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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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Major neurosciences initiative launched at UCT and Groote Schuur

Major neurosciences initiative launched at UCT and Groote Schuur | Virology News | Scoop.it
Major neurosciences initiative launched at UCT and Groote Schuur
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Meanwhile. away from faeces-throwing and statues...

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2,000 died in UK through blood infected with HIV or Hep C 30 yrs ago

2,000 died in UK through blood infected with HIV or Hep C 30 yrs ago | Virology News | Scoop.it
The Government will apologise this week for the infection of thousands of patients with deadly diseases through contaminated blood products, three decades ago.
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Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity

Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity | Virology News | Scoop.it

Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order “Megavirales” that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources along with additional acquisitions of diverse genes.

 

Graphic by Ed Rybicki

  

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Wow...!  A tour de force.  Quite simply, says it all.  REALLY nice piece of work!!  And of course, they back me up in my view of how ss(-)RNA viruses evolved. Again B-)

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Rabenstein, Frank's curator insight, March 23, 10:59 AM

Thank you Ed for this.

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Vaccines Face Same Mistrust That Fed Ebola

Vaccines Face Same Mistrust That Fed Ebola | Virology News | Scoop.it
The same mix of fear and distrust that helped the Ebola epidemic spread is hampering doctors conducting trials on new medicines.
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Human Papillomavirus (HPV): animated video

View more NUCLEUS medical animations at http://www.nucleuslibrary.com If you like this animation, LIKE us on Facebook: http://www.nucleusinc.com/facebook htt...
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Really useful little movie!

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Korean Rhinoceros Beetle Industry Threatened by Virus

Korean Rhinoceros Beetle Industry Threatened by Virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
By Josh Lancette In Korea, a rhinoceros beetle called Allomyrina dichotoma has traditionally been raised for medicinal uses. Some Koreans believe it to be effective against liver disease and diabet...
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There's an industry fr rhinoceros beetles??  Who knew?

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[US] Government Accused Of Letting Gay Men Die By Denying Boys HPV Vaccine

The virus causes an array of different cancers, as well as genital warts, yet only girls are vaccinated. Four doctors tell BuzzFeed News this is homophobic and sexist.
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Herpes Pill Might Control HIV

Herpes Pill Might Control HIV | Virology News | Scoop.it
A pill developed to fight herpes might help control the AIDS virus, researchers reported Friday.The drug's called valacyclovir and it's prescribed to people ...
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Flu Virus in China Has Pandemic Potential, Scientists Say

Flu Virus in China Has Pandemic Potential, Scientists Say | Virology News | Scoop.it
A dangerous influenza virus spreading in China's live poultry markets has the potential to become a worldwide pandemic, researchers say. They are calling for these markets to be permanently close...
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New $1 Vaccine Could Save Hundreds of Thousands of Babies

New $1 Vaccine Could Save Hundreds of Thousands of Babies | Virology News | Scoop.it
Developed in India, it’s the world’s cheapest vaccine to protect against rotavirus.
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World’s first successful penile transplant performed in Cape Town

World’s first successful penile transplant performed in Cape Town | Virology News | Scoop.it
The University of Stellenbosch’s medical department has announced the performance of the world’s successful first penile transplant in Cape Town.
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No comment B-)  Apart from the obvious, of course.

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Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses

Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
Although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. Through RNA sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense RNA viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. With this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain viruses that fall basal to major virus groups, including the vertebrate-specific arenaviruses, filoviruses, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, lyssaviruses, and paramyxoviruses. We similarly documented a remarkable diversity of genome structures in arthropod viruses, including a putative circular form, that sheds new light on the evolution of genome organization. Hence, arthropods are a major reservoir of viral genetic diversity and have likely been central to viral evolution.

 

Graphic from Ed Rybicki: http://www.mcb.uct.ac.za/tutorial/virorig.html

Ed Rybicki's insight:
Ed Rybicki's insight:

I do so love it when I'm proven right....

 

"other ssRNA viruses – such as the negative sense mononegaviruses, Order Mononegavirales, which group includes Ebola, measles and mumps and rabies viruses – may be evolutionarily much younger.  In this latter case, the viruses all have the same basic genome with genes in the same order and helical nucleocapsids within differently-shaped enveloped particles.  Their host ranges also indicate that they originated in insects: the ones with more than one phylum of host either infect vertebrates and insects or plants and insects, while some infect insects only, or only vertebrates – indicating a possible evolutionary origin in insects, and a subsequent evolutionary divergence in them and in their feeding targets."

 

Thanks to Alan Cann for pointing this out!

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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, March 8, 11:08 AM

I do so love it when I'm proven right....

 

"other ssRNA viruses – such as the negative sense mononegaviruses, Order Mononegavirales, which group includes Ebola, measles and mumps and rabies viruses – may be evolutionarily much younger.  In this latter case, the viruses all have the same basic genome with genes in the same order and helical nucleocapsids within differently-shaped enveloped particles.  Their host ranges also indicate that they originated in insects: the ones with more than one phylum of host either infect vertebrates and insects or plants and insects, while some infect insects only, or only vertebrates – indicating a possible evolutionary origin in insects, and a subsequent evolutionary divergence in them and in their feeding targets."


Thanks to Alan Cann for pointing this out!

Rabenstein, Frank's curator insight, Today, 9:48 AM

Interestingly, a virus was discovered in the the horsefly pool that showed sequence homology to tenuiviruses (like rice grass stunt virus) despite the fact that this virus lacked the ambisense coding strategy of teniuviruses. It was discussed that  it  possibly represents an intermediary form between plant infecting and arthropod-specific viruses.

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Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Giant Mimivirus Particle with an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Giant Mimivirus Particle with an X-Ray Free-Electron Laser | Virology News | Scoop.it

We present a proof-of-concept three-dimensional reconstruction of the giant mimivirus particle from experimentally measured diffraction patterns from an x-ray free-electron laser. Three-dimensional imaging requires the assembly of many two-dimensional patterns into an internally consistent Fourier volume. Since each particle is randomly oriented when exposed to the x-ray pulse, relative orientations have to be retrieved from the diffraction data alone. We achieve this with a modified version of the expand, maximize and compress algorithm and validate our result using new methods.


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Avian influenza H7N9 human infection emerged 2 years ago...

Seems like only 365 days ago I wrote about H7N9 being 1 year old.
Now - it's another year later.

Via Mel Melendrez-Vallard
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Measles Could Cause More Deaths Than Ebola In West Africa

Measles Could Cause More Deaths Than Ebola In West Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
West Africa's Ebola outbreak could be stanched by mid-year – but in the epidemic's wake, another public health crisis looms. Disruption of the region's already feeble health care systems has derailed health campaigns targeting childhood diseases, leaving the door wide open for measles and other preventable illnesses.

Via Chris Upton + helpers
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Ever wondered how biotech seeds are made?

Ever wondered how biotech seeds are made? Their story begins with the world's first farmers 10,000 years ago…

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Really well done little infographic story

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The Gambian despot who 'cured HIV-AIDS' and his British homoeopath allies

The Gambian despot who 'cured HIV-AIDS' and his British homoeopath allies | Virology News | Scoop.it
President Yahyah Jammeh, the dictator who has defied medical opinion since 2007 by claiming to have found a cure for HIV-AIDS, has found allies in a British homoeopathic group sponsored by the official suppliers of homoeopathic medicine to the Royal...
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F*ckwits, all.

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'Rich men fuel spread of HIV' - The Zimbabwe Standard

'Rich men fuel spread of HIV' - The Zimbabwe Standard | Virology News | Scoop.it
Minister of State for Manicaland Provincial Affairs Mandiitawepi Chimene has accused rich people of spreading HIV by using their money to entice vulnerable women into having unprotected sex.
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MERS kills 10 in Saudi after surge in virus deaths

MERS kills 10 in Saudi after surge in virus deaths | Virology News | Scoop.it
Ten more people have died in Saudi Arabia from the MERS virus since last week, health ministry data showed on Friday, adding to a surge in cases over the past month.
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WHO urges stepped-up battle against hepatitis B

WHO urges stepped-up battle against hepatitis B | Virology News | Scoop.it
The world can beat the liver-attacking hepatitis B virus, which results in some 650.000 deaths a year, the World Health Organization said Thursday, releasing its first treatment guidelines for the disease.
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Lack of Ebola Cases Shifts Vaccine Trials Away From Liberia

Lack of Ebola Cases Shifts Vaccine Trials Away From Liberia | Virology News | Scoop.it
Scientists are racing against the clock to create a vaccine before the outbreak is over
Ed Rybicki's insight:

So different to just a few weeks ago - but very welcome.

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FDA Gives HIV 'Functional Cure' Go-Ahead For Human Trials

FDA Gives HIV 'Functional Cure' Go-Ahead For Human Trials | Virology News | Scoop.it
The FDA has approved the continuation of human trials on a possible functional cure for HIV and AIDs patients.
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A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses

A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
Now much updated, streamlined, added to and otherwise tarted up!  This is the Web version of an iBook, which you can ask me for. Part 1: Filters and Discovery Part 2: The Ultracentrifuge, Eggs and ...
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Rabenstein, Frank's curator insight, Today, 9:07 AM

An excellent review about the discovery of viruses.

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Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction | Virology News | Scoop.it
Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years.
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A Third Rotary Motor Has Now Been Found in Bacteria

A Third Rotary Motor Has Now Been Found in Bacteria | Virology News | Scoop.it
Evolution News and Views (ENV) provides original reporting and analysis about the debate over intelligent design and evolution.

Via Kenzibit
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They go on a bit about "irreducible complexity", but if yoiu ignore that, it's really interesting: like finding your car has a crankshaft you didn't know about!

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