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PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation

PLOS ONE: Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Lungs of Mice following Intra-Tracheal Inoculation | Virology News | Scoop.it

Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to determine if TMV is detectable, persists, and remains viable in the lung tissues of mice following intratracheal inoculation, and we attempted to inoculate mouse macrophages with TMV. In the animal model, mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1011 viral particles and were sacrificed at different time points. The virus was detected in the mouse lungs using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, real-time RT-PCR and sequencing, and its viability was studied with an infectivity assay on plants. In the cellular model, the culture medium of murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) was inoculated with different concentrations of TMV, and the virus was detected with real-time RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, anti-TMV antibodies were detected in mouse sera with ELISA. We showed that infectious TMV could enter and persist in mouse lungs via the intratracheal route. Over 14 days, the TMV RNA level decreased by 5 log10 copies/ml in the mouse lungs and by 3.5 log10 in macrophages recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage. TMV was localized to lung tissue, and its infectivity was observed on plants until 3 days after inoculation. In addition, anti-TMV antibody seroconversions were observed in the sera from mice 7 days after inoculation. In the cellular model, we observed that TMV persisted over 15 days after inoculation and it was visualized in the cytoplasm of the BMDM. This work shows that a plant virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, could persist and enter in cells in mammals, which raises questions about the potential interactions between TMV and human hosts.

 
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting paper!  Which proves...which proves...which proves TMV is seriously resistant to degradation in animals and in mammalian cells; that it can enter macrophages; and that it...what?  What, exactly, are the "...questions about the possible interactions..."?  What would TMV do in mammalian cells?  Yes, it might be incoated and be translated; it is far less likely that it MIGHT be able to replicate its RNA - and then?  While it can apparently be taken up quite efficiently by macrophages - a property which, incidentally, has led to its being trialled as an RNA vaccine delivery system - this is a dead end, and one that is quite normal for particles of any kind being introduced into mammals.

 

Which is something that happens every day, as we and our cousin mammals eat: it has been shown elsewhere that animals are actually quite good spreaders of plant viruses, some of which - like TMV and the even tougher Cauliflower mosaic virus - pass right through at high survival rates, and remain infectious.  We will all probably have eaten many grams of various viruses in our lives, and derived nothing more than nutition from them.

 

I also remember, even though it was very late at night, 31 years ago, and in a bar in Banff in Canada, a conversation with one Richard Zeyen, who told me they had used ELISA to test everyone in their lab for antibodies for TMV, seeing as they worked with it.  And everyone was immune - presumably, to aerosolised TMV that had been breathed in or otherwise ingested.  Proving...that oral vaccines based on TMV could work, and that most of us are probably immune to all sorts of viruses that don't replicate in us.  Including, in the case of many people in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, sampled by one Don Hendry via the local blood bank, to a virus of Pine Emperor moths - because it multiples to such high levels in its host that anyone walking in the pine forests was bound to be exposed via the environment.

 

So this is an interesting paper - and no more.  It will, of course, lead to alarmist articles ad blog posts, and people calling out for urgent surveillance of food, in which people will find many viruses.  And so what?

 

 

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FDA Grants Fast Track Designation to RSV F-Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine

FDA Grants Fast Track Designation to RSV F-Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Novavax, Inc., a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of recombinant nanoparticle vaccines and adjuvants, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track Designation to Novavax’ RSV F-Protein nanoparticle vaccine candidate (RSV F vaccine) for protection of infants via maternal immunization.
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Ebola: experiences at the frontline

Ebola: experiences at the frontline | Virology News | Scoop.it

"There is a lot of talk but not enough action in the global response to containing the disease in West Africa. We need rational responses and not those fuelled by panic," says Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) doctor Gem Patten.

 Folk from UCT sharing their experiences on Ebola.
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Peculiarities of Prion Diseases

Peculiarities of Prion Diseases | Virology News | Scoop.it
Prion diseases (PrDs) are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative diseases naturally occurring in humans and animals, “mad cow” disease being the most infamous. Their development and propagation requires endogenous prion protein (PrP) and derives from the conversion of PrP to a misfolded form, which combines with other misfolded PrP molecules to form small nuclei (seeds). The seeds can then result in an exponential increase in additional misfolded PrP molecules, eventually accumulating into large aggregates. However, the physiological roles of normal and misfolded PrP, mechanisms of the conformational transition, and the associated nature of the infectious and neurotoxic agents still remain enigmatic. In this review, we address five questions regarding PrDs that we are frequently asked by laypeople and scientists new to the field.
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Now HERE'S a useful review!

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Scientists find promise in ‘back boost’ study for future flu vaccine

Scientists find promise in ‘back boost’ study for future flu vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it

Developing a seasonal flu vaccine has long challenged scientists, as predicting the strain that will impact the public in any given year involves an educated guessing game. The flu, like the Ebola virus, is comprised of RNA, not DNA, genes. These viruses’ distinct genetic makeup enables them to mutate and evolve efficiently— sometimes long after a vaccination has been developed and distributed, leaving even the vaccinated public vulnerable to infection.

But U.K. researchers have discovered a potential solution to this problem: considering an individual’s antibody response to develop a stronger flu vaccine.

 
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Top 5 cities that will [NOT!] be affected by the Ebola virus by New Years Eve

Top 5 cities that will [NOT!] be affected by the Ebola virus by New Years Eve | Virology News | Scoop.it
Shocking cities who will have the Ebola virus. Is your city on the list? Also, find out why it is on the list!
Ed Rybicki's insight:

How. UNBELIEVABLY! Amerocentric is this list??

Where is Lagos - bigger than a couple of the others COMBINED??

Where is Accra? Johannesburg? London? Paris?  ALL closer to the action, and with more flights from the area, than ANY US city?  Ah, me...

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New chemotherapy approach to treating HPV-related cervical cancer

New chemotherapy approach to treating HPV-related cervical cancer | Virology News | Scoop.it
Barcelona, Spain: A drug that is already well established as a treatment for infection of the retina in people with AIDS has been shown, for the first time, to sensitise cervical cancer to chemotherapy and radiotherapy without an increase in toxic
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Mysterious virus linked to sea stars turning into ooze

Mysterious virus linked to sea stars turning into ooze | Virology News | Scoop.it
Large starfish known as Pisaster are literally turning to goo on the western coast of Vancouver Island — both on beaches and in experimental aquariums.
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New vaccine generates strong immune response against hepatitis C

New vaccine generates strong immune response against hepatitis C | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new hepatitis C vaccine has shown promising results in an early clinical trial at Oxford University, generating strong and broad immune responses against the virus causing the disease.
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Destructive strawberry virus under control in Nova Scotia

Destructive strawberry virus under control in Nova Scotia | Virology News | Scoop.it
A strawberry virus that devastated Nova Scotia crops last year is under control, a specialist testified during a legislature committee on Thursday.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Just to show you they have virus problems in North America too.

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Viruses as a Cure

Viruses as a Cure | Virology News | Scoop.it
Our bodies are home to trillions of viruses, and new research hints that some of them may actually be keeping us healthy.

 

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Another great, thoughtful piece by Carl Zimmer.

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Canada begins domestic trial of experimental Ebola vaccine

Canada begins domestic trial of experimental Ebola vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
TORONTO (Reuters) - Canada has launched a clinical trial of an experimental Ebola vaccine developed at its national microbiology laboratory and expects to have the results in early 2015, the government said on Friday.
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Low HPV vaccine rates correlate with high cervical cancer risk

Low HPV vaccine rates correlate with high cervical cancer risk | Virology News | Scoop.it
Cervical cancer is less common in states where HPV vaccines are more common, a new study from the University of North Carolina reveals.
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Merck enters the Ebola Vaccine Race

Merck enters the Ebola Vaccine Race | Virology News | Scoop.it

Merck has struck a agreement with NewLink Genetics to licence their investigationalEbola vaccine, rVSV-EBOV. The $50 million agreement gives Merck exclusive rights to develop, manufacture, and distribute the vaccine across the world.

This partnership should allow NewLink to keep pace with the huge effort by GlaxoSmithKline and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to developer their Ebola vaccine candidate.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

FINALLY, Big Pharma starts to jostle for position with Ebola vaccines. FINALLY!

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Taking More Than One Vaccine at a Time Doesn't Hurt!

Taking More Than One Vaccine at a Time Doesn't Hurt! | Virology News | Scoop.it
The specific antigens given in vaccines represent only a small portion of the daily stimuli the immune system has to deal with.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

ANYONE who has done some immunology could tell you that - but there are distressingly few of us...B-(

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Erik Carter's comment, November 21, 10:52 AM
However, while it's not dangerous to give multiple vaccines at once, it can prove detrimental to the development of a good immune response. I used to work in a viral immunology lab that looked at heterologous immunity as well as simultaneous infections. If you're interested, look into Liisa Selin's research as UMass Medical School. It's very interesting, and a lot of fun to do.
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Biologists discover HIV-like virus - in microbes in hot springs

Biologists discover HIV-like virus - in microbes in hot springs | Virology News | Scoop.it
It lives in volcanic hot springs, and studying it will give researchers a better understanding of how to treat the disease.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Yah, Sure. Sure it will...as my good wife, sitting here beside me says, "Why wouldn't you just study HIV? Or SIV? Or another lentivirus??"

Seriously: just like any breakthrough in crystallography of virus proteins "will lead to better vaccines!".

Maybe. If we're lucky.  Meanwhile, this is just another of Science By Hype.

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Vaccine against Chikungunya successful in phase 1

Vaccine against Chikungunya successful in phase 1 | Virology News | Scoop.it
The induction of neutralizing antibodies by a prophylactic Chikungunya vaccine candidate has now been confirmed by the final results of a phase 1 clinical trial, as well as its tolerability and safety.
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Fast-Track Ebola Vaccine Effort Hits Potholes -- Real Ones -- in Africa

Fast-Track Ebola Vaccine Effort Hits Potholes -- Real Ones -- in Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
Deep inside a drug manufacturing plant in an industrial district of suburban Rome, vials of Ebola vaccine sit in freezers, chilled to minus 70 degrees Celsius with the help of liquid nitrogen. Much warmer -- say, the temperature in outdated kerosene-fueled fridges in some West African villages -- risks destroying the drug.
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Study Shows HPV Vaccine DOES Lower Rates of Cervical Cancer

Study Shows HPV Vaccine DOES Lower Rates of Cervical Cancer | Virology News | Scoop.it
Study shows how the HPV vaccine is really working http://t.co/FGvUJ8DgPO
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Yup. Next question??

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Study will test survivors' blood to treat Ebola

Study will test survivors' blood to treat Ebola | Virology News | Scoop.it
A coalition of companies and aid groups announced plans Tuesday to test experimental drugs and collect blood plasma from Ebola survivors to treat new victims of the disease in West Africa. Plasma from ...
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One in eight gay and bisexual men in London living with HIV

One in eight gay and bisexual men in London living with HIV | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new report published by Public Health England shows one in eight gay and bisexual men in London are now living with HIV
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Distressingly high - as high as the overall prevalence in South Africa!

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Are we on the verge of a new Ebola-like virus outbreak?

Are we on the verge of a new Ebola-like virus outbreak? | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new study provides the first evidence that a family of deadly viruses - known as henipaviruses - may have jumped from bats to humans in Africa.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

It's NEVER safe to impinge upon the jungle. Or fruit bats.

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Can Ebola Be Transmitted Sexually?

Can Ebola Be Transmitted Sexually? | Virology News | Scoop.it
Technically yes, though it's never actually happened
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Ummmmmmm...that is not so certain. But worth taking note that Indian immigration want semen samples before they'll clear someone who has recovered.

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Kenya’s Catholic bishops: Tetanus vaccine is birth control in disguise. FAIL!

Kenya’s Catholic bishops: Tetanus vaccine is birth control in disguise. FAIL! | Virology News | Scoop.it
A row between the Catholic Church and the government over a tetanus vaccine aimed at women in their childbearing years has clergy urging people to shun the injection, saying it’s a stealth population-control ploy.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Need a Popeslap....

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