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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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CRISPR “Kill Switches” for GMOs

CRISPR “Kill Switches” for GMOs | Virology News | Scoop.it
Researchers create an inducible method to remove specific genes and even kill escaped genetically modified organisms.
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Right: that SHOULD take care of all but the most rabid anti-GMO campaigners - because there's no pleasing them!

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The only person ever cured of AIDS?

The only person ever cured of AIDS? | Virology News | Scoop.it
Timothy Ray Brown, commonly referred to as the “Berlin patient,” does not want to be the only person cured of AIDS.
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Mandatory Vaccine Bill Passes In California Senate

Mandatory Vaccine Bill Passes In California Senate | Virology News | Scoop.it
A bill that would make vaccines mandatory for nearly every child in California passed the state Senate on Thursday morning.

The controversial bill ensures that parents enrolling their children in C
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...and it'll all be a trick by Obama to enslave and/or kill Americans.  But at least it may stop measles at Disneyland.

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Scientists Crack A 50-Year-Old Mystery About The Measles Vaccine

Scientists Crack A 50-Year-Old Mystery About The Measles Vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
When the U.S. introduced the measles vaccine, childhood deaths from all infections plummeted. Scientists think they might know why: Benefits of the measles vaccine go way beyond the measles.
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Cuba's Lung Cancer Vaccine Stuns But The Real Surprise Is The Price

"When New York Governor Andrew Cuomo (D) headed to Havana on a historic trade mission in April, he returned with the promise of an important commodity: a ...
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Tracing the bird flu outbreak in North American poultry flocks

(Reuters) - The United States is facing its worst outbreak on record of avian influenza as three deadly strains have hit North American poultry flocks since December, with the spread of infection picking
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Useful timeline!

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Natural measles virus infection weakens immunity for years after infection

Natural measles virus infection weakens immunity for years after infection | Virology News | Scoop.it
The vaccine indirectly protects for more than measles.
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Swaziland has world's highest HIV/AIDS rate; young women most affected

Swaziland has world's highest HIV/AIDS rate; young women most affected | Virology News | Scoop.it
Free Speech Radio News
Swaziland has world's highest HIV/AIDS rate; young women most affected
Free Speech Radio News
Swaziland has the world's largest HIV epidemic, affecting roughly one in four people.
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Study finds no link between HPV vaccination and increase in STIs

Study finds no link between HPV vaccination and increase in STIs | Virology News | Scoop.it
Researchers have demonstrated that human papillomavirus vaccination is not associated with an increase in sexually transmitted infections, offering reassurance that the vaccine does not promote risky sexual disinhibition.
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Bird flu could threaten Thanksgiving turkey supply

Bird flu could threaten Thanksgiving turkey supply | Virology News | Scoop.it
The largest-ever U.S. outbreak of avian influenza (AKA bird flu) has taken a toll on poultry and egg producers in recent weeks.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

They think that's all they have to worry about??  Fortunately for us, we don't do Thanksgiving - and are not too fond of turkey, either.

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Ecuador latest to impose nationwide ban on US poultry due to bird flu

Ecuador latest to impose nationwide ban on US poultry due to bird flu | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Ecuadorian agricultural authority Agrocalidad has banned all imports of live foul, poultry meat and poultry products, as well as genetic material, including chicks and hatching eggs, from the US, in response to the recent avian influenza...
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Do Babies Get Too Many Vaccines? [No]

Paul A. Offit, MD, discusses the immunological components in vaccines to address parents' concerns with “too many vaccines.” Visit the Vaccine Education ...
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ProMED-mail and avian flu

ProMED-mail and avian flu | Virology News | Scoop.it

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been reported thus far this year in flocks in Nigeria, Indonesia, Iraq, and Burkina Faso (all H5N1), Hungary, USA, and China (H5N8), Mexico (H7N3), and Taiwan (H5N2). In Viet Nam, H5N6 is epizootic. The disease has affected humans in Egypt (H5N1) and China (H5N6 and H7N9). In March, U.S. researchers reported that two flu strains (H10N8 and H6N1), had begun causing sporadic infections among people on the Chinese mainland and in Taiwan, but were still not able to infect humans easily.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency's National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease reported recently that the HPAI H5N2 virus detected in poultry in British Columbia was sequenced and found to contain gene segments from the HPAI Eurasian H5N8 virus, terming this the first time a "Eurasian lineage highly pathogenic H5 virus has caused an outbreak of avian influenza in poultry in North America." In the US, every day brings news of new sites in the current outbreak of H5N2. Since March, the virus has led to the loss of well over 30 million birds in 13 states. The pattern and speed of this outbreak's spread is causing scientists to re-think the assumption that avian influenza spreads solely through the intermingling of wild birds with domestic flocks.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

An organisation that brought you Ebola as it happened, in 1995 - and still well worth supporting!

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Real-time visualization of circulating influenza strains – FluViruses.com

submitted by trvrbedford [link] [comment] Read more here: http://www.reddit.com/r/flu/comments/2yt7uk/realtime_visualization_of_circulating_influenza/
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Video to debunk HIV cure fallacy in S Africa

Video to debunk HIV cure fallacy in S Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
South Africa's Premier Online News Source. Discover the world of IOL, News South Africa, Sport, Business, Financial, World News, Entertainment, Technology, Motoring, Travel, Property, Calssifieds & more.
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The Feverish Roots of Today's Anti-Vaccine Movement

The Feverish Roots of Today's Anti-Vaccine Movement | Virology News | Scoop.it
How the history of inoculation gave birth to the anti-vaccine movement.
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A huge US food distributor says bird flu could hurt egg supply for the next year

A huge US food distributor says bird flu could hurt egg supply for the next year | Virology News | Scoop.it
The U.S. poultry and egg industry is grappling with the country's biggest outbreak on record of avian influenza.
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SABC News - South Africans warned against H3N2 strain

SABC News - South Africans warned against H3N2 strain | Virology News | Scoop.it
Global health authorities have cautioned that current flu vaccines may not prevent a severe new strain of influenza, namely the H3N2 strain.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Yup!  Still worth getting vaccinated, though - because you might get one of the OTHER ones!

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The Vaccine Culture War in America: Are You Ready?

Discrimination, societal sanctions, it all started with a few measles cases at Disneyland. More than 1.2 million people in the US are infected with HIV, about two ...
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Widespread male circumcision could prevent more than a million HIV infections

Widespread male circumcision could prevent more than a million HIV infections HSPH News May 11, 2015—More than a million HIV infections could be prevented over the next 15 years by increasing circumcision of uninfected men in the five countries in...
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Diary of a fieldworker in Liberia: ‘No touch’ and other stories

Diary of a fieldworker in Liberia: ‘No touch’ and other stories | Virology News | Scoop.it
On 9 May, Liberia was officially declared Ebola-free. It was a long, hard road to get to this point – and a nervy 42-day wait without new patients before the declaration could be made.
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Why scientists put dinosaur snouts on chickens

Why scientists put dinosaur snouts on chickens | Virology News | Scoop.it
Scientists have transformed chicken embryos to give them a snout and palate configuration similar to that of small dinosaurs like Velociraptor and Archaeopteryx.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Because. Velociraptors!  Who wouldn't want little velocichickens running around??

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The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 and Your Ancestors

The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 and Your Ancestors | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Influenza Epidemic of 1918 was a global catastrophe that is estimated to have killed between 40 and 50 million people.
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Nice little piece, personalising the 1918 pandemic.

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Are Combination Vaccines Safe? [Yes]

Paul A. Offit, MD, talks about the safety of combination vaccines, such as the MMR and DTaP vaccines. Visit the Vaccine Education Center to learn more about ...
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