Placement tests are used to determine how well-prepared students are for the rigor of college-level courses. Students who do poorly on the tests are usually placed in developmental, or remedial, education. In fact, about 60 percent of high-school graduates who enroll at two-year colleges have to take remedial courses. But a rash of recent studies has started to cast a doubt on the effectiveness of placement tests and their role in higher education. "Where to Begin? The Evolving Role of Placement Exams for Students Starting College," released Tuesday by Jobs for the Future, a nonprofit organization that studies education and work-force issues, explores how institutions and even states are grappling with this issue and the decisions they are making to ensure that their students graduate. The report highlights emerging research that has begun to challenge long-held notions about how well placement tests work in determining college readiness. One of the more striking revelations in the report is research from the Community College Research Center that found that the grades high-school students earn is a better predictor of how well they will do in college than the scores they receive on a placement test.