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Virology - Plant virus expression vectors set the stage as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins

Virology - Plant virus expression vectors set the stage as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins | Virology News | Scoop.it

"Transgenic plants present enormous potential as a cost-effective and safe platform for large-scale production of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. A number of different technologies are under development for the production of pharmaceutical proteins from plant tissues. One method used to express high levels of protein in plants involves the employment of plant virus expression vectors. Plant virus vectors have been designed to carry vaccine epitopes as well as full therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies in plant tissue both safely and effectively. Biopharmaceuticals such as these offer enormous potential on many levels, from providing relief to those who have little access to modern medicine, to playing an active role in the battle against cancer. This review describes the current design and status of plant virus expression vectors used as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins."

 

And of course, let it not be forgotten that our group has pioneered the use of mastreviruses in this regard: maize streak virus in 1999-2001, and bean yellow dwarf in 2010 and since.

Investigation of the potential of maize streak virus to act as an infectious gene vector in maize plants.


Palmer KE, Rybicki EP.
Arch Virol. 2001;146(6):1089-104.


Generation of maize cell lines containing autonomously replicating maize streak virus-based gene vectors.
Palmer KE, Thomson JA, Rybicki EP.
Arch Virol. 1999;144(7):1345-60.

 

High level protein expression in plants through the use of a novel autonomously replicating geminivirus shuttle vector.
Regnard GL, Halley-Stott RP, Tanzer FL, Hitzeroth II, Rybicki EP.
Plant Biotechnol J. 2010 Jan;8(1):38-46. Epub 2009 Nov 19.

 

...not to mention a treatise on ssDNA virus vectors in plants:

 

Virus-Derived ssDNA Vectors for the Expression of Foreign Proteins in Plants.
Rybicki EP, Martin DP.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2011 Oct 29. [Epub ahead of print]


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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
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How Mutant Viral Swarms Spread Disease

How Mutant Viral Swarms Spread Disease | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new understanding of viral swarms is helping researchers predict how viruses will evolve and where disease is likely to spread.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Gotta love those mutant viral swarms...aka quasispecies, unless I miss my guess?

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Seals Have Closest-Related Virus to Hepatitis A

Seals Have Closest-Related Virus to Hepatitis A | Virology News | Scoop.it
Columbia University researchers recently discovered a hepatitis A-like virus in seals off New England's coast.
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HPV infection of placentas linked to pregnancy complications

HPV infection of placentas linked to pregnancy complications | Virology News | Scoop.it
In a landmark study, University of Otago researchers have found that human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect the placenta and is linked to several pregnancy complications, including the potentially fatal disorder pre-eclampsia.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting...!  Yet another good reason to get vaccinated.

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Earlier is better for HIV treatment

Earlier is better for HIV treatment | Virology News | Scoop.it
People infected with HIV benefit from starting a drug regimen early, an international study finds.
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Sierra Leone begins 42-day countdown to be declared free of Ebola virus

Sierra Leone begins 42-day countdown to be declared free of Ebola virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Sierra Leone today began its countdown to be declared by the World Health Organization as free of Ebola virus transmission as the West African nation’s President described the release of the last patient treated for the disease at a treatment centre...
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Universal flu vaccine comes closer, scientists say - BBC News

Universal flu vaccine comes closer, scientists say - BBC News | Virology News | Scoop.it
Researchers say they are closer to developing a universal ‘catch all’ flu jab after promising trials in animals.
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It's always closer...just like the Rand will improve.

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HPV/Cervical Dysplasia

As mentioned, this video was hard for me to make. It is something I never thought I would have to deal with ever. Last July 2014, when I got the dreaded call I just ...
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Ebola - 5 vaccine lessons

More than a year on from the start of the Ebola epidemic, the world has been hard at work trying to learn from the factors that have so far contributed to over 11,000 deaths.

Despite promising results from the recent Ebola vaccine trials, there are still signs that important lessons about research, health systems and vaccine preparedness have yet to be learned. Here, Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, draws them out in a TED talk delivered earlier this year in Vancouver.
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Effectiveness of less than three doses of Gardasil

Effectiveness of less than three doses of Gardasil | Virology News | Scoop.it
Background

Optimised two-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine schedules are now endorsed for young adolescents by the World Health Organization. Limited data are available about effectiveness of <3 doses using a standard dose schedule.

Methods

Deterministic data linkage was undertaken between the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry and National HPV Vaccination Program Register to determine quadrivalent HPV vaccination status and incidence of cervical pathology among vaccine eligible women (aged 26 years or younger in 2007) screened in Victoria, Australia between April 2007 and December 2011. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for age, socioeconomic status and area of residence. Women were stratified into those vaccinated before or after first screen.

Results

Any number of doses (1, 2 or 3) were associated with lower rates of high grade and low grade cytology diagnoses as long as doses were given before screening commencement (one dose HR high grade 0.44 (95% CI 0.32–0.59), one dose low grade 0.48 (95% CI 0.40–0.58); two doses HR high grade 0.63 (95% CI 0.50–0.80), HR low grade 0.52 (95% CI 0.44–0.61); three doses HR high grade 0.53 (95% CI 0.47–0.60), HR low grade 0.73 (95% CI 0.68–0.78)). Three doses of vaccine, but not fewer, were associated with reduced risk of high grade histologically confirmed abnormality in this cohort, regardless of whether vaccination occurred before or after screening (HR before 0.71 (95% CI 0.64–0.80), HR after 0.87 (95% CI 0.82–0.93)). Secondary analyses censoring end points occurring within 1, 6, 12, or 24 months of final vaccine dose suggested an increasing effect of partial vaccination courses over time.

Conclusion

Our data suggest that less than three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides some protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, even when measured within 5 years in a population including those who were sexually active at the time of vaccination.

  
Ed Rybicki's insight:

New journal - and Open Access!

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Ebola epidemic : Nature News & Comment

Ebola epidemic : Nature News & Comment | Virology News | Scoop.it

Even if Ebola has faded from the headlines, the danger remains. As the largest and most deadly outbreak of Ebola winds down, scientists and public health officials are looking closely at what it will take to finish the job and to prepare better for the next big crisis. The apparent success of a nimble and creative clinical trial for a vaccine is a positive and instructive outcome. But many of the most important lessons come from failures in preparedness.

 
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Bio-Control of Salmonella Enteritidis in Foods Using Bacteriophages

Bio-Control of Salmonella Enteritidis in Foods Using Bacteriophages | Virology News | Scoop.it
Two lytic phages, vB_SenM-PA13076 (PA13076) and vB_SenM-PC2184 (PC2184), were isolated from chicken sewage and characterized with host strains Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) ATCC13076 and CVCC2184, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that they belonged to the family Myoviridae. The lytic abilities of these two phages in liquid culture showed 104 multiplicity of infection (MOI) was the best in inhibiting bacteria, with PC2184 exhibiting more activity than PA13076. The two phages
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Good current stuff - and something that I bet is going to get a lot more important as time goes on.

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The entire African continent has been declared free of ‘wild’ polio cases

The entire African continent has been declared free of ‘wild’ polio cases | Virology News | Scoop.it
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has announced that the entire African continent has been free of wild polio cases for the past year, thanks to a dedicated vaccine campaign. This means that no one has been infected with the virus anywhere in...
Ed Rybicki's insight:

I hope it lasts - I SOOOOOOO hope it lasts! But all it takes is one hajji coming home, where they met another from Afghanistan or Pakistan, or a merchant coming.....

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Back to School Tips for Avoiding the Wart Virus

Back to School Tips for Avoiding the Wart Virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
It’s back to school time. Are you prepared for everything kids will be bringing home? There’s homework, new friends and for many, viruses.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Ah, the innocence of youth: when the only papillomaviruses to fear are the ones on your hands and feet...B-)

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Why worries about a MERS virus outbreak at the Hajj are probably overblown

The virus has never spread outside of hospitals for a sustained period of time.
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Spain detects first ever case of mosquito-borne chikungunya virus

Spain detects first ever case of mosquito-borne chikungunya virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Officials say Valencia man ‘most likely’ infected with painful viral disease in Gandia, a seaside Mediterranean resort
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Hey, ex Africa semper aliquid novi!  Or emerging, in this case.

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HPV DNA Detected in Mouthwash Predicts Oral Cancer Recurrence

HPV DNA Detected in Mouthwash Predicts Oral Cancer Recurrence | Virology News | Scoop.it
Patients who have HPV 16 DNA in their saliva following treatment of their oropharyngeal cancer are more likely to have their cancer recur, and a prospective cohort study has shown that a simple mouth rinse can be used to detect it.
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Data is helping Uganda eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission

Data is helping Uganda eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission | Virology News | Scoop.it
Today in Uganda, creative approaches are helping eliminate mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) and leading to fewer and fewer babies being born HIV-infected.
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Jailing of Gay Men in Senegal Setback to HIV Fight in Africa

Jailing of Gay Men in Senegal Setback to HIV Fight in Africa | Virology News | Scoop.it
Activists say sentencing of 7 men to 6 months in prison, based on police discovery of condoms and lubricant, is hammer blow to groups promoting safe sex
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HPV vaccine making a difference in infection rates - Mayo Clinic

HPV vaccine making a difference in infection rates - Mayo Clinic | Virology News | Scoop.it
Researchers have found that since the introduction of the HPV vaccine, infection rates have dropped by almost 50 percent.
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Influenza vaccine also prevents heart attacks

Influenza vaccine also prevents heart attacks | Virology News | Scoop.it
Giving universal access to the flu vaccine to anybody aged over 50 is likely to save many more lives, a study has found.

 

It is like riding a bicycle to avoid the traffic and accidentally getting fit.

People who get the flu vaccine are less likely to have a heart attack.

A study by University of NSW researchers has found that people who have been vaccinated against influenza are 29 per cent less likely to have a heart attack - representing a greater protective effect than ceasing smoking and nearly as much as taking statins.

 

They are now advocating that the flu vaccine be provided free of charge to everybody aged over 50, extending the current scheme that makes it available to people over 65.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Russell, this means you and me...B-)

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A Man Shed Live Polio Virus In His Stool For 28 Years

A Man Shed Live Polio Virus In His Stool For 28 Years | Virology News | Scoop.it
That's the longest span for one individual to excrete the live virus in history. It's not the norm, that's for certain. But how much of a concern is it in the war to wipe out polio?
Ed Rybicki's insight:

So - now for replacement of the live virus with killed and/or subunit - and preferably VLPs!!

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The growing global battle against blood-sucking ticks

The growing global battle against blood-sucking ticks | Virology News | Scoop.it
Scientists have no shortage of ideas about how to stop tick-borne illnesses. What is holding them back?
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The cannabis experiment

The cannabis experiment | Virology News | Scoop.it
As marijuana use becomes more acceptable, researchers are scrambling to answer key questions about the drug.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Groovy, man...B-)

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Papers with shorter titles get more citations

Papers with shorter titles get more citations | Virology News | Scoop.it
Intriguing correlation mined from 140,000 papers.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

...which is why my next one will HAVE to be: "Tobacco necrosis virus is a phage".  Been wanting to do that for 20 years.  But I'll have t PROVE it first....

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The Origin of the Variola Virus

The Origin of the Variola Virus | Virology News | Scoop.it

The question of the origin of smallpox, one of the major menaces to humankind, is a constant concern for the scientific community. Smallpox is caused by the agent referred to as the variola virus (VARV), which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. In the last century, smallpox was declared eradicated from the human community; however, the mechanisms responsible for the emergence of new dangerous pathogens have yet to be unraveled. Evolutionary analyses of the molecular biological genomic data of various orthopoxviruses, involving a wide range of epidemiological and historical information about smallpox, have made it possible to date the emergence of VARV. Comparisons of the VARV genome to the genomes of the most closely related orthopoxviruses and the examination of the distribution their natural hosts’ ranges suggest that VARV emerged 3000 to 4000 years ago in the east of the African continent. The VARV evolution rate has been estimated to be approximately 2 × 10−6 substitutions/site/year for the central conserved genomic region and 4 × 10−6 substitutions/site/year for the synonymous substitutions in the genome. Presumably, the introduction of camels to Africa and the concurrent changes to the climate were the particular factors that triggered the divergent evolution of a cowpox-like ancestral virus and thereby led to the emergence of VARV.

 

Variola virus picture by Russell Kightley Media

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Great stuff!  So Variola came from camels, and the virus that we use to protect against it comes from horses!

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