Virology and Bioi...
Follow
Find
67.9K views | +60 today
 
Scooped by Torben Barsballe
onto Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

Measles Outbreak Traced to Fully Vaccinated Patient for First Time

Measles Outbreak Traced to Fully Vaccinated Patient for First Time | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Get the measles vaccine, and you won’t get the measles—or give it to anyone else. Right? Well, not always. A person fully vaccinated against measles has contracted the disease and passed it on to others. The startling case study contradicts received wisdom about the vaccine and suggests that a recent swell of measles outbreaks in developed nations could mean more illnesses even among the vaccinated.

 

When it comes to the measles vaccine, two shots are better than one. Most people in the United States are initially vaccinated against the virus shortly after their first birthday and return for a booster shot as a toddler. Less than 1% of people who get both shots will contract the potentially lethal skin and respiratory infection. And even if a fully vaccinated person does become infected—a rare situation known as “vaccine failure”—they weren’t thought to be contagious.

 

That’s why a fully vaccinated 22-year-old theater employee in New York City who developed the measles in 2011 was released without hospitalization or quarantine. But like Typhoid Mary, this patient turned out to be unwittingly contagious. Ultimately, she transmitted the measles to four other people, according to a recent report in Clinical Infectious Diseases that tracked symptoms in the 88 people with whom “Measles Mary” interacted while she was sick. Surprisingly, two of the secondary patients had been fully vaccinated. And although the other two had no record of receiving the vaccine, they both showed signs of previous measles exposure that should have conferred immunity.

more...
No comment yet.
Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Virus and bioinformatics articles with some microbiology and immunology thrown in for good measure
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

It's a group effort - the curators:

It's a group effort - the curators: | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

get in touch if you want to help curate this topic

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from Virology News
Scoop.it!

Ebola and Marburg are Millions of Years Old - and in rodent genomes

Ebola and Marburg are Millions of Years Old - and in rodent genomes | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Ebola and Marburg are 16 to 23 million years old, not thousands of years old as once thought, according to a recent PeerJ paper.

The new research also indicates that while Ebola and Marburg are both filoviruses, they diverged from each other millions of years ago. This means they may be less alike than thought, which could impact research on therapies.

This is of considerable interest, said Robert Gifford, senior research fellow at University of Glasgow Center for Virus Research. An expert in viral evolution, he was uninvolved in the PeerJstudy. While Gifford long suspected Ebola was ancient, he didn’t know Ebola and Marburg diverged so long ago.

 


Via Ed Rybicki
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

On teaching pseudoscientific controversies in universities…

On teaching pseudoscientific controversies in universities… | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
About a month ago, a number of news stories were published reporting that the University of Toronto had offered a course in alternative medicine taught by a homeopath named Beth Laundau-Halpern that presented a segment that was clearly highly biased towards antivaccine pseudoscience. It was worse than that, though, because this homeopathy just happened to…
Chris Upton + helpers's insight:

Good reading...

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Human Papillomavirus Infectious Entry and Trafficking Is a Rapid Process

Previous studies have indicated that human papillomavirus (HPV) infectious entry is slow, requiring many hours after initial infection for the virus to gain entry into the nucleus. However, intracellular transport pathways typically are very rapid, and in the context of a natural HPV infection in a wounded epithelium, such slow intracellular transport would seem to be at odds with a normal viral infection. Using synchronized cell populations, we show that HPV trafficking can be a rapid process. In cells that are infected in the late S-early G2/M phase of the cell cycle, HPV16 pseudovirion (PsV) reporter DNA gene expression is detectable by 8 h postinfection. Likewise, reporter DNA can be visualized within the nucleus in conjunction with PML nuclear bodies 1 h to 2 h postinfection in cells that are infected with PsVs just prior to mitotic entry. This demonstrates that endosomal trafficking of HPV is rapid, with mitosis being the main restriction on nuclear entry.

IMPORTANCE HPV infectious entry appears to be slow and requires mitosis to occur before the incoming viral DNA can access the nucleus. In this study, we show that HPV trafficking in the cell actually is very rapid. This demonstrates that in the context of a normal virus infection, the cell cycle state will have a major influence on the time it takes for an incoming virus to enter the nucleus and initiate viral gene expression.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Structural Analysis of the Roles of Influenza A Virus Membrane-Associated Proteins in Assembly and Morphology

Great stuff!The assembly of influenza A virus at the plasma membrane of infected cells leads to release of enveloped virions that are typically round in tissue culture-adapted strains but filamentous in strains isolated from patients. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein 1 (M1), and M2 ion channel all contribute to virus assembly. When expressed individually or in combination in cells, they can all, under certain conditions, mediate release of membrane-enveloped particles, but their relative roles in virus assembly, release, and morphology remain unclear. To investigate these roles, we produced membrane-enveloped particles by plasmid-derived expression of combinations of HA, NA, and M proteins (M1 and M2) or by infection with influenza A virus. We monitored particle release, particle morphology, and plasma membrane morphology by using biochemical methods, electron microscopy, electron tomography, and cryo-electron tomography. Our data suggest that HA, NA, or HANA (HA plus NA) expression leads to particle release through nonspecific induction of membrane curvature. In contrast, coexpression with the M proteins clusters the glycoproteins into filamentous membrane protrusions, which can be released as particles by formation of a constricted neck at the base. HA and NA are preferentially distributed to differently curved membranes within these particles. Both the budding intermediates and the released particles are morphologically similar to those produced during infection with influenza A virus. Together, our data provide new insights into influenza virus assembly and show that the M segment together with either of the glycoproteins is the minimal requirement to assemble and release membrane-enveloped particles that are truly virus-like.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Great stuff!  Explains a lot about flu virus structure

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine — Preliminary Report

Original Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine — Preliminary Report
BACKGROUND

The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has resulted in more than 24,000 cases and 10,000 deaths. We present a preliminary report from two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)–based vaccine candidate to prevent EVD.

Full Text of Background...

 METHODS

We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 26 adults at each site (52 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13 each. Three volunteers in each group received an intramuscular injection of placebo, and 10 received an intramuscular injection of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine at a dose of either 3 million plaque-forming units (PFU) or 20 million PFU. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed for the 28 days after vaccination.

Full Text of Methods...

 RESULTS

The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, myalgia, and fatigue; no events resulted in withdrawal from the study. Transient VSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the group receiving 20 million PFU than in the group receiving 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA (geometric mean antibody titer, 4079 vs. 1300; P<0.001) and by pseudovirion neutralization assay (geometric mean antibody titer, 441 vs. 223; P=0.07).

 

CONCLUSIONS

No safety concerns were identified after a single administration of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine candidate, and anti-Ebola immune responses were identified in all the volunteers. VSV viremia was detected but was of limited duration. These preliminary results support the further development of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

It's as well to go back to the description of the actual vaccine, now that it looks like it's worked!

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Researchers Wind up a 40-Year-Old Debate on Betaretrovirus Infection in Humans

Researchers Wind up a 40-Year-Old Debate on Betaretrovirus Infection in Humans | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
In a new study published in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, researchers at the University of Alberta's faculty of medicine and dentistry have shown that a betaretrovirus which resembles a mouse mammary tumor virus infects patients with the rare liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
Ed Rybicki's insight:

OK, it's from February, but this is quite a big deal: proof that a human retrovirus seems to be implicated in a serious human disease.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chad Smithson
Scoop.it!

Characterization of a novel adenovirus isolated from a skunk

Characterization of a novel adenovirus isolated from a skunk | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Adenoviruses are a ubiquitous group of viruses that have been found in a wide range of hosts. A novel adenovirus from a skunk suffering from acute hepatitis was isolated and its DNA genome sequenced. The analysis revealed this virus to be a new member of the genus Mastadenovirus, with a genome of 31,848 bp in length containing 30 genes predicted to encode proteins, and with a G+C content of 49.0%. Global genomic organization indicated SkAdV-1 was similar in organization to bat and canine adenoviruses, and phylogenetic comparison suggested these viruses shared a common ancestor. SkAdV-1 demonstrated an ability to replicate in several mammalian liver cell lines suggesting a potential tropism for this virus.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Virology meets Proteomics

Our Special Issue aims to celebrate and highlight the integration of these two fields of research, Proteomics and Virology, as well as to raise awareness in both communities of the opportunities present in Viral Proteomics research. The issue contains 15 manuscripts that reflect the impressive diversity of virology studies that benefit from the wide range of available proteomic-based approaches. The elegant merge of these two fields of research is illustrated by the fact that these manuscripts come from both virology and mass spectrometry laboratories. While, of course, not all of the leading laboratories were able to contribute to this issue, we are very pleased to say that, as detailed below, the investigators highlighted in this issue represent some of the major supporters of proteomics for virology studies. We have organized this issue using classical virology taxonomy by dividing the issue into two main sections communicating reports describing either DNA or RNA viruses and a third section on non-MS based proteomics.

  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Viral dark matter and virus-host interactions resolved from publicly available microbial genomes

Viral dark matter and virus-host interactions resolved from publicly available microbial genomes | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
The ecological importance of viruses is now widely recognized, yet our limited knowledge of viral sequence space and virus-host interactions precludes accurate prediction of their roles and impacts. Here we mined publicly available bacterial and archaeal genomic datasets to identify 12,498 high‑confidence viral genomes linked to their microbial hosts. These data augment public datasets 10-fold, provide first viral sequences for 13 new bacterial phyla including ecologically abundant phyla, and help taxonomically identify 7-38% of 'unknown' sequence space in viromes. Genome- and network-based classification was largely consistent with accepted viral taxonomy and suggested that ( i ) 264 new viral genera were identified (doubling known genera) and ( ii ) cross-taxon genomic recombination is limited. Further analyses provided empirical data on extrachromosomal prophages and co‑infection prevalences, as well as evaluation of in silico virus-host linkage predictions. Together these findings illustrate the value of mining viral signal from microbial genomes.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Fuuuuuuuck...!  Amazing!

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kenzibit from Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Scoop.it!

Why be a scientist? - BioMed Central blog

Why be a scientist? - BioMed Central blog | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Regular guest blogger Bryony Graham explains that although being a scientist can sometimes be frustrating, it's also incredibly rewarding.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Kathleen McLeod from Amazing Science
Scoop.it!

Cleaning Up Ancient Human DNA for Next Generation Sequencing

Cleaning Up Ancient Human DNA for Next Generation Sequencing | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

With the genomes of Ötzi, the 5300-year-old iceman, and even Neandertals pouring out of DNA sequencing labs lately, you might think that it’s now a piece of cake to glean the entire genetic code of an ancient human. But it turns out that those studies used exceptionally pure samples of DNA taken from human bone, tooth, hair, or other tissue typically preserved in frozen soil, ice, or a chilly cave. More often, human remains found by scientists have been sitting in soil warm enough to harbor bacteria, which swamp out the human DNA with their genes and make it too costly to analyze. A clever new method for purifying ancient human DNA samples—reported here last week at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics—could change that, however.

 

The average ancient DNA sample taken from, say, a human tooth or bone is often less than 1% short, degraded pieces of human DNA; the rest is bacterial DNA. Although scientists could sequence this gemisch, they would have to run the samples through their sequencing machines many times to zoom in on the human DNA portion, and it’s not worth the cost. Instead, researchers often prepare stretches of modern human DNA that roughly match the genes or sequences they’re interested in and use these so-called probes to filter the sample. (Modern and ancient human DNA are similar enough that the probes will stick to the ancient DNA.) But this is still expensive, and it reveals the sequence of only a subset of the genome.

A team at Stanford University has now come up with a better idea.

 

Postdoctoral researcher Meredith Carpenter and others in the lab of Carlos Bustamante made their probes from RNA instead of DNA, which is “super cheap,” Bustamante says. They found a way to make enough RNA probes to cover the entire genome of an average modern human. The probe has a chemical group that sticks to special beads, so when the researchers mix the probes with an ancient DNA sample, they can wash away the nonhuman DNA. The final step is to use an RNA-chewing enzyme to get rid of the probes, leaving only pure ancient human DNA that can then be fed into a genome sequencing machine.

 

When the researchers tested this filtering method on a dozen ancient bone, teeth, and hair DNA samples from 500 to 3500 years old, they gleaned twofold to 13-fold more human genetic sequence from the samples than they could have by simply sequencing the mixture the same number of times. This higher resolution yielded new information about the samples. For instance, while previously they could only say that a more than 2500-year-old Bronze Age tooth from Bulgaria was European, they could now narrow its ethnic origin down to central or southern European. The team was also able to determine that a more than 500-year-old Peruvian mummy did not have European ancestry, as Spanish explorers claimed.

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from DNA & RNA Research
Scoop.it!

Genomes Tell Story of Native American Biological Origins

Genomes Tell Story of Native American Biological Origins | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

The first human inhabitants of the Americas lived in a time thousands of years before the first written records, and the story of their transcontinental migration is the subject of ongoing debate and active research.  A study by multi-institutional, international collaboration of researchers, published this week in Science (DOI: 10.1126/science.aab3884) presents strong evidence, gleaned from ancient and modern DNA samples, that the ancestry of all Native Americans can be traced back to a single migration event, with subsequent gene flow between some groups and populations that are currently located in East Asia and Australia.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

Comparing different mapping software using anvi'o

Comparing different mapping software using anvi'o | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Bowtie, Bowtie2, BWA, CLC, GSNAP, BBMap, Novoalign, and SMALT.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from Virology News
Scoop.it!

Virus-resistant pigs

Virus-resistant pigs | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
By genetically engineering pigs to degrade a crucial virus protein, animals can be made less susceptible to foot and mouth disease virus.

Via Ed Rybicki
Chris Upton + helpers's insight:

Now for the wings...B-)

more...
Ed Rybicki's curator insight, July 30, 10:18 AM

Now for the wings...B-)

Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Development of Disabled Infectious Single Animal Vaccine Candidates for AHSV

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a virus species in the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. There are nine serotypes of AHSV showing different levels of cross neutralization. AHSV is transmitted by species of Culicoides biting midges and causes African horse sickness (AHS) in equids, with a mortality rate of up to 95% in naive horses. AHS has become a serious threat for countries outside Africa, since endemic Culicoides species in moderate climates appear to be competent vectors for the related bluetongue virus (BTV). To control AHS, live-attenuated vaccines (LAVs) are used in Africa. We used reverse genetics to generate “synthetic” reassortants of AHSV for all nine serotypes by exchange of genome segment 2 (Seg-2). This segment encodes VP2, which is the serotype-determining protein and the dominant target for neutralizing antibodies. Single Seg-2 AHSV reassortants showed similar cytopathogenic effects in mammalian cells but displayed different growth kinetics. Reverse genetics for AHSV was also used to study Seg-10 expressing NS3/NS3a proteins. We demonstrated that NS3/NS3a proteins are not essential for AHSV replication in vitro. NS3/NS3a of AHSV is, however, involved in the cytopathogenic effect in mammalian cells and is very important for virus release from cultured insect cells in particular. Similar to the concept of the bluetongue disabled infectious single animal (BT DISA) vaccine platform, an AHS DISA vaccine platform lacking NS3/NS3a expression was developed. Using exchange of genome segment 2 encoding VP2 protein (Seg-2[VP2]), we will be able to develop AHS DISA vaccine candidates for all current AHSV serotypes.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Smart folk from South Africa...B-)

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Newly Emergent Highly Pathogenic H5N9 Subtype Avian Influenza A Virus

Newly Emergent Highly Pathogenic H5N9 Subtype Avian Influenza A Virus | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

The novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) was demonstrated to cause severe human respiratory infections in China. Here, we examined poultry specimens from live bird markets linked to human H7N9 infection in Hangzhou, China. Metagenomic sequencing revealed mixed subtypes (H5, H7, H9, N1, N2, and N9). Subsequently, AIV subtypes H5N9, H7N9, and H9N2 were isolated. Evolutionary analysis showed that the hemagglutinin gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/LBM227/2012 (H5N1), which belongs to clade 2.3.2.1. The neuraminidase gene of the novel H5N9 virus originated from human-infective A/Hangzhou/1/2013 (H7N9). The six internal genes were similar to those of other H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 virus strains. The virus harbored the PQRERRRKR/GL motif characteristic of highly pathogenic AIVs at the HA cleavage site. Receptor-binding experiments demonstrated that the virus binds α-2,3 sialic acid but not α-2,6 sialic acid. Identically, pathogenicity experiments also showed that the virus caused low mortality rates in mice. This newly isolated H5N9 virus is a highly pathogenic reassortant virus originating from H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes. Live bird markets represent a potential transmission risk to public health and the poultry industry.

 

Influenza in birds graphic courtesy of Russell Kightley Media

 
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Engineered Ancient Viruses as Gene Therapy Vectors

Engineered Ancient Viruses as Gene Therapy Vectors | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Researchers deploy ancestors of today’s adeno-associated viruses to deliver gene therapies without immune system interference.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Computer Model Forecasts Flu Outbreaks in a Subtropical Climate

Computer Model Forecasts Flu Outbreaks in a Subtropical Climate | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Scientists at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the School of Public Health of Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine at the University of Hong Kong have shown for the first time that it is possible to predict the timing and intensity of influenza outbreaks in subtropical climates like Hong Kong where flu seasons can occur at different times and more than once during a year. Results appear online in the journal PLOS Computational Biology.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

Interesting stuff: because flu is far less seasonal in the tropics and subtropics.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chad Smithson
Scoop.it!

Ebola vaccine works, offering 100% protection in African trial

Ebola vaccine works, offering 100% protection in African trial | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Unusual clinical trial in Guinea offers promise for stopping epidemic
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Directed genetic modification of African horse sickness virus by reverse genetics

Directed genetic modification of African horse sickness virus by reverse genetics | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a member of the Orbivirus genus in the family Reoviridae, is an arthropod-transmitted pathogen that causes a devastating disease in horses with a mortality rate greater than 90%. Fundamental research on AHSV and the development of safe, efficacious vaccines could benefit greatly from an uncomplicated genetic modification method to generate recombinant AHSV. We demonstrate that infectious AHSV can be recovered by transfection of permissive mammalian cells with transcripts derived in vitro from purified AHSV core particles.
Ed Rybicki's insight:

From local colleagues!  Great stuff.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Aerosolized Ebola vaccine protects primates and elicits lung-resident T cell responses

Aerosolized Ebola vaccine protects primates and elicits lung-resident T cell responses | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Direct delivery of aerosolized vaccines to the respiratory mucosa elicits both systemic and mucosal responses. This vaccine strategy has not been tested for Ebola virus (EBOV) or other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Here, we examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an aerosolized human parainfluenza virus type 3–vectored vaccine that expresses the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV (HPIV3/EboGP) delivered to the respiratory tract. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with aerosolized HPIV3/EboGP, liquid HPIV3/EboGP, or an unrelated, intramuscular, Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon vaccine expressing EBOV GP. Serum and mucosal samples from aerosolized HPIV3/EboGP recipients exhibited high EBOV-specific IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibody titers, which exceeded or equaled titers observed in liquid recipients. The HPIV3/EboGP vaccine induced an EBOV-specific cellular response that was greatest in the lungs and yielded polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, including a subset that expressed CD103 (αE integrin), and CD4+ T helper cells that were predominately type 1. The magnitude of the CD4+ T cell response was greater in aerosol vaccinees. The HPIV3/EboGP vaccine produced a more robust cell-mediated and humoral immune response than the systemic replicon vaccine. Moreover, 1 aerosol HPIV3/EboGP dose conferred 100% protection to macaques exposed to EBOV. Aerosol vaccination represents a useful and feasible vaccination mode that can be implemented with ease in a filovirus disease outbreak situation.

 

Ebola virus graphic by Russell Kightley Media

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Paramyxovirus vectored Ebola: sounds good! https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_parainfluenza_viruses

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chad Smithson
Scoop.it!

Prophylactic and postexposure efficacy of a potent human monoclonal antibody against MERS coronavirus

Prophylactic and postexposure efficacy of a potent human monoclonal antibody against MERS coronavirus | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease with a high mortality rate. There is no licensed vaccine or antiviral for MERS. Here we isolated for the first time, to our knowledge, a potent MERS-CoV–neutralizing antibody from memory B cells of an infected individual. This antibody binds to a novel site on the viral Spike protein, neutralizes by interfering with the binding to the cellular receptor CD26, and is highly effective both in prophylaxis and in therapy in a relevant mouse model. This antibody can be developed for prophylaxis, for postexposure prophylaxis, or for the treatment of severe MERS-CoV infections.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from Bioinformatics Software: Sequence Analysis
Scoop.it!

Single-cell RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of linear and circular RNAs | RNA-Seq Blog

Single-cell RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of linear and circular RNAs | RNA-Seq Blog | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of non-polyadenylated non-coding RNAs that may play important roles in many biological processes. Researchers from

Via Mel Melendrez-Vallard
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

Leaky Vaccines Enhance Spread of Deadlier Chicken Viruses – Phenomena: Not Exactly Rocket Science

Leaky Vaccines Enhance Spread of Deadlier Chicken Viruses – Phenomena: Not Exactly Rocket Science | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Over the past fifty years, Marek’s disease—an illness of fowl—has become fouler. Marek’s is caused by a highly contagious virus, related to those that cause herpes in humans. It spreads through the...
more...
No comment yet.