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Perspectives on Politics: Critical Dialogue - Dr. Philip N. Howard and Evgeny Morozov by Muzammil Hussain

Perspectives on Politics: Critical Dialogue - Dr. Philip N. Howard and Evgeny Morozov by Muzammil Hussain | Twit4D | Scoop.it

Since the beginning of the year there have been significant changes in North Africa and the Middle East. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali had ruled Tunisia for 20 years, and Hosni Mubarak reigned in Egypt for 30 years. Yet their bravest challengers were 20- and 30-year-olds without ideological baggage, violent intentions, or clear leaders. Political change in these countries inspired activists across the region. Some tough authoritarian governments responded with tear gas and rubber bullets, others with policy concessions, welfare spending, and cabinet shuffles. The groups that initiated and sustained protests had few meaningful experiences with public deliberation or voting, and little experience with successful protesting. These young citizens were politically disciplined, pragmatic, and collaborative. Where did they come from? How do young people growing up in modern, entrenched, authoritarian regimes find political inspirations and aspirations? Are digital media important parts of the contemporary recipe for democratization?

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From Twitter Revolution to Twitter Democracy by Koert Debeuf

From Twitter Revolution to Twitter Democracy by Koert Debeuf | Twit4D | Scoop.it

Since a few months, however, Egyptians are writing a new chapter of the Twitter-history. Twitter is now not only used to organise a revolution, but also to control the result of that revolution: democracy. During the elections for the People’s Assembly Twitter was used all over the country to report violations and fraud. As real electoral observation was refused by the government, these tweets counted as the most reliable information. After the elections there started a perhaps even more fascinating story. Since 23 January, tens of thousands Egyptians are watching the sessions of the newly elected parliament. Whenever a Member of Parliament says something good or bad, it is all around on Twitter. Or as @Mostafa wrote: “The public has the right to know what each MP says about each and every bit”. Is one MP sleeping for a minute? The next minute a picture of his little moment of weakness is all over the internet.

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Breakdown of the Twitter takedowns by Andrew Richard Schrock

Breakdown of the Twitter takedowns by Andrew Richard Schrock | Twit4D | Scoop.it

t’s probably a little too late, but before we all freak out and boycott Twitter further, let’s look at who has been requesting takedowns, what media were involved, and where they are from. Twitter posted 4411 cease & desist notices on Friday through Wendy Seltzer’s Chilling Effects website. The Twitter release of takedown notices was strangely timed, immediately following the height of SOPA protests and alongside their (more criticized) public statement that they will work with local authorities to filter tweets accessed from specific countries.

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What Does Twitter’s Country-by-Country Takedown System Mean for Freedom of Expression? by Eva Galperin

What Does Twitter’s Country-by-Country Takedown System Mean for Freedom of Expression? by Eva Galperin | Twit4D | Scoop.it

Yesterday, Twitter announced in a blog post that it was launching a system that would allow the company to take down content on a country-by-country basis, as opposed to taking it down across the Twitter system. The Internet immediately exploded with allegations of censorship, conspiracy theories about Twitter’s Saudi investors and automated content filtering, and calls for a January 28 protest. One thing is clear: there is widespread confusion over Twitter's new policy and what its implications are for freedom of expression all over the world.

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Egypt and the Arab Spring +1 Year

Egypt and the Arab Spring +1 Year | Twit4D | Scoop.it

As hundreds of thousands throng Cairo’s Tahrir Square today in celebration, remembrance and continued vigilance, it is worth thinking through the implications of these remarkable events for our understanding of digital activism. My book on the Egyptian revolution is forthcoming, but if I could distill 5 important takeaways, they would be this:

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#january25 One Year Later: Social Media & Politics 3.0 by Rory O'Connor

#january25 One Year Later: Social Media & Politics 3.0 by Rory O'Connor | Twit4D | Scoop.it

One year ago, a revolution began in Egypt that still reverberates there -- as well as among other repressive rulers and regimes in Syria, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and beyond, including thousands of miles away in New York City, where "Occupy Wall Street" protests in turn took root and then flowered into literally hundreds of similar protests all around the nation and the world. From Tunis to Tahrir Square -- but also from London, Madrid and Rome to Athens, Tel Aviv and Tokyo -- millions were on the march, demanding more respect, hope, dignity and democracy.

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Does social media and the Internet fuel youth political engagement? with Joseph Kahne

Professor Joseph Kahne, an expert on digital media and youth social enterprise, talks with smartmobs-crowdsourcing pioneer Howard Rheingold about new research that punctures core myths about cyberactivism, and strongly indicates that the virtual world nourishes youth engagement in real-world issues.

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Nigéria: la révolution africaine 2.0 en marche by Joan Tilouine

Nigéria: la révolution africaine 2.0 en marche by Joan Tilouine | Twit4D | Scoop.it
Face à la répression, c’est sur internet et les réseaux sociaux que blogueurs et cyberactivistes organisent le mouvement, mobilisent les troupes et coordonnent les actions de terrain. #OccupyNigeria, #Fuelsubsidy, ces hashtags qui servent de cri de ralliement sur Twitter, font office de cellule de résistance, et donnent le pouls en direct des évènements qui se déroulent un peu partout dans le pays depuis plus d’une semaine.

Avec comme cyberarmes, la branche nigériane de l’organisation globale d’hacktivistes Anonymous. Dans un communiqué diffusé le 10 janvier, ces «hackers libertaires» pro-démocratiques ont exposé leurs revendications. Avec une rhétorique qui leur est propre et qui a contribué à leur succès. «Nous demandons que vous réduisiez les dépenses du gouvernement de 60 %, que vous éliminiez le gaspillage, que vous mettiez fin à la corruption et au copinage politique, que vous réduisiez le prix de l’essence (…) Nous demandons l’arrêt immédiat des tueries de manifestants innocents».

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Perspectives on Politics: Critical Dialogue - Dr. Philip N. Howard and Evgeny Morozov by Muzammil Hussain

Perspectives on Politics: Critical Dialogue - Dr. Philip N. Howard and Evgeny Morozov by Muzammil Hussain | Twit4D | Scoop.it

Since the beginning of the year there have been significant changes in North Africa and the Middle East. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali had ruled Tunisia for 20 years, and Hosni Mubarak reigned in Egypt for 30 years. Yet their bravest challengers were 20- and 30-year-olds without ideological baggage, violent intentions, or clear leaders. Political change in these countries inspired activists across the region. Some tough authoritarian governments responded with tear gas and rubber bullets, others with policy concessions, welfare spending, and cabinet shuffles. The groups that initiated and sustained protests had few meaningful experiences with public deliberation or voting, and little experience with successful protesting. These young citizens were politically disciplined, pragmatic, and collaborative. Where did they come from? How do young people growing up in modern, entrenched, authoritarian regimes find political inspirations and aspirations? Are digital media important parts of the contemporary recipe for democratization?

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Social media fans the Nigerian fuel subsidy debate by Charlie Fripp

Social media fans the Nigerian fuel subsidy debate by Charlie Fripp | Twit4D | Scoop.it

As the protests and demonstrations rage on in Nigeria surrounding the government’s decision to cut subsidies on petrol, many citizen have taken to social media sites to voice their opinions. Fuel subsidies provided citizens with discounted petrol at the pumps, but with the government’s retraction of the subsidy, the price of petrol has literally doubled over night. Users of social media site Twitter relay messages of protest action and subsidy news under the hashtags #Occupy Nigeria and #fuelsubsidy. “In Nigeria, the protest will continue tomorrow, and I will be there to occupy,” writes user toyinoddy.

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Twitter Doesn’t Make You Martin Luther King by Sam Biddle

Twitter Doesn’t Make You Martin Luther King by Sam Biddle | Twit4D | Scoop.it
Today it’s very, very easy to pretend to care about something. The election, racism, pro-democracy uprisings. These causes are noble, and most of the people supporting them are lazy. Today, let’s remember what giving a shit really looks like. Hint: not your Twitter picture.

Twitter, Facebook and other means of quick chatting have proven useful, especially over the past year — it’s doubtful Egyptian revolution or Occupy Wall Street would have gained traction so quickly without them. But those using 140 characters to spread the word of an impromptu rally or secret police crackdown are in the tiniest of majorities. The rest of us are fakers — half-arsed retweet activists, who “support” Iranian dissent or “raise awareness” about homophobia with the same zeal that we click Like on a video of two cute cats playing with an alligator.

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U.S. To Twitter: Stop Sleeping With The Enemy by Daniel Freedman

U.S. To Twitter: Stop Sleeping With The Enemy by Daniel Freedman | Twit4D | Scoop.it

The love affair between Twitter and the U.S. government is in danger of crashing as spectacularly as a celebrity relationship: with tears, disavowals, a chorus of “I told you so”s, and, of course, lawsuits. Like the Demi Moore – Ashton Kutcher (both popular Twitterati) breakup, the reason is alleged infidelity. In Twitter’s case it’s worse than a claimed hot tub fling, however. The online micro-blogging tool is accused of consorting with U.S. enemies: terrorist groups.

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The internet is the best place for dissent to start by Cory Doctorow

The internet is the best place for dissent to start by Cory Doctorow | Twit4D | Scoop.it
It's been a year since I reviewed The Net Delusion, Evgeny Morozov's skeptical take on the internet's role in global justice struggles.

Central to Morozov's critique was the undeniable fact that Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and other social media tools are monumentally unsuited to use in hostile revolutionary settings, because while they may get the word out about forthcoming demonstrations and the outrages that provoke them, they also expose their users to retribution from oppressive governments.

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Révolutions 2.0 ou aubaine marketing? by Myrtille Delamarche

Révolutions 2.0 ou aubaine marketing? by Myrtille Delamarche | Twit4D | Scoop.it
Les printemps sont passés, et avec eux les banderoles et graffitis «Merci Facebook», «merci Twitter». Il est temps d’interroger le rôle réel des réseaux dans les mouvements sociaux.

 Sur la page Facebook de Transterra Media, une plate-forme participative de vente de contenus journalistiques à destination des professionnels, on apprend que la société a été «fondée en 2011 pendant le printemps arabe». Avec ses bureaux à New York, Beyrouth et Le Caire, la plate-forme propose d’ailleurs de nombreuses images des protestations en Égypte. Pourtant, dans un article du magazine économique libanais le Commerce du Levant, on apprend que «L’idée du projet revient à deux Américains, Jonathan Giesen et Eli Andrews. Alors qu’ils habitaient au Caire tous les deux en 2006.»

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BBC - BBC Radio 4 Programmes - Start the Week, Revolution: Wael Ghonim, Paul Mason and Mary King

On Start the Week Andrew Marr talks revolution. Wael Ghonim explains how social networks played a vital role in the Arab Spring. His Facebook page,'We Are All Khaled Said', which featured the death of a young Egyptian, inspired a new generation to fight oppression. Mary King, Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies looks back to earlier struggles in eastern Europe, and the journalist Paul Mason explores how far the worldwide economic crisis and growing inequality lie behind the new revolutions.

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Revolution, Women And Social Media in The Middle East

Revolution, Women And Social Media in The Middle East | Twit4D | Scoop.it
"The power of women is in their stories. They are not theories, they are real lives that, thanks to social networks, we are able to share and exchange," said Egyptian-American activist Mona el-Tahawey, kicking off a summit that brought more than a hundred of the Middle East's leading female activists together in Cairo.

With her arms still bandaged from the assault she suffered at the hands of Egypt's ruling military power last November, Tahawey was greeted like a celebrity by cyberactivists who only knew her from Twitter as she kicked off the Yahoo! Change Your World Cairo summit Wednesday.

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How Twitter’s New Policy Rewards Elite Activism by Sarah Kendzior

On Thursday, Twitter announced that it would begin to selectively block tweets on a country by country basis. The decision prompted an immediate outcry from free speech advocates as well as a more measured response from scholars of social media, several of whom praised Twitter’s relative transparency while noting that it has no choice but to comply with the regulations of individual governments.

One of the most passionate defenders of Twitter’s new policy is Zeynep Tufekci, who described it as an “excellent policy which will be helpful to free-speech advocates”. Tufekci sees Twitter’s selective censorship as an improvement over the broad censorship practiced by other internet companies, in which content deemed offensive by one is deleted for all. Under the new guidelines, a tweet deemed inappropriate by the leaders of a particular country will only be censored within that country. To the rest of the world, it will be labeled as “blocked”, a development she describes as “excellent” because it renders state attempts to suppress speech transparent.

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Online Activism & Revolution in Egypt by James Denselow

Online Activism & Revolution in Egypt by James Denselow | Twit4D | Scoop.it

It was not Facebook, Twitter or YouTube that brought down Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian people did that. But this does not mean that social media and internet�based technologies played no role, or that their role was insignificant, as some have alleged. Rather, events in Egypt and countries across the Middle East and North Africa have shown in the 'Arab Spring' that internet platforms and technologies should be seen for what they are: effective tools for the conduct of political campaigns in authoritarian contexts.

This conclusion was reached in a new paper written by Tim Eaton who currently works for BBC Media Action on media development projects in the Middle East.

full study: http://bit.ly/x9mOAB

 

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Facebook, Twitter's roles in campaign 2012 media coverage deepen By James Rainey

Facebook, Twitter's roles in campaign 2012 media coverage deepen By James Rainey | Twit4D | Scoop.it
Politico headlined a story last week "Mitt, Paul winning Facebook primary." About the same time, the Washington Post reported "Romney with the momentum in S. Carolina," that conclusion based on its new Twitter-tracking app, @MentionMachine.

One of the most striking innovations of campaign 2012 media coverage has been the attempt by news outlets to harness Twitter and Facebook, not just for a spot check on individual voters' feelings but to take the temperature of the electorate in a broader way.

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The Evil New Tactic Behind Anonymous' Massive Megaupload Revenge Attack

The Evil New Tactic Behind Anonymous' Massive Megaupload Revenge Attack | Twit4D | Scoop.it
The hacktivist collective Anonymous is in the middle of a huge revenge spree after the Feds shut down popular filesharing site Megaupload today. But they're using an evil new tactic that tricks people into helping their attack if they click an innocuous link.

The Department of Justice, MPAA and Universal Music websites have all been taken down in the past hour as part of Operation Megaupload, which is shaping up to be the biggest Anonymous campaign in months.

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The Revolution Will Be Blogged, @LeShaque ITWed by Angie Nassar

The Revolution Will Be Blogged, @LeShaque ITWed by Angie Nassar | Twit4D | Scoop.it

Shakeeb al-Jabri, 30, known as @LeShaque on Twitter, is a prominent Syrian blogger based in Beirut. He admittedly spends less than “two hours of his waking life away from social media,” as he works around the clock to fight the information war happening amidst the Syrian uprising to overthrow President Bashar al-Assad.

NOW Lebanon sat down with the blogger to find out more about his role in the revolution.

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My review of "The Digital Origins of Dictatorships and Democracy" by Evgeny Morozov

Philip Howard’s important book offers a timely and thorough treatment of a subject that has been catapulted into the global limelight thanks to recent revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt: the impact of the Internet on the political cultures in the Middle East. Howard’s focus is on the relationship between technology diffusion and democratization in countries with significant (i.e., constituting at least 10% of the population) Muslim communities in the period between 1994 and 2010. These 75 countries make for a good analytical set and share more than Islam: They have some of the fastest technology adoption rates in the world, whereas many of their governments try to stymie the political uses of information and communications technology (ICT) while striving to benefit from them economically.

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Mbeki questions Twitter as truth tool By Stuart Graham

Mbeki questions Twitter as truth tool By Stuart Graham | Twit4D | Scoop.it

South Africa’s former president Thabo Mbeki said on Monday he was sceptical about Twitter being a great conveyor of reliable knowledge.

Mbeki said in response to a question after a speech to the University of Stellenbosch Business School he thought the social media tool was not appropriate for discussing knowledge meant for the betterment of society.

“I am sceptical about this notion of Twitter being that great conveyor instrument for the democratisation of knowledge,” Mbeki said at the start of the school's knowledge conference.

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Can an algorithm be wrong? Twitter Trends, the specter of censorship, and our faith in the algorithms around us by Tarleton Gillespie

Can an algorithm be wrong? Twitter Trends, the specter of censorship, and our faith in the algorithms around us by Tarleton Gillespie | Twit4D | Scoop.it

The interesting question is not whether Twitter is censoring its Trends list. The interesting question is, what do we think the Trends list is, what it represents and how it works, that we can presume to hold it accountable when we think it is “wrong?” What are these algorithms, and what do we want them to be?

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Central Asia: An Exception to the “Cute Cats” Theory of Internet Revolution by Sarah Kendzior

Zuckerman’s theory is a refreshing alternative to the common caricature of internet users in authoritarian states as revolutionaries in waiting. But it suffers from a fallacy that plagues much of internet scholarship: studies of the effectiveness of the internet in fomenting revolution are usually limited to where the internet was effective, because those successes, by definition, are the ones we know. The “failures” – the many countries where the circulation of evidence of state crimes through social media prompts no change in state practices, and in some cases, dissuades citizens from joining activist causes – tend to go unmentioned. They are, I suspect, more the norm than the exception, and they have proven the rule in former Soviet authoritarian states.
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La révolution arabe, fille de l'Internet ? by Marie Bénilde

La révolution arabe, fille de l'Internet ? by Marie Bénilde | Twit4D | Scoop.it

Quel rôle ont joué les nouveaux médias dans la chute des régimes autocratiques de Tunisie et d’Egypte ? Faut-il prêter à Facebook, et aux réseaux sociaux en général, la capacité de mobiliser des foules et de susciter des mouvements d’opposition ? Enseignements politico-médiatiques de révoltes puis de révolutions « en ligne ».

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