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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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Ebola will return', veteran scientist warns

Ebola will return', veteran scientist warns | Virology News | Scoop.it

Congolese expert Jean-Jacques Muyembe may be little known to the public, but he has been one of the world's top Ebola investigators since the first epidemic erupted in central Africa in 1976.

Now, amid a decline in a west African outbreak that has taken more than 11,000 lives, Muyembe warns that Ebola will strike again in the future and that the deadly virus poses "a threat to the whole world".

Muyembe studied medicine in Kinshasa and at the University of Leuven in Belgium. He returned home to the Democratic Republic of Congo -- then known as Zaire -- in 1976, when the northern village of Yambuku was struck by a mysterious disease.

"They said many people were dying, and the health ministry asked me to go investigate," Muyembe told AFP.

He initially thought it could be a case of typhoid fever but he decided to continue investigating until he got to the bottom of it.

"I drew blood, and had no protective gloves or clothing," Muyembe said.

Accompanied by a Belgian nun suffering from fever, he returned from Yambuku to Kinshasa.

It was her blood samples, shipped in a makeshift cooler to the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, that enabled scientist Peter Piot to identify the worm-looking virus for the first time

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Yup...I've been following it since it started, and like pandemic flu, this is the one sure thing.  It WILL come again.

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Genomes Point the Way

Genomes Point the Way | Virology News | Scoop.it
Sequence analysis of Egyptian, Ethiopian, and non-African peoples indicates a likely route taken by modern humans migrating out of Africa.
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We all come from Africa...and some of us went back.

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Ebola researcher on rush for a vaccine

The lead researcher on an Ebola vaccine says the "extraordinary" rush may raise questions about how it is deployed. The lead researcher on an Ebola vaccine s...
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HIV Treatment Should Start at Diagnosis, US Health Officials Say

HIV Treatment Should Start at Diagnosis, US Health Officials Say | Virology News | Scoop.it
Federal health officials announced the new guidelines after a clinical trial showed pronounced benefits for people put on antiretroviral drugs as soon as they learned they were infected.
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Bird flu could be as deadly as the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic

Bird flu could be as deadly as the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic | Virology News | Scoop.it
Scientists must be allowed to work on deadly viruses in labs to ward off future outbreaks, Professor Derek Smith argues
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Ebola: Skip Randomized Trials, Experts Urge

Ebola: Skip Randomized Trials, Experts Urge | Virology News | Scoop.it
Other forms of study could get drugs to Ebola patients more quickly, they say.
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The most predictable disaster in the history of the human race. And it's not zombies.

...there's something out there that's as bad as war, something that kills as many people as war, and Gates doesn't think we're ready for it.

"Look at the death chart of the 20th century," he says, because he's the kind of guy that looks at death charts. "I think everybody would say there must be a spike for World War I. Sure enough, there it is, like 25 million. And there must be a big spike for World War II, and there it is, it's like 65 million. But then you'll see this other spike that is as large as World War II right after World War I, and most people, would say, 'What was that?'"

"Well, that was the Spanish flu."

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Yeah, yeah, yeah: there's a lot of people being saying similar things for a long time.  But now it's Bill Gates, so governments MAY pay attention!

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Shingles: a Slideshow

Shingles: a Slideshow | Virology News | Scoop.it
Caused by the same virus behind chickenpox, shingles is a painful nerve root infection resulting in a skin rash. What does the shingles rash looks like? Who’s at risk? And who needs the shingles vaccine?
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Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China

Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China | Virology News | Scoop.it
Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China Newsroom America On 9 May 2015, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 6 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian...
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South Korea Confirms Third Case of MERS Virus

Newsweek South Korea Confirms Third Case of MERS Virus Newsweek The two most recent cases in South Korea are people who became infected after being in contact with the first case, who tested positive for the virus following a trip to the Middle...
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New study reveals highly contagious stomach virus may spread through air

New study reveals highly contagious stomach virus may spread through air | Virology News | Scoop.it
ST. PAUL, Minn. (KARE) - Every year, noroviruses sicken people on cruise ships, in nursing  homes and in schools. Norovirus, which is also called the stomach flu, is a highly contagious virus that ...
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Nothing to do with the stomach - intestinal!!

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Biotechnology will 'increase Uganda’s GDP'

Biotechnology will 'increase Uganda’s GDP' | Virology News | Scoop.it
State minister Fred Omach believes that Uganda''s GDP can add 2% on the average annual 7% if biotechnology is embraced.
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New Avian influenza strains now have vaccines: H5N1 and H7N9

New Avian influenza strains now have vaccines: H5N1 and H7N9 | Virology News | Scoop.it
United States researchers have now developed vaccines which are capable of protecting chickens from a couple of brand new strains of avian influenza that have the ability of being transmitted to hu...
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Scanning for SIV's Sanctuaries in whole monkeys

Scanning for SIV's Sanctuaries in whole monkeys | Virology News | Scoop.it
Whole-body immunoPET scans of SIV-infected macaques reveal where the replicating virus hides.
 
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Isn't technology wonderful?

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Seoul confirms seventh MERS case

Seoul confirms seventh MERS case | Virology News | Scoop.it
South Korea confirmed its sixth and seventh MERS cases Thursday, surpassing Iran as the country with the fifth-highest number of MERS cases in the world. The two newly confirmed cases are in a health care worker and a patient. Both had been at the same medical facility where the first confirmed patient was being treated prior to his diagnosis from May 15 to 17. The newly diagnosed patient was not even on the authorit...
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Are we seeing breakout...?

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Breakthrough HIV study could change course of treatment for millions

Breakthrough HIV study could change course of treatment for millions | Virology News | Scoop.it
A large-scale trial shows that HIV meds work best when started earlier.
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Ivory Coast confirms H5N1 bird flu outbreak

Ivory Coast confirms H5N1 bird flu outbreak | Virology News | Scoop.it
Ivory Coast has confirmed an outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 bird flu last month among backyard birds in the central town of Bouake, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) said on Thursday.
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World health body wants vaccination drive to avert 1.5 million child deaths yearly

BOGOTA (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - One fifth of the world's children still do not receive routine vaccinations that could prevent 1.5 million deaths a year from preventable diseases, the World Health...
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Cold sore virus 'can target skin cancer'

A research team involving the Institute of Cancer Research in London and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust say it is the first time that a large, randomised trial of viral immunotherapy has been shown to be a viable treatment for patients with...
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Herpes virus hijackers

Herpes virus hijackers | Virology News | Scoop.it
The virus responsible for the common cold sore hijacks the machinery within our cells, causing them to break down and help shield the virus from our immune system, researchers from the University of Cambridge and colleagues in Germany have discovered.
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Bird Flu Spreading [in the US] as Scientists Look Everywhere for Clues

Bird Flu Spreading [in the US] as Scientists Look Everywhere for Clues | Virology News | Scoop.it
Could it be blowing from farm to farm in the dirt? Could determined starlings and pigeons be carrying it into poultry houses on their feet? Is it spreading i...
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Farm workers. Just saying.

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GroundUp: Hout Bay’s scrapyard sculptors

GroundUp: Hout Bay’s scrapyard sculptors | Virology News | Scoop.it
Chenjerai Mutasa and Isaac Mukonde are Zimbabwean artists who bring to life the junk that we toss out. Using old car parts, wire, drift wood, metal and stone — mostly accrued from the scrapyard — they build beautiful and imaginative sculptures.
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I have a weakness for Zimbabwean sculpture....

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Celiac Disease Lowers Hepatitis B Vaccine Response

Medscape Celiac Disease Lowers Hepatitis B Vaccine Response Medscape LEIPZIG, Germany — In children with celiac disease, immunologic response to the hepatitis B vaccine is impaired, and neither a gluten-free diet nor boosters appear to improve...
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A Message for the Anti Vaccine Movement

Ed Rybicki's insight:

I would add: it's not you that'll get sick BECAUSE YOUR PARENTS VACCINATED YOU, MORONS! - but your kids. And that's a crime.

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U.S. bird flu causes egg shortage, emergency measures

U.S. bird flu causes egg shortage, emergency measures | Virology News | Scoop.it
CHICAGO/NEW YORK (Reuters) - As a virulent avian influenza outbreak continues to spread across the Midwestern United States, some egg-dependent companies are contemplating drastic steps - importing eggs...
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