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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Malawian schools to teach in English

Malawian schools to teach in English | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Malawian government stands accused of mental slavery for making English the medium of instruction from primary school.
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The Malawian government has implemented its new Education Act, as of September 8, 2014, by which the English language becomes the medium of instruction for primary school children instead of Chichewa, the African language most widely spoken by teachers and pupils.

Ministers say teaching in English would improve the students’ grammar and improve the prospects for their future education and careers. However, the opponents of the law claim that the government is abandoning their own language and culture and encourages a “colonial mentality.”

In this edition of Africa Today, we discuss the Malawian government’s recent educational plan. Our esteemed guests are Dr Chege Githioria, a senior lecturer in African Languages and Cultures at London’s school of Oriental & African Studies, and Edith Parker, a Malawian entrepreneur.

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'Left-over Women' Not Included in New Edition of Modern Chinese Dictionary - All China Women's Federation

'Left-over Women' Not Included in New Edition of Modern Chinese Dictionary - All China Women's Federation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
China's State Language Affairs Commission recently published the third edition of the Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary.
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China's State Language Affairs Commission recently published the third edition of the Modern Chinese Standard Dictionary.

In this new edition, the publisher has included some new words such as "微信 (WeChat, a free mobile voice and text messaging app provided by Tencent)","正能量 (positive force)", "吐槽 (comment)"and "拍砖 (criticize)". The publisher also added new definitions to some words such as "土豪 (rural rich man)."

The publisher does not include some words which are often used by Chinese netizens. Those words include "剩女(unmarried woman)", "屌丝 (underprivileged person)" or "白富美 (beautiful and rich woman)."

"剩女", namely "left-over women", means women who have not got married at an elder age. The publisher does not include this word in the dictionary, because they have humanitarian concern over the issue.

When this new dictionary was published, many netizens posted their views on the web. Some said that the new edition is very helpful to students and helps Chinese students learn the Chinese language. Others said that the new definitions of some words are not accurate and need to be improved.

(Source: Xinhua)

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Dilemma of our Language in Iran ▪ Iranian.com

Dilemma of our Language in Iran ▪ Iranian.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
We need a planned transformation of our language that would lead to de-Islamized and modernized changes once the plague of the Islamic regime is ov...
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We need a planned transformation of our language that would lead to de-Islamized and modernized changes once the plague of the Islamic regime is over. The Islamic language is based on Arabic. It is the carrier of Islamic teaching and culture in 22 countries and territories with 422 million people. Iran is one of the occupied countries by Islam in 7th AD that could restore its language. However this restored language is a botched mixture of Arabic and pre-Islamic Persian, a mishmash that is called Farsi.

 

In the course of Iranian history, Iranian languages have been written with a number of different scripts. The last one was Avestan, which was banned along with the Persian language itself after the Islamic invasion in 642 AD. The Islamic conquerors imposed their language on Iranians as the only allowed language. The current language, Farsi, appeared during the 9th Century, two centuries after Iranians had been forced to speaking only in Arabic. Farsi is written in a version of the Arabic script, whish seems to be a compromise between the language of Islam and that of pre-Islamic Iran. The script keeps “divine” ties with the language of the Koran, therefore nobody has ever had the right to reform or modernize this script.

 

In this article, I open a critical debate over the factual adaptability of this Islamized Farsi or Farsi language. The point is whether this language can be useful for a modern society. Such a question is raised in a sensitive era of our history, when our country is de facto occupied by the Islamic regime, which is an ardent supporter of the Islamic culture including its language.

 

“The Cultural Revolution”, was planned since 980 by the Mullahs’ regime to force the Islamized Farsi to take constitutionally further allure of Islam. The Constitution of the Islamic regime considers educational institutions based on the Islamic principles and norms. The Constitution does not tolerate any other identity in faith and language. It has implied this wish by saying, “since the language of the Koran and the Islamic texts and teachings is Arabic, and since Iranian literature of post-Islamic history is thoroughly permeated by this language, it must be taught after elementary level, in all classes of secondary school and in all areas of study.” Therefore, lessons of Arabic language and reading of the Koran will become more compulsory character despite an increasing reluctance by Iranian students.

 

The long-term objective of The Cultural Revolution is to root out any aspect of non-Islamic identity from the Iranian society by introducing a greater portion of Islam in the language. It plans to promote the existing Islamized Farsi into a full Islamic language. The process aims to negate the rest of the pre-Islamic Iranian identity. A similar process had been forced by the early Muslims in the 22 countries and territories that were mentioned earlier.

 

It is very predictable that after the collapse of the Islamic regime, Iranians will enthusiastically develop a popular trend of both “de-arabization” and “de-islamization” of the language: the words, names, items, symbols, and all of which remind them of an era of cultural subjugation and humiliation, can be spontaneously replaced with non-Islamic-Arabic equivalents.

 

To avoid any linguistic chaos after the fall of the Islamic regime, the new regime needs appropriate reforms to save our language from both a chaotic disorganization in the post Islamic regime and from the long Arabic-Islamic domination. The reformed language is expected to fit our pre-Islamic culture and thus effectively push back the influence of Islam from our culture and the way of life. A language well-adapted to our modern society must have all psychological effects to stop people from creeping back into irrational and archaic attitudes and obscurantism. The Islamized Farsi has barriers, which screen off the room from a modernized perspective.

 

While many languages around the world, including in Islamic Turkey, can be permanently reformed and modernized, our current Farsi language has been used since the invasion of Islam as a cloak for the safeguard of the Islamic culture. Islam has not only been a launch pad to attack our genuine identity, but also has crippled us toward an language with the capacity for progress, democracy, and equality.

 

No wonder that in a spirit of growing civil disobedience in Iran against the Islamic regime, a trend of language reform has spontaneously grown among the Iranian youth, which challenges the unpopular Islamic influence. As spontaneous reactions, the young generation in Iran chooses non-Islamic names for children, learns Western languages -- instead of the institutionalized Arabic---, wears T-shirts with Latin writings on them, uses a Latino-Persian writing called “Finglish” on the internet. All these “renegades” show a strong trend toward an adaptive language in place of the current Farsi or in fact the Islamized Farsi.

 

Once Iran is freed from the fatal Mullahs’ clutches, a secular state will certainly pass legislative proposals to ensure that this Islamized Farsi will be reformed, modernized, and respond to the needs of our new society. On the other hand, modern-day methods of instantaneous communication and globalization require fundamental need in a range of modern languages in order to create and maintain vibrant activities. Therefore, parallel to the restoration of a modern Farsi, a modern international language must be highly promoted nationwide. It will be a solid support for the advanced education, research, computer science and will remove the language barriers to modernization. Both (Farsi / Parsi /Persian or whatever we call it) and this international language open common doors of continuing struggle for secularization, democratization and modernization of new Iran.

 

Let me emphasize, the reformed language does not mean disregard toward our classical literature. In fact, no reformed language has taken away the worth of its classical literature. After the modernization of our language, our classical literature will be respected as a patrimony of our literature, but let me emphasize again that the Islamic culture behind it has little chance to resist in a free and secular Iran. A modernized language finds effective ways to sustain its literature and heritage because the goal is not to demise literature, but to stop dogma mixing with our way of present thinking.

 

It is clear that even after the fall of the Islamic regime, some people with religious or traditional backgrounds will likely attempt to block or delay the process of language reforms. The 1400-year-domination of Islamized Farsi has left behind its mental debris. Nevertheless, we can no longer bow to the indoctrination of religious values with the aim of mental retardation. Furthermore, thanks to the Islamic regime, our people are steadily realizing a complete need of revamp on major aspects of social life including their means of communication.

 

Those Iranians who speak modern languages know better that our old Islamized Farsi is scientifically poor. A modern language must be mandatory for modern educational, industrial and business communities. The Islamized Farsi language is not sufficiently expressive as a fundamental tool for all of them. A modern language in high levels of proficiency, particularly in higher education, will require significantly greater resources that we do not have at hand. Our linguistic experts may change or modify the words, proper names, verbs to the pre-Islamic synonyms or terms that are internationally used.

 

In my opinion, for the use of scientific terms, it seems more practical and easier to use the most common international standard, what most languages do in the advanced or developing countries. In this perspective, the pivotal point is how to form a useful and productive language freed from the traditional burden and unnecessary complications. For it, we have some sources of pre-Islamic Persian and international common terms to combine and reform the language. In my view, in the field of science, we should not complicate the language by too much attaching to the past “glory” of pre-Islamic era. In fact, a language is not only a practical coding system of communication, but also a bridge between thoughts and present actions. In other words, the way we talk can in turn influence the way we think. A rich and modern language can considerably improve our cognitive faculties, memory, mental ability, emotional expressions, and behaviors.

 

In my view, language, before anything else, is a set of arbitrary symbols through which we communicate. The symbols appear and disappear with time and material conditions; they are not sacred and eternal. The culturally determined patterns and values of these symbols alongside many languages and dialects will permanently appear and disappear in the course of social evolution. Since language is a medium of our thoughts, feelings, and especially ideas, it must be permanently adapted to our realities and immediate needs, otherwise it can easily be a barrier to progress and even be abused by the totalitarian regimes or a belief system. Nazi Germany imposed its own racial terms in its short-12-year domination, but they were removed after its fall. Islam has down worse in a very longer period of its domination, but in the longer-term they can be removed too. Germany reformed the language after the fall of Nazism; we can do the same in Iran after the fall of Islamism.

 

All experiences show that the language we use because of its shortage gives way to Western languages. For example, the Iranian communities in the US or Europe can expect that only a small percentage of their children will be fluent in Persian. It is not, however, the case for Westerners living in Iran-- their children would speak their original language fluently. The reason is not only due to their mother language but the fact that our language is not adapted to modern life. For example, we cannot use our script on the Internet or for many other means of written communication, which appear on the market. The goal of language reform is to introduce a language, which will be modern, precise and easier to learn and to use.

 

The alphabet we use is mainly Arabic; it does not cover all the sounds we pronounce. Apart from some regions in Khuzestan and Kurdistan, most Iranians cannot phonetically pronounce all letters of the alphabet-- this is also one of the main reasons we have so many different accents and dialects within Iran. Furthermore, apart from some ignored signs, we have no letters clearly representing some vowels. All of which turn the language more difficult and imprecise so that a great number of high school students cannot write and read correctly.

 

Regarding various problems of today’s language, a reform in alphabet seems to be necessary, the one which phonetically adjusts to the verbal language. The solution for introduction of an accessory alphabet for computer is necessary. A transformation can be a long process; it might last one or several decades, but should not be considered an overdue transformation.

 

In my view, such reforms will necessarily require adoption of Latin type alphabets in order to facilitate and enhance the ease of cross-cultural communications. Accessory letters can be worked out so that they harmonize the phonetic part to the written part. That is to say, we need an alphabet, which correctly relates sounds to the written words. The new alphabet must solve the problems of vowels and consonants that are not phonetically pronounceable in our Islamized Farsi, because they have Arabic origins and therefore cannot be pronounced by the majority of Iranians.

 

In essence, the new alphabet must be simple and avoid composed letters and irregularities that grow in the language of grassroots. In short, it should consider two main elements:

 

• Modernization and adaptation of the society to the modern needs

• Purification of our language from too much influences of Islam

 

 

 



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Arvand Rud Arvand Rud is the proper name of the "Shatt al Arab". Let's just say I would never sell out Iran to the mullahs or the communists.

Dear Jahanshah, thank-you for the interesting article. You do choose some rather controversial topics and thats what I enjoy about your blogs. I have also been studying this issue for quite some time. I would like to add a couple points to your well written piece if thats ok.

1. This exact attempt to cleanse the language of an Islamic nation of foreign words has been carried out once before. Turkish was, until the reign of Ataturk, a language that had adopted a massive amount of Arabic and Persian loan words over the centuries. Ataturk successfully initiated a program of replacing these words with their 'original' Turkish variation. Today, if a young person listens to one of Ataturk's old speeches, they immediately notice that almost half of the terms he used are unintelligible today.

Reza Shah also contemplated making the same transition with regards to a more pure Persian without Arabic and Turkish loanwords. There was some success here and many words who's original Persian equivalent either didn't exist or were lost were simply invented; often by utilizing compound words. But given the fact that Iran at the beginning of Reza Shah's rule had been so backward and neglected for so many centuries, the king decided it would be wiser to instead focus on creating a literate population in the first place.

In addition, the religious establishment was bitterly opposed to discontinuing the Arabic script like Turkey had done for the obvious reasons.

2. The Avestan language was used primarily by Zartoshti mobeds going back to the era preceding Old Persian. It is debated whether it was ever actually spoken outside of a small area in the ancient north-eastern area of Aryana ( modern day Afghanistan).

The language of Sassani Iran ( pre Arab invasion) is known today as 'Middle Persian' and it was written in the Pahlavi script. It continued to be spoken until at least the 9th century ( 300 years after the Arab invasion). Avestan was stilled used for religious ceremonies and prayer.

Middle Persian is so closely related to New Persian that you or I could read a sentence in Sassanian Middle Persian and actually understand most of the words. But , in my opinion, middle Persian was a rather guttural sounding language with too many hard consonants, especially in word endings such as 'ag' or 'ak'. For example 'Dastag' ( modern 'dast' or 'hand') 'Iranig' ( modern 'Irani').

Here are some common Middle Persian words and names:

- Baghdad- Middle Persian word meaning ' God Given'. Bagh- God. Dad- given
( bagh in New Persian means 'garden')

- IranShahr or IranShatr- Middle word for modern Iran. Means literally 'land of the Aryans'. It was shortened simply to 'Iran' after the mongol invasions or 'Aryans'.

- Espahan- 'Esfahan'. The Arabs had no sound for 'P' in their dialect, so many 'P' sounds becames 'F'. 

- Shahanshah- Middle Persian for the modern 'Shahe Shahan'

- Ud- Middle Persian for 'va' (and). Example: ''Jahanshahe bozorg ud Pahlavan e Iranig'' ( Jahanshah the great and Iranian hero) We see this word with the variation 'u' used in New Persian for 'and' in conversational Persian. the 'd' ending has been dropped. 'Wa' or 'Va' is Arabic. Example: '' IranShahr ud anIran'' ( Iran and non Iran)

- Bozorg- Middle Persian for modern 'kabir' (Arabic)

- ShotorParast e Tazi- Middle Persian for 'Khomeini' and 'Hezbollah'. Also referred to as ' Yek mosht hammal ba reesho pash'. lol. Just kidding. I had to end it with something for the mullah lovers.


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Hundreds of new sayings recorded for posterity in Oxford Dictionary of Quotations

Hundreds of new sayings recorded for posterity in Oxford Dictionary of Quotations | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
PHRASES once made popular by newspapers now go viral after appearing online, according to the editor of the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations.
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PHRASES once made popular by newspapers now go viral after appearing online, according to the editor of the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations.

The latest edition, the eighth, is out today, with more than 700 new quotations and 200 new authors.

Editor Elizabeth Knowles said: “There has to be evidence that phrases are being quoted.

“One of the differences now is the existence of the internet – if a quotation catches the public attention it can go viral and a large number of people can encounter it very quickly. There are quite a lot of websites today featuring inspirational quotes – we all come to the point where someone else’s words express exactly what we want to say.”

  • Among those quoted are Boris Johnson, above ("My policy on cake is still pro having it and pro eating it." ) and Lady GaGa, below ("Just trying to change the world one sequin at a time.)

One of the editor’s favourite newly discovered quotations is Charles Darwin’s: “I feel like an old warhorse at the sound of a trumpet when I read about the capturing of rare beetles.”

And one of her favourite quotations of all time is by Christa McAuliffe, who died in the 1986 Challenger disaster. She said: “I touch the future. I teach.”

“It’s very simple, very poignant,” said Ms Knowles.

The editor, who is single and has no children, has dedicated most of her working life to the Oxford English Dictionary. Ms Knowles, 67, joined OUP in Walton Street in 1977 and retired seven years ago, but remains editor of the Oxford Dictionary of Quotations.

“I retired from employment but not from work,” said Ms Knowles, who read English at Exeter University.

She is in charge of the team researching and selecting new quotations for the dictionary, which first appeared in 1941.

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Anne's an expert at the art of communication

Anne's an expert at the art of communication | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
SOONER or later most business people have to confront that big speech or presentation that might have a major impact on their career or their company's future. But however shrewd and successful we...
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Environment Dictionary in Sindhi Language introduced by World Wildlife Fund Pakistan | iStreet Research

Environment Dictionary in Sindhi Language introduced by World Wildlife Fund Pakistan | iStreet Research | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The world’s first Sindhi language dictionary, on changes in the environment and weather, is launched in Hyderabad (Pakistan) by World Wildlife Fund Pakistan
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The world’s first Sindhi language dictionary, on changes in the environment and weather, is launched in Hyderabad (Pakistan) by World Wildlife Fund Pakistan (W.W.F-Pakistan) in association with Indus Forum Friends.
The dictionary named “Building Capacity on Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Areas of Pakistan” (C.C.A.P) would benefit various sectors of Pakistan like Development, Media, Scientific Community and Academia sector.
Also, there is a need to spread the facts about climate change and aware the layman that how to effectively deal with these changes.
The science is progressing very fast, and its translation in Sindhi and other languages should be carried out with the same pace. In this context, the Sindhi environmental dictionary is a great effort, by WWF and Dr. Al Murtaza Dharejo (author of the dictionary).
As Sindhi language lacks the scientific terminologies; thus, for users ease and understanding, explanations of words have been given by the author. 15 dictionaries related to different themes have been published, while the language authority has planned to print 20 new dictionaries.
It is the need of time that Sindhi scholars should play their role and come forward to contribute in the interpretation of scientific knowledge and material in Sindhi language.
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Angola: Unipiaget Holds 3rd International Congress of Portuguese Language

Angola: Unipiaget Holds 3rd International Congress of Portuguese Language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Jean Piaget University of Angola will organize on 18, 19 and 20 of September in Viana municipality in Luanda the 3rd International Congress of Portuguese Language, under the theme "Unity in Diversity".
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Luanda — The Jean Piaget University of Angola will organize on 18, 19 and 20 of September in Viana municipality in Luanda the 3rd International Congress of Portuguese Language, under the theme "Unity in Diversity".

According to a press release sent Tuesday to Angop, the meeting expects to gather in a single round of discussions the Portuguese speaking community and present the current challenges of the Portuguese Language in Angola and abroad, in the light of the linguistic and cultural changes.

The document clarifies that the event aims to disseminate the most recent linguistic studies of the Portuguese language, discusses the linguistic diversity in the Portuguese speaking countries, analyses the association between grammatical competence of speakers of African languages and the performance in the Portuguese language.

The document also reads that the opening speech of the conference will be delivered by the Angolan minister of Culture, Rosa Cruz e Silva.

Throughout its 14 years of existence, Unipiaget of Angola has graduated 2.478 students in the fields of social sciences, humanities, technology and economics, among others.

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Wisdom Publications Celebrates Prestigious Translation Prize

Boston, MA (PRWEB) September 17, 2014 -- Leading Buddhist Publisher’s Authors Awarded Khyentse Translation Prize for Second Year Running
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Wisdom Publications is proud to announce that for the second consecutive year its authors have been awarded the Khyentse Foundation Prize for Outstanding Translation. Mark Siderits and Shōryū Katsura were awarded the 2014 prize for "Nāgārjuna’s Middle Way: Mūlamadhyamakakārikā," the second volume in Wisdom’s acclaimed Classic of Indian Buddhism series.

This prize honors excellence in translations that make the Buddhist heritage universally accessible. The award was presented to the translators on August 20, 2014, at the Congress of the International Association of Buddhist Studies (IABS), held at the University of Vienna.

“Wisdom is thrilled to have its authors honored two years in a row by the Khyentse Foundation,” says Wisdom’s publisher, Tim McNeill. “This prestigious award affirms Wisdom’s abiding commitment to producing the highest quality presentations of critical Buddhist texts.” Last year’s award was for Bhikkhu Bodhi’s translation from the Pali of "The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Aṅguttara Nikāya."

Nāgārjuna’s renowned twenty-seven-chapter Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way (Mūlamadhyamakakārikā) is the foundational text of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. It is widely considered the definitive, touchstone presentation of the core doctrine of emptiness. Siderits and Katsura prepared this translation from the Sanskrit using the four surviving Indian commentaries in an attempt to reconstruct an interpretation of its enigmatic verses that adheres as closely as possible to that of its earliest proponents.

Mark Siderits has taught both Asian and Western philosophy at Illinois State University and Seoul National University, from which he retired in 2012. He is the author or editor of five books and has published numerous articles on a wide variety of subjects in Indian Buddhist philosophy and comparative philosophy.

Professor Shōryū Katsura has taught philosophy at Hiroshima University and Ryukoku University, Kyoto, until his retirement in 2012. He remains active at Ryukoku University, where he is the director of their Research Center for Buddhist Cultures in Asia. He is the author or editor of seven books and has published over sixty articles on various facets of classical Indian Buddhist thought.

Khyentse Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the support and enhancement of 
Buddhist study, practice, and scholarship throughout the world. Founded by Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche in 2001, its primary aim is to extend the Buddha’s wisdom and compassion as widely as possible, in order to benefit all beings.

Wisdom Publications is the leading publisher of contemporary and classic Buddhist books and practical works on mindfulness. Publishing books from all major Buddhist traditions, Wisdom is a nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to cultivating Buddhist voices the world over, advancing critical scholarship, and preserving and sharing Buddhist literary culture.

"Nāgārjuna’s Middle Way" is the second entry in the Classics of Indian Buddhism series. It is published by Wisdom Publications and distributed by Simon and Schuster. Cost is $28.95 and the ISBN is 9781614290506. 368 pages, paperback, 6x9”.

Praise for "Nāgārjuna’s Middle Way" 
“Katsura and Siderits’s translation and commentary renders the work accessible in an outstanding fashion. The scholarship is of the very highest quality. Vivid and illuminating.”—Graham Priest, author of "Logic: A Very Short Introduction"

“This new translation by Katsura and Siderits is accurate, faithful to the Indian interpreters, and clear.”—Tom Tillemans, Professor Emeritus, University of Lausanne

“It should certainly become the first translation of choice for all English-language work on the Madhyamakakārikās.”—Paul Williams, Emeritus Professor of Indian and Tibetan Philosophy, University of Bristol, author of "Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition"

“Siderits and Katsura have produced a masterful translation that is both philologically precise and philosophically sophisticated and sets extremely high standards for further work on the Madhyamakakārikā. Every student of Buddhist philosophy will want to own a copy of this book.”—Jan Westerhoff, Oxford University, author of "Nagarjuna’s Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction"

“Will justly be received as the go-to translation of one of the most important works of the Indian Buddhist philosophical tradition.”—Dan Arnold, University of Chicago Divinity School, author of "Buddhists, Brahmins, and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of Religion"

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Using Public Speaking to Boost Confidence: An Interview with Author and Humorist Anne Bardsley

Using Public Speaking to Boost Confidence: An Interview with Author and Humorist Anne Bardsley | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Five years ago, I did something that scared the hell out of me. I stood up in front of a room full of people and gave a presentation. I’m typically a confident person. I have faith in my writing. I…
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Five years ago, I did something that scared the hell out of me. I stood up in front of a room full of people and gave a presentation. I’m typically a confident person. I have faith in my writing. I’ll gladly host and participate in webinars, Google Hangouts, and conference calls. But the notion of being within arm’s reach of real, live people, was enough to send me into a near panic attack. And I’m not alone.

For many, having to give a speech or talk in public can be nerve-wracking and cause a great deal of stress. This is unfortunate, because public speaking is a natural confidence booster. After I gave my half-hour talk, which was deemed a success, I felt energized and proud. Overcoming the fear was an immediate adrenaline rush. I was confident that I could effectively present again and even applied that new-found confidence in other areas of my life.

I recently had the opportunity to speak with someone also familiar with overcoming the fear of public speaking and using the confidence boost to set goals and take risks. Author and humorist Anne Bardsley, is a long-time Toastmasters member and someone very familiar with speaking in front of crowds. This year she accomplished a life-long goal: publishing her book. She believes public speaking paved the way.

Here are her tips and insight into conquering the nerves and using the skills to your advantage:

Does public speaking come naturally to you?

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Public speaking did not come naturally to me. I used to get so nervous and forget my train of thought. I talked too fast, played with my hair, and took my glasses on and off. I was pretty much a mess of a speaker.

How did you hone your public speaking skills?

I honed in my skills by joining Bay Pines Toastmasters Club in St Petersburg, Florida a few years ago. I knew about Toastmasters, but I was a big chicken. When friends told me about this group I knew it was time to take the plunge. I’m so glad I did! I’ve made new friends, gained confidence, and learned how to present my topics in a more professional manner.

What is the biggest crowd you’ve ever spoken in front of?

The largest crowd I’ve spoken to was at a recent Erma Bombeck conference. There were 350 (mostly) women. It was a humor routine, which has since been uploaded to YouTube. It was a safe environment, and I needed the challenge of a larger audience.

You recently released your new book How I Earned My Wrinkles. How did public speaking give you the confidence to write your book?

How I Earned My Wrinkles: Musing on Marriage, Motherhood, and Menopause was actually created because my Toastmasters’ mentor challenged me to pick a goal for the new year. I blurted out, “I’ll publish a book!” I’ve always wanted to write a book. I received great feedback and ideas to improve my speeches. It encouraged me to write more. I had a goal. Before I knew it I had fifty stories for the book. I don’t think I would have had the courage to write and publish the book without Toastmasters.

What are some unexpected benefits that come with success in public speaking?

Unexpected benefits? Let me count the ways! Every Toastmasters meeting has a “Table Topics” section. One member signs up for the role and brings a list of questions. They can be serious, thought provoking, or fun. We never know. The question is asked then a name is called. That person has to stand up and speak for one to two minutes. It’s challenging at times. I usually ask fun, thought-provoking questions when I have the role, “If you could have lunch with anyone who is in Heaven right now, who would you choose?” “You are sixteen again. Convince me to extend your curfew.” “Sell me on marketing panty hose for men.” That one was hilarious!

How important is humor in public speaking?

Humor is very important in public speaking. First of all, it relaxes the crowd. You get their attention immediately. It makes you friendly and approachable right off the bat. Some of the best messages are in humor stories. I especially like heartwarming, with a touch of humor, to pull in the audience.

What are some effective ways to incorporate humor into speeches and presentations?

I did a speech once on the difference between male and female brains. I used a pill box for the male brain. I taped words on each section: Wife, Work, Kids, Sports, Sex, Friends, and Nothing. I flipped opened each lid as I named the section.

For the female brain, I used a huge beach hat that was decorated with purple boa feathers, a stuffed crab, a margarita straw, a shot glass, sunglasses, and flamingos. On top of that I stuck a wire Christmas decoration of blue and silver sparkled stars. It was nicely rolled up until the female brain was aggravated. Then I unwired it into one big mess on top of the hat. When I mentioned hormones I shook the mess. It was a simple, fun, and true presentation. Naturally, the men’s sex lid opened on and off throughout the presentation.

What are the biggest mistakes you see speakers consistently make?

“I uh, I ah, ummmmm, well, so…” These words break the connection with your audience. At Toastmasters we have a Timer, ‘Ah’ Counter, and a Grammarian…the TAG team. The Timer keeps track of the length of speeches, table topics, and evaluations. The Ah Counter listens for “Uhs, Ummms, excessive So’s, and what we call double clutches. That’s when you start to say a word and then re-do it.  The Grammarian gives us a word for the day and keeps track of who uses that word during the meeting. One of my personal favorites when I was Grammarian was “Kerfuffle”. I still use it today. It means a little argument or discord. With all of this new information, I cringe when I watch news shows. Some politicians are awful. I want to jump through the screen and sign them up for our club! Lack of eye contact with the crowd is another of my pet peeves. Put down those notes and talk to the people! Stay on topic!

If you are nervous about speaking in front of an audience, a PowerPoint is excellent. You have a constant guide to keep you on track.

What is the most effective way to practice public speaking?

The most effective way to practice public speaking is to join a Toastmasters group. Get involved and practice until you are comfortable in front of people who share your goal. You get feedback, constructive criticism, and you have fun. Don’t take yourself too seriously. You are a human. Remember to act like one. I don’t do well memorizing a speech. I just tell my story. I still practice it while I’m driving.

What tips would you give others looking to overcome the fear of public speaking?

If the fear of public speaking is holding you back, I’d suggest visiting a Toastmasters group. Visit a few times and find one that you feel comfortable with. The speeches are only five to seven or eight to ten minutes, on average. If you tell a story about yourself, you can’t make a mistake because no one else knows your story. With each speech you’ll grow more confident. Before you know it, you’ll be planning your next speech and smiling about it. Your confidence will attract listeners….and you will have so much fun!


Read more at http://www.business2community.com/expert-interviews/using-public-speaking-boost-confidence-interview-author-humorist-anne-bardsley-01007614#aFs16HeXLwKA7RJq.99

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Línea Capital | Crean traductor diccionario en 5 lenguas

Línea Capital, el diario on line del Grupo Capital, de Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Información regional, nacional e internacional. Ultimas noticias. Suplementos de Agro, Turismo y Ambiente. Opiniones. Encuestas. Foros. Defensor del Lector.
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(Línea Capital). Los maestros Javier Rodas y Carlos Benítez crearon un traductor diccionario en cinco lenguas: guaraní, portugués, inglés, mbya y castellano.

No existen antecedentes en su tipo de este “pentadiccionario”, es decir, que será el primero en su tipo.

El material, que esperan que sea publicado antes de fin de año, contiene 5 mil términos sobre alimentos, animales, plantas, ambiente y actividades cotidianas.

“Es más un traductor que un diccionario, porque algunos términos no tienen correspondencia en las otras lenguas, sino que se los traduce con una frase”, explicó Rodas.

El material se concretó con la participaron comunitaria de docentes y ancianos de las aldeas.

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Mali: Lutte contre l’analphabétisme au Mali : Un cheval de bataille pour le parti Ufdp-Sama Ton

Mali: Lutte contre l’analphabétisme au Mali : Un cheval de bataille pour le parti Ufdp-Sama Ton | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
L’Union des forces démocratiques pour le progrès (Ufdp-Sama Ton) a organisé le samedi 13 septembre 2014 une conférence-débats à la Maison de la Presse.
Charles Tiayon's insight:
Mali: Lutte Contre L’analphabétisme Au Mali : Un Cheval De Bataille Pour Le Parti Ufdp-Sama Ton

L’Union des forces démocratiques pour le progrès (Ufdp-Sama Ton) a organisé le samedi 13 septembre 2014 une conférence-débats à la Maison de la Presse. À travers laquelle elle entend attirer l’attention de l’opinion nationale et internationale sur l’importance de son combat : valoriser nos langues nationales, condition sine qua none du développement et de la paix. Afin qu’un jour l’une d’entre elles soit hissée au plan international au même niveau que le français, l’anglais ou le russe.

Cette conférence-débats était animée par le Col. Youssouf Traoré, président de l’Ufdp-Sama Ton. Pour donner un cachet particulier à l’événement, le parti a fait recours à l’expertise de certains anciens ministres de l’Education nationale, à l’image de Adama Samassékou, Younouss Hamèye Dicko et Salikou Sanogo.

Selon Youssouf Traoré, depuis la nuit des temps, la problématique de la communication entre les différentes composantes des sociétés humaines revêt une importance primordiale. À l’intérieur d’un groupe, d’un pays ou d’une Nation, comment les différents éléments (hommes et femmes) peuvent-ils se parler, se comprendre et agir ensemble en vue de relever tous les défis de la vie : défis du développement, défis de la paix ? Alors, on comprend dès lors le rôle de premier plan que joue une langue. Car, des études ont prouvé que dans le monde, il n’existe pas de langue inutile. Surtout quand on sait que chaque langue, quelle que soit l’importance du groupe linguistique concerné, est le reflet d’une valeur de civilisation.

C’est pourquoi, dira le Col .Youssouf Traoré, depuis plus de 3 décennies, en Afrique et plus particulièrement dans notre sous-région ouest-africaine, de grands efforts sont déployés pour lutter contre le fléau qu’est l’analphabétisme et pour une valorisation continue des langues nationales. Ce, avant de faire un bref survol de la situation nationale de 1965 à nos jours à travers quelques réalisations dans notre pays. Il s’agit, entre autres, de la création du journal «Kibaru» le 10 mars 1972 par le ministère de l’Information ; en mars 1973, de la célébration du 1er anniversaire de «Kibaru» à Bamako avec la participation de toutes les régions ; de la construction des centaines de centres d’alphabétisation, des CED et de cafés. En passant par l’introduction des langues nationales dans l’enseignement sur la base de la pédagogie convergente.

Pour Youssouf Traoré, les langues nationales constituent un patrimoine culturel national et appartiennent avant tout aux populations qui les utilisent dans tous les actes de la vie quotidienne. «Par notre intelligence, nous devrions être capables de mobiliser les populations pour la cause des langues, de les engager dans le combat en vue d’écourter autant que possible la vie de l’analphabétisme dans notre pays», a indiqué le conférencier.

Les échanges qui ont suivi le discours du président de l’Ufdp-Sama Ton, ont permis aux anciens ministres de l’Education, qui se sont succédé au micro, de saluer cette initiative du parti et l’importance de la thématique.

Alhousseini TOURE

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CP Вы говорите по-русски? (Parlez-vous russe ?)

CP Вы говорите по-русски? (Parlez-vous russe ?) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Babbel intègre le russe dans son offre de langues et répond au défi de l’alphabet cyrillique. Babbel, le spécialiste de d'apprentissage des langues en ligne, annonce l’arrivée du russe parmi les 14 langues mises à disposition des utilisateurs et...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Babbel intègre le russe dans son offre de langues et répond au défi de l’alphabet cyrillique.

Babbel, le spécialiste de d'apprentissage des langues en ligne, annonce l’arrivée du russe parmi les 14 langues mises à disposition des utilisateurs et propose une solution unique pour franchir le cap de l’apprentissage d’un alphabet cyrillique.
 
Babbel a en effet réussi à résoudre cette difficulté en intégrant une table de translittération et introduit de manière thématique l'alphabet cyrillique complet dans son nouveau cours de russe pour débutants. Basé sur des dialogues inspirés de situations quotidiennes, que ce soit les différentes manières de se saluer ou de passer commande au restaurant, le cours permet à l'utilisateur d’intégrer rapidement les connaissances de la langue russe et de les employer dans la vie courante.
 
« Ce qui était très important pour nous, c'était de transmettre l'alphabet cyrillique, avec ses 33 lettres, de manière contextuelle pour que l'utilisateur puisse immédiatement assimiler les premiers mots et former des phrases complètes susceptibles d'être employées dans des situations de tous les jours, » explique Barbara Baisi, chef de projet pour le russe chez Babbel. « Jusqu'à sa finalisation, nous avons constamment soumis le cours de russe à des tests d'utilisateurs et assurer un cours qui, même avec un clavier latin, soit facile et motivant. »

Le défi de l’alphabet cyrillique
Avec 275 millions de locuteurs, le russe est la septième langue la plus parlée dans le monde et pour répondre à la forte demande, Babbel a travaillé pendant sept mois pour élaborer et mettre en œuvre le tout premier cours de russe pour débutants.
 
Avec des utilisateurs partout dans le monde ne disposant pas tous du même clavier, le défi consista à trouver un moyen universel de taper des lettres cyrilliques tout en utilisant un clavier latin standard. Si certaines lettres ou combinaisons de lettres en caractère latin correspondent déjà à certains caractères en cyrillique (par exemple : a = a, n = н et ja = я), d’autres lettres comme le ‘ш’ - similaire au son « sh » en français - nécessitaient de créer quelque chose qui n’existe pas sur un clavier classique. Le cours proposé par Babbel résout le problème de l'écriture avec un clavier latin grâce à une table de translittération.

Babbel est ainsi la première entreprise de cours de langues dans le monde à proposer ce clavier de translittération qui soit adapté aux débutants qui ne connaissent pas l’alphabet russe. Là où la plupart des systèmes actuels fournissent un clavier visuel intégrant les lettres russes - ce qui demande une connaissance de l’alphabet cyrillique - Babbel a inversé le processus. En montrant le clavier comprenant à la fois l’alphabet cyrillique et l’alphabet latin, Babbel invite l’utilisateur à apprendre à taper et développer ainsi sa connaissance de l’alphabet.
 
Pour ceux qui utilisent les applications Babbel, cela est encore plus simple, puisqu'ils peuvent sélectionner le clavier cyrillique sur la tablette ou le smartphone.

Une langue russe pleine de complexités
Au-delà de l’alphabet, la langue russe représente également un challenge sur le plan de la grammaire et de la conjugaison avec six cas grammaticaux différent et des verbes qui peuvent s’avérer difficiles. Bien que le russe n’ait que trois véritables temps – présent, futur et passé – ils ont un nombre impressionnant de préfixes et de suffixes qui modifient subtilement le sens du mot. C’est notamment le cas entre le mot пить (boire) et le mot выпить (vider son verre), dont les significations sont bien différentes !
 
La langue russe est disponible sur le site Babbel, l’application IOS et Android

Babbel en chiffres :

14 langues disponibles sur mobile, tablette et ordinateur

Une présence dans 190 pays à travers 7 langues de référence

25 millions de téléchargements

7 500 heures de cours

20 nouveaux cours ajoutés chaque mois

Une leçon commencée toutes les 1,5 secondes

50% des utilisateurs qui apprennent sur mobile

N°1 au classement global des app éducatives (Google play 2014)

N°2 au classement global des app éducatives (App store 2014)

À propos de Babbel :
Babbel est une manière simple et interactive d'apprendre les langues. De l'anglais à l'indonésien, le système propose 14 langues disponibles à l'apprentissage. Les apprenants de niveau débutant ou avancé peuvent accéder à une multitude de cours thématiques, leçons de grammaire, exercices de vocabulaire, d'écriture, de prononciation ou de compréhension, et ce en ligne ou depuis leurs périphériques mobiles. En plus des cours adaptés pour le Web, iOS et Android, Babbel propose également une série d'applications d'entraînement au vocabulaire pour Windows 8 et Kindle Fire.

 

Pour plus d'informations, rendez-vous sur : http://press.babbel.com/fr/

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IABC/Toronto – Be Heard : 10 Tips for Writing Good Email

IABC/Toronto – Be Heard : 10 Tips for Writing Good Email | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Written by Barb Sawyers

Everyone complains about too much, too long email. Let’s face it: email is a huge productivity drain.

Perched between the classical memos of yesterday and the hip hop texts of today, email seems to have few best practices to follow. To get the ball rolling, I’ve drafted my 10 tips. Please add yours.

1. Start with a compelling subject line. Because the subject line is where recipients decide whether to open, read, maybe get back to later or delete, that’s where the most attention needs to be paid. Excite them with a very specific topic, an urgent reason to read or a lightening summary of what you want them to think, feel or do.

2. Keep your email as short as possible, to show your appreciation of busy recipients, short attention spans and the small mobile screens they’re likely reading on.

3. Focus on what you need to say and what your recipients want to hear.

4. If a big or complex topic demands a longer email, use subheads, bullets and other visual aids to help readers navigate. Because readers view the screen in an F pattern, as heat map tests have demonstrated, you need to concentrate on the top, then use short paragraphs to keep more of your message to the left.

5. Say hello, but save longer chitchat for the closing. Although you need to get to the point as quickly as you can, you also need to show you’re human. If you’re writing to one person, include their name.

6. Get to the point or, as IABC members like to say, your key message. This should be brief, using words your readers understand and benefits that will encourage them to keep reading. The introduction may also outline how you will elaborate on your key message, for example by milestones or other time frames, benefits, a story or other structure. This lets readers know what to expect and you organize their thoughts so you won’t ramble.

7. Briefly elaborate on your main point, including a concise summary of any links or attachments.

8. Conclude by linking your key message to what you want the readers to think, feel or do, the call to action. Don’t assume they will appreciate the team’s efforts, think about the information before your meeting or get back to you by the end of the day. Tell them.

9. Unless you want to sound like you’re 80 years old, refrain from concluding with “best regards.” But before you sign off, include some friendly patter, recognition or appreciation that will warm up your message.

10. Include time, preferably after you’ve set aside the email for at least a few minutes, for a quick review before you send. Because writing is a big picture brain activity, on the first draft you are likely to write longer than necessary and miss the typos and grammar errors that can make you look unprofessional.

Please add some tips. As professional communicators, we should all join the fight to break bad email.

If you would like a summary of these tips, on a page you can print and pin where you write, or you’re thinking about Breaking Bad Email or other business writing workshops for your team, please send me an email. Preferably a good one.

About the Author

Barb Sawyers helps business people write better. Author of Write Like You Talk Only Better, award-winning instructor and long-time IABC member, Barb customizes workshops to meet your organization’s needs. Fun guaranteed.

Scott Fry is a communications specialist for the Region of Peel supporting Peel Public Health. He also serves on the IABC/Toronto board as VP, Social Media.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Written by Barb Sawyers

Everyone complains about too much, too long email. Let’s face it: email is a huge productivity drain.

Perched between the classical memos of yesterday and the hip hop texts of today, email seems to have few best practices to follow. To get the ball rolling, I’ve drafted my 10 tips. Please add yours.

1. Start with a compelling subject line. Because the subject line is where recipients decide whether to open, read, maybe get back to later or delete, that’s where the most attention needs to be paid. Excite them with a very specific topic, an urgent reason to read or a lightening summary of what you want them to think, feel or do.

2. Keep your email as short as possible, to show your appreciation of busy recipients, short attention spans and the small mobile screens they’re likely reading on.

3. Focus on what you need to say and what your recipients want to hear.

4. If a big or complex topic demands a longer email, use subheads, bullets and other visual aids to help readers navigate. Because readers view the screen in an F pattern, as heat map tests have demonstrated, you need to concentrate on the top, then use short paragraphs to keep more of your message to the left.

5. Say hello, but save longer chitchat for the closing. Although you need to get to the point as quickly as you can, you also need to show you’re human. If you’re writing to one person, include their name.

6. Get to the point or, as IABC members like to say, your key message. This should be brief, using words your readers understand and benefits that will encourage them to keep reading. The introduction may also outline how you will elaborate on your key message, for example by milestones or other time frames, benefits, a story or other structure. This lets readers know what to expect and you organize their thoughts so you won’t ramble.

7. Briefly elaborate on your main point, including a concise summary of any links or attachments.

8. Conclude by linking your key message to what you want the readers to think, feel or do, the call to action. Don’t assume they will appreciate the team’s efforts, think about the information before your meeting or get back to you by the end of the day. Tell them.

9. Unless you want to sound like you’re 80 years old, refrain from concluding with “best regards.” But before you sign off, include some friendly patter, recognition or appreciation that will warm up your message.

10. Include time, preferably after you’ve set aside the email for at least a few minutes, for a quick review before you send. Because writing is a big picture brain activity, on the first draft you are likely to write longer than necessary and miss the typos and grammar errors that can make you look unprofessional.

Please add some tips. As professional communicators, we should all join the fight to break bad email.

If you would like a summary of these tips, on a page you can print and pin where you write, or you’re thinking about Breaking Bad Email or other business writing workshops for your team, please send me an email. Preferably a good one.

About the Author

Barb Sawyers helps business people write better. Author of Write Like You Talk Only Better, award-winning instructor and long-time IABC member, Barb customizes workshops to meet your organization’s needs. Fun guaranteed.

Scott Fry is a communications specialist for the Region of Peel supporting Peel Public Health. He also serves on the IABC/Toronto board as VP, Social Media.

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How to Write a Book Using Software Designed for Note Taking and Archiving

How to Write a Book Using Software Designed for Note Taking and Archiving | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The following is the opening of an article that Nicholas Carlson has written for Business Week, in which he explains how he used Evernote to write a 90,000+-word book called Marissa Meyer and the F...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The following is the opening of an article that Nicholas Carlson has written for Business Week, in which he explains how he used Evernote to write a 90,000+-word book calledMarissa Meyer and the Fight to Save Yahoo. I am not necessarily promoting the use of this particular software, but I think that the slideshow that Carlson provides with the article may be of interest to those who are open to alternative ways of approaching large scholarly projects:

“It was a weird choice by me because Evernote is not a word processor. It’s a note-taking application. It wasn’t built for book-writing.

“One reason I used Evernote was because I kept all of my reporting notes and research in Evernote, and I wanted quick access to all that while I was writing.

“It felt less clunky switching between screens in the same app than switching between Evernote and a slow-loading memory hog like Microsoft Word or the surprisingly lethargic Google Docs.

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DAILY STAR: Sports

Diversity, and apparently for a good reason, is taking roots deeper in the Ceres-La Salle Football Club.

At the presentation of the six new members of the club yesterday, players from Spain, the United States, Belgium and Germany took the spotlight. 

The list of new players prompted a number of sports writers to comment on the breadth and depth of the line up. There's now a Korean attack, a Spanish attack, an American attack and Filipino attack, former SCOOP president Elsie Jolingan jestingly noted.

Mitch Lipa of ABS-CBN echoed a question oft asked - on the foreign and local composition of the team.

We now have seven foreigners -- four from Korea, and one each from Spain, Ireland and Germany,  Club Director Ali Rojas said,  adding that the team  also has 11 Fil-foreign players, or those with Filipino roots, and eight "pure Filipinos”.

Go said the mix of nationalities in a team is common in European leagues,  that  recruit players from  across the continents.

It must, therefore,  be the usual thing  to hear Spanish, English, Korean, German and other languages in the corridors of the players’ quarters  along with a blend of Hiligaynon or Cebuano.

More nationalities, more knowledge, the players said with U.S.-based Jason Sabio adding,  "We can choose to stick to our guns or embrace diversity… which brings something new.”

It can be difficult, American Nate Burkey said, speaking different languages and having different knowledge and skills but it’s exciting to see positive things ahead as he admitted that he wants to be part of it.

What’s important, that we stick together, said German Manuel Ott, who is one of the new team members.

The diversity for Club Director Go, offers a common good – that wherever the players come or what their culture is – they speak the same tongue – the language of football. * AVDC

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Diversity, and apparently for a good reason, is taking roots deeper in the Ceres-La Salle Football Club.

At the presentation of the six new members of the club yesterday, players from Spain, the United States, Belgium and Germany took the spotlight. 

The list of new players prompted a number of sports writers to comment on the breadth and depth of the line up. There's now a Korean attack, a Spanish attack, an American attack and Filipino attack, former SCOOP president Elsie Jolingan jestingly noted.

Mitch Lipa of ABS-CBN echoed a question oft asked - on the foreign and local composition of the team.

We now have seven foreigners -- four from Korea, and one each from Spain, Ireland and Germany,  Club Director Ali Rojas said,  adding that the team  also has 11 Fil-foreign players, or those with Filipino roots, and eight "pure Filipinos”.

Go said the mix of nationalities in a team is common in European leagues,  that  recruit players from  across the continents.

It must, therefore,  be the usual thing  to hear Spanish, English, Korean, German and other languages in the corridors of the players’ quarters  along with a blend of Hiligaynon or Cebuano.

More nationalities, more knowledge, the players said with U.S.-based Jason Sabio adding,  "We can choose to stick to our guns or embrace diversity… which brings something new.”

It can be difficult, American Nate Burkey said, speaking different languages and having different knowledge and skills but it’s exciting to see positive things ahead as he admitted that he wants to be part of it.

What’s important, that we stick together, said German Manuel Ott, who is one of the new team members.

The diversity for Club Director Go, offers a common good – that wherever the players come or what their culture is – they speak the same tongue – the language of football. * AVDC

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Man Booker: Embracing A New Language, Casting Expressions In A Different Mold - Business insider

Man Booker: Embracing A New Language, Casting Expressions In A Different Mold - Business insider | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
One look at Man Booker 2014 finalists, and you would see it has fairly accommodated British writers, with a dash of American writers, with a hint of an Australian
Charles Tiayon's insight:

One look at Man Booker 2014 finalists, and you would see it has fairly accommodated British writers, with a dash of American writers, with a hint of an Australian writer, and a Scottish one - just to keep the flavours from bursting out too loud. This year, Man Booker organisers had said once that the list was getting as 'diverse' as it can.

While English as a language has been traversing through unknown terrains, appropriating expressions from native hinterlands as its own, gaining newer dimensions, the competition between genuine vs borrowed is getting even hotter.

Indian-origin Neel Mukherjee, who is more aptly called a British citizen, has made a cut. And so has Tasmania's Richard Flanagan. Ali Smith's How to be both and Joshua Ferris' To Rise Again at a Decent Hour make it to the list too. American authors Joshua Ferris and Karen Joy Fowler have been sending joy-waves through their country's literary clubs. Diversity, did we hear?

Two major publishing houses who are allies now, are responsible for five of the six publications in the shortlist. Now, now, now...that's called an eye for talent and a surefire shot at picking writers who are certain to grab the headlines. Because, once a Booker finalist, is always a celebrated writer!

In any case, this year's finalists pack some genuine expressions in their works. English has been a language that has been some sort of a laboratory for experiment of expressions. A writer is often in search of newer expressions to transfer the sum of his experiences.

Whether it is Neel Mukherjee's family saga set in Kolkata in the 1960s, or Flangan focusing on Australian PoWs being used as forced labour on the Burma Death Railway, or Jacobson's for his 'J' where flitting images of past and the progressive imagination of those phases create a dangerous concoction of schemas - English as a language has surely been reaching its potential since long.

With three British writers, two Americans and an Australian to keep the scale from tipping against the intent of the Booker Committee which had said it would open doors to writers of any nationality in its over four and half decades of history. There is another perspective to the works that are being selected for the shortlist of Man Booker prize 2014. When you look at the works, they are varied and not really set in the 'English' identity. Some jar as works, some simply mesmerise.

Opening Booker doors to English writers from other nationalities like India was to introduce more character into the works dealing with fractured consciousness till late. Will this prompt writers from other languages to turn towards English?

After all, no matter how recluse a writer is; who does not want his/her works to cross the borders of his country and be accessed by millions and millions who are looking for some fresh expressions? Why not? Literature is, after all, a medium to change minds, to wipe out biases, to incite feelings that may help empathy. In the war torn borders, and the ever tense world that's chasing some elusive happiness, a writer is an artist who can create newer spaces in the minds of the reader.

Mukherjee's The Lives of Others sounds like he has borrowed the title from a film. The experience that's transferred from his work is close to the experience that all countries in transition from old to new are facing. It's relevant across the geographical borders.

If Mukherjee manages to win the title and take home the purse of £ 72,000, Kolkata will yet again be the final word on literature from India that could be represented in the west. It would further encourage more and more writers who could have found expressions in their mother-tongue which happens to be Bengali, to think, speak and write in English.

Will Man Booker do any good to authors and winners? It's always a double edged sword that is bound to cut both ways. An author who nurses the ambition of reaching far and beyond, high and higher, prizes like Man Booker do hold a lot of promise.

It is difficult to say whether the Man Booker Foundation opened gates first to authors of different nationalities writing in English, or the authors claimed the space first and Man Booker Committee merely acknowledged the fact that literary works in English were coming mostly from people who were from different identities than the ones who were conventionally considered eligible.

In an egg first or chicken, kind of situation the loss may be more than evident in the coming years. By opening gates, Man Booker may stand to gain a lot with works from different nationalities pouring into its quarters, but what would be ruined is the writers writing in their mother tongue. That would be a death blow to some native languages.

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The MOOC Where Everybody Learned – Wired Campus - Blogs - The Chronicle of Higher Education

The MOOC Where Everybody Learned – Wired Campus - Blogs - The Chronicle of Higher Education | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Some MOOC skeptics believe that the only students fit to learn in massive open online courses are those who are already well educated. Without coaching and the support system of a traditional program, the thinking goes, ill-prepared students will not learn a thing.

Not so, according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The researchers analyzed data from a physics course that MIT offered on the edX platform in the summer of 2013. They found that students who had spent significant time on the course showed evidence of learning no matter what their educational background.

“There was no evidence that cohorts with low initial ability learned less than the other cohorts,” wrote the researchers in a paper published this month by The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.

Not only that, but the MOOC students learned at a similar rate as did MIT students who had taken the on-campus version of a similar course. That finding surprised the researchers because the on-campus MIT students studied together in small groups for four hours every week and had regular access to their professors and other campus resources.

“This certainly should allay concerns that less-well-prepared students cannot learn in MOOCs,” the researchers wrote.

But that’s not to say that the less-well-prepared students did well. Many of them scored significantly lower than did students with more schooling. Some would have earned failing grades.

The point is that even the students who got bad grades in the course came away knowing more than they did at the outset, says David E. Pritchard, a researcher on the study, and that their progress matched that of their better-prepared classmates over the same period.

“If they stuck it out,” says Mr. Pritchard, “they learned.”

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Charles Tiayon's insight:

Some MOOC skeptics believe that the only students fit to learn in massive open online courses are those who are already well educated. Without coaching and the support system of a traditional program, the thinking goes, ill-prepared students will not learn a thing.

Not so, according to researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The researchers analyzed data from a physics course that MIT offered on the edX platform in the summer of 2013. They found that students who had spent significant time on the course showed evidence of learning no matter what their educational background.

“There was no evidence that cohorts with low initial ability learned less than the other cohorts,” wrote the researchers in a paper published this month by The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning.

Not only that, but the MOOC students learned at a similar rate as did MIT students who had taken the on-campus version of a similar course. That finding surprised the researchers because the on-campus MIT students studied together in small groups for four hours every week and had regular access to their professors and other campus resources.

“This certainly should allay concerns that less-well-prepared students cannot learn in MOOCs,” the researchers wrote.

But that’s not to say that the less-well-prepared students did well. Many of them scored significantly lower than did students with more schooling. Some would have earned failing grades.

The point is that even the students who got bad grades in the course came away knowing more than they did at the outset, says David E. Pritchard, a researcher on the study, and that their progress matched that of their better-prepared classmates over the same period.

“If they stuck it out,” says Mr. Pritchard, “they learned.”

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Chinese Publisher Brings Together Translators at New Event

Chinese Publisher Brings Together Translators at New Event | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The 1st International Communication Forum on Chinese Culture was held in Qingdao, China on August 24 and 25, bringing together dozens of translators and sinologists from all over the world.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Hosted by China Publishing Group Corporation (CPG), the event kicked off with CPG leaders in dialogue with guest sinologists and translators, discussing topics including the international spread of Chinese culture. Speakers at these panels included Vladislav Bajac, editor-in-chief of Geopoetika Publishing, B. R. Deepak, a professor at the Center for Chinese and Southeast Asian Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, and Sabina Knight, a professor of Chinese literature at Smith College.

The second day of the conference featured sub forums, individual panels held on topics including the translation and international communication of Chinese culture in the digital era. This particular panel included speakers such as Tatematsu Shoichi, a Japanese translator whose works include A Collection of Short Stories by Mo Yan, Yunte Huang, professor of English at University of California, Santa Barbara and author of Charlie Chan (Norton, 2010), Giray Fidan, an author and expect on foreign policy between China and the Middle East, and Matthias Wahls, founder of M. Whals Publishing Consultancy in the Netherlands.

The centerpiece of the event, however, was the translation studio and symposia, which gathered the 30+ translators and sinologists together for a discussion on the state of Chinese translation. The event began with the ceremonial founding of the China Research Institute of Translation, which, going forward, will gather valuable data on translation. The new organization marked its founding by releasing the new study, The Report on the Trends of Language Service Industry in China. Panel members at the translation studio shared their opinions on the problems and difficulties they encounter when translating Chinese literary works, as well as their solutions.

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The different genres of journalism :: Media Update

The different genres of journalism :: Media Update | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Journalism can be seen by some as a narrow field with no growth and room to branch out. However when looking at this profession on a larger, more broad scale, journalism can be broken down into various ‘genres’.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

By Taryn Champion

Writing on Freelancewriting.com, EN Jio notes, “Each journalistic form and style uses different techniques and writes for different purposes and audiences.” With that in mind, here are a few highlights on a few journalism genres and what they contain.

Print Journalism

Print Journalism, also known as traditional journalism consists of writing. This type of journalism is not topic and content specific but is defined by the main forms of print, being magazines and newspapers. 

Print journalists may be freelancers writing for more than one print publication, or full time reporters. More than not, print Journalists are paired with a photojournalist to enhance their print piece.

Broadcast Journalism

Broadcast journalism consists of television and radio. Unlike that of traditional print journalism, broadcast journalism does not rely on writing skills alone. 

“Broadcast Journalists generate ideas and assess the value and accuracy of ideas and information from other sources, before presenting items for consideration by Editors, Commissioners, or other decision makers,” notes Creative Skillset on its website

Research, reporting and writing copy for news is done behind the scenes in broadcast Journalism in order to prepare for the show. Broadcast journalists behind the scenes like print Journalists do require writing skills. However these skills are enormously different to traditional journalistic skills.

Photojournalism

Photojournalists, unlike everyday photographers are trained to tell a story with their photographs.

This is used to enhance what traditional print journalists put out in the media and is used to emphasis a story. Photojournalists may contribute in writing by adding a caption to their image.

Multimedia Journalism

Multimedia’s extension of more than one medium has allowed for an expansion of journalism.

As multimedia is a platform that has no limits as it caters for print Journalism, broadcast Journalism as well as photojournalism. Due to the Internet having such vast reach and an array of functions which allows for video, imagery and the like, Multimedia Journalism can consist of a written story, videos, photos as well as audio. 

Lecturer at the University of California’s Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism, Jeremy Rue,writes, “However, we are also seeing a remarkable emergence of startup online-only news organizations that are not confined by a traditional distribution method. In this case, the role of the journalist is being transformed, particularly in respect to the convergence of content-types — or as you put it, the ‘merging’ of video, online and print.”

What are your thoughts on the different genres of journalism? Do you prefer one over the other? Tell us below.

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Diccionario básico para defenderte si viajas a Málaga

Diccionario básico para defenderte si viajas a Málaga | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Málaga. La mayoría la conoceréis de películas como 'La feria más bestia de España'. Nosotros en Traveler ya hemos demostrado que la ciudad es mucho más que eso, pero ya sea porque vienes a pegarte un loco, loco fin de semana o a culturizarte con sus 28 museos (son los que hay solo en la capital), te hemos preparado esta guía básica de supervivencia.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Terral: ten mucho miedo si un malagueño exclama ¡Nove qué terral! Eso quiere decir que vas a poder tocar el calor, que incluso pica en la piel, porque ha transmutado en brisa para hacer que ni siquiera abrir las ventanas de la casa te alivie un poco de la calina, de la flama. A lo de nove, por su parte, acostúmbrate: lo vas a oír una vez por exclamación, como la interjección ¡fó! o ¡foé!

* Ejemplo útil: ¡fó, vieo, que pelúa hace!, o lo que es lo mismo, ¡vaya, qué frío, amigo! La vertiente exclamativa del malagueño, como comprobará el viajero avezado, no tiene fin, y llega a su culmen en expresiones tan ricas como en verdá no vea abe o no ni ná, que sirven para recalcar algo diciendo exactamente… nada.

Canío/Rubia: aquí no entendemos de ná: ni gordos, ni flacos, ni morenos, ni castaños. Todos los hombres son canío o compadre, e incluso gachón y todas las mujeres son rubia o niña. Sí, niña. Aunque tengan 45 años.

Merdellón: se dice que la palabra viene de cuando las tropas de Napoleón invadieron España y los franceses, para referirse a los lugareños, utilizaban la frase merd de gens. Pero ahora, y para que nos entendamos, un merdellón es a Málaga lo que un poligonero a Madrid, solo que aquí vuestros poligoneros nos dan risa y nuestros merdellones, casi miedo. Ahora bien, hacemos distinciones: cuando nos dan miedo de verdad los llamamoschusmones. Cuando se dedican a pedir dinero a cambio de no rallarte el coche, gorrillas. Cuando están tirados en la calle sin hacer nada, paquetas. A nosotros con los merdellones nos pasa casi como a los gallegos con la lluvia. ¡Pero nada comparado con las miles de maneras que tenemos de llamar a alguien tonto!

Maharón
: un mahara o un maharón es un loco, un chalado, un tipo que solo habla dechuminás (tonterías). Si la cosa tira más bien hacia ser puramente tonto hablaríamos depamplina, parguera, de ser un paco o un papafrita. En caso de que esta condición esté causada por una falta de cultura, en especial cuando la persona proviene de un pueblo, hablaríamos de un castrojo. Si encima el idiota se las da de algo, entonces ese tipo es unpinfloi. Vamos, que se cree una estrellita del rock. Luego también está la posibilidad de que no seas tonto, pero ese día en particular lo parezcas. Entonces hablaríamos de que estás apamplao, lo que a veces viene motivado porque estás guarnío, es decir, muy cansado.

La (dulce) jungla urbana malagueña

Corbis

Perita: no todo van a ser insultos, también tenemos palabras para regocijarnos con los placeres que da la vida en estas tierras, que no son pocos. La más emblemática es perita, aunque también existen peazomortalífico y su diminutivomortal. Ejemplo: ¡No ve, compadre, eso ta tó peazo! 

Mihita/Pechá
: en Málaga no hay mucho o poco, hay una pechá o una mihita. Ejemplo: ¡Nove que pechá de volantonas! (una volantona es una cucaracha con alas). Ejemplo dos: Ese tío es pechá de pesao. Ejemplo tres: Foé colega, qué pechá (o lo que es lo mismo: “vaya esfuerzo acabo de realizar, compañero”). Por cierto: ojo si te dicen que eres un mihita, pues quiere decir que eres un pejiguera, es decir, un picajoso, que es algo similar a ser un fatiguita –que implica más bien hacerlo todo con mucha antelación-. Aquí va un bonus: tener fatiga es tener ganas de vomitar.

Guarrito: esta es una palabra trampa, como “carpet” en inglés, así que no, no habla de alguien levemente desaseado. Habla de ¡los taladros! ¿La explicación? Corrían los tiempos del estraperlo y los malagueños compraban en Gibraltar estas herramientas de la marca 'Warrington'. Añadidle a eso nuestra añeja facilidad con el inglés y tendréis un extranjerismo de los que nadie estudió en clase de lengua.

Chorraera: una chorraera es un tobogán. Porque, como diría Dani Rovira, malagueño insigne, tú no te tobogas, tú te chorras.

Portañica: cremallera del pantalón. Se usa casi únicamente para referirse a ella cuando la llevas abierta. 

Potaero
: algo potaero es algo fullero, algo mal hecho. Por ejemplo, imagínate que cuelgas un cuadro daleao (o sea, doblado). A eso nos referimos.

¿Te alargo?: si un malagueño quiere alargarte no está haciendo referencia a ningún anuncio de la Teletienda más pervertida. Lo que quiere es “acercarte” a donde sea, es decir, llevarte.

Canina: hambre. La puedes usar así: Nove que canina, ío. También puedes decir que estásenmayao, que viene a ser lo mismo.

Hacer el gato: el malagueño tiene muchas y variadas expresiones para especificar acciones más o menos fraudulentas. Valgan estas pocas: hacerle el gato o la bacalá a alguien escolársela, engañarleHacerse una pirula, saltarse las reglas del tráfico; hacerse una piarda, saltarse las clases; hacer un changuay, llevar a cabo algún tipo de intercambio, las más de las veces, poco honroso.

¡A la rica sardina playera!

Thinkstock

PARA COMER Y BEBER

Campero: un campero es un bocadillo con base de lechuga, tomate, mayonesa y cualquier cosa (repito: cualquier cosa) que quepa dentro de un mollete de Antequera, desde atún hasta carne de kebab (cuando no todo mezclado). Son baratos, son enormes, son amados multitudinariamente.

Gazpachuelo: no te puedes ir de Málaga sin probar uno de sus platos imprescindibles, elgazpachuelo. Se trata de una sopa caliente originaria de la provincia y típica de pescadores,que consiste en un caldo de pescado y una especie de mahonesa a base de ajos, yema de huevo y aceite de oliva.

Espeto: otro de los “must” malagueños. Un paseo por cualquier Paseo Marítimo de la ciudad te hará entender hasta qué punto este plato, que es básicamente sardinas asadas en una caña sobre una barquita, configura el paisaje de la ciudad. Esta forma de cocinar se remonta al tiempo de los tiempos fenicios, que aprovechaban las jábegas (una embarcación de remo típicamente malagueña) para asar el pescado en la orilla del mar.

El espeto: un gran clásico ¿fenicio?

Thinkstock

Tejeringos: unos tejeringos es lo que te tomas a las ocho en Casa Aranda si la noche se te va de las manos. Son churros gordos, elaborados a la manera antigua, solo con harina, agua, sal, y aceite.

Cafelitos: aquí no se toma café: aquí nos echamos un cafelito. Y hacerlo no es sencillo si desconoces la terminología, pues la carta malagueña incluye el café solo, largo, semilargo, solo corto, mitad, entrecorto, corto, sombra y nube. La culpa la tiene Don José Prado Crespo, dueño del Café Central en tiempos de posguerra. Entonces, productos de importación como ese eran caros y difíciles de conseguir, así que para no tirar el café sobrante de aquellos clientes que lo pedían con más o menos consistencia, Don José hizo un cartel recogiendo todos los tipos posibles de brebaje. Puedes echarle un vistazo todavía en el Café Central, aunque la terminología está extendida por toda Málaga.

Boquerones victorianos: que aquí se come pescaíto frito como deporte ya lo sabes, pero también queremos que sepas a qué demonios se refieren los lugareños cuando le preguntan al camarero (y lo hacen dos de cada tres veces que piden): “¿Tenéis boquerones victorianos?” Resulta que son los más pequeños, los más plateados y más duros, se dice que los mejores de España, y aquí viene lo más interesante: son propios de la bahía del pueblo malagueño El Rincón de la Victoria. ¿Chovinismo? Quizá. ¿Sibaritismo? Seguro.

* Nota: suponemos que no has llegado hasta aquí sin saber que a los malagueños se les llama boquerones, pero lo vamos a mencionar solo por si acaso. Como ese pescado tiene que ver mucho con la tradición de la ciudad, cuando acaba el carnaval se hace unaboqueroná (se comen boquerones) y se acompaña a un “cortejo fúnebre” que lleva la representación del pez hasta las Playas de la Malagueta, donde se entierra para dar por finalizada la fiesta.

El origen de la larga terminología cafetil

Café Central

PARA CONOCER LA TRADICIÓN

Biznaga: una biznaga es un ramillete de jazmines que se consigue sujetando las flores de estos a un cardo silvestre. Su elaboración es laboriosa, pues hay que deshacer al cardo de todas sus protuberancias y dejarlo secar para, a continuación, insertar las flores una a una justo antes de que se abran, es decir, durante las tardes de verano. Por la noche, con los jazmines ya abiertos, los biznagueros, unos señores ataviados con pantalón negro, camisa blanca y fajín rojo, los venden en las calles. Las biznagas son uno de los más importantes emblemas de la ciudad, hasta el punto de que “la puerta de la feria” (una especie de portada que se construye en la calle principal del centro, Larios, durante las fiestas) los simboliza, así como los premios del Festival de Cine de Málaga.

Cenachero: el cenachero es el pescador que hacía bailar sus cenachos (cestas de esparto) para vender por las calles el pescado fresco que llevaba en ellos. El oficio ya ha desaparecido, pero la figura sigue representando a Málaga y se encuentra esculpida en el centro de la misma. Dato friki: la ciudad estadounidense de Mobile, en Alabama, alberga una réplica de la escultura de El Cenachero, donada en homenaje al hermanamiento existente entre ambas.

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Khaled-Mattawa-Arabic-poetry-MacArthur

Khaled-Mattawa-Arabic-poetry-MacArthur | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
U-M professor Khaled Mattawa is one of 21 people named 2014 MacArthur Foundation Fellows. He will receive a $625,000, no-strings-attached stipend paid over the next five years for Arabic poetry translating.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

One University of Michigan professor is joining a rare class of creative individuals today: Khaled Mattawa is among 21 people from around the country named as 2014 MacArthur Foundation Fellows.

In the academic world, the award is known as the "genius grant." A cartoonist, physicist, jazz composer and mathematician are among the other fellows.

Mattawa, a poet-translator of Arabic poetry, will receive a $625,000, no-strings-attached stipend paid out over the next five years. He said he plans to use the money to further his translations and take on larger projects.

He's being recognized for the work he has done to broaden the public's understanding of Arabic poetry. Mattawa was nominated anonymously for the award.

"It's amazing news," he said. "I was really surprised, delighted and stunned in a good way."

Mattawa, 50, was born in Libya and moved to the U.S. in 1979. He said he developed a love for poetry during his last year at University of Tennessee. He initially planned on being a journalist, but a creative writing class led him to poetry.

"I hesitated a little bit, but I didn't turn back from it," he said. "Poetry, it allowed me the opportunity to explore things, explore ideas and shape memories."

He said translating can be difficult at times because some words don't have the same meaning in English.

"Translation is not in the immediacy, it's in coming back and coming back again, questioning work and reading the poem and saying, 'Ah, that stands on its own,' " Mattawa said.

Mattawa has translated nine books of contemporary Arabic poetry, including the work of some highly respected poets, such as Amjad Nasser of Jordan and Adonis of Syria. He's working on his 10th book.

Mattawa is also the author of four collections of his own poetry, including "Tocqueville" and the book, "Mahmoud Darwish: The Poet's Art and His Nation."

"For me, there was a lot of poetry in American English to read, but it didn't seem to have the scope of the Arab experience or issues in Arab life," Mattawa said. "I began to translate poetry as a way of bringing that experience into American English to help me shape my own voice. It was a way for me to learn how to write modern poetry."

Mattawa said his translations are not exact replications of the original poems, but are instead creative reproductions that still keep the author's spirit in tact.

Contact Katrease Stafford: kstafford@freepress.com

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¿Te suena el chamacoco? Es una de las lenguas moribundas que sobreviven gracias a la tecnología

¿Te suena el chamacoco? Es una de las lenguas moribundas que sobreviven gracias a la tecnología | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El nahuat-pilpil, el huichol, el besiro, el anishinaabemjig o el matukar panau son solo algunas de las casi 3.000 lenguas que podrían desaparecer en los próximos años. Los descendientes más jóvenes de estos idiomas se resisten a una pérdida y a un olvido que suponen un duro golpe para su identidad. Por eso hoy tratan de reanimar el idioma de sus antepasados utilizando la tecnología: una televisión, una radio, Facebook, diccionarios virtuales y hasta un ordenador portátil pueden hacer que las generaciones venideras sigan entendiendo palabras como ‘chamuxaume’ o ‘teddar’. ¿Las conoces? Tú también puedes aprenderlas.
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Printers’ Terminology | Spitalfields Life

Printers’ Terminology | Spitalfields Life | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Charles Tiayon's insight:

In little over a year, I have become the publisher of five books and so I thought it was high time I acquainted myself with all the correct language that I may have a better grasp of what the printers are talking about. To this end, Charles Pertwee of Baddeley Brothers, the longest established engravers in the City of London & the East End, lent me his copy of John Southward’s ‘Dictionary of Typography’ from 1875, which lists all the relevant terminology. Today, I have selected some of my favourite entries – as much for their arcane poetry as for the education of my readers.

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ABRIDGEMENT – An epitome of a book, made by omitting the less important matter.

ADVERSARIA – Commonplace books: a miscellaneous collection of notes remarks and extracts.

APPRENTICE - An apprentice is a person described in law books as a species of servant, and so called from the French verb apprendre - to learn – because he is bound by indenture to serve a master for a certain term, receiving in return for his services instruction in his masters’s trade, profession or art.

BASTARD TITLE -  The short or condensed title preceding full title of the work.

BATTER – Any injury to the face of the type sufficient to prevent it showing clearly in printing.

BEARD OF A LETTER – The outer-angle of the square shoulder of the shank, which reaches almost to the face of the letter, and is commonly scraped off by the Founders, serving to leave a white square between the lower face of the type and the top part of any ascending letter which happen to come in the line following.

BIENVENUE - An obsolete term by which was meant formerly the fee paid on admittance to a ‘Chapel.’

BODKIN - A pointing steel instrument used in correcting, to pick wrong or imperfect letters out of a page.

BOTCHED - Carelessly or badly-done work.

BOTTLE-ARSED - Type that is wider at the bottom than the top.

BOTTLE-NECKED - Type that is thicker at the top than the bottom.

CANDLESTICK – In former times, when Compositors worked at night by the light of candles, they used a candlestick loaded at the base to keep it steady. A few offices use candlesticks at the present day.

CASSIE-PAPER – Imperfect paper, the outside quires of a ream.

CHAFF - Too frequently heard in the printing office, when one Compositor teases another, as regards his work, habits, disposition etc

CHOKED – Type filled up with dirt.

COVENTRY – When a workman does not conform to the rules of the ‘Chapel,’ he is sent to Coventry. That is, on no consideration, is any person allowed to speak with him, apart from business matters, until he pays his dues.

DEAD HORSE – When a Compositor has drawn more money on account than he has actually earned, he is said to be ‘horsing it’ and until he has done enough work in the next week to cover the amount withdrawn, he is said to be working a ‘dead horse.’

DEVIL - is the term applied to the printer’s boy who does the drudgery work of a print office.

DONKEY - Compositors were at one period thus styled by Pressmen in retaliation for being called pigs by them.

EIGHTEENMO – A sheet of paper folded into eighteen leaves, making thirty-six pages.

FAT-FACE LETTER – Letter with a broad face and thick stem.

FLOOR PIE – Type that has been dropped upon the floor during the operations of composition or distribution.

FLY - The man or boy who takes off the sheet from the tympan as the Pressman turns it up.

FORTY-EIGHTMO – A sheet of paper folded into forty-eight leaves or ninety-six pages.

FUDGE – To execute work without the proper materials, or finish it in a bungling or unworkmanlike manner.

GOOD COLOUR – When a sheet is printed neither too dark or too light.

GULL – To tear the point holes in a sheet of paper while printing.

HELL - The place where the broken and battered type goes to.

JERRY – A peculiar noise rendered by Compositors and Pressmen when one of their companions renders themselves ridiculous in any way.

LAYING-ON-BOY – The boy who feeds the sheets into the machine.

LEAN-FACE - A letter of slender proportions, compared with its height.

LIGHT-FACES - Varieties of face in which the lines are unusually thin.

LUG – When the roller adheres closely to the inking table and the type, through its being green and soft, it is said to ‘lug.’

MACKLE – An imperfection in the printed sheets, part of the impression appears double.

MONK – A botch of ink on a printed sheet, arising from insufficient distribution of the ink over the rollers.

MULLER - A sort of pestle, used for spreading ink on the ink table.

NEWS-HOUSE - A printing office in which newspapers only are printed. This term is used to distinguish from book and job houses.

OCTAVO - A sheet of paper folded so as to make eight leaves or sixteen pages.

ON ITS FEET - When a letter stands perfectly upright, it is said to be ‘on its feet.’

PEEL - A wooden instrument shaped like a letter ‘T’ used for hanging up sheets on the poles.

PENNY-A-LINER - A reporter for the Press who is not engaged on the staff, but sends in his matter upon approbation.

PIE - A mass of letters disarranged and in confusion.

PIG - A Pressman was formerly called so by Compositors.

PIGEON HOLES – Unusually wide spaces between words, caused by the carelessness or want of taste of the workman.

PRESS GOES EASY – When the run of the press is light and the pull is easy.

QUIRE – A quire of paper for all usual purposes consists of twenty-four sheets.

RAT-HOUSE – A printing office where the rules of the printers’ trade unions are not conformed to.

SCORPERS – Instruments used by Engravers to clear away the larger portions of wood not drawn upon.

SHEEP’S FOOT – An iron hammer with a claw end, used by Pressmen.

‘SHIP – A colloquial abbreviation of companionship.

SHOE – An old slipper is hung at the end of the frame so that the Compositor, when he comes across a broken or battered letter, may put it there.

SLUG – An American name for what we call a ‘clump.’

SQUABBLE - Lines of matter twisted out of their proper positions with letters running into wrong lines etc.

STIGMATYPY –  Printing with points, the arrangement of points of various thicknesses to create a picture.

WAYZGOOSE – An annual festivity celebrated in most large offices.

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Traduire les sons et les onomatopées dans les autres langues

Traduire les sons et les onomatopées dans les autres langues | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Après "éternuer en dix langues différentes" et "Les cris des animaux dans les autres langues", voici comment traduire les sons et les onomatopées dans les
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Lucerne votera sur la suppression d'une langue au primaire

Lucerne votera sur la suppression d'une langue au primaire | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
L'initiative lancée il y a un an par des représentants de différents partis et l'association des enseignants du canton de Lucerne a abouti.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Une étape importante vient d'être franchie. L’aboutissement de cette initiative implique le fait que les Lucernois se prononceront sur la suppression de l'enseignement d'une des langues étrangères à l'école primaire.

Que veut cette initiative? Elle demande que l'enseignement d'une des langues étrangères soit supprimé. Les initiants ont récolté plus de 7000 signatures, alors que 4000 étaient nécessaires.

Le comité interpartis entourant la présidente de l'association des enseignants a déposé mercredi 17 septembre 7144 signatures à la Chancellerie d'Etat du canton de Lucerne, indique-t-il. Le texte réclame qu'une seule langue étrangère soit à l'avenir enseignée à l'école primaire au lieu de deux actuellement, l'anglais dès la 3e et le français dès la 5e.

Langue visée pas précisée

Le texte ne précise pas quelle langue doit être supprimée du programme d'enseignement. Avec cette réduction, les initiants entendent permettre aux élèves d'approfondir leurs connaissances linguistiques en allemand et dans la langue étrangère restante. Les heures supprimées d'anglais ou de français seraient toutefois remplacées par des périodes supplémentaires consacrées aux branches scientifiques.

La réduction de deux langues étrangères au primaire à une seule doit permettre de soutenir les élèves de manière plus équilibrée dans les autres branches et de parer à la pénurie d'enseignants spécialisés, estime le comité. Plusieurs études récentes ont montré que l'enseignement précoce des langues ne donne pas de meilleurs résultats, ajoute-t-il.

En 2006 déjà, l'association des enseignants lucernois avait déposé une initiative dans ce sens. Elle l'avait ensuite retirée pour ne pas isoler le canton de Lucerne face aux travaux du concordat intercantonal d'harmonisation de l'école (HarmoS) et du nouveau plan d'éducation alémanique Lehrplan 21.

Nidwald, Thurgovie, Schaffhouse et les Grisons

La donne a toutefois changé en Suisse alémanique ces derniers mois. En août, le parlement thurgovien et le gouvernement nidwaldien ont décidé de supprimer l'enseignement du français à l'école primaire.

Dans les Grisons, une initiative populaire allant dans le même sens que l'initiative lucernoise a abouti en novembre dernier. Le Parlement schaffhousois a, lui, approuvé un postulat demandant au gouvernement d'exiger une adaptation du concordat HarmoS, afin de supprimer l'obligation d'enseigner deux langues étrangères à l'école primaire.

Vote des enseignants en novembre

Dans les cantons alémaniques non limitrophes de l'espace francophone, le français est actuellement enseigné dès la 5e, contrairement aux cantons limitrophes qui l'enseignent dès la 3e.

La semaine dernière, les associations cantonales d'enseignants se sont prononcées pour la réduction à une seule langue étrangère obligatoire à l'école primaire, précisant qu'il devait s'agir d'une langue nationale. Cette prise de position n'est pas encore définitive. Les conférences romande et alémanique des présidents d'associations d'enseignants voteront sur le sujet en novembre. (ats/Newsnet)

Créé: 17.09.2014, 12h55

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