Useful AOD Reports & Resources
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Weeding out the information: an ethnographic approach to exploring how young people make sense of the evidence on cannabis (Canada)

Contradictory evidence on cannabis adds to the climate of confusion regarding the health harms related to use. This is particularly true for young people as they encounter and make sense of opposing information on cannabis.
ReGenUC's insight:

Leading to the obvious conclusion: involving young people in the development of educational initiatives targetting young people is a good idea.

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Useful AOD Reports & Resources
A collection of good AOD research and resources
Curated by ReGenUC
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World Drug Report 2017

World Drug Report 2017 | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

To celebrate 20 years since its inception, the World Drug Report 2017 is presented in a new five-booklet format designed to improve reader friendliness while maintaining the wealth of information contained within.

ReGenUC's insight:

See related media coverage: http://sco.lt/9Lsdn7

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Research Review: The effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy in treating adolescents with multiple behavior problems – a meta-analysis

Review finds multidimensional family therapy more effective than group therapies and other psychosocial therapies, particularly among adolescents with severe substance use and other behavioural problems.

ReGenUC's insight:

With some obvious implications for treatment services working with young people.

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Naltrexone: Injectable or oral? (USA)

Medications can help people who drink excessive amounts of alcohol. One medication that can reduce alcohol craving and help promote recovery is naltrexone, which is approved for treatment of alcohol dependence by the Food and Drug Administration. It is available in two forms – injectable and oral. A pilot study evaluated the feasibility of injectable versus oral naltrexone, administered in a hospital setting to enhance treatment compliance when patients leave the hospital.
ReGenUC's insight:

US study finds both oral and injected naltrexone reduced alcohol consumption and increased medication compliance.

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Preventing overdose deaths in Europe 

It is estimated that over 70 000 lives were lost to drug overdoses in Europe in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Reducing drug-related deaths therefore remains a major challenge for public health policy. This analysis describes some of the factors that increase the risk of fatal and non-fatal overdoses and a number of interventions developed to prevent these events.

ReGenUC's insight:

New EMCDDA resource featuring background info and description of key success factors for peer naloxone distribution.

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Publishing Addiction Science

Publishing Addiction Science is a comprehensive guide for addiction scientists facing the complex process of contributing to scholarly journals. Written by an international group of addiction journal editors and their colleagues, it discusses how to write research articles and systematic reviews, choose a journal, respond to reviewers’ reports, become a reviewer, and resolve the often difficult authorship, ethical and citation issues that arise in addiction science publishing.

 

ReGenUC's insight:

A nice resource for researchers and other seeking to contribute to the AOD evidence base.

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National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS) 2016 key findings (AIHW)

The 2016 NDSHS show that younger people (aged under 30) were smoking less, drinking less and using fewer illicit drugs in 2016 than in 2001. However, for people in their 40s, 50s and 60s, there was little to no change in drug usage behaviours over this period but their use of some drugs has increased between 2013 and 2016.

ReGenUC's insight:

See today's initial commentary on the 2016 findings by Nicole Lee: http://sco.lt/5uSHRp

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Peter Dunne says 'Class C' drugs like cannabis should be made legal and regulated (NZ)

Peter Dunne says 'Class C' drugs like cannabis should be made legal and regulated (NZ) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
Government minister says legalisation of cannabis is the 'logical way forward'.
ReGenUC's insight:

Peter Dunne continues his advocacy for evidence based policy measures. In contrast, see the latest example of Australian political leaders refusing to recognise calls for policy reform: http://sco.lt/7xmHlB

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ReGenUC's curator insight, May 28, 10:33 PM

Peter Dunne continues his advocacy for evidence based policy measures. In contrast, see the latest example of Australian political leaders refusing to recognise calls for policy reform: http://sco.lt/7xmHlB

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Young people’s statistics from the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) 1 April 2015 to 31 March 2016 (UK)

The diminishing youth treatment caseload in England is increasingly dominated by under-18s primarily being treated for cannabis use problems as the numbers of primary problem drinkers falls away to just 15% of the caseload.

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Studies show harmful links between use of e-cigarettes and bladder cancer risk (USA)

Studies show harmful links between use of e-cigarettes and bladder cancer risk (USA) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
Data being presented at the 112th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Urological Association shows harmful links between the use of e-cigarettes and bladder cancer risk, and associates the intensity of smoking traditional cigarettes to a higher risk of mortality among bladder cancer patients
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Finding an evidence based intervention for methamphetamine-using women (Aus)

It is a serious health concern among opioid-dependent and methadone patients. For example, female methadone patients with methamphetamine use disorder constitute a large population of illicit drug users in Iran. This group uses methamphetamine to increase physical energy and relieve the depressant effects of high dose methadone. Most female methadone patients with methamphetamine use disorder suffer poor psychological well-being and impaired social functioning. This is combined with poly substance use, poor readiness to change methamphetamine use and poor methadone treatment outcomes.
ReGenUC's insight:

NDARC's Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi on her research in Iran, highlighting the importance of structured, CBT-based interventions, along with factors like stable housing, non-using family/peers, not being involved in sex work and being motivated to change.

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Making drug use a crime makes HIV prevention, treatment more difficult (USA)

The criminalization of drug use has a negative effect on efforts to prevent and treat people with HIV, suggests a review of published research conducted by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of British Columbia.

ReGenUC's insight:

Another piece of research from the category 'studies that tell us what we already know'. But it's important that such research continues to increase the scientific evidence we need to advocate for future changes to local, national and global drug policies.

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Harm Reduction for People Who Use or May Encounter Fentanyl/Carfentanil

Harm Reduction for People Who Use or May Encounter Fentanyl/Carfentanil | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

There have been rising number of deaths in the UK, Europe, and North America which have been linked to the use of two opioids - fentanyl and carfentanil. These drugs are reportedly being mixed with heroin, often without the knowledge of the person making the purchase.

ReGenUC's insight:

Some good harm reduction advice from the folk at Release.

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Alcohol and other drug treatment funding, purchasing, and workforce: empirical analyses to inform policy (Aus)

Alcohol and other drug treatment funding, purchasing, and workforce: empirical analyses to inform policy (Aus) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

Alcohol and drug treatment works: it improves health and reduces the social impact of alcohol and drug use. The treatment itself is not, however, the only variable that impacts on whether health outcomes are improved. The way in which governments fund, purchase and structure the treatment service system is also important. This study will empirically test the relationship between treatment outcome and the structures that governments put in place, providing new evidence to inform decision-making.

ReGenUC's insight:

New NDARC study to test three hypotheses:

I). That better treatment outcomes are attained when treatment providers are not selected by open competitive tender;
II). That block funding is associated with better treatment outcomes compared to unit cost funding; and
III). That there are no differences in treatment outcome between government and non-government treatment providers.

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Guides to the Alcohol Industry (Aus)

Guides to the Alcohol Industry (Aus) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
The McCusker Centre has released a series of guides to the major alcohol companies, sales outlets, and alcohol industry peak bodies and representative groups in Australia.

The three guides are available in the boxes that follow.
ReGenUC's insight:

Some good resources here for those with an interest in Australian alcohol policy (and how it is influenced).

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Further support for genetic factors underlying addictions (USA)

Impairment of a particular gene raises increases susceptibility to opioid addiction liability as well as vulnerability to binge eating according to a new study. Dysfunction of the gene, casein kinase1-epsilon (CSNK1E), increases opioid's euphoric response and produces a marked increase in sensitivity to binge eating in a female experimental model but not in the male.
ReGenUC's insight:

Researchers suggest that the CSNK1E gene may also have a role in increasing risk of alcohol dependence.

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High-risk drug use and new psychoactive substances (Europe)

This report provides a first look at the emergence of more problematic forms of use of new psychoactive substances among a range of demographic groups, including opioid and amphetamine injectors, prisoners, the homeless and men who have sex with men. It explores, in particular, the use of synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids and new synthetic opioids, as well as related harms and responses.

ReGenUC's insight:

Another in the new series of EMCDDA reports, this one focusing on NPS, their current impacts and future implications for public health and drug policy.

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Drug consumption rooms: an overview of provision and evidence (EU)

Supervised drug consumption facilities, where illicit drugs can be used under the supervision of trained staff, have been operating in Europe for the last three decades. These facilities primarily aim to reduce the acute risks of disease transmission through unhygienic injecting, prevent drug-related overdose deaths and connect high-risk drug users with addiction treatment and other health and social services.

ReGenUC's insight:

New EMCDDA resource with background info and key components of successful DCR models.

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Police diversion for cannabis offences: Assessing outcomes and cost-effectiveness (Aus)

Police diversion is widely utilised as an intervention for minor cannabis offending in Australia. This study compared the cost-effectiveness and outcomes of three kinds of diversions - cautions, expiation and warnings - with the traditional criminal justice system response of charging the offender. 

ReGenUC's insight:

Study by Marian Shanahan, Caitlin Hughes and Tim McSweeney finds reduction in drug use and offending, compared with those who were charged.

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The number of cigarettes smoked per year around the world, mapped

The number of cigarettes smoked per year around the world, mapped | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it
China is the world's biggest consumer of cigarettes, adults there smoke a huge 4124 each a year (11-12 a day), according to data from the World Health Organisation. In a close second is Belarus (3831 cigarettes smoked per adult, per year), then Lebanon (3023), Macedonia (2732), and Russia (2690).
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Australian methamphetamine user outcomes

Illicit drug use costs Australia billions of dollars every year in lost productivity and healthcare and crime costs. This paper examines the demographics of methamphetamine users and their employment, education and health outcomes using data from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey, the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia program, the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services data collection and the National Prisoner Health Data Collection. Across all data sources, methamphetamine users reported worse employment, education, housing and health outcomes than those who used other illicit drugs and those who did not use drugs. In the general population, this effect was more pronounced for crystal methamphetamine users than for users of other forms of methamphetamines.

ReGenUC's insight:

New report from the Australian Institute of Criminology estimates the costs of organised crime related illicit drug activity at $4.4 billion in 2013-14. See this related coverage from Xinhua News: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-05/28/c_136322788.htm

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Global Drug Survey 2017 results released! 

Global Drug Survey 2017 results released!  | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

An increase in the purity of recreational drugs has lead to a major increase in UK cocaine users being admitted to A&E departments according to a study out today.

ReGenUC's insight:

See the key GDS2017 findings here. This year's survey includes data from more than 115,000 people (over 5,000 in Aus).

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Cannabis Use among People Entering Drug Treatment in Europe: A Growing Phenomenon 

This paper explores European and national trends in specialised drug treatment entry for cannabis-related problems. The analysis is based on data for the years 2003-2014 from 22 European countries. Be
ReGenUC's insight:

Service data analysis shows an increase in people seeking cannabis treatment. It's important to note the caution that this pattern could be as much due to changes within treatment systems and how service data is recorded as to policy changes.

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Where you live may impact how much you drink (USA)

Neighborhoods with greater poverty and disorganization may play a greater role in problem drinking than the availability of bars and stores that sell hard liquor, a new study has found.

ReGenUC's insight:

New study highlights potential impacts of focussing on quality of life improvements within neighbourhoods to reduce alcohol related harm.

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How Do People Who Frequently Attend Emergency Departments for Alcohol-Related Reasons Use, View, and Experience Specialist Addiction Services? (UK)

How Do People Who Frequently Attend Emergency Departments for Alcohol-Related Reasons Use, View, and Experience Specialist Addiction Services? (UK) | Useful AOD Reports & Resources | Scoop.it

People who frequently attend emergency departments (EDs) for alcohol-related reasons, cost health systems greatly. Although specialist addiction services may be more appropriate for their needs, drinkers often experience barriers accessing specialist alcohol-related support. Objectives: This study explores how people who frequently attend EDs for alcohol-related reasons use, view, and experience specialist addiction services.

ReGenUC's insight:

The study highlights the fact that, for many people in this group, their greatest support needs were not AOD treatment, but with mental health problems, social isolation, paid or voluntary work, or housing. It also notes the importance of outreach-based service models for engaging people who do not traditionally seek out treatment services.

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Mortality risk during and after opioid substitution treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies

Conclusions:  Retention in methadone and buprenorphine treatment is associated with substantial reductions in the risk for all cause and overdose mortality in people dependent on opioids. The induction phase onto methadone treatment and the time immediately after leaving treatment with both drugs are periods of particularly increased mortality risk, which should be dealt with by both public health and clinical strategies to mitigate such risk. These findings are potentially important, but further research must be conducted to properly account for potential confounding and selection bias in comparisons of mortality risk between opioid substitution treatments, as well as throughout periods in and out of each treatment.

ReGenUC's insight:

See this week's related coverage on the potential use of methadone to reduce risk of post-operative chronic pain: http://sco.lt/7E3O7N

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