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Virus and bioinformatics articles with some microbiology and immunology thrown in for good measure
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How the Toronto Star massively botched a story about the HPV vaccine

Their story on "the dark side" of the HPV vaccine was misleading and harmful.
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Japanese health ministry withdraws recommendation for HPV vaccine

Japanese health ministry withdraws recommendation for HPV vaccine | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
It’s not been a great year for the HPV vaccine. First we learned that the completion rates in the US remain alarmingly low, and now the Japanese health ministry
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BMC Infectious Diseases | Abstract | A cross-sectional study to estimate high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in Italian women aged 18--26 years

Pre-vaccination information on HPV type-specific prevalence in target populations is essential for designing and monitoring immunization strategies for cervical cancer (CC) prevention.
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Association of human papillomavirus type 16 long control region mutation and cervical cancer

The variation of human papillomavirus (HPV) genes or HPV variants demonstrates different risks of cervical cancer.
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An HPV Vaccine Myth Debunked -Gynecology news -

Over all, there was no difference between girls who had received the vaccine and those who had not in such indicators of sexual activity as pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, testing for sexually transmitted diseases ...

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Next-generation sequencing of cervical DNA detects human papillomavirus types not detected by commercial kits

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the aetiological agent for cervical cancer and genital warts. Concurrent HPV and HIV infection in the South African population is high.
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This topic is a collaborative effort:

This topic is a collaborative effort: | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
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Cellular transformation by human papillomaviruses: Lessons learned by comparing high- and low-risk viruses

Cellular transformation by human papillomaviruses: Lessons learned by comparing high- and low-risk viruses | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

The oncogenic potential of papillomaviruses (PVs) has been appreciated since the 1930s yet the mechanisms of virally-mediated cellular transformation are still being revealed. Reasons for this include: a) the oncoproteins are multifunctional, b) there is an ever-growing list of cellular interacting proteins, c) more than one cellular protein may bind to a given region of the oncoprotein, and d) there is only limited information on the proteins encoded by the corresponding non-oncogenic PVs. The perspective of this review will be to contrast the activities of the viral E6 and E7 proteins encoded by the oncogenic human PVs (termed high-risk HPVs) to those encoded by their non-oncogenic counterparts (termed low-risk HPVs) in an attempt to sort out viral life cycle-related functions from oncogenic functions. The review will emphasize lessons learned from the cell culture studies of the HPVs causing mucosal/genital tract cancers.

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Virology Journal | Abstract | Rate of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from mothers to infants: Relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery

In contrast to consistent epidemiologic evidence of the role of sexual transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) in adults, various routes may be related to HPV infection in infants.
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Popular disinfectants do not kill HPV | Penn State University

Commonly used disinfectants do not kill human papillomavirus (HPV) that makes possible non-sexual transmission of the virus, thus creating a need for hospital policy changes, according to researchers from Penn State College of Medicine and Brigham Young University.
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The Evolving Field of Human Papillomavirus Receptor Research: A Review of Binding and Entry

The Evolving Field of Human Papillomavirus Receptor Research: A Review of Binding and Entry | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect epithelia and can lead to the development of lesions, some of which have malignant potential. HPV type 16 is the most oncogenic genotype and causes various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. However, despite significant research, our understanding of the mechanism by which HPV16 binds to and enters host cells remains fragmented. Over several decades, many HPV receptors and entry pathways have been described. This review puts those studies in context and offers a model of HPV16 binding and entry as a framework for future research. Our model suggests that HPV16 binds to heparin-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) either on the epithelial cell surface or basement membrane through interactions with the L1 major capsid protein. Growth factor receptors may also become activated through HSPGs/growth factor/HPV16 complexes that initiate signaling cascades during early virion-host cell interactions. After binding to HSPGs, the virion undergoes conformational changes leading to isomerization by cyclophilin B and proprotein convertase-mediated L2 minor capsid protein cleavage that increases L2 N-terminus exposure. Along with binding to HSPGs, HPV16 binds to α6 integrins, which initiate further intracellular signaling events. Following these primary binding events, HPV16 binds to a newly identified L2-specific receptor, the annexin A2 heterotetramer. Subsequently, clathrin-, caveolin-, lipid raft-, flotillin-, cholesterol-, dynamin-independent endocytosis of HPV16 occurs.

 Papillomavirus graphic from Russell Kightley Media
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Different Regions of the HPV-E7 and Ad-E1A Viral Oncoproteins Bind Competitively but through Distinct Mechanisms to the CH1 Transactivation Domain of p300 - Biochemistry (ACS Publications)

Different Regions of the HPV-E7 and Ad-E1A Viral Oncoproteins Bind Competitively but through Distinct Mechanisms to the CH1 Transactivation Domain of p300 - Biochemistry (ACS Publications) | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
Nicolas Palopoli's insight:

Two oncoproteins with different structures and from different viruses use distinct mechanisms to bind the same partner and disrupt its function.

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PLOS ONE: Functional Interaction between Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins and Cigarette Smoke Components in Lung Epithelial Cells

PLOS ONE: Functional Interaction between Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins and Cigarette Smoke Components in Lung Epithelial Cells | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
The smoking habit is the most important, but not a sufficient cause for lung cancer development. Several studies have reported the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) presence and E6 and E7 transcripts expression in lung carcinoma cases from different geographical regions. The possible interaction between HPV infection and smoke carcinogens, however, remains unclear. In this study we address a potential cooperation between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins for alterations in proliferative and tumorigenic properties of lung epithelial cells.
Nicolas Palopoli's insight:

From the discussion:

"When HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cells were exposed to CSC (note: cigarette smoke components), the proliferative rate and anchorage-independent growth were significantly increased."

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Perspective: Vaccinate boys too : Nature : Nature Publishing Group

Perspective: Vaccinate boys too : Nature : Nature Publishing Group | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
HPV-associated cancers in men are on the rise. By not vaccinating boys we are failing to gain maximum health benefit, argues Margaret Stanley.

Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of almost all cervical cancers, as well as a significant number of cancers of the vulva and vagina. These links make us think of HPV as a women's health problem. But that's not the case.

HPV is also the main cause of cancers of the anus, tonsils and tongue, and is a significant contributor to cancers of the penis, larynx, head and neck. It is estimated to be the causal agent in 5% of all human cancers1. HPV is also the cause of genital warts, which are the commonest sexually transmitted viral disease with a lifetime risk of acquisition at 10% (ref. 2). Despite the virus's health impact on both sexes, most countries' HPV immunization programmes are exclusively for females. Only the United States, Canada and Australia recommend vaccination for boys and men as well. Indeed, Australia has recently announced that 12- and 13-year-old boys will be vaccinated starting in 2013.

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HPV Might Raise Risk of Form of Skin Cancer - iVillage

FRIDAY, July 20 (HealthDay News) -- Infection with cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) is linked to a type of skin cancer known as squamous cell carcinoma, according to a new study.  Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma include exposure to the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation, older age, light skin and a suppressed immune system. The international group of researchers found that having antibodies to certain types of cutaneous HPV may be an additional risk factor for this common form of skin cancer.
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The study investigated the links between cutaneous HPV antibodies in the blood and HPV infection in skin tumors.
The researchers tested 159 tissue samples with squamous cell carcinoma for the presence of cutaneous HPV infection. They found the skin cancer was significantly associated with antibodies to three different types of cutaneous HPV.
Additional links were found between antibodies to two other types of cutaneous HPV when compared to blood samples from people without skin cancer, according to the researchers.

Read More http://www.ivillage.com/hpv-might-raise-risk-form-skin-cancer/4-a-474766#ixzz21QyPa7yS


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Human Papillomavirus (#HPV) #Vaccine Is Added Safeguard To ...

Human Papillomavirus (#HPV) #Vaccine Is Added Safeguard To ... | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it
The human papillomavirus (HPV) can be linked to 99% of cervical cancers, and the vaccine to prevent this virus is a huge safeguard against contracting.

Via anarchic_teapot
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70% of oral cancers now traced to HPV virus | HPV Treatment Association

70% of oral cancers now traced to HPV virus | HPV Treatment Association | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

An estimated 7% of American teens and adults carry the human papilloma virus in their mouths, an infection that puts them at heightened risk of developing cancer of the mouth and throat, researchers say.

 

HPV image courtesy of Russell Kightely Media

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FDA Information on Gardasil – Presence of DNA Fragments Expected, No Safety Risk

FDA Information on Gardasil – Presence of DNA Fragments Expected, No Safety Risk | Virology and Bioinformatics from Virology.ca | Scoop.it

"The FDA has recently received inquiries regarding the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA fragments in Gardasil and is aware that information related to this issue is on the internet."

 

There's probably DNA in everything...  I'm going to enjoy some in my dinner tonight -yum!

 

Picture courtesy of Russell Kightley Media


Via Ed Rybicki
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