Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
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Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca
Virus and bioinformatics articles with some microbiology and immunology thrown in for good measure
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Both CD8+ and CD4+ T-Cells Contribute to Corneal Clouding and Viral Clearance Following Vaccinia Virus Infection in C57BL/6 Mice

Potentially blinding eye infections can occur after vaccination for Smallpox. Very little is known about the pathologic mechanisms that are involved and the information that is available was generated using rabbit models. The lack of immunological reagents for rabbits makes such studies difficult. We have characterized a mouse model of vaccinia virus ocular disease using C57BL/6 mice and strain WR and show that both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets play a role in the blinding eye disease and controlling virus replication. Based on these results vaccinia virus keratitis is significantly different from Herpes simplex virus keratitis and further studies using this model should generate novel insights into immunopathological responses to viral ocular infection.
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Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain

Features of the Antitumor Effect of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Oncolytic abilities of vaccinia virus (VACV) served as a basis for the development of various recombinants for treating cancer; however, “natural” oncolytic properties of the virus are not examined in detail. Our study was conducted to know how the genetically unmodified L-IVP strain of VACV produces its antitumor effect.
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Genomic analysis of vaccinia virus strain TianTan provides new insights into the evolution and evolutionary relationships between Orthopoxviruses

Genomic analysis of vaccinia virus strain TianTan provides new insights into the evolution and evolutionary relationships between Orthopoxviruses | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain TianTan was used for much of China's modern history to vaccinate against smallpox, however the only genome sequence contains errors. We have sequenced additional examples of TianTan to obtain a better picture of this important virus. We detected two different subclones. One (TP03) encodes large deletions in the terminal repeats that extend into both VEGF genes and create a small plaque variant. The second clone (TP05) encodes a nearly intact complement of genes in the terminal repeats, except for an insertion of sequences resembling the telomeric 69 bp repeats. The TP05 genome spans 196,260 bp and encodes 219 genes. The revised sequence documents the integrity of all the genes in the conserved virus core. Phylogenetic methods show that TianTan belongs to a unique clade of VACV, but probably also share a common origin with strains belonging to the Copenhagen/Lister lineage and distinct from the Wyeth/Dryvax lineage.

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Poxvirus Cell Entry: How Many Proteins Does it Take?

For many viruses, one or two proteins enable cell binding, membrane fusion and entry. The large number of proteins employed by poxviruses is unprecedented and may be related to their ability to infect a wide range of cells.
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In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox

In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections.
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Removal of vaccinia virus genes that block interferon type I and II pathways improves adaptive and memory responses of the HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate NYVAC-C in mice.

Poxviruses encode multiple inhibitors of the interferon (IFN) system, acting at different levels and blocking the induction of host defence mechanisms. Two viral gene products B19 and B8 have been shown to act as decoy receptors of type I and type II IFN, blocking the binding of IFN to its receptor.

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PLoS Pathogens: Granzyme B Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Production through Proteolytic Cleavage of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4 Gamma 3

PLoS Pathogens: Granzyme B Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Production through Proteolytic Cleavage of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4 Gamma 3 | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the major killer of virus-infected cells. Granzyme B (GrB) from CTLs induces apoptosis in target cells by cleavage and activation of substrates like caspase-3 and Bid.
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The vaccinia virus H3 envelope protein, a major target of neutralizing antibodies, exhibits a glycosyltransferase fold and binds UDP-Glucose

The highly conserved H3 poxvirus protein is a major target of the human antibody response against poxviruses and is likely a key contributor to protection against infection. Here, we present the crystal structure of H3 from vaccinia virus at 1.9Å resolution. H3 looks like a glycosyltransferase, a family of enzymes that transfer carbohydrate molecules to a variety of acceptor substrates. Like glycosyltransferases, H3 binds UDP-glucose as shown by saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy and this binding requires Mg2+. Mutating the glycosyltransferase-like metal ion-binding motif in H3 greatly diminished its binding to UDP-glucose. We found by flow cytometry that H3 binds to the surface of human cells, but does not bind well to cells that are deficient in surface glycosaminoglycans. STD NMR experiments using a heparin sulfate decasaccharide confirmed that H3 binds heparin sulfate. We propose that a surface of H3 with an excess of positive charge may be the binding site for heparin. Heparin binding and glycosyltransferase activity may be involved in the function of H3 in the poxvirus lifecycle.
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Redundancy complicates the definition of essential genes for vaccinia virus

Redundancy complicates the definition of essential genes for vaccinia virus | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Vaccinia virus (VACV) genes are characterized as either essential or non-essential for growth in culture. It seems intuitively obvious that if a gene can be deleted without imparting a growth defect in vitro it does not have a function related to basic replication or spread. However, this interpretation relies on the untested assumption that there is no redundancy across the genes that have roles in growth in cell culture. First, we provide a comprehensive summary of the literature that describes the essential genes of VACV. Next, we looked for interactions between large blocks of non-essential genes located at the ends of the genome by investigating sets of VACVs with large deletions at the genomic termini. Viruses with deletions at either end of the genome behaved as expected, exhibiting only mild or host-range defects. In contrast, combining deletions at both ends of the genome for the VACV Western Reserve (WR) strain caused a devastating growth defect on all cell lines tested. Unexpectedly, we found that the well-studied VACV growth factor homologue encoded by C11R has a role in growth in vitro that is exposed when 42 genes are absent from the left end of the VACV WR genome. These results demonstrate that some non-essential genes contribute to basic viral growth, but redundancy means these functions are not revealed by single-gene-deletion mutants.
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Unintentional transfer of vaccinia virus associated with smallpox vaccines: ACAM2000 (®) compared with Dryvax (®).

Background: Routine vaccination against smallpox (variola) ceased in the US in 1976. However, in 2002 limited coverage for military personnel and some healthcare workers was reinstituted. In March 2008, ACAM2000® replaced Dryvax® as the vaccine used in the United States against smallpox. Unintentional transfer of vaccinia virus from a vaccination site by autoinoculation or contact transmission, can have significant public health implications. We summarize unintentional virus transfer AEs associated with ACAM2000® since March 2008 and compare with Dryvax®.

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Removal of Vaccinia Virus Genes That Block Interferon Type I and II Pathways Improves Adaptive and Memory Responses of the HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidate NYVAC-C in Mice

Poxviruses encode multiple inhibitors of the interferon (IFN) system, acting at different levels and blocking the induction of host defense mechanisms. Two viral gene products, B19 and B8, have been shown to act as decoy receptors of type I and type II IFNs, blocking the binding of IFN to its receptor.

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C7L Family of Poxvirus Host Range Genes Inhibits Antiviral Activities Induced by Type I Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factor 1

Vaccinia virus (VACV) K1L and C7L function equivalently in many mammalian cells to support VACV replication and antagonize antiviral activities induced by type I interferons (IFNs).

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PLoS ONE: A Human Multi-Epitope Recombinant Vaccinia Virus as a Universal T Cell Vaccine Candidate against Influenza Virus

PLoS ONE: A Human Multi-Epitope Recombinant Vaccinia Virus as a Universal T Cell Vaccine Candidate against Influenza Virus | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

There is a need to develop a universal vaccine against influenza virus infection to avoid developing new formulations of a seasonal vaccine each year.

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Look Up: The New Age of Inoculation Is Aerial Vaccines and Nano ...

Look Up: The New Age of Inoculation Is Aerial Vaccines and Nano ... | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Testing performed at CDC confirmed the presence of vaccinia virus DNA and rabies virus G protein DNA in papule material and serologic evidence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. On day ...
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