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Virus and bioinformatics articles with some microbiology and immunology thrown in for good measure
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Easy Jump for H5N1 from Bird to Mammal

Easy Jump for H5N1 from Bird to Mammal | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Hybrid viruses derived from an H5N1 bird flu strain can infect guinea pigs through the air.
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Ed Rybicki's curator insight, May 3, 2013 11:14 AM

It is rather concerning that these guys did NOT have to make HA mutations to get their viruses easily transmissible - they just to make reassortants with H5N1 and H1N1pdm viruses.  As could happen in pigs or poultry anywhere both viruses occur....

 
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HIV-1 transmission graph

HIV-1 transmission graph | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
A graph representing the transmission of HIV among patients from Europe. Vertices represent patients and are coloured by country of origin. Edges indicate transmission between connected patients.
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PLOS Pathogens: Influenza Virus Aerosols in Human Exhaled Breath: Particle Size, Culturability, and Effect of Surgical Masks

PLOS Pathogens: Influenza Virus Aerosols in Human Exhaled Breath: Particle Size, Culturability, and Effect of Surgical Masks | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

The CDC recommends that healthcare settings provide influenza patients with facemasks as a means of reducing transmission to staff and other patients, and a recent report suggested that surgical masks can capture influenza virus in large droplet spray. However, there is minimal data on influenza virus aerosol shedding, the infectiousness of exhaled aerosols, and none on the impact of facemasks on viral aerosol shedding from patients with seasonal influenza.

We collected samples of exhaled particles (one with and one without a facemask) in two size fractions (“coarse”>5 µm, “fine”≤5 µm) from 37 volunteers within 5 days of seasonal influenza onset, measured viral copy number using quantitative RT-PCR, and tested the fine-particle fraction for culturable virus.

Fine particles contained 8.8 (95% CI 4.1 to 19) fold more viral copies than did coarse particles. Surgical masks reduced viral copy numbers in the fine fraction by 2.8 fold (95% CI 1.5 to 5.2) and in the coarse fraction by 25 fold (95% CI 3.5 to 180). Overall, masks produced a 3.4 fold (95% CI 1.8 to 6.3) reduction in viral aerosol shedding. Correlations between nasopharyngeal swab and the aerosol fraction copy numbers were weak (r = 0.17, coarse; r = 0.29, fine fraction). Copy numbers in exhaled breath declined rapidly with day after onset of illness. Two subjects with the highest copy numbers gave culture positive fine particle samples.

Surgical masks worn by patients reduce aerosols shedding of virus. The abundance of viral copies in fine particle aerosols and evidence for their infectiousness suggests an important role in seasonal influenza transmission. Monitoring exhaled virus aerosols will be important for validation of experimental transmission studies in humans.

Ed Rybicki's insight:

Bottom line: masks work, to at least drastically reduce levels of aerosolised virus.  But the PATIENTS should wear them...B-)

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Predicting ‘airborne’ influenza viruses: (trans-) mission impossible? 10.1016/j.coviro.2011.07.003 : Current Opinion in Virology | ScienceDirect.com

Predicting ‘airborne’ influenza viruses: (trans-) mission impossible? 10.1016/j.coviro.2011.07.003 : Current Opinion in Virology | ScienceDirect.com | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

EM Sorrell, EJA Schrauwen, M Linster, M De Graaf, S Herfst, RAM Fouchier,

 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2011.07.003

 

Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine — out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year — which viruses have the potential to become ‘airborne’, and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating ‘airborne’ transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand — and predict — influenza pandemics.

 


Via Elsevier Microbiol*
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