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Interconnected Networks (by Antonios Garas)

This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multilayer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated.

Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.


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The Perfect Bet: How Science and Math Are Taking the Luck Out of Gambling (by Adam Kucharski)

The Perfect Bet: How Science and Math Are Taking the Luck Out of Gambling

~ Adam Kucharski (author) More about this product
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There is one thing about gambling that everyone knows: the house always wins. Lotteries are set up to guarantee profits, to the state. A craps game is a sure thing, but only if you own the table. Sometimes, however, everyone is wrong. After all, the reason that casinos ban card counters is that counting cards works. Indeed, for the past 500 years, gamblers—led by mathematicians and scientists—have been trying to figure out how to turn the tables on the house and pull the rug out from under Lady Luck.

In The Perfect Bet, mathematician and award-winning writer Adam Kucharski tells the astonishing story of how the experts have done it, revolutionizing mathematics and science in the process. From Galileo to Alan Turing, betting has been scientists’ playground for ideas: dice games in sixteenth-century bars gave birth to the theory of probability, and poker to game theory (mathematician John von Neumann wanted to improve his game) and to much of artificial intelligence. Kucharski gives us a collection of rogues, geniuses, and mavericks who are equally at home in a casino in Monte Carlo as investigating how to build an atomic bomb for the Manhattan Project. They include the mathematician who flipped a coin 25,000 times to see if it was fair; the college kids who gamed the Massachusetts lottery to yield millions of dollars in profit; and the horse-betting syndicates of Hong Kong’s Happy Valley, who turned a wager on ponies into a multi-billion-dollar industry.

With mathematical rigor and narrative flair,  Adam Kucharski reveals the tangled history of betting and science. The house can seem unbeatable. In this book, Kucharski shows us just why it isn’t. Even better, he shows us how the search for the perfect bet has been crucial for the scientific pursuit of a better world 


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Boundaries of a Complex World (by Andrei Ludu)

The central theme of this book is the extent to which the structure of the free dynamical boundaries of a system controls the evolution of the system as a whole. Applying three orthogonal types of thinking - mathematical, constructivist and morphological, it illustrates these concepts using applications to selected problems from the social and life sciences, as well as economics.

 In a broader context, it introduces and reviews some modern mathematical approaches to the science of complex systems. Standard modeling approaches (based on non-linear differential equations, dynamic systems, graph theory, cellular automata, stochastic processes, or information theory) are suitable for studying local problems. However they cannot simultaneously take into account all the different facets and phenomena of a complex system, and new approaches are required to solve the challenging problem of correlations between phenomena at different levels and hierarchies, their self-organization and memory-evolutive aspects, the growth of additional structures and are ultimately required to explain why and how such complex systems can display both robustness and flexibility.


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Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Technology, Culture, and Our Minds (by Greg Milner)

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Technology, Culture, and Our Minds

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Pinpoint tells the story of GPS, a scientific marvel that enables almost all modern technology―but is changing us in profound ways.

 

Over the last fifty years, humanity has developed an extraordinary shared utility: the Global Positioning System. Even as it guides us across town, GPS helps land planes, route mobile calls, anticipate earthquakes, predict weather, locate oil deposits, measure neutrinos, grow our food, and regulate global finance. It is as ubiquitous and essential as another Cold War technology, the Internet. In Pinpoint, Greg Milner takes us on a fascinating tour of a hidden system that touches almost every aspect of our modern life.

While GPS has brought us breathtakingly accurate information about our planetary environment and physical space, it has also created new forms of human behavior. We have let it saturate the world’s systems so completely and so quickly that we are just beginning to confront the possible consequences. A single GPS timing flaw, whether accidental or malicious, could bring down the electrical grid, hijack drones, or halt the world financial system. The use, and potential misuse, of GPS data by government and corporations raise disturbing questions about ethics and privacy. GPS may be altering the nature of human cognition―possibly even rearranging the gray matter in our heads.

Pinpoint tells the sweeping story of GPS from its conceptual origins as a bomb guidance system to its presence in almost everything we do. Milner examines the different ways humans have understood physical space, delves into the neuroscience of cognitive maps, and questions GPS’s double-edged effect on our culture. A fascinating and original story of the scientific urge toward precision, Pinpoint offers startling insight into how humans understand their place in the world.


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The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (by Adrian Bejan)

The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything

~ Adrian Bejan (author) More about this product
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The Physics of Life explores the roots of the big question by examining the deepest urges and properties of living things, both animate and inanimate: how to live longer, with food, warmth, power, movement and free access to other people and surroundings. Bejan explores controversial and relevant issues such as sustainability, water and food supply, fuel, and economy, to critique the state in which the world understands positions of power and freedom. Breaking down concepts such as desire and power, sports health and culture, the state of economy, water and energy, politics and distribution, Bejan uses the language of physics to explain how each system works in order to clarify the meaning of evolution in its broadest scientific sense, moving the reader towards a better understanding of the world's systems and the natural evolution of cultural and political development.

The Physics of Life argues that the evolution phenomenon is much broader and older than the evolutionary designs that constitute the biosphere, empowering readers with a new view of the globe and the future, revealing that the urge to have better ideas has the same physical effect as the urge to have better laws and better government. This is evolution explained loudly but also elegantly, forging a path that flows sustainability.


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Exploring Discrete Dynamics, 2nd Edition

Exploring Discrete Dynamics, 2nd Edition | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it

EXPLORING DISCRETE DYNAMICS (second edition) is a comprehensive guide to studying cellular automata and discrete dynamical networks with the classic software Discrete Dynamics Laboratory (DDLab), widely used in research and education. These collective networks are at the core of complexity and emergent self-organisation. With interactive graphics, DDLab is able to explore a huge diversity of behaviour, mostly terra incognita -- space-time patterns, and basins of attraction -- mathematical objects representing the convergent flow in state-space. Applications range within physics, mathematics, biology, cognition, society, economics and computation, and more specifically in neural and genetic networks, artificial life, and theories of memory. This second edition covers many new features.

 

Advance Praise by Stuart Kauffman
The great John von Neumann invented cellular automata. These discrete state finite automata have become a mainstay in the study of complex systems, exhibiting order, criticality, and chaos. Andy Wuensche's "Exploring Discrete Dynamics" 2016, is by far the most advanced tool for simulating such systems and has become widely important in the field of complexity.

 

http://www.ddlab.org


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Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment

Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it

Whole-genome sequencing of 264 clones sampled from 12 Escherichia coli populations evolved over 50,000 generations under identical culture conditions is used to characterize the patterns and dynamics of genome evolution over time.

 

Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment
◦ Olivier Tenaillon, Jeffrey E. Barrick, Noah Ribeck, Daniel E. Deatherage, Jeffrey L. Blanchard, Aurko Dasgupta, Gabriel C. Wu, Sébastien Wielgoss, Stéphane Cruveiller, Claudine Médigue, Dominique Schneider & Richard E. Lenski

Nature 536, 165–170 (11 August 2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature18959


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Energy, Complexity and Wealth Maximization (by Robert Ayres)

This book describes the evolution and mechanisms of natural wealth creation. The author explains how natural wealth consists of complex physical structures of condensed (“frozen”) energy and what the key requirements for wealth creation are, namely a change agent, a selection mechanism and a life-extending mechanism. He uses elements from multiple disciplines, from physics to biology to economics to illustrate this.

Human wealth is ultimately based on natural wealth, as materials transform into useful artifacts, and as useful information is transmitted by those artifacts when activated by energy. The question is if the new immaterial wealth of ideas of the knowledge economy can replace depleted natural wealth. This book reveals the vital challenge for economic and political leaders to explore how knowledge and natural capital, energy in particular, can interact to power the human wealth engine in the future.


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Complexity Economics: A Different Framework for Economic Thought - W. Brian Arthur

Abstract
This paper provides a logical framework for complexity economics. Complexity economics builds from the proposition that the economy is not necessarily in equilibrium: economic agents (firms, consumers, investors) constantly change their actions and strategies in response to the outcome they mutually create. This further changes the outcome, which requires them to adjust afresh. Agents thus live in a world where their beliefs and strategies are constantly being “tested” for survival within an outcome or “ecology” these beliefs and strategies together create. Economics has largely avoided this nonequilibrium view in the past, but if we allow it, we see patterns or phenomena not visible to
equilibrium analysis. These emerge probabilistically, last for some time and dissipate, and they correspond to complex structures in other fields. We also see the economy not as something given and existing but forming from a constantly developing set of technological innovations, institutions, and arrangements that draw forth further innovations, institutions and arrangements.
Complexity economics sees the economy as in motion, perpetually “computing” itself—perpetually constructing itself anew. Where equilibrium economics emphasizes order, determinacy, deduction, and stasis, complexity economics emphasizes contingency, indeterminacy, sense-making, and openness to change. In this framework time, in the sense of real historical time, becomes important, and a solution is no longer necessarily a set of mathematical conditions but a pattern, a set
of emergent phenomena, a set of changes that may induce further changes, a set of existing entities creating novel entities. Equilibrium economics is a special case of nonequilibrium and hence complexity economics, therefore complexity economics is economics done in a more general way. It shows us an economy perpetually inventing itself, creating novel structures and possibilities for exploitation, and perpetually open to response.


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Lorien Pratt's curator insight, December 14, 2013 8:40 PM

From the body of the paper:

Complexity economics is not a special case of neoclassical economics. On the contrary, equilibrium economics is a special case of nonequilibrium and hence complexity economics. Complexity economics, we can say, is economics done in a more general way. Equilibrium of course will remain a useful first-order approximation, useful for situations in economics that are well-defined, rationalizable, and reasonably static, but it can no longer claim to be the

center of economics.

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Our Self-Inflicted Complexity - Roger Martin - Harvard Business ...

Our Self-Inflicted Complexity - Roger Martin - Harvard Business ... | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it
People who make it their business to study large-scale problems (business theorists and economists among them) seem to be in broad agreement that the world is growing ever more complex — and that this trend makes their ...
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Griffiths phases and the stretching of criticality in brain networks

Griffiths phases and the stretching of criticality in brain networks | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it

From Abstract: Hallmarks of criticality, such as power-laws and scale invariance, have been empirically found in cortical-network dynamics and it has been conjectured that operating at criticality entails functional advantages, such as optimal computational capabilities, memory and large dynamical ranges. As critical behaviour requires a high degree of fine tuning to emerge, some type of self-tuning mechanism needs to be invoked. Here we show that, taking into account the complex hierarchical-modular architecture of cortical networks, the singular critical point is replaced by an extended critical-like region that corresponds—in the jargon of statistical mechanics—to a Griffiths phase.


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The Perfect Bet: How Science and Math Are Taking the Luck Out of Gambling (by Adam Kucharski)

The Perfect Bet: How Science and Math Are Taking the Luck Out of Gambling

~ Adam Kucharski (author) More about this product
List Price: $26.99
Price: $23.31
You Save: $3.68 (14%)

There is one thing about gambling that everyone knows: the house always wins. Lotteries are set up to guarantee profits, to the state. A craps game is a sure thing, but only if you own the table. Sometimes, however, everyone is wrong. After all, the reason that casinos ban card counters is that counting cards works. Indeed, for the past 500 years, gamblers—led by mathematicians and scientists—have been trying to figure out how to turn the tables on the house and pull the rug out from under Lady Luck.

In The Perfect Bet, mathematician and award-winning writer Adam Kucharski tells the astonishing story of how the experts have done it, revolutionizing mathematics and science in the process. From Galileo to Alan Turing, betting has been scientists’ playground for ideas: dice games in sixteenth-century bars gave birth to the theory of probability, and poker to game theory (mathematician John von Neumann wanted to improve his game) and to much of artificial intelligence. Kucharski gives us a collection of rogues, geniuses, and mavericks who are equally at home in a casino in Monte Carlo as investigating how to build an atomic bomb for the Manhattan Project. They include the mathematician who flipped a coin 25,000 times to see if it was fair; the college kids who gamed the Massachusetts lottery to yield millions of dollars in profit; and the horse-betting syndicates of Hong Kong’s Happy Valley, who turned a wager on ponies into a multi-billion-dollar industry.

With mathematical rigor and narrative flair,  Adam Kucharski reveals the tangled history of betting and science. The house can seem unbeatable. In this book, Kucharski shows us just why it isn’t. Even better, he shows us how the search for the perfect bet has been crucial for the scientific pursuit of a better world 


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Dynamical Systems on Networks

Dynamical Systems on Networks | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it

When studying a dynamical process, one is concerned with its behavior as a function of time, space, and its parameters. There are numerous studies that examine how many people are infected by a biological contagion and whether it persists from one season to another, whether and to what extent interacting oscillators synchronize, whether a meme on the internet becomes viral or not, and more. These studies all have something in common: the dynamics are occurring on a set of discrete entities (the nodes in a network) that are connected to each other via edges in some nontrivial way. This leads to the natural question of how such underlying nontrivial connectivity affects dynamical processes. This is one of the most important questions in network science, and it is the core question that we consider in our tutorial.

 

Dynamical Systems on Networks
A Tutorial
Authors: Mason A. Porter, James P. Gleeson
ISBN: 978-3-319-26640-4 (Print) 978-3-319-26641-1

http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-26641-1 ;


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Complex Motions and Chaos in Nonlinear Systems

This book brings together 12 chapters on a new stream of research examining complex phenomena in nonlinear systems―including engineering, physics, and social science. Complex Motions and Chaos in Nonlinear Systems provides readers a particular vantage of the nature and nonlinear phenomena in nonlinear dynamics that can develop the corresponding mathematical theory and apply nonlinear design to practical engineering as well as the study of other complex phenomena including those investigated within social science.


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The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything (by Adrian Bejan)

The Physics of Life: The Evolution of Everything

~ Adrian Bejan (author) More about this product
List Price: $27.99
Price: $17.94
You Save: $10.05 (36%)

The Physics of Life explores the roots of the big question by examining the deepest urges and properties of living things, both animate and inanimate: how to live longer, with food, warmth, power, movement and free access to other people and surroundings. Bejan explores controversial and relevant issues such as sustainability, water and food supply, fuel, and economy, to critique the state in which the world understands positions of power and freedom. Breaking down concepts such as desire and power, sports health and culture, the state of economy, water and energy, politics and distribution, Bejan uses the language of physics to explain how each system works in order to clarify the meaning of evolution in its broadest scientific sense, moving the reader towards a better understanding of the world's systems and the natural evolution of cultural and political development.

The Physics of Life argues that the evolution phenomenon is much broader and older than the evolutionary designs that constitute the biosphere, empowering readers with a new view of the globe and the future, revealing that the urge to have better ideas has the same physical effect as the urge to have better laws and better government. This is evolution explained loudly but also elegantly, forging a path that flows sustainability.


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Paper: Paging Through History (by Mark Kurlansky)

Paper: Paging Through History

~ Mark Kurlansky (author) More about this product
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A definitive history of paper and the astonishing ways it has shaped today’s world.

Paper is one of the simplest and most essential pieces of human technology. For the past two millennia, the ability to produce it in ever more efficient ways has supported the proliferation of literacy, media, religion, education, commerce, and art; it has formed the foundation of civilizations, promoting revolutions and restoring stability. One has only to look at history’s greatest press run, which produced 6.5 billion copies of Máo zhuxí yulu, Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung (Zedong)―which doesn’t include editions in 37 foreign languages and in braille―to appreciate the range and influence of a single publication, in paper. Or take the fact that one of history’s most revered artists, Leonardo da Vinci, left behind only 15 paintings but 4,000 works on paper. And though the colonies were at the time calling for a boycott of all British goods, the one exception they made speaks to the essentiality of the material; they penned the Declaration of Independence on British paper.

Now, amid discussion of “going paperless”―and as speculation about the effects of a digitally dependent society grows rampant―we’ve come to a world-historic juncture. Thousands of years ago, Socrates and Plato warned that written language would be the end of “true knowledge,” replacing the need to exercise memory and think through complex questions. Similar arguments were made about the switch from handwritten to printed books, and today about the role of computer technology. By tracing paper’s evolution from antiquity to the present, with an emphasis on the contributions made in Asia and the Middle East, Mark Kurlansky challenges common assumptions about technology’s influence, affirming that paper is here to stay. Paper will be the commodity history that guides us forward in the twenty-first century and illuminates our times.


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Network Science: Albert-László Barabási

Network Science

~ Albert-László Barabási (author) More about this product
Price: $59.99

Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network science.


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On Trails: An Exploration (by Robert Moor)

On Trails: An Exploration

~ Robert Moor (author) More about this product
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A groundbreaking exploration of how trails help us understand the world—from tiny ant trails to hiking paths that span continents, from interstate highways to the Internet.

In 2009, while thru-hiking the Appalachian Trail, Robert Moor began to wonder about the paths that lie beneath our feet: How do they form? Why do some improve over time while others fade? What makes us follow or strike off on our own? Over the course of the next seven years, Moor traveled the globe, exploring trails of all kinds, from the miniscule to the massive. He learned the tricks of master trail-builders, hunted down long-lost Cherokee trails, and traced the origins of our road networks and the Internet. In each chapter, Moor interweaves his adventures with findings from science, history, philosophy, and nature writing—combining the nomadic joys of Peter Matthiessen with the eclectic wisdom of Lewis Hyde’s The Gift.

Throughout, Moor reveals how this single topic—the oft-overlooked trail—sheds new light on a wealth of age-old questions: How does order emerge out of chaos? How did animals first crawl forth from the seas and spread across continents? How has humanity’s relationship with nature and technology shaped world around us? And, ultimately, how does each of us pick a path through life?

Moor has the essayist’s gift for making new connections, the adventurer’s love for paths untaken, and the philosopher’s knack for asking big questions. With a breathtaking arc that spans from the dawn of animal life to the digital era, On Trails is a book that makes us see our world, our history, our species, and our ways of life anew.


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Computational Personality Analysis | Yair Neuman

Computational Personality Analysis | Yair Neuman | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it

The emergence of intelligent technologies, sophisticated natural language processing methodologies and huge textual repositories, invites a new approach for the challenge of automatically identifying personality dimensions through the analysis of textual data. This short book aims to (1) introduce the challenge of computational personality analysis, (2) present a unique approach to personality analysis and (3) illustrate this approach through case studies and worked-out examples.
This book is of special relevance to psychologists, especially those interested in the new insights offered by new computational and data-intensive tools, and to computational social scientists interested in human personality and language processing.

 

Computational Personality Analysis: Introduction, Practical Applications and Novel Directions
Neuman, Yair


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Free open-source SDN app will analyze your network's complexity

Free open-source SDN app will analyze your network's complexity | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it
Network World: Enterprise infrastructure company Infoblox announced this week that it plans to release a free and open-source software tool called Tapestry aimed at generating a hard measurement of any network's ...
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Default Cascades in Complex Networks: Topology and Systemic Risk

Default Cascades in Complex Networks: Topology and Systemic Risk | Unit's Complex World | Scoop.it
The recent crisis has brought to the fore a crucial question that remains still open: what would be the optimal architecture of financial systems?

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