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Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic | Virology News | Scoop.it

The worldwide spread of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in 2009 showed that influenza remains a significant health threat, even for individuals in the prime of life. This paper focuses on the unusually high young adult mortality observed during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Using historical records from Canada and the U.S., we report a peak of mortality at the exact age of 28 during the pandemic and argue that this increased mortality resulted from an early life exposure to influenza during the previous Russian flu pandemic of 1889–90. We posit that in specific instances, development of immunological memory to an influenza virus strain in early life may lead to a dysregulated immune response to antigenically novel strains encountered in later life, thereby increasing the risk of death. Exposure during critical periods of development could also create holes in the T cell repertoire and impair fetal maturation in general, thereby increasing mortality from infectious diseases later in life. Knowledge of the age-pattern of susceptibility to mortality from influenza could improve crisis management during future influenza pandemics.

 


Via burkesquires
Ed Rybicki's insight:

This is the second purported explanation I have seen for this phenomenon: the first was that people older than 28 were PROTECTED more, due to prior exposure, and that if this were not the case, the mortality curve would have just kept rising.

Just as happened - at a far lower mortality incidence - for the recent H1N1 pandemic, incidentally.

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Ed Rybicki's comment, August 16, 2013 6:23 AM
Nice one!
Mel Melendrez-Vallard's comment, August 16, 2013 10:34 AM
Right, makes sense. 2 sides of the coin here for sure. This article seems to imply timing of exposure in terms of 'age' as well given the evolution of the virus and how it antigenically changed from the 1889 virus that the 28 yr olds were purportedly exposed to as babies. This same virus from 1889 on an adult, given adult development and immune response could've elicited protection from 1918 flu to an extent while negatively impacting their children/babies which would've been exposed at the same time. Both would've 'survived' to experience the 1918 flu but the babies which are now ~28 would be at a disadvantage because when they got the 1889 virus their bodies were perhaps not developed enough to sustain protective immunity or the virus perhaps? food for thought, it was a nice article.
Patti Hamilton's curator insight, August 18, 2013 9:10 PM

Wow, this is an interesting story.  Check it out.

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HPV 2017 - Papillomavirus Conference, Cape Town

HPV 2017 - Papillomavirus Conference, Cape Town | Virology News | Scoop.it
The 31st International Papillomavirus Conference (HPV 2017), will take place in Cape Town, South Africa, from 28 February - 5 March, 2017.
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#HPV2017 to join the tweetfest!
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Ireland: Severe toll on elderly as flu death tally hits 75

Ireland: Severe toll on elderly as flu death tally hits 75 | Virology News | Scoop.it
Severe toll on elderly as flu death tally hits 75 Eilish O'Regan February 24 2017 2:30 AM Flu has claimed the lives of 75 people so far this season and has taken
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Sero‐epidemiologic study of influenza A(H7N9) infection among exposed populations, China 2013‐2014

The first human infections of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in China in March 2013. Sentinel surveillance systems and contact tracing may not identify mild and asymptomati
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Influenza vaccination in pregnancy: large study supports safety

Influenza vaccination in pregnancy: large study supports safety | Virology News | Scoop.it
Influenza vaccination in pregnancy: large study supports safety
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Bullsh1t Alert: Mysterious “Weaponized” Virus Sweeps World As Bill Gates Warns 30 Million Will Die

Bullsh1t Alert: Mysterious “Weaponized” Virus Sweeps World As Bill Gates Warns 30 Million Will Die | Virology News | Scoop.it
A Mysterious “Weaponized” Virus Sweeps the World Bill Gates Warns 30 Million Will Die Globalist aligned nations have been and are now requiring mandatory vaccinations of all of their citizens Holly…
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Four bird flu vaccines set to undergo clinical trials in China

Four bird flu vaccines set to undergo clinical trials in China | Virology News | Scoop.it
BEIJING: Four kinds of vaccine for the H7N9 strain of bird flu virus have been approved for clinical trials by China’s top drug regulator, according to the Beijing Food and Drug Administration.
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Revised US tally: HIV infections fell 18 percent in 6 years

Revised US tally: HIV infections fell 18 percent in 6 years | Virology News | Scoop.it
New calculations to better track HIV infections confirm that the U.S. is seeing a strong and steady decline.
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Nineteen Swine Flu casualties in Coimbatore [India] since January

Nineteen Swine Flu casualties in Coimbatore since January. Thirty five being treated with symptoms Connect with Puthiya Thalaimurai TV Online: SUBSCRIBE t
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Taiwan battles bird flu outbreaks

Taiwan is stepping up efforts to battle bird flu outbreaks through various measures in a bid to prevent poultry-to-human transmission of the virus.
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France announces a further cull of ducks in battle against bird flu

France is to cull a further 360,000 ducks as part of efforts to prevent the spread of the H5N8 bird flu virus. The slaughter will take place in Landes th
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Washington mumps outbreak continues to grow

Washington mumps outbreak continues to grow | Virology News | Scoop.it
On Thursday, Washington state reported 404 confirmed and probable cases of mumps since October.
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Fox apologizes for fake vaccine news campaign

Fox apologizes for fake vaccine news campaign | Virology News | Scoop.it
  A web page with a fake article from a fake publication, part of the marketing of the film “A Cure for Wellness.” Since the term fake news entered the national lexicon, the advertising world has grappled with its role in inadvertently fueling the spread online of made-up stories about controversial topics. Then came 20th…
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Good match: Early US results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccine

Good match: Early US results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Good match: Early results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccine HealthGood match: Early results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccineIf you got the flu shot this year, you di
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HIV vaccine therapy lets five people control virus without drugs

The vaccine gives the immune system the ability to flush out HIV by itself, meaning daily antiretroviral drugs aren't needed - one man has been free of the
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Common Commensal Cancer Viruses

Common Commensal Cancer Viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
Pathogenic Versus Commensal Tumor Viruses Another way to look at infectious carcinogens is whether or not a tumor virus is a rare or a common human infection. Commensal viruses are common, inapparent infections that do not usually cause symptoms or disease in the host.
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There is no controversy - HPV vaccines are saving lives around the world

There is no controversy - HPV vaccines are saving lives around the world | Virology News | Scoop.it
HPV vaccine is now used in 84 countries, including the USA, Canada, Australia and most of Western Europe.
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A calmodulin-like protein suppresses RNA silencing and promotes geminivirus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana

A calmodulin-like protein suppresses RNA silencing and promotes geminivirus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is an elaborately regulated process for defense against virus infection in plants. To achieve effective infection, a betasatellite molecule associated with geminivirus induced high levels of an endogenous RNA silencing suppressor, calmodulin-like protein (CaM), to counter host defenses. However, although CaM is one of the first identified cellular suppressors of RNA silencing, the mechanism of PTGS suppression is still poorly understood. This study demonstrates that CaM interacts with and degrades Suppressor of Gene Silencing 3 (SGS3) in Nicotiana benthamiana. We found that domains essential for the interaction between NbSGS3 and NbCaM are also required for the subcellular localization of NbSGS3 and for NbCaM suppressor activity. Moreover, NbCaM mediated NbSGS3 protein degradation can be blocked using the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and E64d, and by knock-down of key autophagy-related genes within the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex. Silencing of the PI3K complex also inhibited geminivirus infection, which is consistent with autophagy playing an important role in RNA silencing suppression pathway and geminivirus infection.
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NIH begins study of vaccine to mosquito saliva to protect against mosquito-borne diseases

Credit: NIAID
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has launched a Phase 1 clinical trial to test an investigational va..
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Clever: could provide broad-spectrum defence against a swathe of mosquito-transmitted pathogens.
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Massive S African campaign to provide HPV vaccine to girls


The first round of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine in the North West will start this week, the provincial health department said on Monday.
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Flu Season Hitting [US] Elderly Hard

This flu season is carrying a strain that is particularly affecting the elderly population. People are still encouraged to get the flu shot.
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Bird flu ‘more severe’ in China

China has detected an evolution in the H7N9 avian flu virus that is capable of causing severe disease in poultry
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Confirmed H5N8 avian flu in a flock of turkeys at a farm in  Lincolnshire, UK

The UK’s Chief Veterinary Officer has confirmed H5N8 avian flu in a flock of turkeys at ... https://t.co/0OKfDl91Of https://t.co/C8eXhxwtL4
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Spanish [HIV] vaccine induces viral control off ART in nearly 40% of recipients

Spanish [HIV] vaccine induces viral control off ART in nearly 40% of recipients | Virology News | Scoop.it
The latest worldwide HIV/AIDS news and updates, including treatment, prevention, and hepatitis and TB co-infections.
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To Increase HPV Vaccine Consent Rates, Bundle It With Routine Shots, And Stop Saying It Prevents STD

To Increase HPV Vaccine Consent Rates, Bundle It With Routine Shots, And Stop Saying It Prevents STD | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new study published online in Pediatrics told doctors that a clinic in Denver found a clever way to increase Gardasil and other HPV vaccine coverage among
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Shoebox-sized satellites bring African crops into focus

Shoebox-sized satellites bring African crops into focus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Compact satellites that capture hi-res images of farmland in sub-Saharan Africa could improve productivity and even ease hunger.
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