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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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Washington mumps outbreak continues to grow

Washington mumps outbreak continues to grow | Virology News | Scoop.it
On Thursday, Washington state reported 404 confirmed and probable cases of mumps since October.
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Fox apologizes for fake vaccine news campaign

Fox apologizes for fake vaccine news campaign | Virology News | Scoop.it
  A web page with a fake article from a fake publication, part of the marketing of the film “A Cure for Wellness.” Since the term fake news entered the national lexicon, the advertising world has grappled with its role in inadvertently fueling the spread online of made-up stories about controversial topics. Then came 20th…
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Good match: Early US results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccine

Good match: Early US results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Good match: Early results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccine HealthGood match: Early results show that the CDC chose the right flu vaccineIf you got the flu shot this year, you di
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Recent study on Global Influenza Vaccine Market

MarketResearchReports.Biz has announced addition of new report “Global Influenza Vaccine Market: Industry Analysis & Outlook (2017-2021)” to its database. Influenza, also known as flu, is a contagious disease which spreads from person to person very rapidly. When an infected person sneezes or coughs the virus spreads to those close by, affecting immuno-compromised patients the most.
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The Silent HIV Crisis Sweeping the American South

The Silent HIV Crisis Sweeping the American South | Virology News | Scoop.it
We travel to Jackson, Mississippi, one of the hardest-hit Southern cities, to investigate why HIV among black gay men has reached epidemic proportions.
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Endorsing Two-Dose Regimen for Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination

Endorsing Two-Dose Regimen for Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination | Virology News | Scoop.it
Human papilloma virus infection is a sexually transmitted infection. Two-dose regimen for HPV vaccine is endorsed by the American Cancer Society, reveals study.
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American Cancer Society Endorses Two-Dose Regimen for HPV Vaccination 

American Cancer Society Endorses Two-Dose Regimen for HPV Vaccination  | Virology News | Scoop.it

The American Cancer Society has endorsed updated recommendations on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) supporting a two-dose schedule for boys and girls who initiate the vaccine at ages 9 to 14.


Cervical cancer graphic from Russell Kightley Media

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Improving Rabies Prevention Through Intradermal Vaccination

Improving Rabies Prevention Through Intradermal Vaccination. Intradermal regimens are particularly useful in poorly resourced countries with a large canin
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HIV Criminalization

HIV Criminalization | Virology News | Scoop.it
HIV-specific criminal laws perpetuate the persistent public perception that those with HIV are inherently dangerous.
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The yellow fever outbreak in Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo ends

Brazzaville, 14 February 2017 – The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) declared the end of the yellow fever outbreak in that country today following a similar announcement in Angola on 23 December 2016, bringing an end to the outbreak in both countries after no new confirmed cases were reported from both countries for the past six months.

“We are able to declare the end of one of the largest and most challenging yellow fever outbreak in recent years through the strong and coordinated response by national authorities, local health workers and partners,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Director for Africa, commending the unprecedented and immense response to the outbreak. 

The outbreak, which was first detected in Angola in December 2015, had caused 965 confirmed cases of yellow fever across the two countries, with thousands more cases suspected.  The last case detected in Angola was on 23 June 2016 and DRC’s last case was on 12 July the same year.

More than 30 million people were vaccinated in the two countries in emergency vaccination campaigns. This key part of the response included mop up and preventative campaigns in hard to reach areas up until the end of the year to ensure vaccine protection for as many people in all areas of risk as possible.  This unprecedented response exhausted the global stockpile of yellow fever vaccines several times.  

More than 41 000 volunteers and 8000 vaccination teams with more than 56 NGO partners were involved in the mass immunization campaigns. The vaccines used came from a global stockpile co-managed by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), UNICEF and WHO. In the first 6 months of 2016 alone, the partners delivered more than 19 million doses of the vaccine – three times the 6 million doses usually put aside for an outbreak. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance financed a significant proportion of the vaccines.
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Special Issue on Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors
Production, Purification, and Beyond: Part 1

Special Issue on Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors<br/>Production, Purification, and Beyond: Part 1 | Virology News | Scoop.it
Special Issue on Adeno-Associated Viral (AAV) Vectors
Production, Purification, and Beyond: Part 1
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Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection in animal models

Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection in animal models | Virology News | Scoop.it

Oral administration of a cocktail of three viruses, all of which specifically kill cholera bacteria, prevents infection and cholera-like symptoms in animal model experiments, report scientists from Tufts University School of Medicine (TUSM) and the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts inNature Communications on Feb. 1. The findings are the first to demonstrate the potential efficacy of bacteria-killing viruses—known as bacteriophages, or phages—as an orally administered preventive therapy against an acute gastrointestinal bacterial disease.

 

“While phage therapy has existed for decades, our study is proof-of-principle that it can be used to protect against infection and intervene in the transmission of disease,” said senior study author Andrew Camilli, Ph.D., Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and professor of molecular biology and microbiology at TUSM. “We are hopeful that phages can someday be a tool in the public health arsenal that helps decrease the global burden of cholera, which affects up to four million people around the world each year.”

 

In previous work, Camilli and colleagues searched for phages that are specific for Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera—a potentially lethal infectious disease marked by severe diarrhea and dehydration. While phages that kill V. cholerae are abundant in nature, the team identified three strains that uniquely retained the ability to kill V. cholerae within the small intestine, the site of infection in humans. These phages function by targeting bacterial surface receptors normally involved in infectiousness, making them ideal therapeutic candidates—to develop resistance, cholera bacteria must acquire mutations in these receptors, which cause the bacteria to become less infectious.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
Ed Rybicki's insight:
While this great, it is a modern vindication of something no less a person that the co-discoverer of phages himself, Felix d'Herelle, advocated as a cure for dysentery - and put into practice in India in the 1920s, apparently (https://rybicki.wordpress.com/2015/02/17/happy-centenary-phages/). He was also the godfather of work done at the Eliava Institute in Georgia, which really laid the foundation of phage therapy.
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Ed Rybicki's comment, February 13, 5:09 AM
Thanks! Great stuff.
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Yellow fever kills 600 monkeys in Brazil's Atlantic rainforest

Yellow fever kills 600 monkeys in Brazil's Atlantic rainforest | Virology News | Scoop.it
An outbreak of yellow fever has claimed the lives of more than 600 monkeys and dozens of humans in Brazil's Atlantic rainforest region, threatening the survival of rare South American primates, a zoologist said on Wednesday.
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It's not just people....
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To Increase HPV Vaccine Consent Rates, Bundle It With Routine Shots, And Stop Saying It Prevents STD

To Increase HPV Vaccine Consent Rates, Bundle It With Routine Shots, And Stop Saying It Prevents STD | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new study published online in Pediatrics told doctors that a clinic in Denver found a clever way to increase Gardasil and other HPV vaccine coverage among
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Shoebox-sized satellites bring African crops into focus

Shoebox-sized satellites bring African crops into focus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Compact satellites that capture hi-res images of farmland in sub-Saharan Africa could improve productivity and even ease hunger.
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Beleaguered bees hit by 'deformed wing virus'

Beleaguered bees hit by 'deformed wing virus' | Virology News | Scoop.it
A wing-deforming virus shortens the lifespan of wild honeybees already contending with a startlingly long list of existential threats, researcher
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Male Circumcision Shown to Prevent HPV Infections in Female Partners

A study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that male circumcision reduced the prevalence and incidence of
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Flu spreads across 40 US states

Flu spreads across 40 US states | Virology News | Scoop.it
    (CNN) -- Health officials across the United States are still urging people to get their flu vaccines as the virus continues to spread in 40 state
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A silent killer: the story of cervical cancer in Africa

A silent killer: the story of cervical cancer in Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
To promote health, longevity and optimal productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa through innovatively engaging stakeholders at all levels to mitigate the disproportionate burden of disease accounted for by chronic diseases through prevention and control.
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Flu, pneumonia deaths now above US epidemic threshold

The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza has jumped above the national epidemic threshold for the first time this season, according to the CDC's latest FluView update.
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Trump's Statements on Influenza Vaccines Raise Concerns in Healthcare Community

Trump's Statements on Influenza Vaccines Raise Concerns in Healthcare Community | Virology News | Scoop.it
Although President Donald Trump&rsquo;s previous skepticism on the flu vaccine was certainly not helpful in terms of encouraging individuals to be vaccinated, research indicates that&nbsp;celebrity commentary on a topic makes it more likely that the audience will recall the message and be motivated to react to it.
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Fall armyworm – and how viruses could help combat the plague.

Kenneth Wilson of the Univ of Lancaster has recently written a blog post on the plagues of African and "Fall" armyworms (aka caterpillars, larvae of moth species in the genus Spodoptera) that are currently chewing their way through southern African maize and other crops. I wrote the following as a comment to his blog. Nice…
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Technology has confirmed a theory about Earth's oldest venomous species

Technology has confirmed a theory about Earth's oldest venomous species | Virology News | Scoop.it
CT scanning allows scientists to observe and "dissect" fossils digitally using computer software - and to uncover secrets that are hundreds of millions of years old.
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Carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types in HIV-positive women

Carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types in HIV-positive women | Virology News | Scoop.it
Results 
In Africa, HPV16 accounted for 13% HPV-positive WHIV with normal cytology, but this proportion increased through ASCUS/LSIL/CIN1/CIN2 (18–25%), up to 41–47% for CIN3/ICC. Only HPV16, 18 and 45 accounted for a greater proportion of HPV infections in ICC compared to normal cytology (ICC:normal ratios 3.68, 2.47 and 2.55, respectively). Other HR types accounted for important proportions of low- and/or high-grade lesions but their contribution dropped in ICC, with ICC:normal ratios in Africa ranging from 0.79 for HPV33 down to 0.38 for HPV56. Findings for HPV16 and 18 in Europe/North America, Asia and Latin America were compatible with those from Africa. 

Conclusion 
HPV16 and 18 in particular, but also HPV45, at least in Africa, warrant special attention in WHIV. Broad consistency of findings with those in HIV-uninfected population would suggest that the risk stratification offered by partial HPV genotyping tests have relevance also to HIV-positive women.

I thank Russell Kightley Media for the cervical cancer / HPV graphics
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Valuable piece of work - and shows that HPV-45 is a lot more prevalent in cervical cancer in Africa
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Lassa fever kills 2 in Nimba, Liberia

The head of Disease Prevention and Control at the Ministry of Health, Dr. Thomas Nagbe says lassa fever has killed two persons in Nimba County and leaves more than a hundred contacts to be “line listed”.
The Health official told UNMIL Radio’s live program Coffey Break on Monday, 6 February that the first three lassa fever cases that hailed from Nimba killed two victims while the other patient has been undergoing observation for two weeks now.
But he said over a hundred persons have been line listed as contacts of the first three persons attacked by the disease; while announcing that 15 persons that came in contact with one of the lassa fever patients while traveling from Nimba to Monrovia have also been line listed and were responding to treatment.
Dr. Ngabe says the disease is now in Bong, Lofa and Nimba counties, respectively, as he classified lassa fever as a “major threat”. He urged Liberians to keep their homes clean and to cover all foods properly to avoid lassa fever on grounds that during dry season, the disease can be spread by rats.
Dr. Nagbe emphasized that lassa fever erupts in dry seasons and cause havoc like the deadly Ebola virus disease that broke out in West Africa and killed thousands of people here between 2013 and 2014.
The health official says the disease can be transmitted through bodily fluid like Ebola, spreading from one infected person to another. He warned Liberians to be mindful of the disease suggesting that while people may regard most fever as malaria, they still need to do medical test to establish whether they are actually down with malaria or lassa fever.
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