India's culture of jugaad, or frugal innovation, has helped produce a wide range of sustainable breakthroughs. Are there lessons there for the rest of the world? Ian Thornton meets the innovators.
"What we're doing is essentially space technology at low cost", says Lakshminarayan Kannan, Founder of Vortex Engineering, laughing. "To do anything in rural India it has to be cost-effective, robust, reliable and energy-efficient", he adds. "It's like sending something to Mars. You can't send an engineer up there to fix it. The only difference is that you don't have budget constraints in space technology!"