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Second-hand Trauma May Double the Risk of Later Substance Abuse Disorders: How to Protect Children

Second-hand Trauma May Double the  Risk of Later Substance Abuse Disorders:  How to Protect Children | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it


This blog post explores implications of a large Swedish study that found that  children who experienced even one of four secondhand traumas under study had twice the risk of later drug abuse.  It includes  guidelines for protecting children whose families have faced traumatic events, including death of  or serious injury to an immediate family member  or major illness in a parent or sibling.

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Medscape: Perinatal Depression Linked to Childhood Trauma

Medscape: Perinatal Depression Linked to Childhood Trauma | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
A history of childhood trauma, including abuse and neglect, has been linked to perinatal depression, new research shows.
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


Medscape reports that "Investigators at Bakirköy Mazhar Osman Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, found that a history of childhood trauma ― sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and emotional neglect ― was significantly more prevalent in women with perinatal depression compared with their counterparts with major depression who were not pregnant and a group of healthy control individuals."


This  study included 133 women. 40 had a diagnosis of perinatal depression (defined as depression from pregnancy through 1 year after delivery), 50 women with major depression who were not pregnant, and 43 healthy matched controls.  All subjects  had been admitted to hospital-based psychiatric clinics. They were administered  the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were administered. Medscape reports that, "The researchers found that among patients in the perinatal depression group, 62.5% reported emotional abuse (vs about 40% of women with depression and 20% of nondepressed women), 60% reported emotional neglect (vs 30% and 20%), 45% reported physical abuse (vs 29% and 0%), and 35% reported sexual abuse (vs 15% and 0%)."


Investigator Armagan Ozdemir, MD, said that, "Routine screening for trauma exposure and depression during pregnancy may help to detect and treat depression early,"


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Psych Central News: Adolescent Girls Who Talk About Abuse Less Likely to Develop PTSD

Psych Central News:  Adolescent Girls Who Talk About Abuse Less Likely to Develop PTSD | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
A Penn State researcher finds an interesting differential among kids who developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of child abuse, and those
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


At three different points over two years, Dr. Chad  Shenk and his research team examined girls who suffered from at least one of the three types of child maltreatment — physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect — during the previous year. 51 maltreated girls were compared to 59 matched controls who had not suffered maltreatment.


This account of the research on Psychcentral reports that  "adolescent girls who experienced maltreatment in the past year and were willing to talk about their painful experiences, their thoughts and emotions, were less likely to have PTSD symptoms one year later" while "(t)hose who tried to avoid painful thoughts and emotions were significantly more likely to exhibit PTSD symptoms down the road."

 

This study  appears in the current issue of Development and Psychopathology.

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Adult Children of Alcoholics: Caught in an Infinite Loop? (Part 2)

Adult Children of Alcoholics: Caught in an Infinite Loop? (Part 2) | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
"Trauma is to mental health as smoking is to cancer."-Dr. Steven Sharfstein, Past President, American Psychiatric Association Last week, I posted the first in a series of articles about children of...
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


This is the  second in a series of articles about the forces that propel adult children from addicted families to repeat painful events and relational dynamics from their families of origin.  This post discusses problems in the parent-child relationship that can fuel traumatic repetitions.

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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, February 19, 2014 8:58 AM
 
This is the  second in a series of articles about the forces that propel adult children from addicted families to repeat painful events and relational dynamics from their families of origin.  This post discusses problems in the parent-child relationship that can fuel traumatic repetitions.
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What Factors Predict Substance Abuse for Bipolar Teens?

What Factors Predict Substance Abuse for Bipolar Teens? | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
A study has found that approximately one in three teens with bipolar disorder developed substance abuse, for the first time, during 4 years of follow-up. The study also identified several risk factors that predicted who among these teens was most likely to develop substance abuse.
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Bipolar illness is a known risk factor for substance abuse, especially where there is rapid cycling of mood states.  This study, performed by researchers at the University of Toronto and the University of Pittsburgh studied 12 teens, aged 12-17 to try and further specify the factors that increase risk for bipolar youth.


"The study found that 32% of adolescents in the (Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth COBY) study developed abuse or dependence of alcohol or drugs, on average 2.7 years from the start of the study. Repeated experimentation with alcohol at the start of the study was the single strongest predictor of later substance abuse, although experimentation with cannabis also predicted later substance abuse. Five other factors present at the start of the study also predicted later substance abuse: oppositional defiant disorder, panic disorder, family history of substance abuse, low family cohesiveness, and absence of antidepressant treatment. Among teens with 3 or more risk factors, 54.7% went on to develop substance abuse, compared to 14.1% of teens with 0-2 risk factors."


The investigators called experimental substance abuse by these adolescents as "playing with fire" and said there appears to be a 2-3 year window in which it may be possible to prevent substance abuse in these teens. One suggestion is to encourage family treatment in these cases.







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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, February 11, 2014 8:58 AM


Bipolar illness is a known risk factor for substance abuse, especially where there is rapid cycling of mood states.  This study, performed by researchers at the University of Toronto and the University of Pittsburgh studied 12 teens, aged 12-17 to try and further specify the factors that increase risk for bipolar youth.


"The study found that 32% of adolescents in the (Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth COBY) study developed abuse or dependence of alcohol or drugs, on average 2.7 years from the start of the study. Repeated experimentation with alcohol at the start of the study was the single strongest predictor of later substance abuse, although experimentation with cannabis also predicted later substance abuse. Five other factors present at the start of the study also predicted later substance abuse: oppositional defiant disorder, panic disorder, family history of substance abuse, low family cohesiveness, and absence of antidepressant treatment. Among teens with 3 or more risk factors, 54.7% went on to develop substance abuse, compared to 14.1% of teens with 0-2 risk factors."


The investigators called experimental substance abuse by these adolescents as "playing with fire" and said there appears to be a 2-3 year window in which it may be possible to prevent substance abuse in these teens. One suggestion is to encourage family treatment in these cases.

Internet Marketing's curator insight, April 10, 2014 11:30 AM

As the treatment of substance abuse advances, identified risk factors allow us to predict with some certainty the potential for substance abuse disorders.


Many young people who are entering substance abuse facilities today are also struggling with identified and often unidentified dual diagnosis problems.


This asks the question, do we treat the substance abuse or the mental component first, or at the same time? Clearly a treatment center needs to be expert is assessing and treating the dually diagnosed client for the best outcome to occur.

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WHO | WHO releases guidance on mental health care after trauma

WHO is releasing new clinical protocols and guidelines to health-care workers for treating the mental health consequences of trauma and loss." These include cautions against some common practices, including the use of benzodiazapenes during the first month after a traumatic event.

Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:

Recommended interventions include psychological first aid, stress management and helping affected people to identify and strengthen positive coping methods and social supports.

In addition, WHO suggests referral for advanced treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or a new technique called eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) should be considered for people suffering from PTSD. 


There are cautions for primary health care staff  against "certain popular treatments. For example, benzodiazepines, which are anti-anxiety drugs, should not be offered to reduce acute traumatic stress symptoms or sleep problems in the first month after a potentially traumatic event."

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Heavy Drinking and PTSD Create Vicious Circle for College Students: New Study

Heavy Drinking and PTSD Create Vicious Circle for College Students: New Study | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
The estimated 9 percent of college students who have symptoms of PTSD are likely to drink more alcohol than peers without the psychological condition. In turn, heavy alcohol consumption exacerbates their PTSD symptoms.
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


Science Daily reports that this is the first empirical study to look at "the bidirectional influences" of PTSD and heavy use of alcohol. It is a sizeable, longitudinal investigation and, as the authors note, has crucial mplications for people who treat students with symptoms of either  disorder. 486 students were studied in the NIDA-funded study, at the time they entered  college and at 11 additional points over the the next three years.  Investigators found that alcohol use  was linked over time to an exacerbation in PTSD symptoms and "that PTSD symptoms "show a similar effect on alcohol consumption. Each affects the other. As such, both PTSD and heavy drinking are risk factors for one another, each with implications for the other over the course of college" . 


This study is published in the newest edition of The Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Vol. 22/4). 

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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, January 20, 2014 9:11 AM


Science Daily reports that this is the first empirical study to look at "the bidirectional influences" of PTSD and heavy use of alcohol. It is a sizeable, longitudinal investigation and, as the authors note, has crucial mplications for people who treat students with symptoms of either  disorder. 486 students were studied in the NIDA-funded study, at the time they entered  college and at 11 additional points over the the next three years.  Investigators found that alcohol use  was linked over time to an exacerbation in PTSD symptoms and "that PTSD symptoms "show a similar effect on alcohol consumption. Each affects the other. As such, both PTSD and heavy drinking are risk factors for one another, each with implications for the other over the course of college" . 


This study is published in the newest edition of The Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Vol. 22/4). 

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A More Effective Way to Treat Teen Girls for PTSD?

A More Effective Way to Treat Teen Girls for PTSD? | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
A form of exposure therapy -- a specific type of psychotherapy used to treat certain anxiety disorders -- has also been found to work for post-traumatic stress
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:

 

With a sample size of 61 girls age 13-18, this  study indicated that teen age girls  with sexual-abuse related PTSD who received prolonged exposure therapy  (in which they revisited their trauma-related feelings and thoughts in a controlled environment while employing relaxation skills) benefited more than young  women who got supportive counseling. They "demonstrated greater decline in PTSD and depression symptom severity, and improvement in overall functioning. These differences were maintained throughout the 12-month follow up period." The counselors were familiar with supportive counseling but not trained in PET prior to the study. The study appears in the December 25 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Alcohol and Marital Violence

Alcohol and Marital Violence | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
Couples who argue a lot during their first year of marriage are more likely to have violence erupt in later years if the husband is a heavy drinker.
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A study by Dr. Brian Quigley of SUNY-Buffalo indicates that couples in which the husband is a heavy drinker and the wife is not are at an increased risk for domestic violence.

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Resource / Restorative Justice Council

Study shows restorative justice reduces post traumatic stress - http://t.co/GhrapfWS1Z - many problematic students are suffering from PTSD
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PsychCentral: Children Who Experience Family Members’ Trauma Have Twice the Risk for Substance Abuse as Adults

PsychCentral: Children Who Experience Family Members’ Trauma Have Twice the Risk for Substance Abuse as Adults | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
Study shows that secondhand trauma when young increases risk of addiction as an adult.
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:

A study  published in the August issue of the journal Addiction and summarized on PsychCentral by Richard Taite looks atthe impact of second-hand trauma on later substance abuse.  Researchers examined the Swedish Hospital Discharge record to learn traumatic medical events in the families of  1.4 million children born in Sweden between 1984 and 1995. They discovered which child had  a parent or  sibling who had been diagnosed with cancer or experienced an injury which resulted in permanent disability or who had  been a victim of assault or died. They assigned each child a score of 0-4 depending on the amount of secondhand trauma s/he experienced, Then the  researchers examined medical, legal and pharmacy records to see which subjects were  diagnosed with substance abuse problems when they reached their 20's.  Taking care to control for other factors that could affect substance use, such as socioeconomic status, drug use by family members, psychological wellbeing and parents' educations, investigators found that children who experienced even one of these secondhand traumatic events had twice the risk of later drug abuse.  Children who experienced the death of a parent were at greatest risk and having a parent or sibling who was the  victim of violent assault was the second most powerful factor. The PsychCentral report points out that "substance abuse was even higher in children whose siblings had experienced trauma than it was in children whose parents had been traumatized".  According to Taite, investigators acknowledged that children who experience the trauma of a loved one may also be living in an environment that promotes drug abuse in other ways, but they observed that a sample size of 1.4 million permits them "to draw strong conclusions from (the) data."


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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, August 5, 2014 1:06 PM

 

A study  published in the August issue of the journal Addiction and summarized on PsychCentral by Richard Taite looks at the impact of second-hand trauma on later substance abuse.  Researchers examined the Swedish Hospital Discharge record to learn traumatic medical events in the families of  1.4 million children born in Sweden between 1984 and 1995. They discovered which child had  a parent or  sibling who had been diagnosed with cancer or experienced an injury which resulted in permanent disability or who had  been a victim of assault or died. They assigned each child a score of 0-4 depending on the amount of secondhand trauma s/he experienced, Then the  researchers examined medical, legal and pharmacy records to see which subjects were  diagnosed with substance abuse problems when they reached their 20's.  Taking care to control for other factors that could affect substance use, such as socioeconomic status, drug use by family members, psychological wellbeing and parents' educations, investigators found that children who experienced even one of these secondhand traumatic events had twice the risk of later drug abuse.  Children who experienced the death of a parent were at greatest risk and having a parent or sibling who was the  victim of violent assault was the second most powerful factor. The PsychCentral report points out that "substance abuse was even higher in children whose siblings had experienced trauma than it was in children whose parents had been traumatized".  According to Taite, investigators acknowledged that children who experience the trauma of a loved one may also be living in an environment that promotes drug abuse in other ways, but they observed that a sample size of 1.4 million permits them "to draw strong conclusions from (the) data."



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Psych Central News: Traumas May Have Immediate Impact on Kids’ Health

Psych Central News: Traumas May Have Immediate Impact on Kids’ Health | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it

"Children who have experienced three or more stressful events are six times more likely to suffer from a mental, physical, or learning disorder than children who have never faced a traumatic experience, and these health problems may take hold immediately, according to a University of Florida study."

Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


Investigators analyzed data from the National Survey for Child Health, which includes information on nearly 96,000 children across the United States. The survey queried parents about a number  of adverse experiences their children faced, including parental divorce, economic hardship, exposure to domestic and neighborhood violence, poor caregiver mental health, exposure to drug abuse, and having an incarcerated parent.  The parents also reported on any conditions their children had.


This report on Psychcentral.com says that, "Between 11 and 24 percent of parents reported their children had been diagnosed with at least one disorder. About four percent said their children had at least one disorder from all three categories — mental, learning, and physical."


The authors of the study speculated that the high incidence disorders among stressed children could be caused by changes in the neuroendocrine and immune systems of affected children, although the study could not prove that the negative experience caused the health problems to occur.

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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, March 14, 2014 1:05 PM


Investigators analyzed data from the National Survey for Child Health, which includes information on nearly 96,000 children across the United States. The survey queried parents about a number  of adverse experiences their children faced, including parental divorce, economic hardship, exposure to domestic and neighborhood violence, poor caregiver mental health, exposure to drug abuse, and having an incarcerated parent.  The parents also reported on any conditions their children had.


This report on Psychcentral.com says that, "Between 11 and 24 percent of parents reported their children had been diagnosed with at least one disorder. About four percent said their children had at least one disorder from all three categories — mental, learning, and physical."


The authors of the study speculated that the high incidence disorders among stressed children could be caused by changes in the neuroendocrine and immune systems of affected children, although the study could not prove that the negative experience caused the health problems to occur.

Jose's curator insight, March 20, 2014 12:57 PM

When reading this article i found a lot of things interesting. One of which was that a child can be easily dramatized or can develop disorders way before doctors ever expected. Findings have found that children's lives can be effected at very young rather than when they become adults. Such problems like "  parental divorce, economic hardship, exposure to domestic and neighborhood violence, poor caregiver mental health, exposure to drug abuse, and having a parent in jail." As many can see there are plenty or variables that can cause these kids to be traumatized. Because there is no obvious cure, we as the people should take in consideration and act in a way where a child can only prosper from our behaviors. 

Anthony Mogg's curator insight, April 11, 2014 1:19 AM

This is why I'm studying Psychology.

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Study: Childhood trauma more prevalent and more severe in alcohol-dependent subjects.

Study: Childhood trauma more prevalent and more severe in alcohol-dependent subjects. | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it

"Childhood trauma is highly prevalent in treatment-seeking alcoholics and may play a significant role in the development and severity of AD through an internalizing pathway involving negative affect. Our findings suggest that alcoholics with a history of childhood emotional abuse may be particularly vulnerable to severe dependence"


Via Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:



Important screening and treatment issue:


Investigators examined the prevalence of 5 types of childhood trauma-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect-was assessed in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients (n = 280) and healthy controls (n = 137) using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. 


Childhood trauma was significantly more prevalent and more severe in the alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition, childhood trauma was found to influence alcohol dependence severity, Emotional abuse was found to be the primary predictor of alcohol dependence.


 June 2013 edition of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (Schwandt, M. L., Heilig, M., Hommer, D. W., George, D. T. and Ramchandani, V. A. (2013), 

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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, February 26, 2014 9:02 AM


Important screening and treatment issue:


Investigators examined the prevalence of 5 types of childhood trauma-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect-was assessed in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients (n = 280) and healthy controls (n = 137) using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. 


Childhood trauma was significantly more prevalent and more severe in the alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition, childhood trauma was found to influence alcohol dependence severity, Emotional abuse was found to be the primary predictor of alcohol dependence.


 June 2013 edition of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (Schwandt, M. L., Heilig, M., Hommer, D. W., George, D. T. and Ramchandani, V. A. (2013), 

 

Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, February 26, 2014 9:05 AM



Important screening and treatment issue:


Investigators examined the prevalence of 5 types of childhood trauma-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect-was assessed in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients (n = 280) and healthy controls (n = 137) using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. 


Childhood trauma was significantly more prevalent and more severe in the alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition, childhood trauma was found to influence alcohol dependence severity, Emotional abuse was found to be the primary predictor of alcohol dependence.


 June 2013 edition of the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (Schwandt, M. L., Heilig, M., Hommer, D. W., George, D. T. and Ramchandani, V. A. (2013), 

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Prolonged Exposure Treatment for PTSD does not appear to increase risk of drinking among individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD

Prolonged Exposure Treatment for PTSD does not appear to increase risk of drinking among individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it

"Importantly, our findings indicated that prolonged exposure therapy was not associated with increased drinking or alcohol craving, a concern that has been voiced by some investigators. In fact, reduction in PTSD severity and drinking was evident for all...treatment groups."

Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


This study could ease concerns that prolonged exposure therapy may exacerbate PTSD symptoms and increase the risk of relapse for patients with comorbid alcohol dependence and PTSD. The study was performed by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and compared the efficacy of naltrexone and prolonged exposure therapy separately and in combination, along with supportive counseling.  

Six months after the end of treatment, participants in all treatment groups manifested increases in percentage of days drinking. However, investigators found that participants who received  prolonged exposure therapy plus naltrexone group had the smallest increases.

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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, February 12, 2014 8:54 AM



This study could ease concerns that prolonged exposure therapy may exacerbate PTSD symptoms and increase the risk of relapse for patients with comorbid alcohol dependence and PTSD. The study was performed by researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and compared the efficacy of naltrexone and prolonged exposure therapy separately and in combination, along with supportive counseling.  

Six months after the end of treatment, participants in all treatment groups manifested increases in percentage of days drinking. However, investigators found that participants who received  prolonged exposure therapy plus naltrexone group had the smallest increases.

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Adult Children of Alcoholics: Caught in an Infinite Loop? (Part 1)

Adult Children of Alcoholics: Caught in an  Infinite Loop? (Part 1) | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
 In my book Adult Children of Alcoholics: The Struggle for Self and intimacy in Adult Life, I used this concept as a metaphor for the way in which many adult children seem irresistibly drawn to an“alcoholic lifestyle”.  The alcoholic lifestyle can include compulsive drinking and drugging, ongoing destructive involvements with addicted or enabling parents, and the acquisition of new life partners who reprise important psychic themes of the childhood home, including instability, exploitation, dishonesty, and betrayal.
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


This is the first in a series of posts aimed at helping adult children of alcoholics understand why they may be trapped in an "alcoholic lifestyle" and how to work toward transforming it.  In this post, I examine how trauma-related changes to the brain can predispose someone who grew up  with addicted and codependent parents  to recapitulate painful  aspects of  the past

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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, February 9, 2014 11:19 PM


This is the first in a series of posts aimed at helping adult children of alcoholics understand why they may be trapped in an "alcoholic lifestyle" and how to work toward transforming it.  In this post, I examine how trauma-related changes to the brain can predispose someone who grew up  with addicted and codependent parents  to recapitulate painful  aspects of  the past

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Weekend binge drinking could leave lasting liver damage

Weekend binge drinking could leave lasting liver damage | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
Long after a hangover, a night of bad decisions might take a bigger toll on the body than previously understood.
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


As this Science Daily report notes, binge drinking is widespread, with 29 percent of women and 43 percent of men reporting at least one binge drinking episode over the course of a year.  This animal study indicated that chronic drinkers show more liver injury from binge drinking, but investigation of isolated cases of binge drinking showed that they can  sensitize the liver over extended periods and make it more prone to damage as well. Moreover, according to an author of the study," Binge drinking should not be associated with only liver damage...It creates an inflammatory response in the liver that is like a cluster bomb, sending out various damaging signals to systems in the body. If those organs are working at a lower level of function, then a whole host of physiological processes is affected."

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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, January 21, 2014 9:51 AM


As this Science Daily report notes, binge drinking is widespread, with 29 percent of women and 43 percent of men reporting at least one binge drinking episode over the course of a year.  This animal study indicated that chronic drinkers show more liver injury from binge drinking, but investigation of isolated cases of binge drinking showed that they can  sensitize the liver over extended periods and make it more prone to damage as well. Moreover, according to an author of the study," Binge drinking should not be associated with only liver damage...It creates an inflammatory response in the liver that is like a cluster bomb, sending out various damaging signals to systems in the body. If those organs are working at a lower level of function, then a whole host of physiological processes is affected."

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Children Exposed to Abuse and Addiction More Likely to Suffer Refractory Depression in Adulthood

Children Exposed to Abuse and Addiction More Likely to Suffer Refractory Depression in Adulthood | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it

"Emerging research suggests remission from depression is slowed in adults who have experienced childhood physical abuse or parental addictions."


Via Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:


This is information that is important for clinicians to share with patients and clients--especially family members who are struggling with fears and other resistances to taking definitive action to intervene  with the behaviors of addicts who live in the home with children. 


A study  published in the journal Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology   and reviewed by Rick Nauert on Psych Central noted findings by University of Toronto investigators that "The average time to recovery from depression was 9 months longer for adults who had been physically abused during their childhood and about 5 months longer for those whose parents had addiction problems” . The factors that make depression more refractory in these populations is not clear, but the researchers suggested that early adversity may interrupt normal development of stress regulation mechanisms in the central nervious system.  The investigators noted that previous studies show that " adult depression has been characterized by hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, which affects stress regulation.


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Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, January 13, 2014 9:04 AM


This is information that is important for clinicians to share with patients and clients--especially family members who are struggling with fears and other resistances to taking definitive action to intervene  with the behaviors of addicts who live in the home with children. 


A study  published in the journal Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology   and reviewed by Rick Nauert on Psych Central noted findings by University of Toronto investigators that "The average time to recovery from depression was 9 months longer for adults who had been physically abused during their childhood and about 5 months longer for those whose parents had addiction problems” . The factors that make depression more refractory in these populations is not clear, but the researchers suggested that early adversity may interrupt normal development of stress regulation mechanisms in the central nervious system.  The investigators noted that previous studies show that " adult depression has been characterized by hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, which affects stress regulation.











Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's curator insight, January 13, 2014 9:05 AM


This is information that is important for clinicians to share with patients and clients--especially family members who are struggling with fears and other resistances to taking definitive action to intervene  with the behaviors of addicts who live in the home with children. 


A study  published in the journal Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology   and reviewed by Rick Nauert on Psych Central noted findings by University of Toronto investigators that "The average time to recovery from depression was 9 months longer for adults who had been physically abused during their childhood and about 5 months longer for those whose parents had addiction problems” . The factors that make depression more refractory in these populations is not clear, but the researchers suggested that early adversity may interrupt normal development of stress regulation mechanisms in the central nervious system.  The investigators noted that previous studies show that " adult depression has been characterized by hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, which affects stress regulation.

Scooped by Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home
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Objective Evidence of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Objective Evidence of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it

" The association between PTSD and ischemia remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, prior CVD) and mediators (traditional cardiac risk factors, C-reactive protein, obesity, alcohol use, sleep quality, social support, and depression),"

Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:

This study investigated the association between PTSD and objectively assessed cardiovascular disease as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. (It is known that patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk for CVD,)

 

The study had 663 particpants and ischemia was present in 17% of patients with PTSD versus 10% of patients without PTSD (p = .006). Results were adjusted for age, sex and prior CVD, as well as known risk factors. 

 

"Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with ischemic changes on exercise treadmill tests independent of traditional cardiac risk factors, C-reactive protein, and several health behaviors and psychosocial risk factors, suggesting additional mechanisms linking PTSD and ischemia should be explored."

 

Investigators concluded that there is likely an opportunity for early interventions among PTSD patients to prevent progression of CVD, even when these patients are not symptomatic. 

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Scooped by Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home
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Anxiety is a greater risk factor for suicide than depression, studies report

Anxiety is a greater risk factor for suicide than depression, studies report | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
The relationship between anxiety and suicide risk has long been debated, but now four papers in a special issue of Depression and Anxiety aim to settle the controversy by demonstrating tha
Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home's insight:

This study indicates that a diagnosis of PTSD significantly increases the risk for suicide, especially if the PTSD is due to assaultive violence. 

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Scooped by Barbara Wood, Ph.D. www.alcoholismandthefamily.com / Author of Children of Alcoholism and Raising Healthy Children in an Alcoholic Home
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Most effective PTSD therapies are not being widely used

Most effective PTSD therapies are not being widely used | Trauma and recovery | Scoop.it
Post-traumatic stress disorder affects nearly 8 million adults in any given year, federal statistics show. (psypost: Most effective PTSD therapies are not being widely used: Post-traumatic stress disorder affects nearl...
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