Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review
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Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review
Zelboraf (vemurafenib, Roche) and Tafinlar (dabrafenib, GSK) get FDA and EMA approval for advanced metastatic melanoma. Several follow up BRAF inhibitors are in clinical development by rival pharma companies (Novartis, BMS, J&J, Teva) to get a share of expanding melanoma market and improve complete response rates and overcome resistance. Nexavar (sorafenib, Bayer) for for liver (HCC) and renal (RCC) cancer was the first approved and marketed BRAF inhibitor.
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Vemurafenib (PLX 4032, Roche) Melanoma: FDA Review & Approval - un knol de Krishan Maggon

Vemurafenib (PLX 4032, Roche) Melanoma: FDA Review & Approval - un knol de Krishan Maggon | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Only a single new investigation drug has produced a 81% response rate and extended overall survival by 7 months (range 2-18...
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MicroRNA therapeutics: towards a new era for the management of cancer and other diseases : Nature Reviews Drug Discovery : Nature Research

MicroRNA therapeutics: towards a new era for the management of cancer and other diseases : Nature Reviews Drug Discovery : Nature Research | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can modulate mRNA expression. Insights into the roles of miRNAs in development and disease have led to the development of new therapeutic approaches that are based on miRNA mimics or agents that inhibit their functions (antimiRs), and the first such approaches have entered the clinic. This Review discusses the role of different miRNAs in cancer and other diseases, and provides an overview of current miRNA therapeutics in the clinic.
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Rajesha Rupaimoole & Frank J. Slack

Nature Reviews Drug Discovery (2017) doi:10.1038/nrd.2016.246 Published online 17 February 2017
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Headache in the Setting of Immunotherapy Treatment

Headache in the Setting of Immunotherapy Treatment | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
A woman with metastatic melanoma receiving ipilimumab and nivolumab developed headaches during the course of her treatment and reported low energy levels and di
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JAMA Oncol. Published online February 9, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.6611
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Organo-metal compound seen killing cancer cells from inside | Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News

Organo-metal compound seen killing cancer cells from inside | Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it

Credit: University of Warwick Cancer cells seen to be targeted and killed from the inside with metal-based compound discovered by the University of Warwick The compound - Organo-Osmium FY26 - attacks the weakest part of cancer cells. FY26 is 50x more active than metal drugs used in current cancer treatments Unprecedented minute detail of cancer cells seen with nano-imaging at European Synchotron Researchers have witnessed - for the first time - cancer cells being targeted and destroyed from the inside, by an organo-metal compound discovered by the University of Warwick. Professor Peter J. Sadler, and his group in the Department of Chemistry, have demonstrated that Organo-Osmium FY26 - which was first discovered at Warwick - kills cancer cells by locating and attacking their weakest part. This is the first time that an Osmium-based compound - which is fifty times more active than the current cancer drug cisplatin - has been seen to target the disease. Using the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), researchers analysed the effects of Organo-Osmium FY26 in ovarian cancer cells - detecting emissions of X-ray fluorescent light to track the activity of the compound inside the cells. Looking at sections of cancer cells under nano-focus, it was possible to see an unprecedented level of minute detail. Organelles like mitochondria, which are the 'powerhouses' of cells and generate their energy, were detectable. In cancer cells, there are errors and mutations in the DNA of mitochondria, making them very weak and susceptible to attack. FY26 was found to have positioned itself in the mitochondria - attacking and destroying the vital functions of cancer cells from within, at their weakest point. Researchers were also able to see natural metals which are produced by the body - such as zinc and calcium - moving around the cells. Calcium in particular is known to affect the function of cells, and it is thought that this naturally-produced metal helps FY26 to achieve an optimal position for attacking cancer. More than half of all cancer chemotherapy treatments currently use platinum compounds, which were introduced nearly 40 years ago, so there is a need to explore the benefits which other precious metals could bring. Although this research was conducted on ovarian cancer cells, the ground-breaking results are applicable to a wider range of cancers. FY26 has been shown to be more selective between normal cells and cancer cells than cisplatin - having a greater effect on cancer cells than on healthy ones. Professor Sadler comments that this research could lead to new cancer treatments: "Cancer drugs with new mechanisms of actions which can combat resistance and have fewer side-effects are urgently needed. "The advanced nano-focussed x-ray beam at ESRF has not only allowed us to locate the site of action of our novel Organo-Osmium FY26 candidate drug in cancer cells at unprecedented resolution, but also study the movement of natural metals such as zinc and calcium in cells. Such studies open up totally new approaches to drug discovery and treatment" Professor Sadler's group, including research fellows Dr Carlos Sanchez and Dr Isolda Romero Canelon, gained their results with Dr Peter Cloetens and colleagues at the ESRF in Grenoble, France - a powerful synchrotron source which emits extremely powerful X-ray beams. Dr Peter Cloetens comments on the process: "These kinds of experiments are normally performed using bigger doses than what would be done in real life or on a coarse scale that does not provide a clear picture of the processes that take place. On the new nano-imaging ID16A beamline, however, by combining a very tight focus and high flux, we could get a real picture of where the drug goes in a single cell using real-life pharmacological doses." 

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Discovery of skin lymphocytes was a game changer in experimental dermatology

Discovery of skin lymphocytes was a game changer in experimental dermatology | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
A substantial part of ongoing research in experimental dermatology focuses on skin T cells – for that reason we find important to highlight the pioneering work of Jan D. Bos et al. from 1987 (Th
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Metastasis: Slipping Control

Metastasis: Slipping Control | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Although it is still too early to conclude whether targeting CD36 or SPNS2 might be a clinically viable strategy, these two studies shed new light on the thus far underexplored roles of lipids in metastasis. Future studies of lipids, a diversified group of molecules with a multitude of biological and physiological functions, might reveal ways in which metastasis will be losing its control.
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Cell Volume 168, Issue 4, p547, 549, 9 February 2017

Metastasis: Slipping Control 

 Xiaohong Helena Yang
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Synthetic lethality: emerging targets and opportunities in melanoma - Thompson - Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research - Wiley Online Library

Synthetic lethality: emerging targets and opportunities in melanoma - Thompson - Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research - Wiley Online Library | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Summary Great progress has been made in the treatment of melanoma through use of targeted therapies and immunotherapy. One approach that has not been fully explored is synthetic lethality, which exploits somatically acquired changes, usually driver mutations, to specifically kill tumour cells. We outline the various approaches that may be applied to identify synthetic lethal interactions and define how these interactions may drive drug discovery efforts.
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Opening a window into the world of tumors

Opening a window into the world of tumors | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
A tumor behaves like a community in which cancerous and normal cells interact with each other. In some cases, these interactions result in tumor growth, while in others the outcome is tumor elimination. If scientists could “open a window” into a tumor community and “witness” the roles played by normal and cancerous cells as they…
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The ligand Sas and its receptor PTP10D drive tumour-suppressive cell competition

The ligand Sas and its receptor PTP10D drive tumour-suppressive cell competition | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Wild-type Drosophila epithelial cells outcompete proto-oncogenic cells through translocation of the ligand Sas to the wild-type–tumour cell interface, where it binds the PTP10D receptor of the tumour cell, initiating pro-apoptotic signalling.
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Masatoshi Yamamoto, Shizue Ohsawa, Kei Kunimasa & Tatsushi Igaki

Nature 542, 246–250 (09 February 2017) doi:10.1038/nature21033
Published online 16 January 2017
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Molecular glue kills cancer cells in mice | Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research

Molecular glue kills cancer cells in mice | Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Compounds block a protein involved in many cancers by cementing it shut.
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New assay shows promise to advance personalized therapy for cancer patients | Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News

New assay shows promise to advance personalized therapy for cancer patients | Scienmag: Latest Science and Health News | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it

Philadelphia, PA, Feb. 7, 2017 - One of the most promising areas of cancer research is personalized therapy using precision medicine. The National Cancer Institute's NCI-MATCH (Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice) is a large, ongoing clinical trial that matches tumors to therapies based on the tumor's genetic characteristics. This effort addresses therapeutic efficacy across multiple tissues, but also adds data as to the clinical value of broad-based screening panels versus disease-specific assays. A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics confirms that the assay tailored for this trial is highly sensitive for detecting genetic mutations from a variety of tumor tissue and, for the first time, has been reproduced with accuracy by multiple clinical laboratories, laying the groundwork for future clinical utility. These results are noteworthy because, to date, concerns have been widely expressed about the complexity, accuracy, and reproducibility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for application in clinical trials. These results clearly show that locked and controlled procedures permit reliable, accurate, and reproducible use of NGS for clinical purposes. Ultimately, the NCI-MATCH trial aims to evaluate tumor biopsy specimens from about 6,000 patients. The NGS technology used in the trial (the Oncomine Cancer Panel assay and the Personal Genome Machine from Thermo Fisher Scientific) is able to detect more than 4,000 pre-defined genomic variations across 143 genes, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs), insertions/deletions (indels), copy number variations (CNVs), and gene fusions. Levels of evidence were developed to select a subset of specific actionable genomic variants to be used for treatment matching. The investigators report that the assay was highly sensitive (96.98% for 265 known mutations), with 99.99% specificity. Since one feature of the NCI-MATCH trial is the wide variety of tumors examined, including solid tumors and lymphomas that no longer respond to standard therapy, the assay used must be able to analyze specimens from different tissues. Importantly, the NCI-MATCH NGS assay was able to accurately determine genetic abnormalities in biopsies from the pancreas, melanoma, bone, and skin. One-hundred and eighty-six samples and 12 cell lines were tested at four different laboratories. Steps were taken to maximize standardization, including development of standard operating procedures, use of the same commercial assay and instruments, and face-to-face discussions. The investigators found that the assay results were highly reproducible, with the same results across multiple laboratories. This is critical for future clinical use leading to improved patient outcomes. "The validation study reported by Williams and colleagues is another step moving the field closer to the time when precision medicine will generate the expected benefits in improved clinical outcomes," commented Elizabeth R. Unger, PhD, MD, of the Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA). "Although the success of the NCI-MATCH trial cannot be assured, linking precision laboratories to precision medicine trials assures that data used for drug assignment will be reliable. Further, the use of a commercial platform and integrated analysis and reporting pipeline will greatly facilitate broader translation of any successes." 

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A mini-review of c-Met as a potential therapeutic target in melanoma

A mini-review of c-Met as a potential therapeutic target in melanoma | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Abstract Melanoma is the third highest rated cancer in prevalence. Surgery, radiotherapy and targeted/biological therapies in addition to chemotherapy are available options for management of this cancer. Met is an appealing target for management of this type of cancer, since it targets many cancer vital processors, such as angiogenesis, cell growth, scattering and differentiation. In this review, we provide an overview about pathway abnormalities associated with melanoma. We also provide a summary about the events involved in Met signaling and related signaling molecules. We also show the evidence of the importance of Met signaling pathway as a target in cancer management. We also summarize clinical evidence about the use of Met signaling in management of cancer and summarize available trials related to targeting Met in other cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.045
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Volume 88, April 2017, Pages 194–202
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A Combination of Targeted Therapeutics for Melanoma Patients

A Combination of Targeted Therapeutics for Melanoma Patients | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval provides a new option for patients whose disease is driven by mutations in the BRAF gene.
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Notch as a tumour suppressor : Nature Reviews Cancer : Nature Research

Notch as a tumour suppressor : Nature Reviews Cancer : Nature Research | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
The Notch signalling cascade is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that has a crucial role in regulating development and homeostasis in various tissues. The cellular processes and events that it controls are diverse, and continued investigation over recent decades has revealed how the role of Notch signalling is multifaceted and highly context dependent. Consistent with the far-reaching impact that Notch has on development and homeostasis, aberrant activity of the pathway is also linked to the initiation and progression of several malignancies, and Notch can in fact be either oncogenic or tumour suppressive depending on the tissue and cellular context. The Notch pathway therefore represents an important target for therapeutic agents designed to treat many types of cancer. In this Review, we focus on the latest developments relating specifically to the tumour-suppressor activity of Notch signalling and discuss the potential mechanisms by which Notch can inhibit carcinogenesis in various tissues. Potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring or augmenting Notch-mediated tumour suppression will also be highlighted.
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Notch as a tumour suppressor 
 Craig S. Nowell & Freddy Radtke
Nature Reviews Cancer (2017) doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.145 Published online 03 February 2017
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Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Infiltrate Melanoma Lesions and Retain Function Independently of PD-1 Expression

Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Infiltrate Melanoma Lesions and Retain Function Independently of PD-1 Expression | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
It is well known that CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are correlated with positive prognoses in cancer patients and are used to determine the efficacy of immune therapies. Although it is generally assumed that CD8+ TILs will be tumor-associated Ag (TAA) specific, it is unknown whether CD8+ T cells with specificity for common pathogens also infiltrate tumors. If so, the presence of these T cells could alter the interpretation of prognostic and diagnostic TIL assays. We compared TAA-specific and virus-specific CD8+ T cells in the same tumors using murine CMV, a herpesvirus that causes a persistent/latent infection, and vaccinia virus, a poxvirus that is cleared by the host. Virus-specific CD8+ TILs migrated into cutaneous melanoma lesions during acute infection with either virus, after a cleared vaccinia virus infection, and during a persistent/latent murine CMV infection. Virus-specific TILs developed independently of viral Ag in the tumor and, interestingly, expressed low or intermediate levels of full-length PD-1 in the tumor environment. Importantly, PD-1 expression could be markedly induced by Ag but did not correlate with dysfunction for virus-specific TILs, in sharp contrast to TAA-specific TILs in the same tumors. These data suggest that CD8+ TILs can reflect an individual’s immune status, rather than exclusively representing TAA-specific T cells, and that PD-1 expression on CD8+ TILs is not always associated with repeated Ag encounter or dysfunction. Thus, functional virus-specific CD8+ TILs could skew the results of prognostic or diagnostic TIL assays.
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Effective Combination of Innate and Adaptive Immunotherapeutic Approaches in a Mouse Melanoma Model

Effective Combination of Innate and Adaptive Immunotherapeutic Approaches in a Mouse Melanoma Model | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Most cancer immunotherapies include activation of either innate or adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that the combined activation of both innate and adaptive immunity will result in better antitumor efficacy. We have previously shown the synergy of an agonistic anti-CD40 mAb (anti-CD40) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides in activating macrophages to induce tumor cell killing in mice. Separately, we have shown that a direct intratumoral injection of immunocytokine (IC), an anti-GD2 Ab linked to IL-2, can activate T and NK cells resulting in antitumor effects. We hypothesized that activation of macrophages with anti-CD40/CpG, and NK cells with IC, would cause innate tumor destruction, leading to increased presentation of tumor Ags and adaptive T cell activation; the latter could be further augmented by anti–CTLA-4 Ab to achieve tumor eradication and immunological memory. Using the mouse GD2+ B78 melanoma model, we show that anti-CD40/CpG treatment led to upregulation of T cell activation markers in draining lymph nodes. Anti-CD40/CpG + IC/anti–CTLA-4 synergistically induced regression of advanced s.c. tumors, resulting in cure of some mice and development of immunological memory against B78 and wild type B16 tumors. Although the antitumor effect of anti-CD40/CpG did not require T cells, the antitumor effect of IC/anti–CTLA-4 was dependent on T cells. The combined treatment with anti-CD40/CpG + IC/anti-CTLA-4 reduced T regulatory cells in the tumors and was effective against distant solid tumors and lung metastases. We suggest that a combination of anti-CD40/CpG and IC/anti-CTLA-4 should be developed for clinical testing as a potentially effective novel immunotherapy strategy.
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Functional expression of olfactory receptors in human primary melanoma and melanoma metastasis

Functional expression of olfactory receptors in human primary melanoma and melanoma metastasis | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
We identified the olfactory receptor 51E2 in human melanoma and have measured both OR51E2 mRNA and protein expression in melanoma tissue sections. qPCR analysis revealed that the receptor i
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Toward Killing Cancer with Bacteria | The Scientist Magazine®

Toward Killing Cancer with Bacteria | The Scientist Magazine® | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Researchers employ an engineered microbe to destroy tumor cells in mice.
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Immunogenic cell death in cancer and infectious disease : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Research

Immunogenic cell death in cancer and infectious disease : Nature Reviews Immunology : Nature Research | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Immunogenicity depends on two key factors: antigenicity and adjuvanticity. The presence of exogenous or mutated antigens explains why infected cells and malignant cells can initiate an adaptive immune response provided that the cells also emit adjuvant signals as a consequence of cellular stress and death. Several infectious pathogens have devised strategies to control cell death and limit the emission of danger signals from dying cells, thereby avoiding immune recognition. Similarly, cancer cells often escape immunosurveillance owing to defects in the molecular machinery that underlies the release of endogenous adjuvants. Here, we review current knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie the activation of immune responses against dying cells and their pathophysiological relevance.
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Immunogenic cell death in cancer and infectious disease 

 Lorenzo Galluzzi, Aitziber Buqué, Oliver Kepp, Laurence Zitvogel & Guido Kroemer

Nature Reviews Immunology 17, 97–111 (2017) doi:10.1038/nri.2016.107 Published online 17 October 2016
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Biomimetic biodegradable artificial antigen presenting cells synergize with PD-1 blockade to treat melanoma

Biomimetic biodegradable artificial antigen presenting cells synergize with PD-1 blockade to treat melanoma | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Publication date: February 2017
Source:Biomaterials, Volume 118
Author(s): A.K. Kosmides, R.A. Meyer, J.W. Hickey, K. Aje, K.N. Cheung, J.J. Green, J.P. Schneck
Biomimetic materials that target the immune system and generate an anti-tumor responses hold promise in augmenting cancer immunotherapy. These synthetic materials can be engineered and optimized for their biodegradability, physical parameters such as shape and size, and controlled release of immune-modulators. As these new platforms enter the playing field, it is imperative to understand their interaction with existing immunotherapies since single-targeted approaches have limited efficacy. Here, we investigate the synergy between a PLGA-based artificial antigen presenting cell (aAPC) and a checkpoint blockade molecule, anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The combination of antigen-specific aAPC-based activation and anti-PD-1 mAb checkpoint blockade induced the greatest IFN-γ secretion by CD8+ T cells in vitro. Combination treatment also acted synergistically in an in vivo murine melanoma model to result in delayed tumor growth and extended survival, while either treatment alone had no effect. This was shown mechanistically to be due to decreased PD-1 expression and increased antigen-specific proliferation of CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and spleen. Thus, biomaterial-based therapy can synergize with other immunotherapies and motivates the translation of biomimetic combinatorial treatments.
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An Innovative New Cancer Therapy Hijacks Bacteria To Fight Tumours

An Innovative New Cancer Therapy Hijacks Bacteria To Fight Tumours | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Researchers from South Korea have engineered a strain of bacteria that infiltrates tumours and fools the body's immune system into attacking cance
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Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity

Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Circular extrachromosomal DNA is found in nearly half of human cancers of a wide variety of histologic types, increasing the copy number of driver oncogenes and intratumoral heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification and contributing to tumor evolution.
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Kristen M. Turner, Viraj Deshpande, Doruk Beyter, Tomoyuki Koga, Jessica Rusert, Catherine Lee, Bin Li, Karen Arden, Bing Ren, David A. Nathanson, Harley I. Kornblum, Michael D. Taylor, Sharmeela Kaushal, Webster K. Cavenee, Robert Wechsler-Reya, Frank B. Furnari, Scott R. Vandenberg, P. Nagesh Rao, Geoffrey M. Wahl, Vineet Bafna & Paul S. Mischel

Nature (2017) doi:10.1038/nature21356
Published online 08 February 2017
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PD-1 - Biocare Medical

PD-1 - Biocare Medical | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a cell surface co-receptor in the CD28/CTLA-4 T cell family and functions as a down regulator of the immune system through a dual mechanism of inhibition (1). PD-1 is expressed on the cell surface of activated T- and B-cells. Anti-tumor immunity may be controlled by the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway. PD-L1, …
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DERMOSCOPIC FEATURES PREDICTING THE PRESENCE OF MITOSES IN THIN MELANOMA

DERMOSCOPIC FEATURES PREDICTING THE PRESENCE OF MITOSES IN THIN MELANOMA | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Highlights • The number of mitoses in the last AJCC classification upstage a melanoma has been included in the last AJCC classification as a factor for upstaging thin melanomas. • Black colour and peripheral streaks can predict the presence of mitoses in thin melanoma. • atypical pigment network and brown colour are associated to thin melanoma without mitoses.
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Journal of Dermatological Science Available online 3 February 2017 In Press, Accepted Manuscript
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Potential therapeutic targets of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in melanoma

Potential therapeutic targets of epithelial–mesenchymal transition in melanoma | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it
Highlights • Signaling dysregulation induces expression of EMT-TFs in melanoma. • EMT-TFs favor loss of epithelial character and induction of invasive phenotypes. • Modulation of EMT signaling pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing invasion and metastasis of melanoma. • Various phytochemicals inhibit EMT, invasion and metastasis. • Small molecule inhibitors may offer specific approaches to regulating EMT.
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Cancer Letters Volume 391, 10 April 2017, Pages 125–140
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The results to date - eTheRNA immunotherapies NV

The results to date - eTheRNA immunotherapies NV | Melanoma BRAF Inhibitors Review | Scoop.it

RT @eTheRNA_TriMix: #immunotherapy #melanoma - interesting article - read also: https://t.co/P0XESTYctq https://t.co/9iEmB69Ski


The ex vivo TriMix-DC product (autologous dendritic cells electroporated with TriMix and antigen mRNA) has been validated in mouse models, two phase I clinical studies and two phase IIa clinical studies in melanoma patients (as stand-alone and in combination with ipilimumab). Studies in melanoma patients showed a significant increased 1-year survival, best overall response, disease control and progression free survival (ASCO 2014 / ECCO 2015). The data suggest that the complete response of the combination treatment (TriMixDC plus ipilimumab) increased by a factor 5 - 10 (> 20 %) in comparison to ipilimumab alone (2-4%). The findings of the study with TriMixDC in combination with ipilimumab in melanoma patients were published in March 2016 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, with the conclusion that "The combination of TriMixDC-MEL and ipilimumab is tolerable and results in an encouraging rate of highly durable tumor responses in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma."

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The mRNA-based TriMix technology boosts dendritic cells which play a fundamental role in the human immune system
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