Background: Routine vaccination against smallpox (variola) ceased in the US in 1976. However, in 2002 limited coverage for military personnel and some healthcare workers was reinstituted. In March 2008, ACAM2000® replaced Dryvax® as the vaccine used in the United States against smallpox. Unintentional transfer of vaccinia virus from a vaccination site by autoinoculation or contact transmission, can have significant public health implications. We summarize unintentional virus transfer AEs associated with ACAM2000® since March 2008 and compare with Dryvax®.