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H10N8 virus in first human case is novel strain

H10N8 virus in first human case is novel strain | Virology News | Scoop.it
The virus carries genes from H9N2 viruses and has a mutation linked to adaptation to mammals.

Chinese scientists reported today that the first human infection with an H10N8 avian influenza virus involved a new strain that carries genes from H9N2 viruses and has a mutation associated with adaptation to mammals.

Writing in The Lancet, the scientists detailed the results of their genomic analysis of the virus, which was isolated from a 73-year-old Chinese woman who died Dec 6. Her illness was the first known human case involving that strain.

A second human case in China was reported by the country's government news agency on Jan 27. "The pandemic potential of this novel virus should not be underestimated," the Lancet authors warn.

The study says the genes for all six of the virus's internal proteins were derived from H9N2 viruses, which circulate in poultry and occasionally infect humans in China, usually causing a mild illness.

The authors say H9N2 viruses also provided the internal protein genes for the H7N9 virus, which has caused scores of deaths in China since last spring, and the H5N1 virus, which has killed more than 380 people since 2003.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

China...China...China...you realise that ALL of the viruses that have caused pandemics in the modern era (ie: since 1918) seem to have have come out of China?  

Seriously: ALL of them.  And H5N1 and H7N9 and now H10N8, all waiting in the wings?

Time to reform the way agriculture works in your country, people...!

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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
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Cannabis extract cuts seizures for epilepsy patients

Cannabis extract cuts seizures for epilepsy patients | Virology News | Scoop.it
The first large-scale clinical trial of a cannabis derivative known as cannabidiol shows it was able to cut the frequency of severe epileptic seizures by 39 percent, researchers said Wednesday.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
OK: so I should be an old mouse with epilepsy to derive maximum benefit?? B-)
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Inovio HIV Vaccine Elicits Nearly 100% Immune Response Rates In A Clinical Study

PLYMOUTH MEETING, Pa., May 24, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:INO) today announced that its HIV vaccine, PENNVAX®-GP, produced amongst the highest overall levels of immune response rates (cellular and humoral) ever demonstrated in a human study by an HIV vaccine. The vaccine candidate, PENNVAX-GP, consists of a combination of four HIV antigens designed to cover multiple global HIV strains and generate both an antibody (humoral) immune response as well as a T cell (cellular) immune response to both potentially prevent and treat HIV.

These preliminary results are from a study supported by the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in collaboration with Inovio. The study evaluated a four-dose regimen of PENNVAX-GP DNA vaccine administered by intradermal (ID) or intramuscular (IM) administration in combination with a DNA encoded immune activator, IL-12 (INO-9012). Overall, 71 of 76 (93%) evaluable vaccinated participants showed a CD4+ or CD8+ cellular immune response to at least one of the vaccine antigens (env A, env C, gag, or pol). Similarly, 62 of 66 (94%) evaluated participants demonstrated an env specific antibody response. None of the placebo recipients (0 of 9; 0%) demonstrated either a cellular or an antibody response in the study. Notably, amongst the participants receiving PENNVAX-GP vaccine and IL-12 with intradermal immunization, 27 of 28 (96%) participants demonstrated a cellular response and 27 of 28 (96%) demonstrated an HIV env specific antibody response.
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Scientists Have Reversed Age-Related Blindness by Deliberately Infecting Eyes With a Virus

A small and preliminary clinical trial has found that injecting a common cold-like virus into the eyes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients - one of the leading causes of blindness in the US - can halt and even reverse th
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I think I may need me some of that....
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Vendor With Bird Flu Prompts China to Close Poultry Markets 

Vendor With Bird Flu Prompts China to Close Poultry Markets  | Virology News | Scoop.it
China will shutter poultry markets in a district of southwestern Sichuan province after a man fell ill with the H7N9 bird flu, state-owned China News Service reported Sunday.


The 44-year-old man sold live poultry at a farmers market, China News reported, citing officials in Zigong city.


Poultry markets in Zigong's Ziliujing district will be closed starting from midnight Monday, the report said.


Cases of bird flu have been unusually high for China since last year, with three times more fatalities from H7N9 in the first four months of the year than in all of 2016, although deaths fell in April for the third ...read more
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CDC prepares new H7N9 vaccine as human cases spike

The CDC has begun preparing a new avian influenza A(H7N9) vaccine amid a spike in cases in China and evidence that the deadly virus has split into two strains, including one that does not seem to be susceptible to existing vaccines.A record 460 human cases of H7N9 have been reported since Oct. 1 in China — more than 36% of the overall number of 1,258 cases that have been seen in the region
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Zika virus hit earlier than thought in Brazil, Florida

Zika virus hit earlier than thought in Brazil, Florida | Virology News | Scoop.it
Studies using gene sequencing equipment to trace the path of Zika through the Americas show the virus arrived a year before the first case was detected in Brazil, and several months before it was first reported in Florida. The findings, published in three different papers in the journal Nature, are drawn from nearly 200 Zika virus genome sequences collected from infected individuals …
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World Health Organization gets first leader from Africa

World Health Organization gets first leader from Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
Ethiopia’s Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus to head agency amid calls for reform.
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Patterns of prevalent HPV and STI co-infections and associated factors among HIV- young South African women

OBJECTIVE:
To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial.
METHODS:
HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68). Demographic and sexual history characteristics were compared among women with STI co-infections, single infection and no infection using Pearson χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests. ORs were calculated to evaluate factors associated with STI co-infection prevalence.
RESULTS:
Among 388 young women, STI co-infection prevalence was high: 47% had ≥2 concurrent STIs, 36% had a single STI and 17% had none of the five evaluated STIs. HPV/HSV-2 (26%) was the most prevalent co-infection detected followed by HPV/HSV-2/Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (17%) and HPV/CT (15%). Co-infection prevalence was independently associated with alcohol use (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.06) and having a sexual partner with an STI (adjusted OR=6.96, 95% CI 1.53 to 30.08).
CONCLUSIONS:
Among high-risk young women from underserved communities such as in Southern Africa, a multicomponent prevention strategy that integrates medical and behavioural interventions targeting both men and women is essential to prevent acquisition of concurrent STI infections and consequent disease.
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Why GM mosquitoes might not work against malaria - Futurity

Why GM mosquitoes might not work against malaria - Futurity | Virology News | Scoop.it
Using CRISPR to genetically alter insects that harm crops or carry disease—such as malaria—may not be as easy as once thought.
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Global Influenza Vaccine Industry Expected To Reach US$ 2.5 Billion by 2022

MarketReportsOnline.com adds “United States Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccination Analysis, Distribution, Production, Pipeline Insights, Clinical Trials
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Life expectancy for HIV patients is now 'near normal'

Life expectancy for HIV patients is now 'near normal' | Virology News | Scoop.it

HIV, which can lead to Aids if left untreated, was once considered a certain death sentence
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Does prior infection with varicella-zoster virus influence risk of adult glioma?

To evaluate a possible association between varicella-zoster virus infection and glioma, the authors asked adults with glioma (n = 462) whose tumors were diagnosed between August 1, 1991, and March 31, 1994, and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls (n = 443) about their histories of chickenpox or shingles. Cases were significantly less likely than controls to report a history of either chickenpox (odds ratio = 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-0.6) or shingles (odds ratio = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8). To obtain serologic support for these findings, the authors conducted double-blind enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for immunoglobulin G antibodies to varicella-zoster virus among 167 self-reporting subjects for whom blood samples were available. Cases and controls reporting no history of chickenpox were equally likely to test positive (73% vs. 75%), but among those reporting a positive history, cases were less likely than were controls to test positive (71% vs. 85%). Despite the misclassification, an odds ratio of 0.6 was obtained using either serologic data (95% CI 0.3-1.3) or reported history of chickenpox (95% CI 0.3-1.1) in this subgroup of subjects. This suggests that adults with glioma were less likely than controls either to have had prior varicella-zoster virus infection or to have an immunoglobulin G antibody response adequate to indicate positivity. Since either explanation suggests novel mechanisms for brain tumor pathogenesis, these findings require corroboration and elaboration.

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Answer: a qualified "maybe"
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 ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Flaviviridae

The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000–13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae.

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South Africans to develop a vaccine to Group B Streptococcus

Locals to develop a vaccine to curb infant meningitis
Taschica Pillay | 2017-05-02 09:09:35.0

This vaccine will be given to pregnant women to protect the unborn child. Group B Streptococcus infects children in their first month of life, when they are most vulnerable. File photo
Photograph by: MARIANA BAZO
A South African company will announce plans today to develop a vaccine to treat one of the leading causes of sepsis and meningitis in infants.
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The announcement will be made at the Innovation Effect Africa Conference at Durban's International Convention Centre.

The conference, convened by international nongovernmental organisation Path, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Leapfrog Investments, the New Partnership for Africa's Development and Wellcome Trust, brings together industry leaders to explore opportunities to advance African-led innovation to improve health, spur economic growth and end poverty.

Morena Makhoana, CEO of Biovac, the company at the forefront of the effort , said the Gates foundation was funding development.

"The partnership takes us into developing products locally rather than looking overseas. Hopefully when the product is successful we can manufacture the vaccine from scratch in South Africa."

He said clinical trials would begin in about four to five years.

Makhoana said it was the first time that the Gates foundation would fund vaccine development by an African company.
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Thousands of chickens, ducks die as bird flu hits DRC

Thousands of chickens, ducks die as bird flu hits DRC | Virology News | Scoop.it
Authorities declare quarantine against movement of chicken and ducks - Anadolu Agency
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It's not just Ebola. Or yellow fever. Or monkeypox....
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U.S. HIV Incidence and Transmission Goals, 2020 and 2025

U.S. HIV Incidence and Transmission Goals, 2020 and 2025 | Virology News | Scoop.it
The recently updated U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy sets key HIV prevention and care
targets for 2020, but the trajectory of the epidemic remains unclear. Authors modeled
HIV incidence, prevalence, and mortality for the U.S. over 10 years to determine whether
an ambitious trajectory toward “ending AIDS” by 2025 would be achievable.
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'Inextricably linked' anti-vaccine and anti-GMO movements cause preventable suffering 

'Inextricably linked' anti-vaccine and anti-GMO movements cause preventable suffering  | Virology News | Scoop.it
he Organic Consumers Association an anti-GMO lobby group largely funded by the “natural food” and organic industries. ... The group is an active and visibl
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GREAT cartoon!
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New Zealander of the Year Dr Lance O'Sullivan storms stage at anti-vaccine film screening

New Zealander of the Year Dr Lance O'Sullivan storms stage at anti-vaccine film screening | Virology News | Scoop.it
"Your presence here will cause babies to die," Dr Lance O'Sullivan told the moviegoers.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Go Kiwi!
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Study identifies cost-effective ways to combat HIV risk among intravenous drug users - Virology

With the abuse of opioids on the rise in the United States, Stanford University researchers are concerned that increased HIV transmission from shared needles won’t be far behind. Source link
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Influenza vaccination modifies disease severity among community-dwelling adults hospitalized with influenza

Conclusions: Influenza vaccination during 2013−14 influenza season attenuated adverse outcome among adults that were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Vaccinate!!  OK??
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This Week in HIV Research: Vitamin D May Protect Against HIV; and Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy

This Week in HIV Research: Vitamin D May Protect Against HIV; and Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy | Virology News | Scoop.it
This week, a study examines how two precursor forms of vitamin D may help protect against HIV infection. Another study supports the idea of proteas
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What is the deadly 'Brexit virus' and how can you avoid catching it?

What is the deadly 'Brexit virus' and how can you avoid catching it? | Virology News | Scoop.it

Brexit may not have happened officially just yet, but thousands of people in the UK have already been struck down by what’s being called the ‘Brexit virus’. A new strain of hepatitis E (HEV) which has been linked to pig farms in continental Europe has invaded Britain, health officials say. 

Ed Rybicki's insight:
So no European sossies for true Brits, then??
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CDC - Cancers Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

CDC - Cancers Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) | Virology News | Scoop.it
Cervical cancer is the most common HPV-associated cancer. Some cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx (back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils) are also HPV-associated.
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A Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inducing Antibodies Strongly Enhancing In Vitro Infection Is Protective in Pigs.

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is responsible for zoonotic severe viral encephalitis transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Although birds are reservoirs, pigs play a role as amplifying hosts, and are affected in particular through reproductive failure. Here, we show that a lentiviral JEV vector, expressing JEV prM and E proteins (TRIP/JEV.prME), but not JEV infection induces strong antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) activities for infection of macrophages. Such antibodies strongly promoted infection via Fc receptors. ADE was found at both neutralizing and non-neutralizing serum dilutions. Nevertheless, in vivo JEV challenge of pigs demonstrated comparable protection induced by the TRIP/JEV.prME vaccine or heterologous JEV infection. Thus, either ADE antibodies cause no harm in the presence of neutralizing antibodies or may even have protective effects in vivo in pigs. Additionally, we found that both pre-infected and vaccinated pigs were not fully protected as low levels of viral RNA were found in lymphoid and nervous system tissue in some animals. Strikingly, the virus from the pre-infection persisted in the tonsils throughout the experiment. Finally, despite the vaccination challenge, viral RNA was detected in the oronasal swabs in all vaccinated pigs. These latter data are relevant when JEV vaccination is employed in pigs.

Ed Rybicki's insight:
So: while ADE is possible, it's probably T-cell responses that result in immunity here?
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Why HIV Awareness Campaign Should Target Health Workers Too

Why HIV Awareness Campaign Should Target Health Workers Too
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