4 agents because of the extreme pathogenicity of certain strains and the lack of a protective vaccine or effective antiviral drug. Moreover, filoviruses are among the most mysterious groups of viruses known because their natural history and reservoirs remain undefined and their pathogenesis is poorly understood.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Well worth reading!  Or re-reading, in my case.

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How nature punches back at giant viruses

How nature punches back at giant viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
(Phys.org)—What have viruses ever done for humans? The question is debatable, but given the prevalence of highly contagious, and sometimes life-threatening illnesses caused by viruses, it's fair to say that most people would like to see the tables turned on these often-nasty bundles of DNA strands.
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A virus that made us sick that we don't even know about

A virus that made us sick that we don't even know about | Virology News | Scoop.it
Many infections are never diagnosed. We never know which virus or bacteria caused the illness - especially with colds and coughs. Thing is, until 2001, we didn't even know we all came down with Metapneumovirus.
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Another virus out there, MERS

Another virus out there, MERS | Virology News | Scoop.it
A virus in the Middle East has been worrying some doctors. This time it's from Camels. Yes, Camels.
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How Mutant Viral Swarms Spread Disease

How Mutant Viral Swarms Spread Disease | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new understanding of viral swarms is helping researchers predict how viruses will evolve and where disease is likely to spread.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Gotta love those mutant viral swarms...aka quasispecies, unless I miss my guess?

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Seals Have Closest-Related Virus to Hepatitis A

Seals Have Closest-Related Virus to Hepatitis A | Virology News | Scoop.it
Columbia University researchers recently discovered a hepatitis A-like virus in seals off New England's coast.
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HPV infection of placentas linked to pregnancy complications

HPV infection of placentas linked to pregnancy complications | Virology News | Scoop.it
In a landmark study, University of Otago researchers have found that human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect the placenta and is linked to several pregnancy complications, including the potentially fatal disorder pre-eclampsia.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting...!  Yet another good reason to get vaccinated.

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Earlier is better for HIV treatment

Earlier is better for HIV treatment | Virology News | Scoop.it
People infected with HIV benefit from starting a drug regimen early, an international study finds.
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Sierra Leone begins 42-day countdown to be declared free of Ebola virus

Sierra Leone begins 42-day countdown to be declared free of Ebola virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Sierra Leone today began its countdown to be declared by the World Health Organization as free of Ebola virus transmission as the West African nation’s President described the release of the last patient treated for the disease at a treatment centre...
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Foreign sausage meat is source of UK hepatitis E cases

Foreign sausage meat is source of UK hepatitis E cases | Virology News | Scoop.it
Scientists at University College London have discovered that foreign sausage meat, much of it from France and Germany, is the likely source of increasing
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Yet another good reason NOT to eat processed meats....

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Stephen Korsman's comment, September 12, 2015 3:35 AM
This explains a lot. There has been a genotype shift in human HEV in the UK, while pig HEV has not undergone that shift (at least based on a lot of sequences that have been obtained.)
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Polio in Ukraine: Two children paralysed as first cases of virus in Europe in 5 yrs

Polio in Ukraine: Two children paralysed as first cases of virus in Europe in 5 yrs | Virology News | Scoop.it
In the first outbreak of polio in Europe for half a decade, two children in Ukraine have been paralysed by the highly contagious disease.
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Scientists Unearth a Trove of New Bacteria-Killing Viruses

Scientists Unearth a Trove of New Bacteria-Killing Viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
Bacteria prey on humans, but the bugs have to beware of their own predators, too: a special class of viruses called phages.
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Emerging Infectious Diseases 20-year Timeline - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Emerging Infectious Diseases 20-year Timeline - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC | Virology News | Scoop.it
Emerging Infectious Diseases 20-year Timeline
Ed Rybicki's insight:

It is well worth remembering that the CDC's EID has been in the forefront of reliable reporting on emerging viral diseases - as well as others, of course - for a fifth of a century now.

And I've been getting it that long...they used to send it out for free, AND it was available on the Web from very early on, so I used to regularly use articles from it for teaching 3rd year students.

It is a great institution, and I wish it well!

 
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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, September 7, 2015 4:31 AM

It is well worth remembering that the CDC's EID has been in the forefront of reliable reporting on emerging viral diseases - as well as others, of course - for a fifth of a century now.

And I've been getting it that long...they used to send it out for free, AND it was available on the Web from very early on, so I used to regularly use articles from it for teaching 3rd year students.

It is a great institution, and I wish it well!

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Ebola Spotlight - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Ebola Spotlight - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC | Virology News | Scoop.it
Ebola Spotlight

Ebola, previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains. Ebola can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).

Ebola is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. There are five identified Ebola virus species, four of which are known to cause disease in humans. Ebola viruses are found in several African countries. Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Before the current situation, outbreaks have appeared sporadically in Africa.

The natural reservoir host of Ebola virus remains unknown. However, on the basis of evidence and the nature of similar viruses, researchers believe that the virus is animal-borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir. Four of the five virus strains occur in an animal host native to Africa.

The Emerging Infectious Diseases journal has published many articles on Ebola. The journal published its first Ebola article in 1995, volume 1, issue number 3. Reemergence of Ebola Virus in Africa

Ed Rybicki's insight:

A brilliant historical record - from those on the frontline.

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Assessing the Potential Role of Pigs in the Epidemiology of Ebola Virus in Uganda

Uganda has experienced 4 Ebola outbreaks since the discovery of the virus. Recent epidemiological work has shown pigs are hosts for Ebola viruses. Due to their high reproduction rates, rapid weight gain, potential to provide quick financial returns and rising demand for pork, pig production in Uganda has undergone massive expansion. The combination of pork sector growth supported by development programmes and Ebola virus risk prompted a foresight exercise using desk, interview and spatial methods. The study found that the lack of serological evidence for specific reservoir species, the number of human index cases unable to account for their source of infection, domestic pig habitat overlap with potential Ebola virus zoonotic host environments, reported interactions at the human–pig–wildlife interface that could support transmission, fever in pigs as a commonly reported problem by pig farmers and temporal correlation of outbreaks with peak pork consumption periods warrants further research into potential zoonotic transmission in Uganda from pigs.


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How Methods Videos Are Making Science Smarter

How Methods Videos Are Making Science Smarter | Virology News | Scoop.it
For some researchers, the most significant obstacle to the successful replication of experiments is the outdated text format of traditional journals.

Via burkesquires
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Yup, something I've been thinking about quite a lot - now just to DO it!!

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Middle East respiratory syndrome: An emerging coronavirus infection tracked by the crowd

In 2012 in Jordan, infection by a novel coronavirus (CoV) caused the first known cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). MERS-CoV sequences have since been found in a bat and the virus appears to be enzootic among dromedary camels across the Arabian Peninsula and in parts of Africa. The majority of human cases have occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In humans, the etiologic agent, MERS-CoV, has been detected in severe, mild and influenza-like illness and in those without any obvious signs or symptoms of disease. MERS is often a lower respiratory tract disease associated with fever, cough, breathing difficulties, pneumonia that can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure and death among more than a third of those infected. Severe disease is usually found in older males and comorbidities are frequently present in cases of MERS. Compared to SARS, MERS progresses more rapidly to respiratory failure and acute kidney injury, is more often observed as severe disease in patients with underlying illnesses and is more often fatal. MERS-CoV has a broader tropism than SARS-CoV, rapidly triggers cellular damage, employs a different receptor and induces a delayed proinflammatory response in cells. Most human cases have been linked to lapses in infection prevention and control in healthcare settings, with a fifth of virus detections reported among healthcare workers. This review sets out what is currently known about MERS and the MERS-CoV, summarises the new phenomenon of crowd-sourced epidemiology and lists some of the many questions that remain unanswered, nearly three years after the first reported case.

  
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Great stuff!  Leveraging the power of people and of teh web.

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Why worries about a MERS virus outbreak at the Hajj are probably overblown

The virus has never spread outside of hospitals for a sustained period of time.
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Spain detects first ever case of mosquito-borne chikungunya virus

Spain detects first ever case of mosquito-borne chikungunya virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Officials say Valencia man ‘most likely’ infected with painful viral disease in Gandia, a seaside Mediterranean resort
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Hey, ex Africa semper aliquid novi!  Or emerging, in this case.

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HPV DNA Detected in Mouthwash Predicts Oral Cancer Recurrence

HPV DNA Detected in Mouthwash Predicts Oral Cancer Recurrence | Virology News | Scoop.it
Patients who have HPV 16 DNA in their saliva following treatment of their oropharyngeal cancer are more likely to have their cancer recur, and a prospective cohort study has shown that a simple mouth rinse can be used to detect it.
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Data is helping Uganda eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission

Data is helping Uganda eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission | Virology News | Scoop.it
Today in Uganda, creative approaches are helping eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) and leading to fewer and fewer babies being born HIV-infected.
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