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iBio shares jump with flu shot clinical trial - FierceVaccines

iBio shares jump with flu shot clinical trial - FierceVaccines | Virology News | Scoop.it
iBio's ($IBIO) shares have jumped 21% with the announcement that it has completed the first Phase I clinical trial of its plant-based vaccine for H1N1 influenza, HAC1. The study of the vaccine, produced by iBio's partner the Fraunhofer USA Center for Molecular Biotechnology, aimed to assess the vaccine's safety, as well as looking for early clues to its ability to trigger an immune response against the flu virus.

The study showed that the vaccine was safe and well-tolerated at low and high doses, regardless of whether an adjuvant was used. The vaccine also triggered immune responses, with the best immune response seen in the people who received the highest dose of the vaccine without an adjuvant. This was a similar response to a marketed flu shot.

Read more: iBio shares jump with flu shot clinical trial - FierceVaccines http://www.fiercevaccines.com/story/ibio-shares-jump-flu-shot-clinical-trial/2012-03-22#ixzz1prIpScl0

 

Going green: the right thing to do.  Image courtesy Russell Kightley Media

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Virology News
Topical news snippets about viruses that affect people.  And other things. Like zombies B-)
Curated by Ed Rybicki
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In situ structure of the Legionella Dot/Icm type IV secretion system by electron cryotomography

Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are large macromolecular machines that translocate protein and DNA and are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases. Here, using electron cryotomography (ECT), we report the in situ structure of the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) utilized by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. This is the first structure of a type IVB secretion system, and also the first structure of any T4SS in situ. While the Dot/Icm system shares almost no sequence similarity with type IVA secretion systems (T4ASSs), its overall structure is seen here to be remarkably similar to previously reported T4ASS structures (those encoded by the R388 plasmid in Escherichia coli and the cag pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori). This structural similarity suggests shared aspects of mechanism. However, compared to the negative‐stain reconstruction of the purified T4ASS from the R388 plasmid, the L. pneumophila Dot/Icm system is approximately twice as long and wide and exhibits several additional large densities, reflecting type‐specific elaborations and potentially better structural preservation in situ.

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Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Resurfaces:Threat To Humankind

Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Resurfaces:Threat To Humankind | Virology News | Scoop.it
The vaccine has been very effective in various diseases, however, the rate of infections it prevents are still increasing and continues to resurface as time passes by.
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Bacterial Spores as Vaccine Vehicles

Bacterial Spores as Vaccine Vehicles | Virology News | Scoop.it
For the first time, bacterial spores have been evaluated as vaccine vehicles. Bacillus subtilis spores displaying the tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) antigen were used for oral and intranasal immunization and were shown to generate mucosal and systemi
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Insertion of a ligand to HER2 in gB retargets HSV tropism and obviates the need for activation of the other entry glycoproteins

Insertion of a ligand to HER2 in gB retargets HSV tropism and obviates the need for activation of the other entry glycoproteins | Virology News | Scoop.it
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into the cells requires glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB, activated in a cascade fashion by conformational modifications induced by cognate receptors and intermolecular signaling. The receptors are nectin1 and HVEM (Herpes virus entry mediator) for gD, and αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrin for gH. In earlier work, insertion of a single chain antibody (scFv) to the cancer receptor HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) in gD, or in gH, resulted in HSVs specifically retargeted to the HER2-positive cancer cells, hence in highly specific non-attenuated oncolytic agents. Here, the scFv to HER2 was inserted in gB (gBHER2). The insertion re-targeted the virus tropism to the HER2-positive cancer cells. This was unexpected since gB is known to be a fusogenic glycoprotein, not a tropism determinant. The gB-retargeted recombinant offered the possibility to investigate how HER2 mediated entry. In contrast to wt-gB, the activation of the chimeric gBHER2 did not require the activation of the gD and of gH/gL by their respective receptors. Furthermore, a soluble form of HER2 could replace the membrane-bound HER2 in mediating virus entry, hinting that HER2 acted by inducing conformational changes to the chimeric gB. This study shows that (i) gB can be modified and become the major determinant of HSV tropism; (ii) the chimeric gBHER2 bypasses the requirement for receptor-mediated activation of other essential entry glycoproteins.

Ed Rybicki's insight:
This is pretty heavy duty stuff: basically, they could retarget HSV to HER2-expressing cells by including a MAb fragment to HER2 in gB, and HER2 was sufficient to mediate cell entry. Targetted therapy using HSV, here we come?!
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Nigeria needs 2 million doses of Meningitis vaccine

Nigeria needs 2 million doses of  Meningitis vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
by G9ija Dr Fred Weli, a family health expert in Port Harcourt, says Nigeria will need about 2 million doses of vaccine to fight current meningitis epidemic. Weli told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Port Harcourt on Wednesday that current 500,000 doses available in the country were grossly inadequate to fight the epidemic.…
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Early Clinical Trial Shows 'Cancer Vaccines' Can Protect Humans From Tumours

Early Clinical Trial Shows 'Cancer Vaccines' Can Protect Humans From Tumours | Virology News | Scoop.it
A new hope. 
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New antibody test can detect person’s risk for developing HPV-related cancer of the oropharynx

New antibody test can detect person’s risk for developing HPV-related cancer of the oropharynx | Virology News | Scoop.it
Cancer of the oropharynx has become increasingly common: In the United States alone, the number of newly diagnosed cases has tripled over the past three decades. About 70 percent of these tumors are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16.
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Zika virus

Zika virus | Virology News | Scoop.it
Created using more than 10,000 images captured by a high-resolution technique, called cryo-electron microscopy, this illustration of the Zika virus reveals something like a topographic map of the infecting agent. This zoomed-in illustration shows not just the envelope that encircles the virus, but also the RNA (in yellow) that lives inside it and allows the virus to replicate.
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Needle free vaccine delivery on the horizon

Researchers are developing a new type of drug delivery system that could allow people to self administer vaccines without the use of needles. Ben Gruber ha
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Animal Models of Zika Virus Infection, Pathogenesis, and Immunity

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that now causes epidemics affecting millions of people on multiple continents. The virus has received global attention because of some of its unusual epidemiological and clinical features, including persistent infection in the male reproductive tract and sexual transmission, an ability to cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the developing fetus to cause congenital malformations, and its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. This past year has witnessed an intensive effort by the global scientific community to understand the biology of ZIKV and to develop pathogenesis models for the rapid testing of possible countermeasures. Here, we review the recent advances in and utility and limitations of newly developed mouse and nonhuman primate models of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis.

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Zika Virus on a Spreading Spree: what we now know that was unknown in the 1950s

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is transmitted through the bite of Aedes spp mosquitoes and less predominantly, through sexual intercourse. Prior to 2007, ZIKV was associated with only sporadic human infections with minimal or no clinical manifestations. Recently the virus has caused disease outbreaks from the Pacific Islands, the Americas, and off the coast of West Africa with approximately 1.62 million people suspected to be infected in more than 60 countries around the globe. The recent ZIKV outbreaks have been associated with guillain-barré syndrome, congenital syndrome (microcephaly, congenital central nervous system anomalies), miscarriages, and even death. This review summarizes the path of ZIKV outbreak within the last decade, highlights three novel modes of ZIKV transmission associated with recent outbreaks, and points to the hallmarks of congenital syndrome. The review concludes with a summary of challenges facing ZIKV research especially the control of ZIKV infection in the wake of most recent data showing that anti-dengue virus antibodies enhance ZIKV infection.

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Study identifies rare strains of HIV, HTLV and HBV

Study identifies rare strains of HIV, HTLV and HBV | Virology News | Scoop.it
Virology Highlights features highlighted articles published in Virology, with posts summarizing the research in the authors’ words.
Ed Rybicki's insight:
Valuable stuff: we need to do more of this in more of Africa.
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Intraspecies transmission of viruses: Human-to-human transmission

Infection of humans by viruses from animal hosts — so-called zoonoses — occur relatively frequently around the world. Examples over the last few decades include human infections caused by avian influenza A viruses of hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H6, H7, H9, and H10, swine influenza A viruses of subtypes H1 and H3, Hendra virus and Nipah virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus, West-Nile virus, and Ebola virus. Fortunately, most zoonotic infections occur as isolated cases or small clusters, posing little risk to the public at large. However, some zoonotic infections may trigger local or regional outbreaks, spread to humans in various parts of the world, or even result in widespread global outbreaks known as pandemics.

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Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) in the Americas

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) in the Americas | Virology News | Scoop.it
22532 suspected cases (22532 in Central and South America, 0 in the Caribbean, 0 in North America), 7358 confirmed cases (14 North America, 5 Caribbean, 7336 Central and South America) (7350 autochthonous transmission and 8 travel related imported cases)
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Los Angeles, California and the 1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic 

Los Angeles, California and the 1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic  | Virology News | Scoop.it
#silentfilm cartoon at time of Spanish Influenza - PHOTOPLAY January 1919 "Those Workless Fludays" by R.L.Goldberg - https://t.co/ILoZSCLpQd https://t.co/rUNJH0kh5m
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Italy row over 'fake news' on cervical cancer vaccine

Italy row over 'fake news' on cervical cancer vaccine | Virology News | Scoop.it
Italy's health minister has taken the unusual step of criticising national broadcaster Rai's coverage of a vaccine against a cancer-causing virus, sparking a row about media freedom and misinformation. The minister, Beatrice Lorenzin, accused the team behind the popular Rai3 documentary series
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Peptide in frog slime can kill flu - Futurity

Peptide in frog slime can kill flu - Futurity | Virology News | Scoop.it
A component of a South Indian frog's skin mucus kills H1 influenza viruses. "I was almost knocked off my chair," says Joshy Jacob.
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Levels of HIV-1 persistence on antiretroviral therapy are not associated with markers of inflammation or activation

Levels of HIV-1 persistence on antiretroviral therapy are not associated with markers of inflammation or activation | Virology News | Scoop.it
Author summary HIV-infected individuals who are receiving antiretroviral therapy continue to have low but persistent amounts of virus in blood as well as high levels of immune activation. Elevated immune activation has been linked to medical complications, like heart disease. Whether activation is being driven by or driving HIV persistence is not known. To answer this question, we measured levels of HIV, inflammation and immune activation in 101 HIV-infected individuals before and during long-term antiretroviral therapy. We found that pre-treatment levels of HIV correlated with on-treatment measures of HIV persistence. HIV levels correlated with inflammation and activation before starting therapy but not during long-term treatment, suggesting that virus persistence is not driving or driven by immune activation or inflammation. Higher levels of activation and inflammation before therapy were associated with higher levels during treatment, indicating that immune events that occurred before treatment initiation had long-lasting effects despite sustained control of the virus. These findings should stimulate studies of genetic or viral factors that affect levels of virus, activation and inflammation prior to treatment, and should inform the design of strategies to reduce HIV persistence and dampen harmful immune activation and inflammation in people who are on long-term treatment.
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BMC Infectious Diseases: "The airborne microbiome - implications for aerosol transmission and infection control"

BMC Infectious Diseases: "The airborne microbiome - implications for aerosol transmission and infection control" | Virology News | Scoop.it


Special Collection on "The airborne microbiome - implications for aerosol transmission and infection control" - soliciting submissions

Many infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, whooping cough, Aspergillus and other fungal infections, human and avian influenza, measles, chickenpox, and some of the emerging viruses, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can be potentially spread through aerosol transmission. With the advent of deep-sequencing technologies these can be applied to environmental air samples using metagenomic techniques to characterise the presence and variety of airborne pathogens in the everyday air that we breathe in different environments (hospitals, clinics, homes, offices, entertainment venues, public transport - buses, trains, planes, etc.). This series aims to explore and characterise the airborne microbiome in different environments, using different methods, in order to understand and assess the risk that such airborne pathogens may pose to both vulnerable and otherwise healthy individuals, and explore possible interventions to control their transmission. We welcome submission of research articles and opinion pieces focused on the airborne microbiome in relation to infectious diseases.



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GeoVax Awarded $658,000 NIH Grant for its HIV Vaccine Program

ATLANTA, GA - (NewMediaWire) - April 03, 2017 - GeoVax Labs, Inc. (OTCQB: GOVX), a biotechnology company developing human vaccines, announced today it ha
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Unvaccinated children account for majority of pediatric flu deaths

Unvaccinated children account for majority of pediatric flu deaths | Virology News | Scoop.it
Death from flu is generally uncommon, but new U.S. research has found that when children do die of the flu, it is likely that they have not been vaccinated.
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Risk factors and familial clustering for fever 7–10 days after the first dose of measles vaccines

Risk factors and familial clustering for fever 7–10 days after the first dose of measles vaccines | Virology News | Scoop.it


Fever 7–10 days after first dose of a measles containing vaccines occurs commonly. This study found that predictors of fever after measles vaccine include MMRV vaccine and older age at time of vaccination, along with prior fever and seizures and generally being prone to fevers. Even after accounting for general individual and familial susceptibility to fever, fever due to measles vaccine specifically clustered in families, suggesting that some fevers after measles vaccines are related to genetic factors. This study suggests an important link between population health (surveillance of a large population for vaccine adverse events) and personalized medicine (possible genetic basis for fever after measles vaccine). Future work will be needed to further define this possible relationship of genetics and vaccine-associated fever. Challenges included designing ways to account for how different families respond to fever in their children (i.e, seeking medical care or not), and separating out susceptibility to vaccine-associated fever from general susceptibility to fever. We did this by adjusting the analyses for familial tendency to seek care for fever, individual tendency to have fever, and the tendency of being fever-prone (in general) to run in families.

FREE full article access until 13th June

Ed Rybicki's insight:
Families are fever-prone...explains why my children DON'T get noticeable fevers, then?
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The sense behind retroviral anti-sense transcription

Retroviruses are known to rely extensively on the expression of viral proteins from the sense proviral genomic strand. Yet, the production of regulatory retroviral proteins from antisense-encoded viral genes is gaining research attention, due to their clinical significance. This report will discuss what is known about antisense transcription in Retroviridae, and provide new information about antisense transcriptional regulation through a comparison of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus (HTLV-1) and endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) long terminal repeats (LTRs). We will attempt to demonstrate that the potential for antisense transcription is more widespread within retroviruses than has been previously appreciated, with this feature being the rule, rather than the exception.
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Hidden HIV reservoirs exposed by telltale protein

Hidden HIV reservoirs exposed by telltale protein | Virology News | Scoop.it
The discovery helps to identify dormant infected cells and could one day lead to a cure
Ed Rybicki's insight:
I would just stick with "The discovery helps to identify dormant infected cells" - because EVERYTHING will lead to a cure / to a vaccine.
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Protect this house: cytosolic sensing of viruses

Protect this house: cytosolic sensing of viruses | Virology News | Scoop.it
The ability to recognize invading viral pathogens and to distinguish their components from those of the host cell is critical to initiate the innate immune response. The efficiency of this detection is an important factor in determining the susceptibility of the cell to viral infection. Innate sensing of viruses is, therefore, an indispensable step in the line of defense for cells and organisms. Recent discoveries have uncovered novel sensors of viral components and hallmarks of infection, as well as mechanisms by which cells discriminate between self and non-self. This review highlights the mechanisms used by cells to detect viral pathogens in the cytosol, and recent advances in the field of cytosolic sensing of viruses.

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