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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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Virology News
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Antiretroviral Therapy Shows Benefits in Reducing HIV In Reproductive Tract

Through 30 years of research HIV has gone from being a death sentence for patients to something that can be more of a chronic condition. Antiretroviral thera...

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Identification of the New Canine Influenza Virus H3N2

The disease was first diagnosed as Canine Influenza, which led to the assumption that there was a new outbreak caused by the known strain of CIV, which was H...

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Anti-GMO activism could cost world’s poorest nations $1.5 trillion over 35 years

Anti-GMO activism could cost world’s poorest nations $1.5 trillion over 35 years | Virology News | Scoop.it
The current restrictive climate for agricultural biotech has erected significant barriers to the economic development of the world's poorest nations.
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Mimi- and related viruses - making us think again about virus classification?

Mimi- and related viruses - making us think again about virus classification? | Virology News | Scoop.it
This article - by one of the discoverers of Mimivirus - argues that the new giant DNA viruses are different from other viruses and that as a result, we neew to create a new brach of microbes. Other virologists are more cautious, suggesting that Mimivirus can fit within the current scheme of virus taxonomy. Either…
Ed Rybicki's insight:

I don't think that The Big Lads justify a new domain of life: while they may be the largest monophyletic group of viruses with the most ancient provenance, they are not the ONLY monophyletic group.  A good case could be made for caudoviruses (Order Caudovirales) too; the ss(+)RNA viruses are also probably ancient and have a variety of origins - so there is nothing special about Mimi and her cousins, other than they are (so far) the most complex viruses in terms of genome size and encoded content.

They are still most certainly viruses, by all of the best accepted definitions (including mine B-), in that they are still obligate intracellular parasites that do not have a translational apparatus, and which cause particles to be assembled to transport their genomes.

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Sad State of Phage Electron Microscopy. Please Shoot the Messenger

Sad State of Phage Electron Microscopy. Please Shoot  the Messenger | Virology News | Scoop.it
Two hundred and sixty publications from 2007 to 2012 were classified according to the quality of electron micrographs; namely as good (71); mediocre (21); or poor (168). Publications were from 37 countries; appeared in 77 journals; and included micrographs produced with about 60 models of electron microscopes. The quality of the micrographs was not linked to any country; journal; or electron microscope. Main problems were poor contrast; positive staining; low magnification; and small image size. Unsharp images were frequent. Many phage descriptions were silent on virus purification; magnification control; even the type of electron microscope and stain used. The deterioration in phage electron microscopy can be attributed to the absence of working instructions and electron microscopy courses; incompetent authors and reviewers; and lenient journals. All these factors are able to cause a gradual lowering of standards.

 

Good phage picture from Ed Rybicki's collection B-)

Ed Rybicki's insight:

A WONDERFUL rant from an old-style perfectionist!  Thanks, Marla!!

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Herpes virus closes National Stud in Newmarket

Herpes virus closes National Stud in Newmarket | Virology News | Scoop.it
The National Stud in Newmarket is closed following the discovery of a neurological herpes virus infection.
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Relive the nightmare of an old-school computer virus at the new Malware museum

Relive the nightmare of an old-school computer virus at the new Malware museum | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Malware Museum lets you relive the feeling of watching some of the earliest viruses infect an MS-DOS computer.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Hey, if we do zombies we can certainly do computer viruses too?!

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Oz oyster growers facing deadly virus want government help

Oz oyster growers facing deadly virus want government help | Virology News | Scoop.it
The head of Tasmania's oyster industry says workers are likely to be sacked as Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome devastates some growing regions, leaving the industry in need a recovery package.
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3 reasons not to panic over the Zika virus

3 reasons not to panic over the Zika virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
It’s easy to be alarmed by the Zika virus spreading across the Americas, but there are plenty of reasons not to be worried about it at all.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Amen!!

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Benin: WHO’s medical detectives work with national health authorities to solve a mystery

Benin: WHO’s medical detectives work with national health authorities to solve a mystery | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Ebola preparedness team visits the traditional healer whose family lost several members to the Lassa fever outbreak in and around Tanguiéta.
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Nine people suspected dead of Lassa fever in Benin

Nine people suspected dead of Lassa fever in Benin | Virology News | Scoop.it
As the world ramps up its fight against the Zika virus, West Africa is battling to contain a growing outbreak of Lassa fever with nine people in Benin reported dead.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

There ARE other diseases....

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Honeybee virus spread by human activity

Honeybee virus spread by human activity | Virology News | Scoop.it
Deformed wing virus reduces the winter survival of European honeybees (Apis mellifera), and could be a factor in the large colony losses seen in some parts of the world. To find out how the virus became pandemic, Lena Wilfert at the University of Exeter, UK, and her colleagues analysed the virus's genome to reconstruct its evolutionary and geographical history.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

I think human activity is pretty much to blame for nearly ALL outbreaks of infectious disease of recent times?

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Vaccination of Boys Critical in HPV Prevention

Improving rates of vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) in boys aged 11 to 21 is critical to protecting both men and women. This is according t...

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How to make a Zika virus vaccine, in 4 not-so-easy steps

How to make a Zika virus vaccine, in 4 not-so-easy steps | Virology News | Scoop.it

It typically takes 20 years to make a vaccine. And that’s not good news for Zika.

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Earlier microcephaly cases in Brazil raise doubts about link to Zika virus

Earlier microcephaly cases in Brazil raise doubts about link to Zika virus | Virology News | Scoop.it

Large numbers of babies with borderline normal heads were born Brazil as far back as 2012, two years before the Zika virus is thought to have entered the country, say researchers searching for answers to urgent questions.

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Autism increase mystery solved: No, it's not vaccines, GMOs glyphosate--or organic foods

Autism increase mystery solved: No, it's not vaccines, GMOs glyphosate--or organic foods | Virology News | Scoop.it
A change in how we diagnose and report autism and not vaccines, glyphosate or chemtrails is the prime mover as to why we have a dramatic increase in autism cases.
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Yellow fever outbreak: 37 dead in Angola

Yellow fever outbreak: 37 dead in Angola | Virology News | Scoop.it

In an update on the yellow fever outbreak that began in Luanda, Angola in December, health officials say the death toll has climbed to 37.

Angola
Image/CIA
National Director of Health, Mr Adelaide de Carvalho said health officials were monitoring suburbs around the capital of Luanda where infections have been worsened by unsanitary conditions caused by a garbage collection backlog.
“Actions should be developed for the improvement of public sanitary and garbage collection,” de Carvalho said.
On Wednesday, The National Commission for Civil Protection, coordinated by the Interior Minister Interior, Ângelo de Barros Veiga Tavares, held an extraordinary session in order to analyze the situation of endemic outbreak of yellow fever.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the bite of an infected mosquito.

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Human papillomavirus strongly linked to risk of breast cancer

Human papillomavirus strongly linked to risk of breast cancer | Virology News | Scoop.it
Women with abnormal cells on their cervix owing to certain types of human papillomavirus likely to be at higher risk of developing breast cancer later in life
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Bovine viral diarrhoea virus could cause $2.6m loss in New Zealand

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus could cause $2.6m loss in New Zealand | Virology News | Scoop.it
Bovine viral diarrhoea could be costing Southland up to $2.6 million a year.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Cows, dogs, bees, computers - we do all kinds of viruses B-)

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A Deadly Bee Virus Is Spreading and Only Humans Can Stop It

A Deadly Bee Virus Is Spreading and Only Humans Can Stop It | Virology News | Scoop.it
Across the world, bees are succumbing to a deadly virus, and a new study places the blame squarely on humans. The good news is, there are some common-sense measures we can take right now to start protecting the honeybees we rely on to pollinate our crops.
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Dog flu virus H3N2 spreads rapidly to 28 US states, including Ohio

Dog flu virus H3N2 spreads rapidly to 28 US states, including Ohio | Virology News | Scoop.it
The new dog flu H3N2 virus infected more than 2,000 dogs in Chicago last March and since has spread to both coasts.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

More not-Zika

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Zika virus: Inside Uganda's forest where the disease originates - BBC News

Zika virus: Inside Uganda's forest where the disease originates - BBC News | Virology News | Scoop.it
The BBC's Catherine Byaruhanga visits a Ugandan forest where the deadly Zika virus was first discovered seven decades ago.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

"The Aedes we have, Aedes aegypti formosus, normally does not bite humans. And then we have other [mosquitoes] which live in the forests and prefer to bite at dusk and dawn,"

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UNICEF and WHO help fight Lassa Fever outbreak in Benin

UNICEF and WHO help fight Lassa Fever outbreak in Benin | Virology News | Scoop.it
COTONOU, Benin, 10 February 2016 – Alarmed by an outbreak of deadly Lassa Fever, UNICEF and World Health Organization officials in Benin are scaling up an emergency response to help prevent further spread of the disease.
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Cytomegalovirus causes microcephaly in babies, and it’s much wider spread than Zika

Cytomegalovirus causes microcephaly in babies, and it’s much wider spread than Zika | Virology News | Scoop.it
The potential link between the Zika virus and brain malformations in babies is terrifying pregnant women around the world. But even in places not hit by the virus, kids are at risk of being born with microcephaly, or a smaller-than-average brain. Many of those cases are caused by a virus you’ve probably never heard of:...
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