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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World |

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World |

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Nostalgia of exile - TNS - The News on Sunday

Nostalgia of exile - TNS - The News on Sunday | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
“This nostalgia of homelessness is the fate of my generation and tribe. I am not the only one walking on this pathway of anguish, a whole caravan of wounded souls is walking with me.” (Ashfaq Ahmed)
Ashfaq Hussain is one of the pioneers of Urdu literary activities in Canada. Born in Karachi in 1951, he acquired his Master’s in Urdu literature from the University of Karachi in 1974, and moved permanently to Canada in 1980.
Two years after his arrival in Toronto, he started a prestigious literary magazine called Urdu International which entertained original contributions not only from expats but also from famous fiction writers, poets and critics of India and Pakistan.
Today Hussain is known as a Canadian poet of Urdu language, but in fact his literary journey started long before moving to his adopted land. He started writing poetry in the 1970s and his first poetry collection Aitbaar (Credence) came out in 1979. He was deeply impressed by two modern Urdu poets, Faiz and Faraz. His book Faiz Aik Jaeza (Faiz a Study) is considered to be the first ever survey of Faiz’s poetry. His second book on Faiz Habeeb-e-Ambar Dust (Friend with Fragrant Hands) came out in 1992, and still another study on Faiz The Western References of Faiz was published in 1993.
The first English translation of Ashfaq Hussain’s poetry was published in 1985 from Toronto, and critics instantly admitted that it was a voice to reckon with. Famous Indian critic Gopi Chand Narang said, “Ashfaq was neither exiled, nor did he change his abode under any pressure, but he still suffered from the pain of exile and the anguish of homelessness.” Why is it so? Narang advises us to look for the answer in his poetry:
My children find solace
In homes without courtyards;
The desire for open courtyards
Was limited to my generation
God knows what malaise
Has struck city folks:
There are people all around,
But loneliness abounds 
When I left my home
I was aware of the fact :
If there are sandcastles,
There should also be the tide. 
Where can I go
In the garb of a stranger?
I have just brought my body,
but left the face behind
The painful aspects of modern urban life started appearing in his poems when he was still in Karachi, but they assumed tragic proportions once the poet moved to a city of skyscrapers standing tall against the downtrodden neighbourhoods:
We might be absent
from the city of loss
But there should be others
who are present
The telephone calls from your city
To the hell
Are all local calls
Poetic thoughts of one language can never be adequately expressed in another that has led people to believe that poetry is something that cannot be translated. Translators of the world agree that theirs is a tricky business. The more a text is language specific, the more difficult it is to translate. Poetry can be a case in point where the syntax becomes so important that you cannot change the word order even within the original language, what to say of another language.
Last year I interviewed Washington-based Javed Boota who translates from Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu and other regional languages. Comparing poetry and fiction, he had a gem of an advice for the translators of literature: Narrative fiction seems comparatively easier to translate because you can play with the syntax without apparently tampering with the meaning. But this is a trap most translators unwittingly slip into.
Khalid Hasan, a superb translator of Manto, couldn’t sometimes resist the temptation to elaborate on the original text. He also didn’t hesitate to abbreviate or even completely skip a couple of lines that he thought were irrelevant for the target readers. This I think is unfair. A translator has no right to reveal, explain, expand, clarify, simplify, rationalise or in any other way ‘refine’ the original text. And when it comes to poetry, this rule applies even more strictly.
Baidar Bakht, the superb translator of Ashfaq Hussain’s poetry, seems to be an ardent follower of this rule. A civil engineer by profession, Baidar Bakht has also been building bridges between cultures and languages. He has translated many modern Urdu poets into English, including Kishwar Naheed, Bulraj Komal, Akhtar-ul-Iman, Ahmed Nadeem Qasimi, Jamil-uddin-Aali, Majrooh Sultanpuri and Ali Sardar Jafri. In 2010, he published a thick volume of Amjad Islam Amjad’s poetry that he had translated in collaboration with Marie-Anne Erki.
Baidar Bakht quotes Ashfaq Hussain in the afterword of the book: “The situation of creative new citizens of the new world, who had left their homelands for better future, is quite strange. With the happiness that the beauty of the new world has offered, comes the difficulty of averting one’s eyes to one’s past. It is the truth that a man, cut off from his past, has neither the present nor the future. In the new lands, Urdu writers and poets, while having full allegiance to their new countries, are also the keepers of this truth.”
And then Baidar Bakht goes on to say, “Although Ashfaq Hussain has fully reconciled to his adopted land, he seems to believe that he has not burnt all his bridges.”
The Ocean Searches for Me
Poet: Ashfaq Hussain
Publisher: University of Karachi. Pakistan Study
Centre, 2014
Pages: 281 
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Unlocking the treasures of vernacular lit - Kashmir Times

Unlocking the treasures of vernacular lit - Kashmir Times | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Unlocking the treasures of vernacular lit
By Venkat Parsa
A few years back, Malati Mathur, a PhD scholar and Professor of English at the Indira Gandhi National Open University, Delhi, wrote: 'Writing, whether fiction, poetry, essay or drama, provides a window into society. Apart from its intrinsic worth as literature, it is a useful tool in the analysis of sociological, political and anthropological facets of culture and civilisation.' Through her brilliant English translations of works in Tamil and Hindi - notably the Thi Jaa's 'Remembering Amma' - she has opened up the rich and vibrant world of regional language literature to a wider audience giving them the opportunity to make sense of this unique legacy. Mathur has, in fact, created a niche in the world of Indian literature with her poetic writings and translations, which have won her three Katha Awards. In an interview with Venkat Parsa, she talks about the importance of capturing the original culture and emotional nuances of "bhasha" writings in order to better understand the specific ambience and social milieu it comes from.

Q: You translate between three languages - Hindi, English and Tamil - and have won three Katha awards for translation. Tell us about how you developed the interest in it?

A: Born in Maharashtra to Tamil parents, childhood in Karnataka and then a shift to Rajasthan, my peripatetic upbringing ensured that I learnt to speak in more than one language and also, to a certain degree, read and write in them. But I never got to learn Tamil formally. Until my father decided to take matters into his own hands, sat me down and taught me the Tamil alphabet with its enchanting curves and curlicues rebounding on themselves for all the world, like a conch shell picked up near a temple on the shores of Mamallapuram! My omnivorous appetite for reading did the rest, although I was unable to access any meaningful Tamil literature when we were in north India and could only read some journals (with a lot of difficulty, as spoken Tamil is so different from the written one). When the Katha contest came up, I decided to take it up as a challenge and was delighted to get the award for translating from Tamil to English, while the Hindi to English translation won a special mention. The next two awards came my way for translating contemporary Tamil and Hindi short stories.

Q: Why do you think there is a need for translating literary works?

A: In the Indian context, translation can be described as a radically post-colonial activity, involving as it does the quest for identity and modernity. Realising that the strength of India lies in its diversity, we are now coming to terms with our diverse identities, making the attempt to establish markers in the multiplicity of language-based cultures, to make sense of our manifold legacy. The process of translating ourselves to and for ourselves (besides others) thus becomes a voyage of discovery, an articulation of selves and narratives marginalised for so long. Translation then becomes an activity of reclaiming and preserving our identity.

Q: Translations have come a long way in India, especially in terms of quality. What is the contemporary translation scene like and do you find any difference between the kind of translations being done now and earlier?

A: Ironically enough, more and more Indian readers are accessing more and more regional (bhasha) writing through English and a number of publishing houses have taken up translation in a big way, commissioning translations of regional writing - short stories, children's literature, novels, both past and contemporary. Many of the earlier translations were substandard works that slunk quietly into the market and occupied the backspaces of bookshelves as though embarrassed of their existence. All that has changed with reputed publishers such as Katha, Penguin India, Picador India, Oxford University Press and Macmillan getting involved. Today, we are worlds and theories away from when Tagore translated the Gitanjali with a Western readership in mind.

Q: What led you personally into translation?

A: Before entering the Katha contest, I had translated a short story written by my uncle, Thu Ramamurthy, and it had been published in a leading English magazine. I am prompted by the desire to share a good piece of writing with those, who cannot read that language.

Q: Tell us something about bhasha writing?

A: Bhasha writing is vibrant and rich. It takes into account the changing contours of real and imagined experience and is increasingly being written in a language and imagery that are easily accessible and not just meant for the 'intellectual' elite.

Q: How tough is it to translate bhasha literature into English?

A: While it is possible to translate directly from one Indian language to another, not all speakers of a particular language are also able to read in that language. And not all who know two or more Indian languages are competent enough to translate from one and write in the other equally well. This I can attest to from personal experience. However, it is certainly easier to translate cultural nuances from one bhasha to another, rather than into English. Dialects are by far the most difficult to translate into English. In India, practically every community has its own version of the main language. An uneducated person would use different words and phrases. Add to this kinship terms, culture-specific behaviour and vocabulary, idiomatic phrases and proverbs and you have a translation task fit for a Bheema!

Q: Do you think that mediated translations are a good idea?

A: There are many translators who are 'second-hand' translators, in the sense that they do not know the original language at all. Now, how honest such a strategy is and how faithful the resulting translation is, is anybody's guess. In many cases, I suspect it would be like the description of an elephant by three blind men… rather a lot like making love through an interpreter! While there is no denying that there is definitely an intangible something that is lost in all translations, what is retained in the case where the translator does not know the language s/he is translating from, not many of us are in a position to judge. Many translators might disagree with me and say that mediated translations are possible and that the soul of the original may still be communicated effectively. I leave it to the theorists to debate on this one.

Q: Should the translation read like an original text or should it obviously be a translation?

A: Speaking for myself, an ideal translation is one that stands on its own and yet is imbued with the culture of the original. Translated works should have the framework of the cultural ambience and social milieu they spring from and, at the same time, be rendered in terms that those unacquainted with that specific culture can share and understand. The skills of the writer and the translator should be so inextricably bound that it becomes impossible to separate the different strands. The original culture and emotional nuances should sound throughout like the sympathetic strings of a musical instrument.

—(Women's Feature Service)

News Updated at : Sunday, December 21, 2014
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Skype Translator is the most futuristic thing I’ve ever used

Skype Translator is the most futuristic thing I’ve ever used | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
We have become blasé about technology.

The modern smartphone, for example, is in so many ways a remarkable feat of engineering: computing power that not so long ago would have cost millions of dollars and filled entire rooms is now available to fit in your hand for a few hundred bucks. But smartphones are so widespread and normal that they no longer have the power to astonish us. Of course they're tremendously powerful pocket computers. So what?

This phenomenon is perhaps even more acute for those of us who work in the field in some capacity. A steady stream of new gadgets and gizmos passes across our desks, we get briefed and pitched all manner of new "cutting edge" pieces of hardware and software, and they all start to seem a little bit the same and a little bit boring.

Even news that really might be the start of something remarkable, such as HP's plans to launch a computer using memristors for both longterm and working memory and silicon photonics interconnects, is viewed with a kind of weary cynicism. Yes, it might usher in a new generation of revolutionary products. But it probably won't.

But this week I've been using the preview version of Microsoft's Skype Translator. And it's breathtaking. It's like science fiction has come to life.

The experience wasn't always easy; this is preview software, and as luck would have it, my initial attempts to use it to talk to a colleague failed due to hitherto undiscovered bugs, so in the end, I had to talk to a Microsoft-supplied consultant living in Barranquilla, Colombia. But when we got the issues ironed out and made the thing work, it was magical. This thing really works.

Enlarge / In video calls, you can both see the translation and hear it.
I don't speak a word of Spanish—I took German at school instead—but with Skype Translator I was able to have a spoken conversation with a Spanish speaker as if I were in an episode of Star Trek (as long as that episode isn't Darmok, amirite?). I spoke English. A moment later, an English language transcription would appear, along with a Spanish translation. Then a Spanish voice would read that translation.

It took a moment to get used to the pacing of the conversation—the brief delay for the translation means that if you understand the language of the other person, there's a temptation to respond immediately, without waiting for the voice to read the translation—but once this rhythm was learned, the conversation was fluent and continuous.

In this preview, Spanish and English are the only spoken languages on offer. It also handles text conversations, and there are some 40 different languages on offer for text.

Intellectually, I understand that all the different parts have been done before—Microsoft has shipped speech-to-text and text-to-speech technology for the better part of 20 years now, and robotranslation of Web content is relatively commonplace, if a little haphazard. But tying these pieces together has turned them into something magical and awe-inspiring.

Enlarge / There are many more languages available for text-only translation.
The technology powering this opens up so many possibilities. Translation is, of course, significant, and one can easily see how this will find value in the business world. I can also imagine that it will open up new possibilities in mixed language families where, for example, grandparents and grandchildren may not have a common tongue.

I can also see the same technology having a ton of value beyond the translation use case. I use Skype for telephone interviews; automatic transcription of those interviews would be very neat. Skype is widely used by podcasters, and, similarly, automatic transcriptions could be a valuable addition—while the automatic robo-transcription won't be perfect, given that the alternative is usually no transcription at all, the robot's effort will still be welcome.

With minor modifications, this might even find utility in the deaf community, by allowing hard of hearing Skype users to read and type to hearing users.

Truly, this is transformational technology. It's not often that I use something that leaves me excited, something that makes me say "wow" not out of cynical sarcasm but because I'm genuinely impressed. But Skype Translator did it. Whether you call it a Star Trek Universal Translator or Babel fish, Microsoft is building it, and it's incredible.

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Pakistan author Bilal Tanweer won Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize 2014 : News Digest

Pakistan author Bilal Tanweer won Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize 2014 : News Digest | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Bilal Tanweer, a Pakistan-based author won the 2014 Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize for his novel 'The Scatter Here Is Too Great.' The award function was held in New Delhi on December 2, 2014. 

Bilal, who up a cash prize of Rs 2 lakh along with the award, was selected by a jury comprising the 2009 Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize winner Mridula Koshy, Aatish Taseer and Amit Chaudhuri. The award is usually given to encourage authors from the subcontinent. 

The other works shortlisted for this year's Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize were, A Bad Character by Deepti Kapoor, Prawin Adhikari's The Vanishing Act, Shovon Chowdhury's, The Competent Authority, and The Smoke Is Rising by Mahesh Rao. 

All the books, including Tanweer's, were published by Indian publishing houses. 

The Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize was instituted in 2008.

Tanweer, was born and raised in the Pakistani port city of Karachi, is a fiction writer, poet and translator. He teaches creative writing at Lahore University of Management Sciences.

Bilal's short stories, essays and poetry have been published by Granta, Critical Muslim, Life's Too Short Literary Review: New Writing From Pakistan, Vallum, Dawn, The Express Tribune, The News on Sunday and The Caravan (India); his translations from the Urdu have appeared in Words Without Borders and The Annual of Urdu Studies.

In 2010 he received the PEN Translation Fund Grant for Chakiwara Chronicles by Muhammad Khalid Akhtar;  in 2011 he was selected as a Granta New Voice. He participates thanks to a grant from the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs at the U.S. Department of State.
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When Working In Mixed Groups, Staying PC Boosts Productivity

When Working In Mixed Groups, Staying PC Boosts Productivity | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Here's some advice for your next office meeting: Hold your tongue. Total freedom of speech, recent research showed, has the potential to squash
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They’re Talking In 2 Different Languages, But With This New Tool They Understand Each Other Perfectly

They’re Talking In 2 Different Languages, But With This New Tool They Understand Each Other Perfectly | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Skype has changed the way we can communicate with the people that we love. It makes the long miles disappear and creates a world with many possibilities.

But there has been a border that Skype couldn’t pass until now — language.

Recently, Skype created “Skype Translator.” This technology creates the ability to speak one language into a microphone and have it translated into the language of your speaking partner. The translator is currently available in English and Spanish, but the company said more languages are coming soon.

In this video, Skype Translator was tested two elementary school classes — one in Washington and one in Mexico City. During their talk, these students discovered the potential of the translator to break down language barriers and bring people together.
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Untying tongues: Why right now is a good time to read in translation

Untying tongues: Why right now is a good time to read in translation | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
When Patrick Modiano won the Nobel Prize earlier this fall, the general response in the English-speaking world was a resounding, “Who?” Most of the novelist’s 20-odd books are unavailable in our widest-spoken official language — some out of print but most simply untranslated. How can this be, in our theoretically global village?

The likes of Google Translate are supposedly making the planet’s first-world culture, and much beyond, available at the click of the mouse, from masterpieces to 15-minute memes. But for all the benefits of databases and algorithms, flesh-and-blood people remain essential to the process. “I don’t think we’ll ever be replaceable,” says Toronto translator Jessica Moore, the vice-president (Ontario) of the Literary Translators’ Association of Canada. And translators are subject to editors, who are subject to publishers, who are subject to the market. Outside of prizewinners such as Modiano and big bestsellers, the books that are available in translation can seem random — and their contents sometimes altered in surprising ways.

Charles Bukowski became a hit in Serbia when his raw books were rendered in a baroque style.
This year’s International Festival of Authors in Toronto hosted “Found in Translation” panels for writers from Quebec to Myanmar, who discussed the joy of finding new markets and the compromises they’ve had to make to do so. Slovenian writer Andrej Blatnik noted that his English translators often leave out his most highbrow language; in contrast, he recalls hearing how Charles Bukowski became a hit in Serbia when his raw books were rendered in a baroque style. Sometimes content is an issue: Spanish novelist Andres Barba laughingly recounted how a freelance Syrian translator, for the Arabic market, changed a prostitute giving oral sex in one of his books to a tailor playing cards.

However much style or content may change through translation, it’s good for an author to find new readership. Not that the English-speaking market is as vast as it should be, unless you’re a phenomenon like Haruki Murakami: it’s an oft-cited statistic that only 3% of books published in the United States every year are translations; figures from the United Kingdom are similar, despite its proximity to the cultural richness of continental Europe. In Canada, Moore says, there’s a growing interest in translated works (with the Canada Council funding nearly 50% more per year from French to English than it did five years ago), although her recent chats with publishers at the IFOA revealed to her that “when something stands out as a translation, that’s actually a detriment in terms of sales.”

Perhaps, then, this is why so few translators are credited on book covers. Even in reviews, they’re mentioned only when reviewers need to hedge their bets: for instance, in The New York Times, Janet Maslin writes of Murakami’s No. 1 bestseller Colorless Tsukuru Tazaki and His Years of Pilgrimage, “either Mr. Murakami or his translator, Philip Gabriel, likes to bludgeon each new thought with brutal repetition.”

Where translators are visible in our culture, they’re on television, attempting to help people understand each other easily. But facility isn’t always ideal. When translating Maylis de Kerangal’s hit French novel Naissance d’un pont (Birth of a Bridge), Moore looked for a style analogous to the original’s densely packed, fluid prose, trying “to recreate the same kind of challenge or surprise.” And just as translators are bound to be faithful to the original, they’re also directed by editors: Moore was asked by Talonbooks to change the original’s almost jarringly matter-of-fact first sentence to something more emphatic and suggestive. She wasn’t able to show de Kerangal her solution until the book was published; thankfully, says Moore, the author “liked it when she saw it.”

An author may suggest a translator, but ultimately selling foreign rights is like selling film rights — you don’t get to pick your movie adaptation’s director either.
Moore is now starting work on de Kerangal’s latest book, the bestselling Réparer les vivants, which, oddly, is being translated simultaneously by someone else for the U.S . market. An author may suggest a translator, but ultimately selling foreign rights is like selling film rights — you don’t get to pick your movie adaptation’s director either. De Kerangal was lucky to have Moore as an advocate in the first place: she was the one who pitched Talonbooks the translation. The French government then stepped in to help with the cost. But what of writers in countries that actively suppress their writing?

In Myanmar, for instance, from the start of military rule in 1962 until the dissolution of the country’s censorship board in 2012, the only writing that could be published — and thence translated — was approved by the government. Writer and physician Ma Thida was imprisoned from 1993 to 1999 for, in her words, “reading the monthly journals published by the national coalition government abroad.” Her own manuscripts were often lost, either by publishers or even by friends of the family who agreed to keep them safe but ended up burning them out of fear. She was released from prison at the urging of organizations such as the writers’ group PEN International and years later secured a passport. In 2011, on a writing fellowship to Brown University, she started work on The Roadmap, a short novel detailing the Burmese people’s struggle from the mid-1980s. In order to reach a non-Burmese audience, she felt she should write in English herself.

More from Mike Doherty
Colorless Tsukuru Tazaki and His Years of Pilgrimage, by Haruki Murakami: Review
She made this decision also, she says, because if she wrote in her native tongue, she would be tempted to practice the internalized “self-censorship”
she obtained in Myanmar, whereby writers would refer only indirectly to sensitive political issues. Where Burmese literature under British colonial rule had been chiefly preoccupied with the struggle for independence, Thida now found herself using the language of the oppressors to express herself freely.

“It’s quite ironic,” she says with a laugh. “If I knew another language, I might use it! Political progress, diversity among minorities — it’s always rooted in colonial days. For us, [the English language] is another way to learn [about] each other, because some minorities don’t even have their own characters in their own language — they just use English characters to spell phonetically.”

And the prevalence of English can be a boon to translators, too: often English translations are used as bridges between two languages. Thida, for instance, plans to translate work by French Nobel Prize winner Claude Simon into Burmese, via English translations. As the president of PEN Myanmar, she’s also looking to promote Burmese writing abroad at a time when in her home country, there’s still a climate of fear among authors and declining interest in fiction; outside, there isn’t an established market. What she needs to find right now, more than anything, are a few good translators. She has, she says, “not very brilliant hope — but there is a hope.”


Mike Doherty is a frequent contributor to these pages.
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Public Assistance Eligibility App Launches Food Stamp Offerings in Spanish

Public Assistance Eligibility App Launches Food Stamp Offerings in Spanish | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Spanish Speakers Can Now Easily Pre-screen Food Stamp Eligibility
CHICAGO–(ENEWSPF)—December 19, 2014. On the heels of President Obama’s executive order on immigration, mRelief, an app that helps Chicagoans determine their eligibility for government benefits -- and local community resources through Purple Binder -- has launched mRelief español. The web application’s latest version provides a custom Spanish translation of the site and the food stamps eligibility screener.

Census Data shows that out of the people who “speak English less than very well” in Chicago, 62 percent are Hispanics according to analysis in the Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project. The Chicago metropolitan area is home to the 5th largest Latino population in the US at 1.9 million. Further, Hispanics -- both foreign born and native -- have the lowest Median Annual Personal Earnings in the city at $29,600. “As income is a primary indicator of food stamps eligibility, empowering Hispanics about their eligibility for benefits is critical,” said Rose Afriyie project manager of mRelief. 

Through mRelief’s partnership with LAF (Legal Assistance Foundation), the team behind mRelief first started integrating Spanish by providing users who qualified for food stamps, rental assistance, and other programs with information about when Spanish was spoken at community service centers. Now, the vibrant open source community has helped them expand their reach. 

mRelief is a success story of the Open Government Hack Night at 1871. mRelief reaped the benefits of being an open source application when the all-woman team connected one Tuesday night with Spanish translator Rene M. Paccha. As the application progressed, Paccha, who is also a ruby developer followed the updates on Github. Making use of the open source translation tool R81N, created by developer Andrey Sitnik, Paccha completed translation for tabs on the main website, the food stamps screener, and all food stamps response pages. Manuela Sifuentes, startup founder of Malinalli Language Consultants, also contributed to the Spanish translation. 

“I have found that machine translations tend to make things more confusing,” said Paccha about his decision to pitch in and manually translate key pages on the web application. Paccha who is a native Spanish speaker of Chilean and Ecuadorian descent and formally taught continued, “I wanted to correct for that mistake by using my trade as a translator to do something for my community.”

The web application is currently awaiting decisions from grantmakers that would help finance the translation of the remaining 11 web programs and the 4 programs on SMS. Supporters can donate to mRelief at

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Xi's speeches on reform published in foreign languages

BEIJING, Dec. 19 (Xinhua) -- The book on selected remarks by President Xi Jinping on deepening Chinese reforms has been published in six foreign languages.

The book is now available in English, French, Spanish, Japanese, Russian and Arabic languages, according to an announcement by publisher Foreign Languages Press on Thursday.

The book, divided into 12 sections, collects Xi's comments from more than 70 speeches, written instructions and comments between Nov. 15, 2012 and April 1, 2014.

The Chinese version was published in May.

Another book gathering Xi's important remarks organized by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China Central Committee has sold more than 15 million copies to date.

The publishers announced total sales have reached 15.11 million, including 95,000 copies in ethnic minority languages.
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Xi's speeches on reform published in foreign languages - Headlines, features, photo and videos from|china|news|chinanews|ecns|cns

Xi's speeches on reform published in foreign languages - Headlines, features, photo and videos from|china|news|chinanews|ecns|cns | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
The book on selected remarks by President Xi Jinping on deepening Chinese reforms has been published in six foreign languages.

The book is now available in English, French, Spanish, Japanese, Russian and Arabic languages, according to an announcement by publisher Foreign Languages Press on Thursday.

The book, divided into 12 sections, collects Xi's comments from more than 70 speeches, written instructions and comments between Nov. 15, 2012 and April 1, 2014.

The Chinese version was published in May.

Another book gathering Xi's important remarks organized by the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China Central Committee has sold more than 15 million copies to date.

The publishers announced total sales have reached 15.11 million, including 95,000 copies in ethnic minority languages.
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NI firms 'need more language skills'

NI firms 'need more language skills' | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
800 international companies have bases in Northern Ireland
The University of Ulster says a serious shortage of language graduates is forcing international companies with bases in Northern Ireland to look abroad for employees

The fact that languages are no longer compulsory at GCSE has led to the problem, says the university's head of modern languages Dr David Barr.

Around 800 global firms have bases in Belfast, employing about 75,000 people.

But Dr Barr says there's now a shortage of supply to meet the demand.
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MassAHEC Network, Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing collaborating on new program for sign language interpreters

MassAHEC Network, Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing collaborating on new program for sign language interpreters | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
The rising demand for American Sign Language (ASL) interpreters who have the proficiency and comfort to perform in a health care setting led to the development of a new training program offered by UMass Medical School, MassHealth, and the Massachusetts Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

The 16-hour program, An Introduction to Medical Interpreting, debuted this fall and will be offered again next spring. The program teaches American Sign Language interpreters with little to no medical training how to work with medical terminology, clinical procedures and ethical issues in health care settings.

“The demand for ASL interpreters with extensive knowledge of health care situations is higher than the commission can supply,” said Lisa Morris, MS, director of Cross-Cultural Initiatives at UMass Medical School’s Massachusetts Area Health Education Center (MassAHEC) Network. MassAHEC is a unit within the Commonwealth Medicine division.

Finding a doctor who uses communication supports such as ASL interpreters, CART reporters and other aids was reported as a big problem by more than 50 percent of those who responded to a health needs assessment of people with disabilities in Massachusetts. The assessment, the results of which were released in April, wasconducted by researchers at UMass Medical School’s Disability, Health and Employment Unit and the Health and Disability Program at the state Department of Public Health.

The idea for the new training program was conceived about two years ago after the commission received complaints that interpretations for deaf patients weren’t consistently accurate, and that many interpreters themselves felt unqualified to accept medical assignments, Morris said. Some sign language symbols, for example, don’t mean the same thing when taken literally. For example, the trunk of the body needs to be interpreted differently from the trunk of a car. If the interpreter doesn’t question the information, “you may not get the appropriate interpretation,” Morris said.

The new program comprises four components of training. ASL interpreters receive an overview of the office visit that explains how health care providers diagnose and treat patients; are trained in legal and ethical issues; are introduced to typical medical terms; and learn how to handle stressful incidents. Sections of the class were also co-taught by two native American Sign Language experts so that terminology that is difficult to visually interpret could be explored.

“We received overwhelmingly positive reviews from the interpreters who attended the training. We will do a follow-up assessment in three to four months to see how they are using what they learned in the field. We plan to collaborate with MassAHEC to repeat the course and to develop new ones, including an intensive training in behavioral health,” said Tricia Ford, deputy commissioner for Programs and Policy for the commission. “We will collaborate with MassAHEC to invite ASL interpreters to their annual medical interpreter conference, Paving the Way, on June 19. This will continue to increase the health care knowledge of ASL interpreters.”

MassAHEC has run a statewide training program for speaking medical interpreters in partnership with the Executive Office of Health and Human Services for the past 15 years. Fundamentals of Medical Interpreting is a 60-hour course offered at six regional MassAHEC offices in the fall and spring, and occasionally summer. It is geared to staff at health care facilities that serve patients enrolled in MassHealth, the Massachusetts Medicaid program. 
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Krakatau: The Tale of Lampung Submerged -

Krakatau: The Tale of Lampung Submerged - | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Krakatau, The Tale of Lampung Submerged is the first English-language translation of the only surviving account written by an indigenous witness of the August 1883 volcanic eruption that wrecked much of the island of Krakatau, situated between the islands of Java and Sumatra in modern-day Indonesia.
Thought to have been composed by Muhammad Saleh, who may have been a Muslim religious leader, the poem was first published in Singapore just a few months after the disaster. It was written in the syair verse form – a classical long narrative poem that was common in the region in the 19th century – using Jawi script, an Arabic alphabet for writing Malay. Essays on syair and Jawi are included in the book.
Due to its popularity, Krakatau was transliterated into romanized Malay soon after its publication. For his translation from the romanized Malay into English, John H. McGlynn has used the fourth romanized Malay edition, albeit using a different rhyming structure.
The effects of the volcanic explosions have been well documented elsewhere and are included in the introduction: the sounds of the blasts were heard hundreds of miles away; putrid volcanic ash spiraled up to 70km into the sky; the 40-meter waves from the resultant tsunami destroyed dozens of coastal villages in the Lampung region and beyond, sweeping away many of their inhabitants. Falling ash and wild winds sparked vicious firestorms that spread out of control, resulting in thousands of further deaths. The official death toll was a little over 36,000 but recent historians believe the real count might have exceeded 100,000. The waves of the tsunami were seen as far away as South Africa and the cooling climactic repercussions of the eruption, in particular the dispersion of volcanic ash, were felt worldwide for years.
The story/poem itself is, not unexpectedly, one of almost unmitigated gloom. It is a morbid travelogue, in which Saleh recounts the events he saw with his own eyes and what he was told by other survivors.
The way that the fires spread, I would deem,
Was like a flame to a pail of kerosene.
Homes buckled and broke beneath the rain's crash,
With its congealed mixture of mud and ash.
As Saleh travels through the Lampung region, he relates a horrendous tale of piles of uncountable dead bodies washed up on beaches, villages totally destroyed, mass hunger. He treks from village to village, describing how the "angels of death" – floods and "rainstorms of hot mud and fire" – destroyed towns such as Ketimbang and Umbul Batu. Attempts to escape were often fatal.
Many fled with goods they could carry,
In perthu and sampan, with no time to tarry.
Slapped about by waves, the vessels were tossed,
And the boats, goods, and even souls were lost.
Greed and thievery abound as "ecstatic bands of robbers" loot coastal villages and inland towns, while the attempts of the Dutch "Controllers" to restore order among the refugees have mixed success.
Saleh's account is highly emotive. It is impossible not be moved by the desperate plight of people who have been stripped back to the most basic elements of human existence. But the poem is also a testament to human dignity and courage: brave survivors save lives, strangers care for orphans, and food and money are provided for refugees traveling to Batavia (Jakarta).
It is possible to question the quality of the verse. Assuming the translation is faithful to the original text, it is written in a simple journalistic style that could be called accessible. However, it would be churlish to criticize Saleh for not being John Milton. The self-deprecating author regularly berates himself for lacking the skills or talent to truly express what he saw and heard; and given the trauma he underwent and the speed at which he produced a poem of such length its mere emergence is quite remarkable. Overall, the poem does what it sets out to do: to convey the depth of human tragedy and degradation that follows a massive natural disaster.
With the widespread devastation of the 2004 tsunami that hit northern Sumatra still fresh in the collective memory of the region, it does not take an overactive imagination to visualize or understand the extent of the destruction triggered by Krakatau's eruption.
Some people climbed tall trees,
One and all attempted to flee.
Husbands called desperately for their wives,
"Dear God!" they cried as they ran for their lives
The poem is interspersed with references to the will of Allah. Saleh interrupts the narrative to implore the reader to "pray for God's pardon and show remorse." As in 2004, the eruption was viewed by some as a judgment from the Almighty, engendering the kind of soul searching and collective religious guilt that often follows from natural disasters. Given the unparalleled nature and scale of the eruption in 1883 it must have seemed to many as if the apocalypse had actually arrived.
Despite the differences between 1883 and 2004, the human impact is remarkably similar, which underlines the poem's contemporary relevance.
Although there have been many books and papers, both popular and academic, written on Krakatau's eruption and its horrific consequences, this translation adds to the extant body of knowledge, especially the responses to the event at the local level.
This translation brings to light a text that has been effectively submerged from English readers for 130 years and, as such, is a cause for celebration among both academic and non-academic English readers interested in the history of the region.
Stephen Joyce is a freelance marketing consultant and copywriter who moved to Hong Kong from Scotland in early 2010. He now lives in Singapore.
Reprinted with permission from The Asian Review of Books
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Bridging Cultural Gaps with the English and Russian Languages

Bridging Cultural Gaps with the English and Russian Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Mandarin Chinese and Spanish may be the top languages when it comes to the number of speakers but a new study says that English and Russian languages are more effective at bridging cultural gaps.

Statistical study

A team of American and French researchers have conducted a study revealing that Russian and English are languages that are better at conveying ideas over cultural gaps via multilingual or bilingual speakers. The results of the study have been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The researchers studied materials from Wikipedia and Twitter that were written by multilingual users in an effort to determine the interconnectedness and prevalence of the English and Russian languages and their speakers. They also looked into statistics on book translations done in 150 countries for the last 30 years.

Ideas behind the study

Cesar Hidalgo, a co-author of the study and an MIT assistant professor of media arts and sciences explained that not everyone shares a language with other people and the global social network derives its structure from a roundabout path wherein people belonging to certain language groups are more primal than other groups. While these people have more power and responsibility, they also find it easier to disseminate their content. Conversely the information that gets shared through other people will be distorted and glossed over by the biases and ideas of the people that have received the information.

Online interactive network

The fascinating study done by the team of researchers created an online interactive network in order to show how languages connect with each other and which languages are more fundamental to modern society. The visualizations of the language connections, which is available in the Global Language Network site of MIT could be redrawn from three sources of data. The data for the book translations came from UNESCO, while the two others sources were Wikipedia and Twitter.

Generation of the network

To generate the Twitter network, the researchers included Twitter users that have posted at least a minimum of three sentences in another language aside from their own first language, which translated to about 17 million Twitter users. They did the same for users of Wikipedia by including those users that have edited entries in different languages, getting about 2.2 million users. For the book translation, they secured the data from the Index Translationum of UNESCO that was published between 1979 and 2011, which encompassed some 2.2 million books.

Results of the study

The results of the study showed that English had the largest hub, followed by Russian, Spanish and French. It also revealed that Arabic and Hindi, despite their large number of speakers are still isolated languages. However, it was interesting to note that the Dutch language, which is not a major global language, serves as a big conveyor for other languages. Concepts and ideas also travel from one language to the next according to the study. As an example, they found that Finnish ideas could be passed to Portuguese speakers who could pass them to Malay speakers despite the fact that Finnish and Malay do not share a substantial connection.

MIT graduate researcher Shahar Ronen, who is also a co-author of the study said that the results of the study have an impact on people who do not speak a major language such as Spanish or English. He suggested that if people want their own language to be more prominent globally, it would mean tweeting in their own language and translating more documents in their own language. However, if they want their ideas to spread and be shared, they must learn a second language that has stronger connections.

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Alakhbar | Mariem Derwich : «La langue française est presque clandestine en Mauritanie»

Alakhbar | Mariem Derwich : «La langue française est presque clandestine en Mauritanie» | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
ALAKHBAR (Nouakchott)-La chroniqueuse et poétesse franco-mauritanienne Mariem Derwich a regretté que le Français soit en "perte de vitesse en Mauritanie" à point qu’il est devenu "une langue presque clandestine".

La littérature mauritanienne souffre de cette situation selon Mariem Derwich qui était interrogée par Alakhbar à l’occasion de la 5e édition du festival littéraire Traversée Mauritanides. « Écrire ou intervenir en Français nous (écrivains) coupe automatiquement d’une grosse majorité de la population mauritanienne.  Et puis nous sommes inaudibles; les arabisants ne nous lisent pas mais nous ne lisons pas aussi les arabisants, parce qu’il n’y a pas de traduction des œuvres.»
«J’essaye d’être optimiste. On n’a eu de très grands auteurs francophones depuis les tous premiers comme Ousmane Moussa Diagana qui ne sont pas enseignés dans les écoles et d’autres auteurs modernes comme Djibril Zakaria Sall. Malheureusement la langue française est en perte de vitesse, c’est une question d’histoire et d’idéologie: comment en tant que Mauritaniens nous nous percevons dans le monde ? Dans quelle langue peut-on être aujourd’hui Mauritanien?»
« C’est vrai, le Français est la langue du colon. Mais elle fait maintenant partie de notre histoire autant que l’Arabe est aussi une langue des colonisateurs  Baní Hassan qui sont venus en Mauritanie au 15e et 16e siècle (...) Le Français est aujourd’hui une langue africaine elle n’appartient plus à la France et aux Français elle fait partie de l’histoire africaine et nous sommes en train de créer nous une nouvelle langue française qui nous est spécifiquement propre», a-t-elle précisé. 
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Interpreter Speaks for Muslims in Maine: A Day's Work

Interpreter Speaks for Muslims in Maine: A Day's Work | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Dec. 19 (Bloomberg) -- Qamar Ahmed, a 31-year-old professional interpreter in Portland, Maine, talks about her job assisting Arabic-speaking refuges who moved to the region to escape their war-torn countries. Interpreters are one of the fastest-growing jobs in America, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bloomberg's Tom Moroney profiles Ahmed's pursuit of the American dream in the series, "A Day's Work." (Source: Bloomberg)
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The Peculiar New Words Added by Oxford Dictionaries - Translation Blog

The Peculiar New Words Added by Oxford Dictionaries - Translation Blog | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
The editors at don’t want to get left behind with all the advances in the English language and so they decided to add a thousand new words to their online dictionary. It’s worth noting that here we’re referring to the popular online dictionary of Oxford University, which is not related to the highly regarded dictionary by the same name. The website The Week decided to publish an article with a list of those that were, in their opinion, the most peculiar.

Some of them are phrases that are not particularly new (for example, five-second rule) and others are quite recent (duckface, Obamacare). And though the list involves words that are beginning to take hold in Great Britain and Australia, it just may happen that they arrive on U.S. shores.

The list is as follows:

Just like “al fresco” means eating outdoors, al desko is to eat at one’s desk. That’s pretty common these days: your hand on the fork and your eyes on the monitor.

This means a level above “massive,” similar to “descomunal” in Spanish.

This means “middle aged man in Lycra” and refers to the current obsession with cycling. It’s easy to recognize a MAMIL in their natural habitat. Their bike is expensive and their outfit is more professional than it need be.

Marmite is an English edible spread that tastes a bit like yeast and is a little salty. People either love it or they hate it. And that’s why it is now used to condense into just one word “something that tends to provoke strongly positive or negative reactions, rather than indifference.”

It speaks for itself. It is an Australian term for office workers or bureaucrats. How the term came about doesn’t require much explaining.

This is the way Australians refer to officials who issue traffic tickets.

It can be used as a joking take on “the bee’s knees,” a somewhat outdated expression to mean that someone is cool.

In South America it’s known as Tiki-tiki. A soccer term referring to a specific style of play.

Abbreviated form of “Tomorrow,” to help one save on ink.

Tagged with: al desko mahoosive mamil marmite Oxford shiny bum sticker licker the ant's pants tiki-taka tomoz
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'How are you?' 'Bien' - Skype Translator opens up language barriers

'How are you?' 'Bien' - Skype Translator opens up language barriers | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Washington-based Microsoft has released a preview of Skype Translator
It lets people of different languages talk to each other on video calls
The software translates one language into text and speech of another
For now only Spanish and English are available - and you need to have a Windows 8.1 device
But eventually more than 40 languages will be supported - including even Klingon from Star Trek

PUBLISHED: 11:38 GMT, 19 December 2014 | UPDATED: 13:05 GMT, 19 December 2014

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A world where there are no more language barriers might not be too far away - online, at least.

Skype has now released the beta version of its live translation tool, allowing people to speak to others in another language - even if they don’t know what they’re saying.

The tool translates speech instantly, providing both text and spoken translations.

Scroll down for videos 

Washington-based Microsoft has released a preview of Skype Translator (shown). It lets people of different languages talk to each other on video calls. The software translates one language into text and speech of another. For now only Spanish and English are available - and you need to have a Windows 8.1 device

You can sign up for the beta version of Skype Translator now on their website.

For now the public version is only able to translate between English and Spanish - and you need a Windows 8.1 device to use it.

But it will eventually have more than 40 languages available letting people of many countries speak to one another with ease.

There's no news yet, though, on when the full version will be available. 
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Instant translation – no longer sci-fi

Instant translation – no longer sci-fi | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Testing Skype's real-time translator
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The idea that you could speak into a device in one language and it would emerge in another has long been a sci-fi fantasy. But this week that kind of automated translation came a step closer to reality when Skype launched the beta version of its Translator service.

For now it's an invitation-only trial and the only languages that it can handle are English and Spanish. I tried it out, talking to Maria Romero Garcia, a Spanish professor in Seville, who works with Skype.

What I found is that you have to use a good quality microphone and speak clearly in full sentences without pauses - otherwise the machine translation will kick in and interrupt you.

But the results were not bad at all. I asked Maria what she had been up to that morning. She replied in Spanish: "Esta manana ha estado trabajando un poco poco y concertando citas para ver a mis amigos esta tarde."

That came out in English as this: "This morning has been working a little bit and arranging appointments to see my friends this afternoon."

The technology does struggle at times - when Maria's cat wandered in front of the camera I asked what it was called and Translator decided I'd asked whether it was cold.

But there is a lot going on here, as Vikram Dendi, Microsoft's lead engineer on the project, explained on the line from the US. Live translation involves speech synthesis, voice recognition and machine translation - "each technology on its own is pretty complex, putting them together is a very difficult problem."

As someone who studied languages at university, spending many hours toiling my way through translation - and seeing friends go into the interpreting profession - I could see that teaching a computer a language was a huge challenge.

But it seems it is not a question of getting the machine to learn like a human. "It's not like someone who goes to school and learns a language by learning the rules," Vikram explains. "Computers use a different approach. They take large amounts of parallel texts - high-quality translated texts - and then use that text to build a probability base language model."

Computers, then, are living off the work of human linguists, scouring the web for examples of translated text. If this blogpost is translated into other languages, for instance, it could help feed translation engines of the future. That means the poor old human translators are helping to build the robots that could take their jobs, doesn't it?

Vikram Dendi says that is much too pessimistic a view - he believes that the explosion in internet use by people whose first language is not English will lead to a surge in demand for translation. "This will increase the amount of translation that will happen in the world - a portion of that will be done by technology and a portion by technology in conjunction with human translators."

In any case, Skype's Translator and its rivals have some way to go before they can match the abilities of a skilled human linguist. You would not want them involved in vital negotiations between world leaders for example. But over the next decade, you can expect to chat to friends whose language you don't share without stopping to flick through a dictionary.
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NEW YORK: UK translation experts thebigword benefit from US-Cuba deal | Business Wire | Rock Hill Herald Online

NEW YORK: UK translation experts thebigword benefit from US-Cuba deal | Business Wire | Rock Hill Herald Online | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
NEW YORK — The restoration of diplomatic ties between the United States and Cuba has led to a surge in demand for translation services from New York-based thebigword.

Within hours of President Obama’s dramatic announcement in Washington — seconded by Cuban President Raul Castro in Havana – thebigword received a deluge of requests from international businesses for Cuban translation services.

The highest level of demand came from US-based technology firms located in Silicon Valley, which are keen to tap into the Cuban market.

It has been predicted that the trade embargo has cost the US economy $1.1 billion a year.

Josh Gould, Chief Commercial Officer at thebigword said:

“Businesses ar
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S. Amadori, Yves Bonnefoy. Père et fils de son Shakespeare

S. Amadori, Yves Bonnefoy. Père et fils de son Shakespeare 
Information publiée le 18 décembre 2014 par Matthieu Vernet(source : Deborah Boltz)

Sara Amadori, Yves Bonnefoy. Père et fils de son Shakespeare

Paris : Hermann, coll. "Savoir Lettres", 2015.

EAN 9782705689261

370 p.


Présentation :

Dans l’univers protéiforme de l’œuvre d’Yves Bonnefoy, le dialogue poétique avec Shakespeare joue un rôle essentiel. C’est un échange continu, ponctué d’une riche activité traduisante, que Bonnefoy conçoit comme un acte de poésie à part entière, une quête du vrai qui demande de s’ouvrir à la vérité de l’Autre et qui est en même temps l’occasion de féconder le texte traduit. Créateur de "son" Shakespeare, Bonnefoy en est aussi le disciple, car c’est au contact de la pensée poétique et philosophique du grand auteur élisabéthain que mûrit son art poétique. Ainsi, parler de l’expérience traduisante du poète français signifie parler de la destinée de deux œuvres, du rapport entre le Propre et l’Étranger, de la voix du Je s’accordant avec celle de l’Autre pour « cherche[r] ensemble, en avant, dans une présence du monde qui se ranime ».

L'auteur :

Sara Amadori est post-doctorante au département d’interprétation et de traduction de l’université de Bologne (campus de Forlì). Elle est l’auteure de plusieurs études consacrées à la traduction poétique. Elle enseigne la traduction entre le français et l'italien à l’université de Bologne.

Responsable : Deborah Boltz
Adresse : Hermann, 6 rue Labrouste 75015 Paris
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Nécrologie : Adieu monsieur l’abbé Emmanuel DOUAMBA -, l'actualité au Burkina Faso

Nécrologie : Adieu monsieur l’abbé Emmanuel DOUAMBA -, l'actualité au Burkina Faso | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Monsieur l’abbé Emmanuel DOUAMBA, qui a servi le Christ comme prêtre pendant 62 ans, a connu un ministère sacerdotal fructueux, particulièrement exercé dans la traduction de la Bible en langue Moore. Cet ancien pensionnaire de l’institut catholique de Lyon, de l’école missionnaire d’action sociale de Lille, ainsi que de la Sorbonne à Paris, a passé le plus clair de sa vie sacerdotale, à rendre accessible la parole de Dieu aux auditeurs et aux lecteurs de la langue Moore. Si pour certains textes de la Bible, il n’a joué que le rôle de metteur à jour des traductions précédemment réalisées par les missionnaires occidentaux, pour la plupart des autres livres de la Bible, il en est le traducteur direct. Une œuvre intégrale, accomplie avec maestria selon les témoignages des uns et des autres, dont les éloges ont crépité à l’endroit de celui qui a su imiter le Christ jusque dans son dépouillement matériel.

Ce fou du Christ, a aiguisé sa vocation de traducteur de l’Ancien et du Nouveau Testament dans la langue Moore, en étant d’abord formateur au centre linguistique de Guilongou. Il a ainsi permis, à de nombreux Pères Blancs de s’initier à la langue Moore, avant de sillonner le moogo pour répandre la Bonne Nouvelle du Christ. « Ce génie des langues et surtout de sa langue maternelle le Moore », comme le qualifiait le Père RANZINI qu’il a enseigné à Guilongou, aura rappelé à tous les chrétiens que « l’histoire sacrée de notre vie, trouve sa beauté dans la manière dont chacun l’écrit » selon les mots de l’abbé Gabriel NIKIEMA, prédicateur à la messe d’enterrement. L’ancien curé de la paroisse de Manga et de celle de Pô, fin pratiquant de la rhétorique, grâce à qui l’on peut arguer avec justesse que « Dieu nous parle en Moore », était également amoureux du parler en parabole. Dans cet art qu’il affectionnait et à la suite du grand prêtre Jésus-Christ, il a enseigné que la différence entre les hommes, les appelle à se compléter. Pour la cause de l’évangile, celui dont la note de testament tient en une phrase, n’a rien économisé de son avoir et de son être, lui qui au travers des longs temps passés à scruter les écritures en vue de leur donner la traduction la plus juste, aura usé ses yeux et ses méninges.

A la fin de la messe des obsèques, le délégué de la fraternité sacerdotale nationale, monsieur l’abbé André TOE, a rendu homme au doyen des 132 prêtres de l’archidiocèse de Ouagadougou, en relevant son courage, sa discrétion, sa simplicité que n’a jamais trahis sa grande intelligence. Le cardinal dans son dernier adieu à cet ancien élève de la 8è promotion du petit séminaire, a conclu les discours en ces termes : « Au delà des limites humaines, il a généreusement donné sa part de construction de notre Eglise Famille de Dieu à Ouagadougou et au Burkina Faso ; il a contribué à nous faire connaître, aimer et ressembler davantage à Jésus ». Requiescat in pace, humble prêtre de Jésus-Christ.

Abbé Joseph KINDA
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Job offer Chargé de projets linguistique - La Marque Rose (December 2014)

Job offer Chargé de projets linguistique - La Marque Rose (December 2014) | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
18 Dec 2014 : La Marque Rose hires Chargé de projets linguistique in Paris (75017). Nous vous proposons, rattaché au responsable du département localisation de jeux vidéo, un CDD de 8 mois au sein du pôle de coordination linguistique.
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Termes médicaux : Google traduction souvent « lost in translation »

Royaume-Uni — Peut-on utiliser Google Traduction à l’hôpital ou au cabinet médical pour expliquer des termes médicaux à un patient qui ne parle pas la langue des soignants ? Deux chercheurs anglais ont fait le test. Avec un taux de précision de 58%, il en ressort que la confiance que l’on peut avoir en ce traducteur électronique est toute relative [1]. Une attention particulière doit être portée à la traduction vers une langue rare (non européenne) et sur des sujets délicats (question de vie ou de mort, procédures légales) où un traducteur « humain » sera préféré.

Mots médicaux : communiquer avec un étranger reste un challenge

Comme chaque année, le BMJ nous livre son lot d’articles décalés dans son édition de Noël. Celui proposé par les anglais Sumant Patil et Patrick Davies n’est pas sans intérêt car il s’intéresse au langage et plus spécifiquement aux mots et aux expressions du domaine médical. Comme le précisent les auteurs, la communication dans le domaine médical est essentielle et, selon les bonnes pratiques, « le médecin doit écouter attentivement son patient, prendre en compte son point de vue et répondre honnêtement à ses questions ». Déjà pas évident quand les différents interlocuteurs parlent la même langue, mais on imagine quand le patient ne maitrise pas le langage du pays où il est soigné !

« Au Royaume-Uni, la plupart des hôpitaux disposent de services de traducteurs, mais c’est cher et contraignant. De fait, discuter d’un sujet médical, éthique et thérapeutique complexe avec les nuances que cela suppose avec un patient dont les connaissances de la langue sont limitées reste un challenge. » Et l’auteur de citer, l’exemple d’un enfant du service, très malade, et dont les parents ne parlaient pas anglais, qui l’a conduit à se rabattre sur Google traduction pour expliquer la situation. Le personnel médical a dû faire confiance au traducteur électronique en espérant que le logiciel rendrait compte fidèlement de leurs explications médicales complexes. L’enfant a fort heureusement retrouvé la santé et les soignants se sont assurés par la suite, grâce à un traducteur « humain », que les explications avaient bien été comprises par la famille. Cette histoire a donné l’idée aux auteurs de se pencher sur l’adéquation des traductions de « Google translate » pour les termes médicaux.

10 phrases en 26 langues

Pour ce faire, les auteurs se sont mis d’accord sur 10 phrases prononcées couramment dans le milieu médical et les ont passées à la moulinette de Google Trad pour 26 langues différentes (8 langues d’Europe de l’Ouest, 5 langues d’Europe de l’Est, 11 langues asiatiques et 2 langues africaines). Chacune des phrases traduites a ensuite été envoyée à un locuteur natif pour chacune des langues en lui demandant sa retraduction en anglais. Ces dernières versions ont ensuite été comparées aux phrases originales. Si le sens initial était absent ou incorrect, les phrases étaient considérées comme fausses, de petites erreurs grammaticales étaient en revanche tolérées.

L’étude porte sur 260 traductions (10 phrases médicales traduites en 26 langues). Après analyse, 150 d’entre elles (57,7%) ont été considérées comme correctes et 110 fausses. Les langues africaines ont conduit au taux d’erreurs le plus élevé (55 %), suivies par les langues asiatiques (54%), les langues d’Europe de l’Est (38%), les langues d’Europe de l’Ouest ayant été les plus précises avec seulement 26% d’erreurs. La phrase qui a été la plus correctement traduite dans les différentes langues était « Your husband has the opportunity to donate his organs »* (88,5%) alors que « Your child has been fitting » n’a été correctement traduite que dans 7,7% des cas. Le Swahili a conduit aux plus mauvais résultats (10% d’adéquation), et le portugais aux meilleurs (90%).

En termes d’erreurs, les auteurs rapportent de sérieux « misfits », allant du contresens total : « your child is fitting » est traduit en Swahili par « Your child is dead » à des choses plus drôles, voire poétiques. En polonais, «Your husband has the opportunity to donate his organs» a été traduit par «Your husband can donate his tools. » En Marathi «Your husband had a cardiac arrest» a donné «Your husband had an imprisonment of heart» et en Bengali «Your wife needs to be ventilated» a été traduit par «Your wife wind movement needed. »

Google traduction : en dernier recours et pas pour des informations subtiles et essentielles

Conclusion des auteurs : même si Google traduction est un outil de traduction bien pratique (et gratuit) avec ses 80 possibilités de traduction, difficile de lui faire confiance quand il s’agit de termes médicaux, sous peine de tomber dans de l’approximatif, du contresens (aux conséquences parfois terribles comme avec le Swahili), voire un charabia totalement incompréhensible.

Comme le disent avec humour les auteurs anglais, le « just google it » qui laisse penser que l’on peut tout simplifier à outrance ne vaut pas pour le domaine médical. Pour les procédures les plus délicates, celles impliquant un consentement (avant chirurgie, par exemple), le traducteur de Google ne devrait, selon eux, être utilisé qu’avec beaucoup de précautions, quand toutes les autres solutions ont été épuisées, autrement dit en dernière ligne.

* Pour que le lecteur ne soit pas totalement « lost in translation », les phrases choisies ont été conservées dans la langue originale de l’article, soit l’anglais, mais pourront être traduite par tout un chacun dans Google traduction.

What about France ?

« En France, l'AP-HP met à la disposition des médecins sur le site intranet un lexique dans pas mal de langues qui permet de faire un interrogatoire sommaire en montrant aux patients la question écrite en français et la ligne dans leur langue, explique le Dr Isabelle Catala, collaboratrice pour Medscape France et par ailleurs urgentiste à l’hôpital Foch (Suresnes). Dans la plupart des hôpitaux de grande taille (plus de 500 lits), ce type d'outil est disponible auprès des ressources humaines. Sur les sites intranet des établissements, il y a aussi ce que l'on appelle les ressources internes, c'est-à-dire un répertoire précisant quelles langues sont parlées par les agents hospitaliers (par exemple, une manipulatrice radio qui parle roumain). Parfois, on fait appel à un proche traducteur que l'on garde pour l'interrogatoire et parfois pour l'examen clinique (au minimum par téléphone). Quant à Google traduction, dans mon service, on l’utilise surtout pour poser des questions en chinois. »

Pour ce qui est des médicaments, « on se fie à la DCI, un système qui fonctionne de façon quasiment universelle sauf en Chine ».

« A Paris, les langues les plus traduites dépendent aussi des spécialités : chinois et japonais en psychiatrie (syndrome de la jeune fille en formation à Paris qui décompense), chinois en traumatologie (l’entorse du touriste), mais aussi le polonais et le tamoul aux Urgences, ou encore l’arabe et le portugais. En province, les langues
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