Virology and Bioi...
Follow
Find
55.8K views | +58 today
 
Scooped by burkesquires
onto Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Scoop.it!

Molecular Basis for Broad Neuraminidase Immunity: Conserved Epitopes in Seasonal and Pandemic H1N1 as well as H5N1 Influenza Viruses

Influenza A viruses, including H1N1 and H5N1 subtypes, pose a serious threat to public health. Neuraminidase (NA)-related immunity contributes to protection against influenza. Antibodies to N1 subtype provide protection against homologous and heterologous H1N1 as well as H5N1 virus challenge. Since neither the strain-specific nor conserved epitopes of N1 have been identified, we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which exhibit different reactivity spectra with H1N1 and H5N1 viruses, and used these mAbs to map N1 antigenic domains. We identified 12 amino acids essential for mAb binding to the NA of a recent seasonal H1N1 virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007. Of these, residues 248, 249, 250, 341 and 343 are recognized by strain-specific group A mAbs, while residues 273, 338 and 339 are within conserved epitope(s), which allows cross-reactive group B mAbs to bind the NA of seasonal H1N1, the 1918 and 2009 pandemic (09pdm) H1N1 as well as H5N1 viruses. A single dose of group B mAbs administered prophylactically fully protected mice against lethal challenge with seasonal and 09pdm H1N1, and resulted in significant protection against the highly pathogenic wild-type H5N1 virus. Another 3 N1 residues (at positions 396, 397 and 456) are essential for binding of cross-reactive group E mAbs, which differ from group B mAbs in that they do not bind 09pdm H1N1 viruses. The identification of conserved N1 epitopes reveals the molecular basis for NA-mediated immunity between H1N1 and H5N1 viruses, and demonstrates the potential for developing broadly-protective NA-specific antibody treatments for influenza.

more...
No comment yet.

From around the web

Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Virus and bioinformatics articles with some microbiology and immunology thrown in for good measure
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

It's a group effort - the curators:

It's a group effort - the curators: | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

get in touch if you want to help curate this topic

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from Biomedical Beat
Scoop.it!

PyBamView: a browser-based application for viewing short read alignments

PyBamView: a browser-based application for viewing short read alignments | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

Royal Jubilee lab takes big step forward with new microbiology technology - Saanich News

Royal Jubilee lab takes big step forward with new microbiology technology - Saanich News | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

The accuracy of the new robotic system is now 100 per cent for every single specimen

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Ken Yaw Agyeman-Badu from Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Scoop.it!

Small Things Considered: Why CRISPR Doesn't Work in E. coli

Small Things Considered: Why CRISPR Doesn't Work in E. coli | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
by Elio | We received this query: »I enjoyed the article on your blog 'Six Questions About CRISPRs' by Merry Youle. I am an ex-lambdologist, having quit phage lambda in the early 70s and moved to GM-plants. There is one thing about CRISPR that I do not understand: Why did lambdologists not find CRISPR?
They found phage...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

101 questions with a bioinformatician #18: Richard Emes

101 questions with a bioinformatician #18: Richard Emes | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Richard Emes is an Associate Professor and Reader in Bioinformatics at The
University of Nottingham. He is also the Director of the University's
Advanced Data Analysis Centre (ADAC).
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

Teaching Bioinformatics in Concert

Teaching Bioinformatics in Concert | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Can biology students without programming skills solve problems that require computational solutions? They can if they learn to cooperate effectively with computer science students. The goal of the in-concert teaching approach is to introduce biology students to computational thinking by engaging them in collaborative projects structured around the software development process. Our approach emphasizes development of interdisciplinary communication and collaboration skills for both life science and computer science students.

 
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from Virology News
Scoop.it!

PSU biologists discover HIV-like virus

PSU biologists discover HIV-like virus | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
It lives in volcanic hot springs, and studying it will give researchers a better understanding of how to treat the disease.

Via Ed Rybicki
more...
Ed Rybicki's curator insight, November 21, 10:06 AM

Yah, Sure. Sure it will...as my good wife, sitting here beside me says, "Why wouldn't you just study HIV? Or SIV? Or another lentivirus??"

Seriously: just like any breakthrough in crystallography of virus proteins "will lead to better vaccines!".

Maybe. If we're lucky.  Meanwhile, this is just another of Science By Hype.

Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

You catch what you eat: Viral metagenomics of US store bought beef, pork, and chicken

You catch what you eat: Viral metagenomics of US store bought beef, pork, and chicken | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Wen Zhang, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Eric Delwart

We describe here the metagenomics-derived viral sequences detected in beef, pork, and chicken purchased from stores in San Francisco. In beef we detected four previously reported viruses (two parvoviruses belonging to different genera, an anellovirus, and one circovirus-like virus) and one novel bovine polyomavirus species (BPyV2-SF) whose closest relatives infect primates. Detection of porcine hokovirus in beef indicated that this parvovirus can infect both ungulate species. In pork we detected four known parvoviruses from three genera, an anellovirus, and pig circovirus 2. Chicken meat contained numerous gyrovirus sequences including those of chicken anemia virus and of a novel gyrovirus species (GyV7-SF). Our results provide an initial characterization of some of the viruses commonly found in US store-bought meats which included a diverse group of parvoviruses and viral families with small circular DNA genomes. Whether any of these viruses can infect humans will require testing human sera for specific antibodies.

 

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Being a vegetarian suddenly seems attractive B-)

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by burkesquires from Viral Modeling and Simulation
Scoop.it!

Antibody landscapes after influenza virus infection or vaccination

We introduce the antibody landscape, a method for the quantitative analysis of antibody-mediated immunity to antigenically variable pathogens, achieved by accounting for antigenic variation among pathogen strains. We generated antibody landscapes to study immune profiles covering 43 years of influenza A/H3N2 virus evolution for 69 individuals monitored for infection over 6 years and for 225 individuals pre- and postvaccination. Upon infection and vaccination, titers increased broadly, including previously encountered viruses far beyond the extent of cross-reactivity observed after a primary infection. We explored implications for vaccination and found that the use of an antigenically advanced virus had the dual benefit of inducing antibodies against both advanced and previous antigenic clusters. These results indicate that preemptive vaccine updates may improve influenza vaccine efficacy in previously exposed individuals.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by burkesquires from Viral Modeling and Simulation
Scoop.it!

Structure of influenza A polymerase bound to the viral RNA promoter : Nature

The influenza virus polymerase transcribes or replicates the segmented RNA genome (viral RNA) into viral messenger RNA or full-length copies. To initiate RNA synthesis, the polymerase binds to the conserved 3′ and 5′ extremities of the viral RNA. Here we present the crystal structure of the heterotrimeric bat influenza A polymerase, comprising subunits PA, PB1 and PB2, bound to its viral RNA promoter. PB1 contains a canonical RNA polymerase fold that is stabilized by large interfaces with PA and PB2. The PA endonuclease and the PB2 cap-binding domain, involved in transcription by cap-snatching, form protrusions facing each other across a solvent channel. The 5′ extremity of the promoter folds into a compact hook that is bound in a pocket formed by PB1 and PA close to the polymerase active site. This structure lays the basis for an atomic-level mechanistic understanding of the many functions of influenza polymerase, and opens new opportunities for anti-influenza drug design.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by burkesquires
Scoop.it!

Functional Genomics Approach for the Identification of Human Host Factors Supporting Dengue Viral Propagation - Springer

Functional Genomics Approach for the Identification of Human Host Factors Supporting Dengue Viral Propagation - Springer | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Dengue virus (DENV) is endemic throughout tropical regions of the world and there are no approved treatments or anti-transmission agents currently available. Consequently, there exists an enormous unmet need to treat the human diseases caused by DENV and block viral transmission by the mosquito vector. RNAi screening represents an efficient method to expand the pool of known host factors that could become viable targets for treatments or provide rationale to consider available drugs as anti-DENV treatments. We developed a high-throughput siRNA-based screening protocol that can identify human DENV host factors. The protocol herein describes the materials and the procedures necessary to screen a human cell line in order to identify genes which are either necessary for or restrict DENV propagation at any stage in the viral life cycle.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

#Wikipedia needs your $. Make your donation now

#Wikipedia needs your $. Make your donation now | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Chris Upton + helpers's insight:

This is one cause, I don't complain about supporting.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from Biomedical Beat
Scoop.it!

Visualization of protein sequence features using JavaScript and SVG with pViz.js

Visualization of protein sequence features using JavaScript and SVG with pViz.js | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

Five ingredients to become a bioinformatician. - atcgeek

Five ingredients to become a bioinformatician. - atcgeek | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
How to become a bioinformatician? Many people, at different career stages, are trying to answer this question, looking for the best path to achieve the required knowledge to become a bioinformatician. Many academic institutions are provided with Bionformatics degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate level, and you can easily find free courses on the internet to get a […
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Hannah Davis
Scoop.it!

Mutation increases risk of infections

Mutation increases risk of infections | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
A pattern of genetic mutation has been found in avian flu that leads to a higher possibility of infections and diseases in humans....
Hannah Davis's insight:

Nature Communications paper can be found here:

http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141120/ncomms6509/abs/ncomms6509.html

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Chris Upton + helpers from Virology News
Scoop.it!

Taking More Than One Vaccine at a Time Doesn't Hurt!

Taking More Than One Vaccine at a Time Doesn't Hurt! | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
The specific antigens given in vaccines represent only a small portion of the daily stimuli the immune system has to deal with.

Via Ed Rybicki
more...
Ed Rybicki's curator insight, November 21, 10:13 AM

ANYONE who has done some immunology could tell you that - but there are distressingly few of us...B-(

Erik Carter's comment, November 21, 10:52 AM
However, while it's not dangerous to give multiple vaccines at once, it can prove detrimental to the development of a good immune response. I used to work in a viral immunology lab that looked at heterologous immunity as well as simultaneous infections. If you're interested, look into Liisa Selin's research as UMass Medical School. It's very interesting, and a lot of fun to do.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

First complete view of flu virus' key machine revealed

First complete view of flu virus' key machine revealed | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Washington, Nov 21 (ANI): A new research has come up with the first complete structure of one of the flu virus' key machines i.e. polymerase.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

Have Homeopaths Reached Peak Stupid?

Have Homeopaths Reached Peak Stupid? | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Remove hot drinks and sharp objects from your immediate vicinity. Across the world, homeopaths today are trying to 'heal the oceans'. To do so, British homeopath, Grace DaSilva-Hill, has been writi...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Ed Rybicki
Scoop.it!

Giant viruses as you’ve never seen them before!

Giant viruses as you’ve never seen them before! | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

In this special issue of Virology, we highlight some of the stories that were presented during the 1st International Symposium on Giant Virus Biology.

The 25 presentations covered a wide range of topics, from biochemistry to genomics, from virus structure and assembly to ecological and evolutionary questions.

Here are just a few of the articles from the special issue:

Editorial introduction to “Giant Viruses” special issue of VirologyInfection cycles of large DNA viruses: Emerging themes and underlying questionsRevisiting the genome packaging in viruses with lessons from the “Giants”The expanding family MarseilleviridaeOrigin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life

We are delighted to make these articles and all papers from the Virology Special Issue on Giant Virusesfreely available online.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Excellent! And some day - soon, Flavia! - we will be contributing our own bricks to the emerging structure of Girology B-)

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by burkesquires from Viral Modeling and Simulation
Scoop.it!

Charting the life-course epidemiology of influenza

Interaction between the human immune system and influenza virus is predominantly driven by antigenic drift. In this process, ongoing mutation of the virus slowly changes its antigenic signature, eventually allowing the virus to infect people with immunity to earlier versions of the virus. Along with antigenic shifts, through which extreme changes in influenza A lead to pandemics (most often when genes from two or more different strains of influenza reassort to form a new subtype), antigenic drift is the dominant driver of influenza epidemiology. One of the most important results of antigenic drift is the need to periodically reformulate and annually administer influenza vaccine. On page 996 of this issue, Fonville et al. (1) use a technique called “antibody landscapes” to characterize antibody protection from the full spectrum of influenza strains, illuminating the interaction between new influenza exposures and past immunity
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by burkesquires from Viral Modeling and Simulation
Scoop.it!

Structural insight into cap-snatching and RNA synthesis by influenza polymerase : Nature

Structural insight into cap-snatching and RNA synthesis by influenza polymerase : Nature | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Influenza virus polymerase uses a capped primer, derived by ‘cap-snatching’ from host pre-messenger RNA, to transcribe its RNA genome into mRNA and a stuttering mechanism to generate the poly(A) tail. By contrast, genome replication is unprimed and generates exact full-length copies of the template. Here we use crystal structures of bat influenza A and human influenza B polymerases (FluA and FluB), bound to the viral RNA promoter, to give mechanistic insight into these distinct processes. In the FluA structure, a loop analogous to the priming loop of flavivirus polymerases suggests that influenza could initiate unprimed template replication by a similar mechanism. Comparing the FluA and FluB structures suggests that cap-snatching involves in siturotation of the PB2 cap-binding domain to direct the capped primer first towards the endonuclease and then into the polymerase active site. The polymerase probably undergoes considerable conformational changes to convert the observed pre-initiation state into the active initiation and elongation states.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by burkesquires
Scoop.it!

Systematic identification of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations in human respiratory epithelial cells during influenza A virus infection - BMC Bioinformatics

Respiratory epithelial cells are the primary target of influenza virus infection in human. However, the molecular mechanisms of airway epithelial cell responses to viral infection are not fully understood. Revealing genome-wide transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory relationships can further advance our understanding of this problem, which motivates the development of novel and more efficient computational methods to simultaneously infer the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Chris Upton + helpers
Scoop.it!

BMC Research Notes | Abstract | DivA: detection of non-homologous and very divergent regions in protein sequence alignments

Sequence alignments are used to find evidence of homology but sometimes contain regions that are difficult to align which can interfere with the quality of the subsequent analyses. Although it is possible to remove problematic regions manually, this is non-practical in large genome scale studies, and the results suffer from irreproducibility arising from subjectivity. Some automated alignment trimming methods have been developed to remove problematic regions in alignments but these mostly act by removing complete columns or complete sequences from the MSA, discarding a lot of informative sites.
more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Ken Yaw Agyeman-Badu from Host Cell & Pathogen Interactions
Scoop.it!

Scripps Research Institute Scientists Reveal Weak Spots in Ebola’s Defenses

Scripps Research Institute Scientists Reveal Weak Spots in Ebola’s Defenses | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
News Release
more...
No comment yet.