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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Blood Type May Affect Cognition And Memory

Blood Type May Affect Cognition And Memory | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A number of years ago, I came across a book called Eat Right For Your Blood Type, which argues one’s blood type determines the foods that are optimal for them
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A number of years ago, I came across a book called Eat Right For Your Blood Type, which argues one’s blood type determines the foods that are optimal for them, and also affects one’s personality. It’s one of those claims I thought was total bullshit until I began reading through the section for my blood type, which happens to be “B.” The generalizations there were spot on — but hey, horoscopes, or anything that vaguely assigns characteristics to big groups of people, can be spot on too, right? And I’ll never stop eating corn or lentils. One of the disconcerting parts of the write-up is the assertion that type B people tend to lose their mental acuity and memory fairly drastically with age. I’ve thought about this from time to time when I can’t seem to find the word I want or can’t remember events that at one point seemed unforgettable, but have generally dismissed it — until now. A new study published in Neurology asserts that, indeed, blood type may correspond to loss of memory later in life, particularly for people with AB type blood.


The link between blood type and various health conditions has been studied for some time, and scientists believe there is a connection between blood type and heart disease and stroke, which, aside from being dangerous in themselves, also increase one’s risk for memory loss or dementia.

Researchers at the University of Vermont’s College of Medicine wanted to focus on the specific connection between blood type and cognitive impairment. The team examined data from over 30,000 subjects in the U.S., 495 of whom developed cognitive impairment during the 3.5-year course of the study. They compared those subjects with 587 subjects who demonstrated no impairment. They found that 6% of the cognitively impaired subjects had type AB blood, which is the rarest and newest type. When they adjusted the data for differences in age, gender, race, and location, they found that people with type AB blood are roughly 82% more likely to experience some symptoms of cognitive impairment as they age. The study did not specifically examine dementia risks, though there’s an overlap between many of the symptoms noted and dementia.

Researchers also found that people with type AB blood have a higher level of the factor VIII blood clotting protein, which, in addition to being associated with a higher risk of strokes and heart attacks, also contributes to an increased risk of memory, attention, and other cognitive problems. Because of the established connection between blood type and vascular problems such as strokes, it makes sense that there seems to be a connection between blood type and cognitive impairment, but as of now, the connection is correlative, not causal — researchers can’t provide that the AB type blood is the actual cause of the impairment, so further studies will undoubtedly follow.

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Skype aprende a traducir las conversaciones mientras hablas

Skype aprende a traducir las conversaciones mientras hablas | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Gracias a Twitter y Facebook dos personas pueden hablar y entenderse utilizando su lengua materna
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Skype derribó muchas de las barreras que existían a la hora de comunicarnos con nuestros seres queridos cuando la distancia era un impedimento. Se ha convertido en una herramienta fundamental para estudiantes de Erasmus, expatriados y otros colectivos que tienen que lidiar con la barrera de la lejanía para mantener el contacto con amigos y familiares.

También, pero quizá en menor medida, se ha convertido en un estándar para hablar cara a cara con personas de otras nacionalidades que se encuentran a miles de kilómetros de distancia. Entrevistas de trabajo, reuniones... En esto, Google Hangouts y otras empresas especializadas también tienen mucho que decir, pero Skype es siempre una de las opciones que están sobre la mesa.

Ninguna ha logrado derribar la barrera del lenguaje. De momento, no existe un sistema de videoconferencia 'online' que gestione de forma elegante la diversidad de idiomas. De nuevo Skype, ahora en el seno de Microsoft, pretende ser la solución. Si todo marcha sin contratiempos, a finales de este año harán pública a modo de 'beta' su función de traducción simultánea.

Esto quiere decir que un español y un alemán podrán entenderse sin cambiar de idioma, empleando cada uno su lengua materna. La máquina se encargará de traducir de viva voz y/o subtitular lo que ambos están diciendo en tiempo real.

En realidad, son muchas las barreras que estos gigantes tienen que superar para hacerlo posible. Los actuales traductores 'online' funcionan tirando de probabilidad y estadística. Un análisis de miles de textos disponibles en varios idiomas sirve a estas empresas para generar un corpus, una gigantesca base de datos a la que recurrirán luego los robots de traducción para buscar coincidencias. Por simplificar, si una frase ha sido traducida de la misma forma muchas veces en los textos de ese corpus, el robot ofrecerá esa equivalencia porque es la más probable.

Aquí es donde entran en juego las redes sociales. En Facebook, Twitter y demás plataformas escribimos de una forma más parecida a como hablamos, con expresiones propias del lenguaje oral y palabras coloquiales que no suelen aparecer en los textos escritos que componen los corpus de traducción de los gigantes.

Los investigadores de Microsoft, conscientes de ello, han utilizado las redes para enseñar a su traductor simultáneo, que pronto verá la luz en Skype, a entendernos un poquito mejor. Concretamente, han analizado mensajes de Facebook, SMS y tuits en busca de patrones que ayuden al robot a comprender cómo nos expresamos.

ALGUNAS DESVENTAJAS

Este sistema tiene, sin embargo, algunas carencias. La primera es que la máquina no entiende de veras lo que está traduciendo. Busca coincidencias, pero se hace un lío cuando las palabras están en un orden diferente al que esperaba o las oraciones son muy complejas y llenas de subordinadas. Esto sucede porque no entiende que los distintos idiomas tienen sintaxis diferentes. Cuando en español la norma es "sujeto + verbo + predicado", 

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Diccionario básico para salir airoso de un restaurante francés

Diccionario básico para salir airoso de un restaurante francés | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
¿Quieres llevar a tu chica a un restaurante de la jet set francesa y no sabes ni media palabra del idioma? Te ayudamos.
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Le Centre BABEL de l’IPSL: pour mieux se comprendre dans toutes les langues

Le Centre BABEL de l’IPSL: pour mieux se comprendre dans toutes les langues | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
L'Institut Polytechnique Saint Louis, centre BABEL, IPSL, ILEPS, foramtion de cours de langues, cergy-pontoise
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L'Institut Polytechnique Saint Louis propose des cours de langues ouverts à tous se déroulant le soir de 20h00 à 21h30 sur son campus des Montalants.

 

Des enseignants qualifiés et bilingues assurent les cours et ils ont pour objectif de donner aux apprentis une compétence pratique dans la langue étudiée. Ces cours donnent lieu à une évaluation et à une validation par l’obtention d’une attestation de formation.

Les structures d’enseignement s’articulent d’une part sur des bases théoriques et d’autre part sur une véritable mise en condition à la pratique orale et écrite de la langue tout au long de la formation.

 

Des étudiants et des non étudiants ensemble pour se former

Le mélange des populations étudiante et non étudiante crée une dynamique mixte, très favorable à la pédagogie, et riche en échanges culturels et trans-générationnels.

Les langues proposées (sous réserve du nombre de participants) présentent une large diversité de choix : Allemand, Anglais, Arable, Chinois, Espagnol, Japonais, Portugais

 

Informations pratiques:

Horaires des cours : de 20h00 à 21h30, les lundis, mardis, mercredis, en fonction des langues. Les participants s'engagent sur une durée minimum de 1 semestre, soit 19 heures 30 de cours.

Les cours ont lieu sur le Campus des Montalants de l'IPSL, 13 boulevard de l'Hautil, à Cergy.

Coût : pour 1 semestre (19 heures 30), incluant les frais de gestion : 190 € TTC pour un financement individuel type un étudiant ILEPS

Vous avez jusqu’au 22 septembre 2014 pour vous inscrire à cette formation

 

 

Pour en savoir plus sur la formation, rendez-vous sur le site de la formation 

 

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A Word In Edgewise: The Tower of Scrabble Babel

Well, it's about time. I've spent years chillaxing on Sunday afternoons, mojito in one hand and Sudoku in the other, pausing now and then to snap a selfie or two, yet only now has America's leading dictionary publisher canonized these favorite activities and objects of my affection to bona fide words in the English language.
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Am I too old to learn a new language?

Am I too old to learn a new language? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
 The brain's neuroplasticity decreases with age, but this shouldn't put off older learners – they do have some advantages
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Learning a language as an adult could help delay the onset of dementia, research suggests. Photograph: Martin Argles for the Guardian

When Adrian Black met his Italian partner 10 years ago, he was determined to learn her home language. Having successively picked up French a decade earlier when he lived in France, he felt the challenge was attainable.

"I was blown away by how hard it was to learn French, but I came back speaking it pretty well," says Black, who is now 50. But getting to grips with Italian has been a much tougher process, he explains: "I feel like French is deep down in my head somewhere, but with Italian it will take a lot more effort for me to get to that level. "I've noticed that my brain isn't as good as it was, and I'm pretty sure I don't retain stuff as well as I used to. It just doesn't all click as easily as it used to."

It's often said that you can't teach an old dog new tricks. Actually this proverb is, for the most part, not true. For much of the history of modern neuroscience, the adult brain was believed to be a fixed structure that, once damaged, could not be repaired. But research published since the 1960s has challenged this assumption, showing that it is actually a highly dynamic structure, which changes itself in response to new experiences, and adapts to injuries – a phenomenon referred to as neuroplasticity.

Collectively, this body of research suggests that one can never be too old to learn something new, but that the older they are, the harder it is for them to do so. This is because neuroplasticity generally decreases as a person gets older, meaning the brain becomes less able to change itself in response to experiences.

Some aspects of language learning become progressively more difficult with age, others may get easier. "Older people have larger vocabularies than younger ones, so the chances are your vocabulary will be as large as a native," says Albert Costa, a professor of neuroscience who studies bilingualism at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona. Picking up a new language's vocabulary is much easier for adults than learning the rules that govern its grammar or syntax. This is because new words can be easily mapped on to a learner's pre-existing knowledge. But older learners are less likely to have good pronunciation or accent, since the phonemes, or sounds, of a language are picked up naturally by children.

Learning a new language may not always be easy for adults, but there isresearch to suggest that doing so is beneficial for brain health. As we get older, most of us experience an age-related decline in mental functions such as attention and memory, and in some people the acceleration of this process leads to the development of Alzheimer's disease or some other form of dementia. A number of recent studies suggest that learning a foreign language can slow this inevitable age-related cognitive decline or perhaps even delay the onset of dementia.

In the largest study of its kind to date, researchers at Edinburgh Universityexamined the medical records of 648 Alzheimer's patients in the Indian city of Hyderabad. They found that the bilinguals developed dementia later than monolinguals, by an average of four-and-a-half years.

We know that education can also delay the onset of dementia, but the researchers also took that into account. "A large part of the population in Hyderabad is bilingual but illiterate, so we compared educated bilinguals with bilinguals who never went to school," says lead researcher, Thomas Bak. The study found that dementia was delayed by an average of six years in uneducated bilinguals, compared to four years in educated bilinguals.

"Learning a language later on in life might be more beneficial than learning it earlier, because it takes more effort," Bak continues. "It has parallels with physical exercise – a stroll is good for your health, but not as beneficial as a run."

Learning – and using – a foreign language seems to improve what psychologists and neuroscientists call executive function, which refers to a hypothetical set of mental processes that enable us to vary our thoughts and behaviours from one moment to the next, depending on the task at hand.

"Using two languages seems to have consequences not only for executive functions, but also for other processes," says Costa. "It's like learning to juggle, the idea being that you have to juggle two balls every time you speak. Some of the work is controversial, so we need more data to have a definite answer."

Despite the difficulties, Black regards learning foreign languages as fun, and treats the endeavour like a puzzle that has to be solved. "I'm doing it partly to keep my brain active," he says. "When you have some success and can express yourself, it feels like you're using different parts of your brain that you weren't using before."

Indeed, research shows that bilingual children use the same brain regions for both languages if they are learned during childhood, whereas learning a second language later on in life recruits different regions from those involved in using one's mother tongue. And learning a foreign language, much like learning to play a musical instrument, does indeed appear to be a good way of exercising one's brain, and keeping it healthy, throughout life.

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ERI-sprachen-ethnien-f.pdf

  

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In Margaret Atwood's Latest, The Past Is Powerfully Present

In Margaret Atwood's Latest, The Past Is Powerfully Present | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Author Margaret Atwood is prolific, beloved and extraordinarily accomplished. In addition to best-selling novels like The Handmaid's Tale and The
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Author Margaret Atwood is prolific, beloved and extraordinarily accomplished. In addition to best-selling novels like The Handmaid's Tale and The Blind Assassin, she's penned poems, short stories, children's books, essays and works that defy classification.

But her fans will have to wait a long, long time for one particular piece of writing. She's working on a book that nobody will read for a hundred years — part of an art project that's going to require some special archival paper, as she explains to NPR's Arun Rath.

In the meantime, readers can pick up her latest work, Stone Mattress. It's a collection of what Rath calls "wonderfully weird short stories," in which the passage of time plays a key role. Many characters find that they're powerfully affected by things that happened years ago, in their youth.

"It does seem to be a human characteristic, that in fact those things, although you may forget about them in your 20s, they are the sub-layer upon which your life is based. And they come back," Atwood says, warning Rath that the same thing will happen to him as he ages.

In most of NPR's author interviews, the host asks the questions and the writer responds. But, as Atwood tells Rath, "there are no rules." Click on the audio link above to hear her turn the tables, quizzing Rath about his commitment to Comic-Con and asking whether he feels caught in traps of his own making.

Interview Highlights

On the escape one protagonist finds in writing about a fantasy world

It becomes more real to her and more important to her because it's an escape from her actual life. And talk to any writer on that subject ... that's just a characteristic of writing, not a characteristic of fantasy writing.

She's got her old boyfriend in a barrel ... and she's got her old rival for that very boyfriend shut up in a stone wall and attacked by bees. So she's acting out, but in a way that doesn't actually harm the real people — or so we believe.

On her involvement in the Future Library project

The artist is a very inventive young lady called Katie Paterson, and her idea is that they're growing a forest in Norway and it will grow for a hundred years. Does this recallSleeping Beauty to your mind?

And each one of those hundred years, they will invite one writer to write a manuscript. It can be anything — it can be a novel, a poem, nonfiction. And all that can be told about it is its title. So each one of those hundred years, a manuscript will be presented and put into this room in the [New Oslo Public] library, in a box, sealed, like a genie in a bottle.

And at the end of the hundred years, they will cut enough trees from the forest to make enough paper to print the book of these books — of all of the manuscripts that have been put in the boxes.

On the appeal of the Future Library for her

There's a number of very attractive things about it. First of all, I will not have to deal with the critics. Think of that.

Second, it is a lot like the message-in-the-bottle metaphor for writing any book. Any book that you write, you write it and then you publish it — that's the bottle part. And it goes out on the sea of wherever books go, flows hither and thither, and you don't know who may read it. So this is the same, except that there's a hundred-year gap. As the writer, you will never know what people think of it.

Copyright 2014 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

ARUN RATH, HOST:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR West. I'm Arun Rath. It's hard to imagine a living writer more accomplished than Margaret Atwood - novels, poems, short stories, children's books, essays and works that defy classification. She's distinguished herself in every possible way. Margaret Atwood is somehow able to write fantastic tales that are deeply literary and infused with a brilliant sense of humor. At 74 years old, her wit is as sharp as ever.

MARGARET ATWOOD: When you're writing fiction, everybody thinks you're secretly writing about real people and things. But if you write an autobiography, they think you're lying as one does.

RATH: Atwood's latest book is a collection of wonderfully weird short stories. When we spoke I asked read part of the title story, "Stone Mattress." I'll just set it up - there's an older woman who's gone on a cruise and she happens by chance to encounter the man who had raped her when she was a young woman.

(Laughter)

(Laughter)

ATWOOD: And he doesn't recognize her.

RATH: Yes.

ATWOOD: (Laughter) But she recognizes him. The next morning, during the chartered flight north to where the ship is floating on the Beaufort Sea, she considers her choices. She could play Bob like a fish right up until the final moment, then leave him cold with his pants around his ankles. A satisfaction, but a minor one. She could avoid him throughout the trip and leave the equation where it's been for the past 50-some years, unresolved, or she could kill him.

RATH: And she goes for option three.

ATWOOD: It's kind of set up in the first sentence of the story where...

RATH: Yeah.

ATWOOD: ...Where it says at the outset, she didn't intend to kill anyone. So you think well (laughter) that was at the outset.

RATH: It's interesting about these characters, it's really striking about all of them, is how they're in the later part of their lives, but they're really still so deeply affected by what happened in their youth.

ATWOOD: And you will be too.

(LAUGHTER)

ATWOOD: Yes, it does seem to be a human characteristic that, in fact, those things - although you may forget about them in your 20s - they are the sub-layer upon which your life is based. And they come back.

RATH: You know, although not many of us get the chance to address them so intimately, or in the case of this character so violently.

(LAUGHTER)

ATWOOD: You'd be surprised.

RATH: You have a character in this book, it's from the first three stories in this collection, they're interconnected. And in the first story, you have an aging writer who's created this fantasy world. And it's kind of - kind of B literature sort of by her own reckoning, this place called Alphinland. But it becomes more real to her - more important to her over time.

ATWOOD: Well, it becomes more real to her and more important to her because it's an escape from her actual life. And talk to any writer on that subject. But she starts her series for pulp magazines back in the early '60s, before any of this kind of writing had a cachet. So think of a world without comic-con. You know, it didn't exist back then. And people wrote these things for the pulps under different names because you didn't want to have the same writer all the time.

RATH: Now, I wouldn't want to be in a world without comic-con necessarily, but at the same time...

ATWOOD: You wouldn't want - let's examine that - you wouldn't want to be in a world without comic-con. That's a pretty firm commitment.

RATH: It is. I'll stand by that.

ATWOOD: Well, I would not want to be in a world in which people didn't dress up from time to time. It would be very boring.

RATH: Right. Is there - in this character Constance in "Alphinland" - I just wonder reading about her in this world that she's created, is it a fear for a writer like yourself who has done so much writing that, in a way, you become trapped by what you've created?

ATWOOD: How old are you?

RATH: I'm 44.

ATWOOD: Oh, do you feel trapped by anything yet?

RATH: (Laughter) I feel trapped by a lot of things.

ATWOOD: Are any of them of your own creation?

RATH: Well, that's kind of deep.

ATWOOD: It is. It's quite deep, isn't it? Yes. Well, that was the question you asked me.

RATH: Yeah, I would - but I'm supposed to ask the questions. I'm not supposed to reflect on myself.

ATWOOD: There are no rules. In "Alphinland," we make up our own rules.

RATH: (Laughter).

ATWOOD: Ok, let's put it another way. In "Alphinland," Constance has got a couple of other people trapped in there.

RATH: Yes.

ATWOOD: For instance, she's got her old boyfriend in a barrel in a (unintelligible) wine facility. And she's got her old rival for that very boyfriend shut up in a stone wall and attacked by bees. So she's acting out, but in a way that doesn't actually harm the real people, or so we believe.

RATH: I read that you're working on a book that won't be read for 100 years - intentionally - something that's called The Future Library project.

ATWOOD: Isn't that good? So I was approached by the Norwegian Library of the Future. It's called the Future Library. They're building the building - the new library - and in that new library, there's going to be a room. And they're growing a forest in Norway and it will grow for 100 years. Does this recall "Sleeping Beauty" to your mind? And each one of those 100 years, they will invite one writer to write a manuscript. It can be anything. It can be a novel, a poem, nonfiction. And all that can be told about it is its title. So each one of those hundred years, the manuscript will be presented and put into this room in the library in a box - sealed like a genie in a bottle. And at the end of the 100 years, they will cut enough trees from the forest to make enough paper to print the book of these books, of all of the manuscripts that have been put in the boxes.

RATH: See you agreed to do this, so obviously there's something about this you find attractive, or at least intriguing.

ATWOOD: There's a number of very attractive things about it. First of all, I will not have to deal with the critics. Think of that. Second, it is a lot like the message-in-the-bottle metaphor for writing any book. So any book that you write, you write it and then you publish it - that's the bottle part - and it goes out on the sea of wherever books go. It flows hither and thither and you don't know who may read it. So this is the same, except that there's a 100-year gap. As the writer, you will never know what people think of it. You will also never know whether they understand it because the language may have changed in that time. Being a practical person, I did think immediately I will have to get archival paper and non-fade ink or else they might open the box and find nothing in it.

RATH: That's Margaret Atwood. Her new book of short stories is called "Stone Mattress." It's out on Tuesday. Margaret, it was great fun speaking with you. Thank you.

ATWOOD: Lovely speaking with you. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.

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Texting, verbing keep language changing

Maybe we're only imagining it, but it seems like our language is changing faster today than ever before.
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Maybe we’re only imagining it, but it seems like our language is changing faster today than ever before.

With the language used for texting, our young generation has invented an English shorthand that at first was only understood by them, but now seems to have become accepted – or at least understood – by everyone. Many folks know the meaning of LOL and BTW now and accept such terms and, by the way, they are not just phrases we laugh out loud about anymore.

We would be willing to bet that today’s teachers and parents struggle to remind young people that this type of communication is acceptable for texting but are not standard forms of English that can be used for everything. The words “you” and “are” still have to be spelled out sometimes.

Many of us “older” folks are often appalled by the poor grammar that has seemingly become acceptable and is often used by television celebrities, movie stars and even politicians. We can’t count the number of times that a “g” is dropped at the end of a word, the subjects and verbs don’t agree, or the wrong words are used.

However, it’s also fun to watch the changes in language. For example, we wonder when Google quit being just the name of a company and became a verb meaning to search for information – “I will google the team’s record.” We don’t know when this change occurred, but we do know it was long after Xerox became more than the name of a company and became a verb meaning to make copies – “I will Xerox those letters.” So, it’s obviously not something new.

We recently learned there is even a name for changing nouns and occasionally other parts of speech into verbs. It’s called verbing.

There are a bunch of new verbs that are used today that still sound awkward to us such as calendar and task. Our understanding stumbles a little when someone tells us, “I have been tasked with this project,” or we hear, “I will calendar that meeting.”

Upon investigation, however, we discovered this is nothing new at all. Evidently Benjamin Franklin griped about the whole business of verbing in 1789 calling it “awkward and abominable.” We found examples of it from William Shakespeare and the 1552 Book of Common Prayer. Oops. This has gone on longer than we thought.

We may have stumbled over these words that have recently been verbed, but we hadn’t looked at other words that were verbed so long ago they are commonplace today. Here are some examples: medal, rain, bottle, audition, diagnose, email, referee. Remember, we now guilt people into doing something, and we friend people on Facebook. So, now we know, verbing isn’t anything new, but Benjamin Franklin was right. The new words do seem awkward until they become integrated into the language.

Let’s look at the word “tailgate.” Once upon a time it was the back of a pickup truck. Then it became a verb meaning someone is following a vehicle too closely. Then it became an adjective as in a tailgate party meaning a party out of the back of a vehicle, and now it’s a verb again: “Let’s tailgate before the Lobos game.”

So verbing isn’t new. Let’s keep the tradition going – did you lottery this week?

Contact the Ryans at ryan@abqjournal.com.

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El quehacer lexicográfico en Nicaragua · El Nuevo Diario

El quehacer lexicográfico en Nicaragua · El Nuevo Diario | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Visto desde el exterior, el quehacer lingüístico de Nicaragua es casi desconocido. Las obras de referencia lo ignoran y a veces se incluyen disparates, como el de la Enciclopedia Espasa-Calpe (suplemento de 1978, p. 777): “La lengua oficial de Nicaragua es el español, aunque se encuentra muy difundido el cibcio [sic]”; es decir, una lengua inexistente. Los dialectólogos españoles también desconocen ese quehacer. Apenas Milagros Alegre Izquierdo y José María Enguita Utría, en “El español de América: aproximación sincrónica” (2002), citan en su bibliografía —sin aprovecharlos— siete aportes, entre ellos mis “900 nicaragüensismos” (1990) y mi “Léxico sexual y anglicismos de Nicaragua” (1998). Y es que solo tres lingüistas europeos han elaborado comprehensiones específicas de nuestra variante o forma característica del español: el checo Lubomir Bârtos (1985), la holandesa Cristina van der Gulden (1995) y el sueco Bo Wande (2002), sustentado en el DUEN o “Diccionario del Uso del Español Nicaragüense” (2001).

Guías bibliográficas

Ejecutado por la Comisión de Lexicografía y Gramática de la Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua, el DUEN culminaba una tradición iniciada en 1858 con Juan Eligio de la Rocha (1825-1873), quien reconocía el sustrato náhuatl en nuestro léxico y la entonación en el lenguaje familiar que convierte en agudos los nombres graves y esdrújulos cuando se usan en vocativo para llamar a distancia, aparte de identificar nuestros voseo, seseo y yeísmo. Esa tradición sería registrada en 1999, dentro de la guía bibliográfica “América Central” (Madrid, Arcos Libros), de Humberto López Morales —secretario de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española y una de las mayores autoridades del Español de América— que enriquecí, consistiendo en 265 trabajos sobre el español nicaragüense distribuidos en diez secciones.

A saber: I. Bibliografías: 10; II. Historiografía lingüística: 7; III. Volúmenes colectivos: 6; IV. Textos generales: 29; V. Fonología: 7; VI. Morfosintaxis: 21; VII. Léxico-Semántica: Artículos generales: 7; Nicaragüensismos: 42; Vocabularios especiales: 36; Antroponimia, toponimia, gentilicios: 15; otros artículos: 9; Lenguas indígenas e indigenismos: 17; Extranjerismos: 9; Paremiología y fraseología: 24. VIII. Sociolingüística y sociología de la lengua: 10; IX. Estudios lingüísticos de textos literarios: 12; X. Siglas y acrónimos: 4.

Dos años después los trabajos sumaban 272, como consta en el apéndice del DUEN, registrados e insertos los más recientes en cuatro volúmenes colectivos que edité en 1992, 1995, 2001 y 2004, respectivamente titulados: “El español en Nicaragua y Palabras y modismos de la lengua castellana, según se habla en Nicaragua” (1874), de Carl Hermann Berendt; “El español nicaragüense en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX”, “Estudios sobre el idioma español en Nicaragua” y “El español hablado en Nicaragua: nuevos estudios”.

Berendt y su inventario pionero

Carl Hermann Berendt (Danzing, Prusia, 1817-Ciudad de Guatemala, 1878) merece destacarse por su obra, uno de los primeros inventarios del español de América, ubicado entre el “Diccionario de peruanismos” (1871) de Juan de Arona (seudónimo de Pedro Paz Soldán y Unanue) y el “Diccionario de chilenismos” (1875) de Zorobadel Rodríguez (1839-1901). Dos mil ciento sesenta palabras recogió el alemán Berendt, en varias regiones del país, de informantes confiables. La mayoría vigentes, en los casos de flora y fauna las describía científicamente; cuando eran ostensibles nahuatlismos, precisaba su etimología y, en todos los casos, consignaba su función gramatical. Uno de los vocablos colectados, y que con otros cayó pronto en desuso fue “cholo” en su acepción de “mozo o sirviente”.

Barreto y su tendencia purista y normativa

El casticismo peninsular —del que prescindió Berendt— lo practicaron dos intelectuales de León: Mariano Barreto (1856-1927) y Alfonso Ayón (1856-1944). Ambos tenían de cabecera los “Apuntamientos críticos del lenguaje bogotano” (1867-1872) de Rufino José Cuervo (1844-1911) y el “Diccionario de galicismos” de Rafael María Baralt (1810-1860). Al mismo tiempo, se empeñaron en señalar las “incorrecciones” frecuentes del habla y redacción populares para ejemplificar su uso “correcto” con fragmentos de grandes escritores españoles. Pero su tendencia purista y normativa no les impidió valorar el habla de nuestro pueblo. En este sentido, Barreto emprendió un estudio comparativo —el primero en su género dentro del área centroamericana— sobre “El lenguaje popular de Colombia y Nicaragua”, considerado ‘utilísimo’ por el mismo Cuervo en carta a su autor del 23 de marzo de 1908.

Fletes Bolaños y su

campaña nacionalista

Por su parte, Anselmo Fletes Bolaños (Granada, 1878-Managua, 1930) protagonizó una campaña nacionalista, concentrada en las manifestaciones folclóricas de los nicaragüenses, frente a las dos intervenciones militares de Estados Unidos (1912-1925 y 1926-1932). Fletes Bolaños fue el primero en elaborar —difundiéndolo en parte y por entregas— un “Diccionario de nicaraguanismos”, que no pudo difundir. Pero sus dos trabajos más conocidos y extensos aparecieron en Chile, inspirados por estudiosos de ese país como el alemán Rodolfo Lenz (1863-1938) y Ramón A. Laval (1862-1929). Se titularon: “Lenguaje vulgar, familiar, folklórico de Chile y Nicaragua”; y “Fraseología comparada de Chile y Nicaragua”. El origen del sustantivo ‘macho’ aplicado a los norteamericanos Fletes Bolaños lo atribuyó a la cotidiana expresión de los interventores miembros del USMC (United States Marine Corps): —Give me a match [Dame un fósforo].

Castellón: primer diccionarista nicaragüense

A nivel de aficionado, el médico y político Hildebrando A. Castellón [Masatepe, 1876-Idem, 1943] llegó a elaborar —y a difundir en volumen— un “Diccionario de nicaraguanismos” (1939), el segundo después del de Berendt, estimulado por el “Manual del lenguaje criollo de Centro y Sud América” (1931) del español Ciro Bayo. Cuarenta y ocho fueron sus fuentes (“de lingüistas americanos, de gramática, de historia, de botánica y de zoología, así como numerosos diccionarios”), aparte de “la encuesta personal emprendida, en unión de varios jóvenes nicaragüenses” [en México y Guatemala]. Además, como nadie de sus coterráneos anteriormente, consignó la categoría gramatical de la mayor parte de los vocablos recogidos: unas dos mil (según él, cuatrocientos de ellos no definidos en ningún léxico), no pocos de ellos cuestionados por Alfonso Valle en “Filología nicaragüense” (1943).

Valle y su laboriosa constancia lexicográfica

El último (León, 25 de mayo, 1870-Managua, 21 de abril, 1961) demostró mayor constancia en su labor lexicográfica al concretarla en el más extenso “Diccionario del habla nicaragüense” (1948): unas ocho mil voces, mil doscientas de ellas “indígenas puras o indígenas castellanizadas”, incluyendo naturalmente las de origen antillano, tras consultar al lexicógrafo cubiche Alfredo Zallas y Alonso. También delimitó el concepto de ‘nicaraguanismo’, a pesar de su resabio purista (consideraba nuestro voseo un “cáncer idiomático”) y de prescindir de las palabras prohibidas —léase sexuales— que consideraba “dicciones indecentes”. Asimismo, Valle no determinó el género gramatical de cada lema, ni su función u oficio (sustantivo, adjetivo, verbo, adverbio, etc.).

Los diccionarios exhaustivos de Rabella / Pallais y Van der Gulden

De la misma limitación adolecieron Joaquín Rabella (catalán) y Chantal Pallais (nica) en su “Vocabulario popular nicaragüense” (1994) y Cristiana Van der Gulden, profesora por doce años en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, en su “Vocabulario nicaragüense” (1995), ambos exhaustivos. Los primeros aportaron más de cuatro mil vocablos, tras comprobar que los empleaban al menos cuatro personas desconocidas entre sí, de distintos niveles culturales y ubicación geográfica. Pero no abarcan el español de los mestizos de la costa Caribe, multiétnica y multiparlante; y las entradas carecían de marca alguna. Por su lado, Van der Gulden compiló más de cinco mil nicaragüensismos, en su mayoría tomados del Diccionario de Valle. Además de consultar otras 109 fuentes (sobre todo obras literarias), indicó la etimología de los vocablos y las autoridades con que respaldaba y ejemplificaba sus definiciones y acepciones.

Ponencias de Peña Hernández e Ycaza Tigerino

Para entonces, tenían muchos años de contribuir a la investigación léxico-semántica de nuestro español dos autores claves: Enrique Peña Hernández (1922) y Julio Ycaza Tigerino (1919-2001). Ellos representaron dignamente a Nicaragua, con numerosas ponencias, en los Congresos de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, celebrados en 1960 (Bogotá), 1964 (Buenos Aires), 1968 (Quito), 1972 (Caracas), 1980 (Lima), 1989 (San José, Costa Rica) y 1994 (Madrid).

Aportaciones de Silva y Mántica

Más significativas resultaron las aportaciones al mismo estudio de Fernando Silva (1927) y Carlos Mántica, también miembros de nuestra Academia, quienes —en sus respectivos discursos de ingreso— nos enseñaron a sentir orgullo por nuestra habla. Si el primero estructuró un pequeño diccionario de indigenismos, el segundo fue autor de la más amena y extensa obra sobre la materia, remontada a 1973 y con varias ediciones. En ella se diserta sobre el origen y desarrollo de nuestra habla, se puntualizan aspectos morfológicos y se compilan unidades fraseológicas, refranes, topónimos, etcétera. Todo, al igual que Silva, desde la perspectiva del diletante en el sentido neutro de aficionado culto y no en su significado de lego, superficial o chapucero.

Trabajos de

MATUS LAZO Y JEA

La formación universitaria y especializada sustentó los trabajos lexicográficos de otros estudiosos, como Róger Matus Lazo, a quien se le debe —por citar una de sus obras— un diccionario diastrático: “El lenguaje del pandillero” (1997). Yo —al asimilar en Augsburgo, 1990, los avances teóricos importantes de los lingüistas alemanes Günther Haensch y Reinhold Werner— figuro entre ellos. Así lo reveló mi investigación sobre el léxico sexual de Nicaragua, donde se prescinde del obsoleto criterio ‘pudoris causa’.

El DUEN de la Academia Nicaragüense

Más cualitativo que cuantitativo, el DUEN: “Diccionario del Uso del Español Nicaragüense” (2001), producto del trabajo de Peña Hernández, Matus Lazo, Francisco Arellano Oviedo y mío— marcó un hito en el desarrollo de la lexicografía del país, en virtud de su planta científica. O, mejor dicho, de su macroestructura y microestructura. No detallaré ambas, pues se anexan en páginas aparte, tomadas de su introducción.

EL DEN DE FAO

Pero señalaré que sirvió de base a una obra de superior alcance, con mayor cantidad de fuentes y una planta más completa. Me refiero al DEN: “Diccionario del Español de Nicaragua” (2007), dirigido por Arellano Oviedo, entonces secretario de nuestra Academia y hoy director, que tiene dos reediciones y contiene 7,652 lemas y 14,008 acepciones.

Otros aportes

Antes de la aparición del DEN, se publicaron otros aportes en libro que no deben eludirse en este recuento del quehacer lexicográfico de la patria de Darío: “Estudios sobre el español nicaragüense” (2002), de Róger Matus Lazo; “Diccionario de fraseologismos usados en Nicaragua” (2003), de G. Reina García; “Cómo hablan los adolescentes en Nicaragua” (2004), del ya citado Matus Lazo —el más prolífico y didáctico de nuestros lingüistas— y mi colección de glosas e indagaciones: “Del idioma español en Nicaragua” (2005).

Humberto López Morales reseñó esta obra oportunamente: “Este importante hito de la bibliografía sobre la variedad nicaragüense del español reúne 26 artículos… Los temas son variados: lexicología y lexicografía (anglicismos, hipocorísticos, léxico sexual, gentilicios, etcétera), de historiografía lingüística, bibliográficos, de morfología derivacional, aspectos de la herencia quechua, el etimológico, el habla nica en el DRAE, etcétera. Todo ello con erudición, sentido crítico, rigor científico y también notas de un fino humor que adereza el texto en diversas ocasiones”.

 

*(Ponencia leída el 12 de agosto de 2014 en la Universidad Nacional de San Marcos, Lima, durante el XI Congreso de Lexicografía, organizado en coordinación con la Academia Peruana de la Lengua).

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Visto desde el exterior, el quehacer lingüístico de Nicaragua es casi desconocido. Las obras de referencia lo ignoran y a veces se incluyen disparates, como el de la Enciclopedia Espasa-Calpe (suplemento de 1978, p. 777): “La lengua oficial de Nicaragua es el español, aunque se encuentra muy difundido el cibcio [sic]”; es decir, una lengua inexistente. Los dialectólogos españoles también desconocen ese quehacer. Apenas Milagros Alegre Izquierdo y José María Enguita Utría, en “El español de América: aproximación sincrónica” (2002), citan en su bibliografía —sin aprovecharlos— siete aportes, entre ellos mis “900 nicaragüensismos” (1990) y mi “Léxico sexual y anglicismos de Nicaragua” (1998). Y es que solo tres lingüistas europeos han elaborado comprehensiones específicas de nuestra variante o forma característica del español: el checo Lubomir Bârtos (1985), la holandesa Cristina van der Gulden (1995) y el sueco Bo Wande (2002), sustentado en el DUEN o “Diccionario del Uso del Español Nicaragüense” (2001).

Guías bibliográficas

Ejecutado por la Comisión de Lexicografía y Gramática de la Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua, el DUEN culminaba una tradición iniciada en 1858 con Juan Eligio de la Rocha (1825-1873), quien reconocía el sustrato náhuatl en nuestro léxico y la entonación en el lenguaje familiar que convierte en agudos los nombres graves y esdrújulos cuando se usan en vocativo para llamar a distancia, aparte de identificar nuestros voseo, seseo y yeísmo. Esa tradición sería registrada en 1999, dentro de la guía bibliográfica “América Central” (Madrid, Arcos Libros), de Humberto López Morales —secretario de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española y una de las mayores autoridades del Español de América— que enriquecí, consistiendo en 265 trabajos sobre el español nicaragüense distribuidos en diez secciones.

A saber: I. Bibliografías: 10; II. Historiografía lingüística: 7; III. Volúmenes colectivos: 6; IV. Textos generales: 29; V. Fonología: 7; VI. Morfosintaxis: 21; VII. Léxico-Semántica: Artículos generales: 7; Nicaragüensismos: 42; Vocabularios especiales: 36; Antroponimia, toponimia, gentilicios: 15; otros artículos: 9; Lenguas indígenas e indigenismos: 17; Extranjerismos: 9; Paremiología y fraseología: 24. VIII. Sociolingüística y sociología de la lengua: 10; IX. Estudios lingüísticos de textos literarios: 12; X. Siglas y acrónimos: 4.

Dos años después los trabajos sumaban 272, como consta en el apéndice del DUEN, registrados e insertos los más recientes en cuatro volúmenes colectivos que edité en 1992, 1995, 2001 y 2004, respectivamente titulados: “El español en Nicaragua y Palabras y modismos de la lengua castellana, según se habla en Nicaragua” (1874), de Carl Hermann Berendt; “El español nicaragüense en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX”, “Estudios sobre el idioma español en Nicaragua” y “El español hablado en Nicaragua: nuevos estudios”.

Berendt y su inventario pionero

Carl Hermann Berendt (Danzing, Prusia, 1817-Ciudad de Guatemala, 1878) merece destacarse por su obra, uno de los primeros inventarios del español de América, ubicado entre el “Diccionario de peruanismos” (1871) de Juan de Arona (seudónimo de Pedro Paz Soldán y Unanue) y el “Diccionario de chilenismos” (1875) de Zorobadel Rodríguez (1839-1901). Dos mil ciento sesenta palabras recogió el alemán Berendt, en varias regiones del país, de informantes confiables. La mayoría vigentes, en los casos de flora y fauna las describía científicamente; cuando eran ostensibles nahuatlismos, precisaba su etimología y, en todos los casos, consignaba su función gramatical. Uno de los vocablos colectados, y que con otros cayó pronto en desuso fue “cholo” en su acepción de “mozo o sirviente”.

Barreto y su tendencia purista y normativa

El casticismo peninsular —del que prescindió Berendt— lo practicaron dos intelectuales de León: Mariano Barreto (1856-1927) y Alfonso Ayón (1856-1944). Ambos tenían de cabecera los “Apuntamientos críticos del lenguaje bogotano” (1867-1872) de Rufino José Cuervo (1844-1911) y el “Diccionario de galicismos” de Rafael María Baralt (1810-1860). Al mismo tiempo, se empeñaron en señalar las “incorrecciones” frecuentes del habla y redacción populares para ejemplificar su uso “correcto” con fragmentos de grandes escritores españoles. Pero su tendencia purista y normativa no les impidió valorar el habla de nuestro pueblo. En este sentido, Barreto emprendió un estudio comparativo —el primero en su género dentro del área centroamericana— sobre “El lenguaje popular de Colombia y Nicaragua”, considerado ‘utilísimo’ por el mismo Cuervo en carta a su autor del 23 de marzo de 1908.

Fletes Bolaños y su

campaña nacionalista

Por su parte, Anselmo Fletes Bolaños (Granada, 1878-Managua, 1930) protagonizó una campaña nacionalista, concentrada en las manifestaciones folclóricas de los nicaragüenses, frente a las dos intervenciones militares de Estados Unidos (1912-1925 y 1926-1932). Fletes Bolaños fue el primero en elaborar —difundiéndolo en parte y por entregas— un “Diccionario de nicaraguanismos”, que no pudo difundir. Pero sus dos trabajos más conocidos y extensos aparecieron en Chile, inspirados por estudiosos de ese país como el alemán Rodolfo Lenz (1863-1938) y Ramón A. Laval (1862-1929). Se titularon: “Lenguaje vulgar, familiar, folklórico de Chile y Nicaragua”; y “Fraseología comparada de Chile y Nicaragua”. El origen del sustantivo ‘macho’ aplicado a los norteamericanos Fletes Bolaños lo atribuyó a la cotidiana expresión de los interventores miembros del USMC (United States Marine Corps): —Give me a match [Dame un fósforo].

Castellón: primer diccionarista nicaragüense

A nivel de aficionado, el médico y político Hildebrando A. Castellón [Masatepe, 1876-Idem, 1943] llegó a elaborar —y a difundir en volumen— un “Diccionario de nicaraguanismos” (1939), el segundo después del de Berendt, estimulado por el “Manual del lenguaje criollo de Centro y Sud América” (1931) del español Ciro Bayo. Cuarenta y ocho fueron sus fuentes (“de lingüistas americanos, de gramática, de historia, de botánica y de zoología, así como numerosos diccionarios”), aparte de “la encuesta personal emprendida, en unión de varios jóvenes nicaragüenses” [en México y Guatemala]. Además, como nadie de sus coterráneos anteriormente, consignó la categoría gramatical de la mayor parte de los vocablos recogidos: unas dos mil (según él, cuatrocientos de ellos no definidos en ningún léxico), no pocos de ellos cuestionados por Alfonso Valle en “Filología nicaragüense” (1943).

Valle y su laboriosa constancia lexicográfica

El último (León, 25 de mayo, 1870-Managua, 21 de abril, 1961) demostró mayor constancia en su labor lexicográfica al concretarla en el más extenso “Diccionario del habla nicaragüense” (1948): unas ocho mil voces, mil doscientas de ellas “indígenas puras o indígenas castellanizadas”, incluyendo naturalmente las de origen antillano, tras consultar al lexicógrafo cubiche Alfredo Zallas y Alonso. También delimitó el concepto de ‘nicaraguanismo’, a pesar de su resabio purista (consideraba nuestro voseo un “cáncer idiomático”) y de prescindir de las palabras prohibidas —léase sexuales— que consideraba “dicciones indecentes”. Asimismo, Valle no determinó el género gramatical de cada lema, ni su función u oficio (sustantivo, adjetivo, verbo, adverbio, etc.).

Los diccionarios exhaustivos de Rabella / Pallais y Van der Gulden

De la misma limitación adolecieron Joaquín Rabella (catalán) y Chantal Pallais (nica) en su “Vocabulario popular nicaragüense” (1994) y Cristiana Van der Gulden, profesora por doce años en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, en su “Vocabulario nicaragüense” (1995), ambos exhaustivos. Los primeros aportaron más de cuatro mil vocablos, tras comprobar que los empleaban al menos cuatro personas desconocidas entre sí, de distintos niveles culturales y ubicación geográfica. Pero no abarcan el español de los mestizos de la costa Caribe, multiétnica y multiparlante; y las entradas carecían de marca alguna. Por su lado, Van der Gulden compiló más de cinco mil nicaragüensismos, en su mayoría tomados del Diccionario de Valle. Además de consultar otras 109 fuentes (sobre todo obras literarias), indicó la etimología de los vocablos y las autoridades con que respaldaba y ejemplificaba sus definiciones y acepciones.

Ponencias de Peña Hernández e Ycaza Tigerino

Para entonces, tenían muchos años de contribuir a la investigación léxico-semántica de nuestro español dos autores claves: Enrique Peña Hernández (1922) y Julio Ycaza Tigerino (1919-2001). Ellos representaron dignamente a Nicaragua, con numerosas ponencias, en los Congresos de la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, celebrados en 1960 (Bogotá), 1964 (Buenos Aires), 1968 (Quito), 1972 (Caracas), 1980 (Lima), 1989 (San José, Costa Rica) y 1994 (Madrid).

Aportaciones de Silva y Mántica

Más significativas resultaron las aportaciones al mismo estudio de Fernando Silva (1927) y Carlos Mántica, también miembros de nuestra Academia, quienes —en sus respectivos discursos de ingreso— nos enseñaron a sentir orgullo por nuestra habla. Si el primero estructuró un pequeño diccionario de indigenismos, el segundo fue autor de la más amena y extensa obra sobre la materia, remontada a 1973 y con varias ediciones. En ella se diserta sobre el origen y desarrollo de nuestra habla, se puntualizan aspectos morfológicos y se compilan unidades fraseológicas, refranes, topónimos, etcétera. Todo, al igual que Silva, desde la perspectiva del diletante en el sentido neutro de aficionado culto y no en su significado de lego, superficial o chapucero.

Trabajos de

MATUS LAZO Y JEA

La formación universitaria y especializada sustentó los trabajos lexicográficos de otros estudiosos, como Róger Matus Lazo, a quien se le debe —por citar una de sus obras— un diccionario diastrático: “El lenguaje del pandillero” (1997). Yo —al asimilar en Augsburgo, 1990, los avances teóricos importantes de los lingüistas alemanes Günther Haensch y Reinhold Werner— figuro entre ellos. Así lo reveló mi investigación sobre el léxico sexual de Nicaragua, donde se prescinde del obsoleto criterio ‘pudoris causa’.

El DUEN de la Academia Nicaragüense

Más cualitativo que cuantitativo, el DUEN: “Diccionario del Uso del Español Nicaragüense” (2001), producto del trabajo de Peña Hernández, Matus Lazo, Francisco Arellano Oviedo y mío— marcó un hito en el desarrollo de la lexicografía del país, en virtud de su planta científica. O, mejor dicho, de su macroestructura y microestructura. No detallaré ambas, pues se anexan en páginas aparte, tomadas de su introducción.

EL DEN DE FAO

Pero señalaré que sirvió de base a una obra de superior alcance, con mayor cantidad de fuentes y una planta más completa. Me refiero al DEN: “Diccionario del Español de Nicaragua” (2007), dirigido por Arellano Oviedo, entonces secretario de nuestra Academia y hoy director, que tiene dos reediciones y contiene 7,652 lemas y 14,008 acepciones.

Otros aportes

Antes de la aparición del DEN, se publicaron otros aportes en libro que no deben eludirse en este recuento del quehacer lexicográfico de la patria de Darío: “Estudios sobre el español nicaragüense” (2002), de Róger Matus Lazo; “Diccionario de fraseologismos usados en Nicaragua” (2003), de G. Reina García; “Cómo hablan los adolescentes en Nicaragua” (2004), del ya citado Matus Lazo —el más prolífico y didáctico de nuestros lingüistas— y mi colección de glosas e indagaciones: “Del idioma español en Nicaragua” (2005).

Humberto López Morales reseñó esta obra oportunamente: “Este importante hito de la bibliografía sobre la variedad nicaragüense del español reúne 26 artículos… Los temas son variados: lexicología y lexicografía (anglicismos, hipocorísticos, léxico sexual, gentilicios, etcétera), de historiografía lingüística, bibliográficos, de morfología derivacional, aspectos de la herencia quechua, el etimológico, el habla nica en el DRAE, etcétera. Todo ello con erudición, sentido crítico, rigor científico y también notas de un fino humor que adereza el texto en diversas ocasiones”.

 

*(Ponencia leída el 12 de agosto de 2014 en la Universidad Nacional de San Marcos, Lima, durante el XI Congreso de Lexicografía, organizado en coordinación con la Academia Peruana de la Lengua).

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The Penobscot project - The Boston Globe

The Penobscot project - The Boston Globe | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

AS NATIVE AMERICANS were forced to assimilate into English-speaking culture and attend English-language schools during the 20th century, hundreds of languages were lost. UNESCO counts fewer than 140 Native languages left, with more than half of these critically endangered. In the past 20 years, however, as the last native speakers of these languages die out, tribal leaders and academics have grown increasingly active in protecting them: creating language schools, writing dictionaries, and using online tools to revitalize languages that in many cases had been long given up for dead.

Such is the case with Penobscot, a language spoken by the Penobscot, or Penawahpskewi people, in central Maine. A pathologist and self-taught linguist, Frank T. Siebert, Jr., spent decades recording Penobscot legends and oral history and drawing up a dictionary; among others, he worked with Madeleine Shea, the last fluent Penobscot speaker to learn the language at home, who died in 1993.

As a high school student, Conor Quinn worked as a “glorified typist” for Siebert. He went on to write his Harvard linguistics dissertation on Penobscot and has been studying the related family of Algonquian languages around Maine and southern Canada ever since, working to document and help revitalize the endangered languages of Passamaquoddy-Maliseet and Mi’gmaq. But Siebert’s dictionary, never fully completed, languished on 1980s-era floppy disks, willed to the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia after Siebert died in 1998.

In 2013, the Penobscot Nation and the University of Maine secured a three-year NSF-NEH grant to pay Quinn to revise and update Siebert’s work, with a goal of finalizing an approximately 20,000-entry digital and print edition by 2016 and creating teaching material to convey the information to a new generation of young Penobscot learners. Quinn and his collaborators, who include both academics and several Penobscot language instructors who work on the Indian Island reservation, are now busy tidying up Siebert’s dictionary and turning it into something that, as Quinn says, will be useful to new learners and won’t just end up “on [a] shelf somewhere.”

Quinn spoke with Ideas over Skype from Portland, Maine. This interview has been condensed and edited.

IDEAS: How would you describe the current situation for Native languages in New England?

QUINN:The majority, at least that I’ve encountered, are working on language revitalization. Because—I don’t want to put words in their mouth—but because they see it as a crucial part of who they are, and a crucial part especially of educating the youngest generation into who they are.

IDEAS: How did the Penobscot dictionary originally come to be?

QUINN:[Siebert] first met the Penobscot while his family was on vacation in Old Town in the mid-1930s. Just from an initial meeting with a Penobscot elder, he got started working to document the language and the oral literature in particular. And he pursued that—they always call it “avocationally.”...He worked with somewhere between a dozen and two dozen and possibly more speakers of Penobscot over the length of his work, collecting over 100 notebooks of linguistic material, including the oral literature he transcribed from dictation....During the 1980s, the Penobscot Nation got an NSF grant to hire him and a bunch of other people to work on creating a Penobscot dictionary from this material that he’d collected. They were still able to work with Madeleine Shea and get new information as well....

I’m not entirely clear on the circumstances of how it didn’t get finished, but it basically didn’t.... It sat there on 5¼-inch floppy disks done on an Apple IIe computer using the then cutting-edge Gutenburg word processing program—it was cutting-edge largely because it allowed you to create your own characters, which are needed to write in Penobscot—and that’s the way it sat.

IDEAS: ...Until you and the American Philosophical Society began updating them in the last few years. What are some of the challenges in working with Siebert’s files, so many years after Penobscot was last spoken in homes?

QUINN: We only have a limited knowledge of what’s wrong and right in the Penobscot language at this point. But we do the best we can. What you do mostly is you don’t change very much. You just annotate. If you see something that looks wrong, you’re less likely to just change it, and more likely to just add a note saying, this looks wrong for the following reasons, or this looks problematic for the following reasons....In particular, when it comes down to translations of Penobscot words, we’re unlikely to do any corrections at all, simply because we don’t know. We certainly don’t have a command of the fine subtleties of semantic nuance. The last time we had access to that was mostly when Madeleine Shea was available to work. So we note what has been done before in that regard, and leave it to the future to deal with.

IDEAS: How do you reconcile that with the need to make it clear for people who are coming to the language for the first time?

QUINN:You have to stop presenting yourself as a teacher who knows it all and knows it all for sure. We have to teach engagement with the language as an ongoing process of recovering and rethinking and never being quite sure. It’s really ok to never be 100 percent sure about everything.

IDEAS: What linguistic challenges have you faced in working on the dictionary?

QUINN: I think one of the most interesting issues with the dictionary is how to make it usable to an English-based beginner....Not only does [an Algonquian verb] conjugate for subject, it also conjugates for indirect object and direct object and also clause type—like main versus subordinate clause. And that can be intimidating at first....You won’t just have a Penobscot verb “give,” it will literally be, “that I give her it.”...The other thing is that Penobscot is a language that has very semantically rich suffixes. We have suffixes like -er and -ing and so forth that generally do very rarefied grammatical things. Penobscot has all those and more, in that it has suffixes that mean “dog” and “fish” and “conifer” versus “deciduous.”

IDEAS: Why do you think reviving the language is so important for the Penobscot?

QUINN: I think especially for young Native kids, who are pushed and pulled in so many directions, and by one source or another being punished for being Native, and then being punished for not being Native enough, and being pulled back and forth between those two—those kids who are given the opportunity to study their own language, the more language they know, the less ambiguity there is about their own identity, the more they can just say, “This is where I’m from. I know my stories, I can talk to my own people in a language you don’t even understand, because this is ours.”

Britt Peterson writs the Word column for Ideas. She lives in Washington, D.C. Follow her on Twitter@brittkpeterson.
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    AS NATIVE AMERICANS were forced to assimilate into English-speaking culture and attend English-language schools during the 20th century, hundreds of languages were lost. UNESCO counts fewer than 140 Native languages left, with more than half of these critically endangered. In the past 20 years, however, as the last native speakers of these languages die out, tribal leaders and academics have grown increasingly active in protecting them: creating language schools, writing dictionaries, and using online tools to revitalize languages that in many cases had been long given up for dead.

    Such is the case with Penobscot, a language spoken by the Penobscot, or Penawahpskewi people, in central Maine. A pathologist and self-taught linguist, Frank T. Siebert, Jr., spent decades recording Penobscot legends and oral history and drawing up a dictionary; among others, he worked with Madeleine Shea, the last fluent Penobscot speaker to learn the language at home, who died in 1993.

    As a high school student, Conor Quinn worked as a “glorified typist” for Siebert. He went on to write his Harvard linguistics dissertation on Penobscot and has been studying the related family of Algonquian languages around Maine and southern Canada ever since, working to document and help revitalize the endangered languages of Passamaquoddy-Maliseet and Mi’gmaq. But Siebert’s dictionary, never fully completed, languished on 1980s-era floppy disks, willed to the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia after Siebert died in 1998.

    In 2013, the Penobscot Nation and the University of Maine secured a three-year NSF-NEH grant to pay Quinn to revise and update Siebert’s work, with a goal of finalizing an approximately 20,000-entry digital and print edition by 2016 and creating teaching material to convey the information to a new generation of young Penobscot learners. Quinn and his collaborators, who include both academics and several Penobscot language instructors who work on the Indian Island reservation, are now busy tidying up Siebert’s dictionary and turning it into something that, as Quinn says, will be useful to new learners and won’t just end up “on [a] shelf somewhere.”

    Quinn spoke with Ideas over Skype from Portland, Maine. This interview has been condensed and edited.

    IDEAS: How would you describe the current situation for Native languages in New England?

    QUINN:The majority, at least that I’ve encountered, are working on language revitalization. Because—I don’t want to put words in their mouth—but because they see it as a crucial part of who they are, and a crucial part especially of educating the youngest generation into who they are.

    IDEAS: How did the Penobscot dictionary originally come to be?

    QUINN:[Siebert] first met the Penobscot while his family was on vacation in Old Town in the mid-1930s. Just from an initial meeting with a Penobscot elder, he got started working to document the language and the oral literature in particular. And he pursued that—they always call it “avocationally.”...He worked with somewhere between a dozen and two dozen and possibly more speakers of Penobscot over the length of his work, collecting over 100 notebooks of linguistic material, including the oral literature he transcribed from dictation....During the 1980s, the Penobscot Nation got an NSF grant to hire him and a bunch of other people to work on creating a Penobscot dictionary from this material that he’d collected. They were still able to work with Madeleine Shea and get new information as well....

    I’m not entirely clear on the circumstances of how it didn’t get finished, but it basically didn’t.... It sat there on 5¼-inch floppy disks done on an Apple IIe computer using the then cutting-edge Gutenburg word processing program—it was cutting-edge largely because it allowed you to create your own characters, which are needed to write in Penobscot—and that’s the way it sat.

    IDEAS: ...Until you and the American Philosophical Society began updating them in the last few years. What are some of the challenges in working with Siebert’s files, so many years after Penobscot was last spoken in homes?

    QUINN: We only have a limited knowledge of what’s wrong and right in the Penobscot language at this point. But we do the best we can. What you do mostly is you don’t change very much. You just annotate. If you see something that looks wrong, you’re less likely to just change it, and more likely to just add a note saying, this looks wrong for the following reasons, or this looks problematic for the following reasons....In particular, when it comes down to translations of Penobscot words, we’re unlikely to do any corrections at all, simply because we don’t know. We certainly don’t have a command of the fine subtleties of semantic nuance. The last time we had access to that was mostly when Madeleine Shea was available to work. So we note what has been done before in that regard, and leave it to the future to deal with.

    IDEAS: How do you reconcile that with the need to make it clear for people who are coming to the language for the first time?

    QUINN:You have to stop presenting yourself as a teacher who knows it all and knows it all for sure. We have to teach engagement with the language as an ongoing process of recovering and rethinking and never being quite sure. It’s really ok to never be 100 percent sure about everything.

    IDEAS: What linguistic challenges have you faced in working on the dictionary?

    QUINN: I think one of the most interesting issues with the dictionary is how to make it usable to an English-based beginner....Not only does [an Algonquian verb] conjugate for subject, it also conjugates for indirect object and direct object and also clause type—like main versus subordinate clause. And that can be intimidating at first....You won’t just have a Penobscot verb “give,” it will literally be, “that I give her it.”...The other thing is that Penobscot is a language that has very semantically rich suffixes. We have suffixes like -er and -ing and so forth that generally do very rarefied grammatical things. Penobscot has all those and more, in that it has suffixes that mean “dog” and “fish” and “conifer” versus “deciduous.”

    IDEAS: Why do you think reviving the language is so important for the Penobscot?

    QUINN: I think especially for young Native kids, who are pushed and pulled in so many directions, and by one source or another being punished for being Native, and then being punished for not being Native enough, and being pulled back and forth between those two—those kids who are given the opportunity to study their own language, the more language they know, the less ambiguity there is about their own identity, the more they can just say, “This is where I’m from. I know my stories, I can talk to my own people in a language you don’t even understand, because this is ours.”

    Britt Peterson writs the Word column for Ideas. She lives in Washington, D.C. Follow her on Twitter@brittkpeterson.
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    Researcher Juha Nurmi received a stipend from Google for Tor search engine development - Tampere University of Technology

    Researcher Juha Nurmi received a stipend from Google for Tor search engine development - Tampere University of Technology | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
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    ITA celebrates International Literacy Day 2014

    ITA celebrates International Literacy Day 2014 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

    Literacy helps to cross an individual from misery to hope and finally to the road of success.

    It is a tool to improve the standard of living and utilising the potential, said Kiran Zubair, Project Coordinator, Idarae Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA).

    The ‘International Literacy Day’ is being celebrated in Drop in Centres, Korangi, recently on the theme “Literacy and Sustainable Development”.

    In line with the theme for this year’s International Literacy Day, Idarae Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA) with collaboration with the partner schools celebrated the International Literacy Day in the city, Karachi, under the banner “Provide Education and Safe Schools in Emergencies”.

    Art, debates and essay competition were held in all primary schools (classes 3, 4 and 5), debates and essay competitions in middle and high schools (classes 6, 7 and 8). ‘Education Walks’ near the local MNA’s offices was placed by school children, teachers and ITA team members in order to highlight the significance of the day and showed solidarity for the issue.

    A post card campaign was also carried out in all literacy centers of Korangi. The cards were filled out by school children and community members in order to pledge allegiance to literacy and education for all under the upcoming deadline for the MDGs. The ITA hopes to reach a figure of 20,000 cards addressed to the president, prime minister, all chief ministers of provinces and education ministers of province as an appeal to address the urgent education emergency.

    The pledge forms were also filled out by students of these schools reading ‘I want good education and safe schools because…’ in English, Urdu and Sindhi with the students completed the sentence in his/her own hand writing as evidence for their dedication and commitment to education. This signature pledge was used as the start of a 500 day campaign towards the conclusion of the MDGs and Pakistan’s effort to make an impression on this day.



    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Literacy helps to cross an individual from misery to hope and finally to the road of success.

    It is a tool to improve the standard of living and utilising the potential, said Kiran Zubair, Project Coordinator, Idarae Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA).

    The ‘International Literacy Day’ is being celebrated in Drop in Centres, Korangi, recently on the theme “Literacy and Sustainable Development”.

    In line with the theme for this year’s International Literacy Day, Idarae Taleem-o-Aagahi (ITA) with collaboration with the partner schools celebrated the International Literacy Day in the city, Karachi, under the banner “Provide Education and Safe Schools in Emergencies”.

    Art, debates and essay competition were held in all primary schools (classes 3, 4 and 5), debates and essay competitions in middle and high schools (classes 6, 7 and 8). ‘Education Walks’ near the local MNA’s offices was placed by school children, teachers and ITA team members in order to highlight the significance of the day and showed solidarity for the issue.

    A post card campaign was also carried out in all literacy centers of Korangi. The cards were filled out by school children and community members in order to pledge allegiance to literacy and education for all under the upcoming deadline for the MDGs. The ITA hopes to reach a figure of 20,000 cards addressed to the president, prime minister, all chief ministers of provinces and education ministers of province as an appeal to address the urgent education emergency.

    The pledge forms were also filled out by students of these schools reading ‘I want good education and safe schools because…’ in English, Urdu and Sindhi with the students completed the sentence in his/her own hand writing as evidence for their dedication and commitment to education. This signature pledge was used as the start of a 500 day campaign towards the conclusion of the MDGs and Pakistan’s effort to make an impression on this day.



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    John Kerry: War terminology 'waste of time'

    John Kerry: War terminology 'waste of time' | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
    Are we at war with ISIS, or ISIL, or not?
    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Secretary of State John Kerry clarifies that discussion in an interview Sunday morning on CBS' "Face the Nation."

    "I think there's frankly a kind of tortured debate going on about terminology," Kerry tells Bob Schieffer. "What I'm focused on, obviously, is getting done what we need to get done to ISIL. But if people need to find a place to land in terms of what we did in Iraq -- originally this is not a war. This is not combat troops on the ground. It's not hundreds of thousands of people. It's not that kind of mobilization.

    "But, in terms of al-Qaeda, which we have used the word war with, yeah we are at war with al-qaeda and its affiliates. And in the same context if you want to use it, yes, we are at war with ISIL in that sense. But I think it's waste of time to focus on that. Frankly, let's consider what we have to do to degrade and defeat ISIL. And that's what I'm frankly much more focused on."

    "Face the Nation" airs at 10:30 a.m. on WKMG-Channel 6.


    cComments
    • I'm afraid this administration uses buzz words that imply they're doing something to alleviate the problem. If that isn't the case, it's then probable they have no idea what they're saying or implying.
      THE REAL JUDY2
      AT 6:13 PM SEPTEMBER 14, 2014
    ADD A COMMENTSEE ALL COMMENTS


    Kerry says the United States is not coordinating its moves against ISIS with Syria. And Kerry adds that the United States is not asking allies to put boots on the ground in the conflict. But the secretary of state wasn't offering specifics.

    "What we're doing right now, Bob, is putting together the whole package," Kerry said. "And it's not appropriate to start announcing, 'Well this country will do this, this country will do that.'"

     

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    In their world, everything hinges on speaking English

    In their world, everything hinges on speaking English | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

    Pushpa G., who irons clothes by the roadside in Banashankari III Stage, pulled out her son Nikhil from a government school two years ago and put him in a private one. This meant shelling out Rs. 450 a month for fees, besides expenses towards uniform, books and other paraphernalia, as opposed to the old school which gave all of it free and gave him midday meals as well.

    Way forward

    “This is a burden on me, but I don’t mind it because I want him to do well and not end up like me,” said Ms. Pushpa. She is voicing the sentiment of a large section of lower middle-class and poor people in a city like Bangalore, who see English education as the only route to upward mobility.

    With government jobs drying up and private companies seeing English as a necessary qualification for even blue-collar jobs, they are making a beeline to privately-run English-medium schools, even if it is expensive, and cuts into their meagre income. “You need to know English, not only for big jobs, but even if you want to get a job in a mall as a salesman,” said Lakshmi, a pourakarmika, who sends her daughter to an English-medium school run in a crammed building, with no ventilation or playground.

    The trend among parents to send their children to English-medium schools is not just limited to Bangalore, but is witnessed increasingly across the State, ranging from a multi-lingual border district like Bidar to a south Karnataka district like Hassan, with a large number of Kannada speakers.

    Though Bidar has thousands of children studying in Urdu, Marathi, Hindi and Telugu schools, the number of students attending English-medium schools is steadily rising over the last two decades. In the last 10 years, the government has closed down around 200 government, Kannada, Marathi and Urdu schools in Bidar.

    “In the 1990s, English-medium schools had less than five per cent of students in the district. Now, they have nearly a third of the total student population,” says a senior officer of the Department of Education in Bidar.

    Abdul Quadeer, secretary of the Allama Iqbal Education Society that runs Urdu and Kannada-medium schools, argues that their good pass percentage over the years proves that English schools are not necessarily better. “For 15 years now, our students have outperformed those from English-medium schools in the district,” he said, adding that dedication of teachers and close academic monitoring has ensured good results.

    However, parents who send their children to English-medium schools say their decision is founded out of good practical sense. They say English will help their children develop confidence to face a competitive world and get lucrative jobs.

    A.P. Pavitra of Shettihalli in Channarayapatna wants her daughter to learn both English and Kannada. “We are farmers; we could have saved money if we had sent her to a government Kannada school. But we know the money we spend will not be wasted. We feel proud when our five-year-old daughter recites English rhymes,” she says.

    Keeping pace

    Some parents, who studied in Kannada-medium schools, feel their children need to learn English to keep pace with the changing times. G.K. Suresh, who works in a private finance firm in Hassan, said: “Writers and thinkers keep talking about primary education in the mother tongue. But, why study Kannada when private employers expect good English communication skills? If I had studied in English-medium in primary school, I would have been in a bigger position in my own company.”

    (By Bageshree S. in Bangalore, Rishikesh Bahadur Desai in Bidar and Sathish G.T. in Hassan)

    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Pushpa G., who irons clothes by the roadside in Banashankari III Stage, pulled out her son Nikhil from a government school two years ago and put him in a private one. This meant shelling out Rs. 450 a month for fees, besides expenses towards uniform, books and other paraphernalia, as opposed to the old school which gave all of it free and gave him midday meals as well.

    Way forward

    “This is a burden on me, but I don’t mind it because I want him to do well and not end up like me,” said Ms. Pushpa. She is voicing the sentiment of a large section of lower middle-class and poor people in a city like Bangalore, who see English education as the only route to upward mobility.

    With government jobs drying up and private companies seeing English as a necessary qualification for even blue-collar jobs, they are making a beeline to privately-run English-medium schools, even if it is expensive, and cuts into their meagre income. “You need to know English, not only for big jobs, but even if you want to get a job in a mall as a salesman,” said Lakshmi, a pourakarmika, who sends her daughter to an English-medium school run in a crammed building, with no ventilation or playground.

    The trend among parents to send their children to English-medium schools is not just limited to Bangalore, but is witnessed increasingly across the State, ranging from a multi-lingual border district like Bidar to a south Karnataka district like Hassan, with a large number of Kannada speakers.

    Though Bidar has thousands of children studying in Urdu, Marathi, Hindi and Telugu schools, the number of students attending English-medium schools is steadily rising over the last two decades. In the last 10 years, the government has closed down around 200 government, Kannada, Marathi and Urdu schools in Bidar.

    “In the 1990s, English-medium schools had less than five per cent of students in the district. Now, they have nearly a third of the total student population,” says a senior officer of the Department of Education in Bidar.

    Abdul Quadeer, secretary of the Allama Iqbal Education Society that runs Urdu and Kannada-medium schools, argues that their good pass percentage over the years proves that English schools are not necessarily better. “For 15 years now, our students have outperformed those from English-medium schools in the district,” he said, adding that dedication of teachers and close academic monitoring has ensured good results.

    However, parents who send their children to English-medium schools say their decision is founded out of good practical sense. They say English will help their children develop confidence to face a competitive world and get lucrative jobs.

    A.P. Pavitra of Shettihalli in Channarayapatna wants her daughter to learn both English and Kannada. “We are farmers; we could have saved money if we had sent her to a government Kannada school. But we know the money we spend will not be wasted. We feel proud when our five-year-old daughter recites English rhymes,” she says.

    Keeping pace

    Some parents, who studied in Kannada-medium schools, feel their children need to learn English to keep pace with the changing times. G.K. Suresh, who works in a private finance firm in Hassan, said: “Writers and thinkers keep talking about primary education in the mother tongue. But, why study Kannada when private employers expect good English communication skills? If I had studied in English-medium in primary school, I would have been in a bigger position in my own company.”

    (By Bageshree S. in Bangalore, Rishikesh Bahadur Desai in Bidar and Sathish G.T. in Hassan)

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    A day for unpublished writers

    A day for unpublished writers | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
    Island-based writers can indulge in a day of talks and panel discussions from authors, poets and scriptwriters at this year’s Manx Litfest Writers’ Day – with some having the opportunity to pitch to a literary agent.
    Charles Tiayon's insight:


    Island-based writers can indulge in a day of talks and panel discussions from authors, poets and scriptwriters at this year’s Manx Litfest Writers’ Day – with some having the opportunity to pitch to a literary agent.


    The Writers’ Day, which is largely aimed at unpublished writers, takes place at King William’s College, and is being sponsored for the second year running by Pokerstars.

    Literary agent Joanna Swainson is returning for this year’s festival, having attended the inaugural Manx Litfest in 2012, when she signed up two unpublished Isle of Man-based writers.

    The day will involve talks by Joanna, scriptwriter Shawn Sturnick from Preposterous Theatre, and visiting authors Nicola Morgan and Samantha Shannon, whose debut novel The Bone Season has been snapped up by 20th Century Fox for a series of movies.

    There will also be panel discussions on ‘routes to publication’, ‘plot, structure and character’ and ‘revising and rewriting’, with several Isle of Man-based authors taking part.

    In addition, Joanna will be holding 15 one-to-one pitch slots for writers, when she will give feedback on their manuscripts.

    Festival director John Quirk said: ‘The Writers’ Day continues to grow in popularity, and we’ve expanded the programme for this year, with a full day of talks and panel discussions about the craft of writing and the publishing industry. There will be a wealth of advice and information available, and we’d like to thank our sponsor for the day, Pokerstars, for helping to make this happen, and of course King William’s College for hosting the event.

    ‘We’re delighted to have Joanna back with us this year. Her pitch slots are going very quickly, so if anyone is interested they will need to contact us as soon as possible. After Litfest 2012, Joanna said she was impressed with the quality of writing she had seen, claiming it was of a higher standard overall than she had found at some dedicated writing festivals.’

    Manx Litfest itself runs from Wednesday, September 24, until Sunday, September 28, with a range of events taking place at venues across the island. Among those visiting for the festival are award-winning authors Sally Gardner, Mark Billingham and Philip Reeve.’

    Tickets for Writers’ Day are priced at £25, with a pitch slot an additional £25. To inquire about availability, please email bookings@manxlitfest.com

    The programme for this year’s festival is available online here

    Tickets for the main Litfest ticketed events can be bought from the Villa Gaiety box office: https://villagaiety.ticketsolve.com/production_companies/126497676/shows

    Manx Litfest is a registered charity and is supported by Isle of Man Arts Council, Island of Culture, and Culture Vannin, along with several corporate sponsors.


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    Youssou Touré invite le gouvernement à favoriser les langues nationale

    Youssou Touré invite le gouvernement à favoriser les langues nationale | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

    Dakar, 14 sept (APS) - Le gouvernement doit aider les populations à s’informer et à communiquer avec le monde par le biais des langues nationales pour le développement économique et social du pays, a soutenu, dimanche, le Secrétaire d’Etat, chargé de l’Alphabétisation et des Langues nationales, Youssou Touré.

    ‘’Tant que les Sérères, les Pulars, les Sarakholés , les Baïnouk etc. ne pourront pas s’informer et communiqué avec la langue qui est la leur, lire les journaux et accéder à l’Internet dans leurs langues, on aura raté notre envol économique et social’’, a dit M. Touré enseignant de formation et ancien directeur d’école.

    S’exprimant lors de la clôture de la 39ème semaine nationale de l’Alphabétisation, M. Touré a estimé qu’’il est ‘’temps pour les pays africains de sortir du sous-développement'' mental et psychologique dans le quel ils sont plongés depuis plusieurs décennies.

    Les langues étrangères ‘’ont pris une place qui n’est pas la leur’’, selon Youssou Touré, ajoutant : ‘’Donc sous sommes dominés économiquement et mentalement et nous devons voir comment sortir’’ de ce sous-développement.

    Au Sénégal, a-t-il relevé, l’Etat compte promouvoir les langues nationales. ‘’Nous allons voir avec le budget, parce qu’il faut qu’une part importante soit réservée au secteur de l’alphabétisation et de la promotion des langues nationales’’, -t-il dit.

    Le Secrétaire d’Etat à l’Alphabétisation a indiqué que le retard économique, culturel et social du Sénégal est dû au fait que le pays compte 70% d’analphabètes. Selon lui, ce taux pourrait être réduit ‘’si on donnait à chaque citoyen les outils nécessaires’’ lui permettant de communiquer avec le monde.

    Pour Youssou Touré, ‘’’Il faut qu’on ose aller de l’avant pour prendre en charge et de façon correcte les préoccupations des populations en matière d’apprentissage des langues nationales’’. ‘’Un pays ne peut pas se développer sans ses langues nationales. On ne peut pas se développer avec une langue étrangère’’, a dit M. Touré. 

    SK/OID

    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Dakar, 14 sept (APS) - Le gouvernement doit aider les populations à s’informer et à communiquer avec le monde par le biais des langues nationales pour le développement économique et social du pays, a soutenu, dimanche, le Secrétaire d’Etat, chargé de l’Alphabétisation et des Langues nationales, Youssou Touré.

    ‘’Tant que les Sérères, les Pulars, les Sarakholés , les Baïnouk etc. ne pourront pas s’informer et communiqué avec la langue qui est la leur, lire les journaux et accéder à l’Internet dans leurs langues, on aura raté notre envol économique et social’’, a dit M. Touré enseignant de formation et ancien directeur d’école.

    S’exprimant lors de la clôture de la 39ème semaine nationale de l’Alphabétisation, M. Touré a estimé qu’’il est ‘’temps pour les pays africains de sortir du sous-développement'' mental et psychologique dans le quel ils sont plongés depuis plusieurs décennies.

    Les langues étrangères ‘’ont pris une place qui n’est pas la leur’’, selon Youssou Touré, ajoutant : ‘’Donc sous sommes dominés économiquement et mentalement et nous devons voir comment sortir’’ de ce sous-développement.

    Au Sénégal, a-t-il relevé, l’Etat compte promouvoir les langues nationales. ‘’Nous allons voir avec le budget, parce qu’il faut qu’une part importante soit réservée au secteur de l’alphabétisation et de la promotion des langues nationales’’, -t-il dit.

    Le Secrétaire d’Etat à l’Alphabétisation a indiqué que le retard économique, culturel et social du Sénégal est dû au fait que le pays compte 70% d’analphabètes. Selon lui, ce taux pourrait être réduit ‘’si on donnait à chaque citoyen les outils nécessaires’’ lui permettant de communiquer avec le monde.

    Pour Youssou Touré, ‘’’Il faut qu’on ose aller de l’avant pour prendre en charge et de façon correcte les préoccupations des populations en matière d’apprentissage des langues nationales’’. ‘’Un pays ne peut pas se développer sans ses langues nationales. On ne peut pas se développer avec une langue étrangère’’, a dit M. Touré. 

    SK/OID

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    Stress is on mother tongue of child

    Stress is on mother tongue of child | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

    Public discourse on the State government’s 1994 language policy is often misguided in assuming ‘mother tongue’ to be Kannada alone. The policy actually favours the mother tongue of the child and not the regional language (Kannada) alone.

    Linguist K.V. Narayana, chairman of the Kuvempu Bhasha Bharathi Authority, said the policy makers were themselves confused on the issue as a result of which the debate on it has been misled. He said mother tongue was that language the child speaks at home and carried to the school, which is widely believed to be the best medium of instruction for the child.

    In a State with high levels of migration from across the country, the implementation of the policy in this broad sense is ridded with many “practical difficulties”, say Education Department officials.

    While Urdu as a medium of instruction could be ensured as there are many Urdu-medium schools in the State, ensuring education in all other languages is a Herculean task, they said. “We cannot teach in different languages in the same school. However, starting schools for every language is also not practical,” an education official said. This raises questions on the effective implementation of the 1994 language policy in its spirit.

    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Public discourse on the State government’s 1994 language policy is often misguided in assuming ‘mother tongue’ to be Kannada alone. The policy actually favours the mother tongue of the child and not the regional language (Kannada) alone.

    Linguist K.V. Narayana, chairman of the Kuvempu Bhasha Bharathi Authority, said the policy makers were themselves confused on the issue as a result of which the debate on it has been misled. He said mother tongue was that language the child speaks at home and carried to the school, which is widely believed to be the best medium of instruction for the child.

    In a State with high levels of migration from across the country, the implementation of the policy in this broad sense is ridded with many “practical difficulties”, say Education Department officials.

    While Urdu as a medium of instruction could be ensured as there are many Urdu-medium schools in the State, ensuring education in all other languages is a Herculean task, they said. “We cannot teach in different languages in the same school. However, starting schools for every language is also not practical,” an education official said. This raises questions on the effective implementation of the 1994 language policy in its spirit.

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    CHESTER: Chester pastor helps draft new Bible translation | Religion | Rock Hill Herald Online

    CHESTER: Chester pastor helps draft new Bible translation | Religion | Rock Hill Herald Online | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

    CHESTER — Rob Noland considers himself a “biblical teacher.”

    “Accurately communicating God’s word to people is important to me,” said Noland, a pastor at Restoring Hope Foursquare Church in Chester. “Anytime I have an opportunity to do something that helps along that line, I’m going to take that opportunity.”

    Such an opportunity came along about two years ago when Noland was asked to join 46 other people to create a new translation of the King James Bible. Their work, the Modern English Version, was published in May by Charisma House.

    “I’ve always enjoyed making sure that the scripture is accurately translated,” Noland said. “I believe it’s important that we properly understand what the Bible says.”

    Noland has two master’s degrees in divinity and religious education from Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Kansas City, Mo., and served as a chaplain for the U.S. Army. While serving as Deputy Command Chaplain of the Army Reserves Medical Command in St. Petersburg, Fla., Noland met Jim Linzey, a retired Army National Guard chaplain who spearheaded the MEV translation effort.

    When Linzey asked Noland to assist with the new translation, he jumped at the chance.

    The King James Bible, published in 1611, is the oldest English language version of the Bible. It was translated into the New King James Version in 1982, but Noland said the Modern English Version provides readers with wording that is even easier to understand.

    “The language of the King James Bible is so outdated that there’s a lot of words in there that mean something totally different today than they meant when the King James Bible was made,” Noland said. “There are even language differences since the New King James.”

    Preserving certain aspects of the King James Version was just as important as updating the language, Noland said.

    “It was just bringing the King James Bible style into our modern day language so that people today can understand it better, but still have the same kind of feeling of reading the King James,” Noland said.

    Most of the translators involved were military chaplains because Linzey’s original goal was to translate the Bible to help soldiers better understand the language in the King James Version. After the process began, Linzey and his peers realized the Modern English Version was a tool that could help those outside of the military as well.

    “My hope is that it’s a translation that anybody, young or old, can pick up and read it and feel like they have a clearer understanding, or it makes sense to them like it hasn’t made sense before,” Noland said.

    Noland was responsible for translating 10 books of the Bible: Genesis, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Philemon, Titus, James and 2 Peter. The process took him just over two years.

    “Some of it was easy. Some of it took a lot more prayer, thought and time,” Noland said. “Sometimes I hit a blank wall and would have to get away from it for a few weeks and come back to it fresh and the proper translations would come.”

    The process was similar to putting together a sermon or presenting the scripture to individuals at Restoring Hope, Noland said. He tried to make the source material of the King James Version understandable for his audience.

    Aside from helping the average reader understand the Bible, Noland said translating the 10 books was a rewarding process for him for another reason.

    “As I worked on the (translations), I got the advantage of studying, in depth, the books,” Noland said. “So that helps my understanding of the scripture and that, to me, is the most rewarding thing. I have a deeper understanding and a deeper appreciation of the scripture.”

    With nearly 50 other translators involved, the Modern English Version’s approach was different, Noland said. He said having such a large translation committee allowed for greater accuracy.

    Ensuring the best translations were used was a priority during the project, which is why Noland said each chaplain’s work went through a thorough review process.

    “Once we did our work, then there were academic scholars that went through it again to check our work to make sure it was accurate,” Noland said. “So there have been checks and double checks. It’s a very accurate translation.”


    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    CHESTER — Rob Noland considers himself a “biblical teacher.”

    “Accurately communicating God’s word to people is important to me,” said Noland, a pastor at Restoring Hope Foursquare Church in Chester. “Anytime I have an opportunity to do something that helps along that line, I’m going to take that opportunity.”

    Such an opportunity came along about two years ago when Noland was asked to join 46 other people to create a new translation of the King James Bible. Their work, the Modern English Version, was published in May by Charisma House.

    “I’ve always enjoyed making sure that the scripture is accurately translated,” Noland said. “I believe it’s important that we properly understand what the Bible says.”

    Noland has two master’s degrees in divinity and religious education from Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Kansas City, Mo., and served as a chaplain for the U.S. Army. While serving as Deputy Command Chaplain of the Army Reserves Medical Command in St. Petersburg, Fla., Noland met Jim Linzey, a retired Army National Guard chaplain who spearheaded the MEV translation effort.

    When Linzey asked Noland to assist with the new translation, he jumped at the chance.

    The King James Bible, published in 1611, is the oldest English language version of the Bible. It was translated into the New King James Version in 1982, but Noland said the Modern English Version provides readers with wording that is even easier to understand.

    “The language of the King James Bible is so outdated that there’s a lot of words in there that mean something totally different today than they meant when the King James Bible was made,” Noland said. “There are even language differences since the New King James.”

    Preserving certain aspects of the King James Version was just as important as updating the language, Noland said.

    “It was just bringing the King James Bible style into our modern day language so that people today can understand it better, but still have the same kind of feeling of reading the King James,” Noland said.

    Most of the translators involved were military chaplains because Linzey’s original goal was to translate the Bible to help soldiers better understand the language in the King James Version. After the process began, Linzey and his peers realized the Modern English Version was a tool that could help those outside of the military as well.

    “My hope is that it’s a translation that anybody, young or old, can pick up and read it and feel like they have a clearer understanding, or it makes sense to them like it hasn’t made sense before,” Noland said.

    Noland was responsible for translating 10 books of the Bible: Genesis, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Philemon, Titus, James and 2 Peter. The process took him just over two years.

    “Some of it was easy. Some of it took a lot more prayer, thought and time,” Noland said. “Sometimes I hit a blank wall and would have to get away from it for a few weeks and come back to it fresh and the proper translations would come.”

    The process was similar to putting together a sermon or presenting the scripture to individuals at Restoring Hope, Noland said. He tried to make the source material of the King James Version understandable for his audience.

    Aside from helping the average reader understand the Bible, Noland said translating the 10 books was a rewarding process for him for another reason.

    “As I worked on the (translations), I got the advantage of studying, in depth, the books,” Noland said. “So that helps my understanding of the scripture and that, to me, is the most rewarding thing. I have a deeper understanding and a deeper appreciation of the scripture.”

    With nearly 50 other translators involved, the Modern English Version’s approach was different, Noland said. He said having such a large translation committee allowed for greater accuracy.

    Ensuring the best translations were used was a priority during the project, which is why Noland said each chaplain’s work went through a thorough review process.

    “Once we did our work, then there were academic scholars that went through it again to check our work to make sure it was accurate,” Noland said. “So there have been checks and double checks. It’s a very accurate translation.”

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    Power of the Gospel Not Lost in Translation at Toronto Festival, More than 10,000 to the Air Canada Centre with Hundreds Packing the Floor to Make A Decision for Christ

    Power of the Gospel Not Lost in Translation at Toronto Festival,  More than 10,000 to the Air Canada Centre with Hundreds Packing the Floor to Make A Decision for Christ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
    On Friday night, Toronto became the matrix of preaching the Gospel message to all nations, with the floor at the Air Canada Centre transformed from its space normally reserved for hosting professional basketball (Raptors) and hockey (Maple Leafs).
    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    On Friday night, Toronto became the matrix of preaching the Gospel message to all nations, with the floor at the Air Canada Centre transformed from its space normally reserved for hosting professional basketball (Raptors) and hockey (Maple Leafs).

    Instead, it was Franklin Graham's message of hope-and the transforming power of the Holy Spirit-that moved in this metropolitan region where more than 160 languages are spoken.

    The unwavering Good News was not just heard by the 10,000-plus in attendance. Through live Internet streaming, more than 17,000 watched online from over 100 different countries.

    "The beauty of the human race is found in the diversity of the human race," said Newsboys lead singer Michael Tait as he closed out the night.

    From "He Reigns" to "God's Not Dead," the Newsboys and lead singer Michael Tait closed up a powerful night of worship.

    That message rang true at the Greater Toronto Festival of Hope. Not only was the night's events translated into six language-Cantonese, Mandarin, Spanish, Farsi, Arabic and Russian-but trained language counselors helped those speaking subset tongues to understand fully what it means to be a follower of Jesus Christ.

    "You're helping them understand the truth," said Mandarin language counselor Sharon Zhao, who added one in 10 Toronto residents have roots in China's mainland.

    A Sunday school teacher at Richmond Hill Christian Church, Zhao felt called to use her bilingual talents to counsel Mandarin-speaking seekers and her efforts were doubled.

    Mother and daughter Mandarin speakers, Fengin, 65, and Judy, 40, both responded to Franklin Graham's invitation-after an impactful message from Jonah 1-to receive Christ into their lives.

    For Fengin, the timing was impeccable.

    A few years ago, her mother, a strong believer, died and Fengin started her quest to find the truth.  That led her to start going to church regularly, but until Friday night, she simply wasn't ready to commit her life to the Lord Jesus.

    The City Harmonic lead singer Elias Dummer, a native of nearby Hamilton, Ontario, talked about how much more the church can do together than apart.

    "I think it just takes time sometimes," Zhao said. "Just because your parents are Christians doesn't mean you will believe right away."

    But the clock was ticking. Fengin, who lives in northern China, was in Toronto visiting her daughter for the summer and has a Wednesday flight scheduled to return home.

    Just five days to spare.

    "I know she's happy she had the opportunity to come to this event before she left," Zhao said. "She knew all about Jesus Christ, but didn't believe until tonight."

    Friday's Festival of Hope was watched interpreted into six different languages in Toronto and watched in more than 100 countries worldwide on the Internet.

     

    And this is exactly the scenario Franklin Graham thought was possible. When you have people from so many countries being reached for Christ in Toronto, what happens when their lives have been radically changed?

    "Oh she'll definitely go back (to China) and tell her family," Zhao said.

    Let the ripple effect begin...

    "This is one of the most multi-ethnic cities in the world," Franklin Graham said earlier in the week.  "It gives me goose pimples when I think about the opportunity."

    And that opportunity to reach the nations is just a click away this weekend. Anyone with a computer, tablet or smart phone can log onto BillyGraham.ca/Live, where they can watch top Christian artists, hear a Gospel message from Franklin Graham, and have an opportunity to say a prayer to receive Christ.

    Hundreds indicated making a life-changing decision online Friday night and those who opted to do so, will receive follow-up materials just like the hundreds that made decisions at the Air Canada Centre.

    And just like Fengin, who was very serious about getting her hands on discipleship materials, regardless of the shipping.

    "She really wants those follow-up materials," Zhao said. "Even though she's going back to China, she wants them mailed to her."

    More Hope? The Greater Toronto Festival of Hope is just one-third of the way over. Saturday's lineup (beginning at 6:30 p.m. ET) includes Manic Drive, Thousand Foot Krutch, Lacey Sturm and Lecrae. Kari Jobe and Michael W. Smith will perform on Sunday (beginning at 5:30 p.m. ET). Watch and share: BillyGraham.ca/Live

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    Google Traduction : Yandex devant translate.google.com ?

    Google Traduction : Yandex devant translate.google.com ? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
    Une longue histoire de concurrence rassemble Google et Yandex. Yandex, c’est la version russe de Google. Ce moteur de recherche multiplie les attaques envers le
    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Une longue histoire de concurrence rassemble Google et Yandex. Yandex, c’est la version russe de Google. Ce moteur de recherche multiplie les attaques envers le géant américain qui ne manque jamais de réagir. Cette fois, Yandex marque un coup sur Google en lançant une plate-forme mobile équivalente à Google Traduction. Ce dernier aura cependant le désavantage d’être uniquement utilisable en ligne alors que l’application de Yandex est disponible même sans connexion Internet.

    Yandex utilise le même procédé de Google Traduction

    Pour développer son application, les concepteurs de chez Yandex s’appuient sur le même algorithme que Google Traduction. L’application s’appuie sur les textes déjà traduits sur internet pour les comparer au modèle à traduire. Cela rend la traduction aussi pertinente que celle fournie par Google Traduction. L’application mobile, utilisable hors ligne est cependant moins performante à cause des terminaux de stockage des appareils mobiles limités.

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    Igreja católica de Umuarama celebra em setembro o mês da Bíblia

    Igreja católica de Umuarama celebra em setembro o mês da Bíblia | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

    Umuarama – Em setembro a Igreja Católica comemora o mês da Bíblia. Durante todo o mês os fiéis voltam sua atenção para o livro que norteia a doutrina católica e, no próximo dia 30, é comemorado do dia de São Jerônimo, tradutor da bíblia e responsável pela popularização do livro em todo mundo.
    O santo dizia que “Ignorar as Escrituras é ignorar a Cristo” e nasceu no ano de 340 em Dalmácia. Ele estudou teologia e foi à Terra Santa. Foi ordenado sacerdote em 379 e como compreendia o aramaico e o grego traduziu toda a bíblia para o latim, num trabalho que ficou conhecido como “Vulgata”. 
    “Graças à tradução a bíblica ficou acessível para todas as camadas”, explica o frei Fabiano Zanatta, da Paróquia São Francisco de Assis, em Umuarama. Assim como a tradução em latim da bíblia as missas também eram rezadas em latim até o Concílio do Vaticano II que ocorreu entre 1962 e 1965, permitindo que as missas adotassem outros idiomas.
    No Brasil, segundo o frei, existem 15 traduções da bíblia. Entre as mais populares estão a Bíblia de Jerusalém, que é a mais tradicional e traz notas de rodapé contextualizando o período em que o texto foi escrito, bem como outras informações; também há a edição Ave-Maria, adotada pela Diocese do Divino Espírito Santo, e a Pastoral, que já teve publicadas mais de 80 edições. 
    “Quando São Jerônimo traduziu a bíblia já havia alguns textos no latim, mas eles traziam traduções literais, como acontece com o inglês, então o trabalho dele foi importante para dar sentido às escrituras”, destaca o religioso. Em menor grau isso ocorre também nas bíblias com tradução em português . Algumas, como a pastoral, têm linguagem mais simples e que podem ser compreendidas com mais facilidade pelos fieis, noutras a linguagem é mais rebuscada, o que, contudo, não é problema para os sacerdotes, que têm a missão e a responsabilidade de repassar os ensinamentos bíblicos para os católicos.
    O próprio frei Fabiano, antes do Concílio, já celebrou uma missa inteira em latim na capital do Estado. Assim como ele, os demais sacerdotes também dominam o latim e outros o grego, o que, aliado à tradução das escrituras em português, faz com que os católicos recebam a palavra de modo a compreender os ensinamentos de Jesus.
    Mas a leitura da Bíblia não fica restrita apenas aos religiosos. Nos chamados Grupos de Reflexão leigos também estudam o livro, sobretudo neste mês. “As famílias da comunidade se reúnem semanalmente e estudam a bíblia”, comenta o frei.
     

    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Umuarama – Em setembro a Igreja Católica comemora o mês da Bíblia. Durante todo o mês os fiéis voltam sua atenção para o livro que norteia a doutrina católica e, no próximo dia 30, é comemorado do dia de São Jerônimo, tradutor da bíblia e responsável pela popularização do livro em todo mundo.
    O santo dizia que “Ignorar as Escrituras é ignorar a Cristo” e nasceu no ano de 340 em Dalmácia. Ele estudou teologia e foi à Terra Santa. Foi ordenado sacerdote em 379 e como compreendia o aramaico e o grego traduziu toda a bíblia para o latim, num trabalho que ficou conhecido como “Vulgata”. 
    “Graças à tradução a bíblica ficou acessível para todas as camadas”, explica o frei Fabiano Zanatta, da Paróquia São Francisco de Assis, em Umuarama. Assim como a tradução em latim da bíblia as missas também eram rezadas em latim até o Concílio do Vaticano II que ocorreu entre 1962 e 1965, permitindo que as missas adotassem outros idiomas.
    No Brasil, segundo o frei, existem 15 traduções da bíblia. Entre as mais populares estão a Bíblia de Jerusalém, que é a mais tradicional e traz notas de rodapé contextualizando o período em que o texto foi escrito, bem como outras informações; também há a edição Ave-Maria, adotada pela Diocese do Divino Espírito Santo, e a Pastoral, que já teve publicadas mais de 80 edições. 
    “Quando São Jerônimo traduziu a bíblia já havia alguns textos no latim, mas eles traziam traduções literais, como acontece com o inglês, então o trabalho dele foi importante para dar sentido às escrituras”, destaca o religioso. Em menor grau isso ocorre também nas bíblias com tradução em português . Algumas, como a pastoral, têm linguagem mais simples e que podem ser compreendidas com mais facilidade pelos fieis, noutras a linguagem é mais rebuscada, o que, contudo, não é problema para os sacerdotes, que têm a missão e a responsabilidade de repassar os ensinamentos bíblicos para os católicos.
    O próprio frei Fabiano, antes do Concílio, já celebrou uma missa inteira em latim na capital do Estado. Assim como ele, os demais sacerdotes também dominam o latim e outros o grego, o que, aliado à tradução das escrituras em português, faz com que os católicos recebam a palavra de modo a compreender os ensinamentos de Jesus.
    Mas a leitura da Bíblia não fica restrita apenas aos religiosos. Nos chamados Grupos de Reflexão leigos também estudam o livro, sobretudo neste mês. “As famílias da comunidade se reúnem semanalmente e estudam a bíblia”, comenta o frei.
     

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    Traduções do romance Paradiso são lançadas no Brasil

    Na melhor das hipóteses, o leitor brasileiro poderá, a partir da próxima semana, escolher entre duas traduções do romance Paradiso, do cubano José Lezama Lima (1910-1976): a de Josely Vianna Baptista, feita para a Estação Liberdade, ou a de Olga Savary, encomendada pela Martins. Mas a obra do poeta e romancista não está em domínio público para que novas traduções saiam assim à vontade.

    A história é complicada. Angel Bojadsen, diretor editorial da Estação Liberdade, comprou os direitos do título em 2006 diretamente da irmã do escritor, Eloísa Lezama Lima. Foi nessa época que Josely, que já tinha traduzido a obra para a Brasiliense em 1987, iniciou uma nova versão (os direitos daquela primeira edição também foram comprados de Eloísa). Antes disso, porém, em 1983, os direitos de Lezama Lima passaram para o Estado cubano, já que ele não deixou testamento. E desde 1997, a Agencia Literária Latinoamericana é responsável pelas negociações estrangeiras. Foi com essa agência que o editor Evandro Martins Fontes fez negócio em 2011. Ou seja, os dois têm contratos assinados e querem honrar seus compromissos.


    A edição da Martins, feita em menos tempo, já começou a ser vendida. A da Estação Liberdade, que traz textos da irmã do autor, está em gráfica e deve ficar pronta na próxima semana.


    Bojadsen chegou a sugerir uma coedição, mas, segundo Martins explicou, o contrato que fechou com a agência literária não permitia isso ou a cessão dos direitos. "Este tipo de solução seria complicado, pois teríamos que ter o aceite de todas as partes, inclusive do governo cubano e do sobrinho do Lezama Lima", diz. O editor tentou, primeiro com Josely Vianna Baptista e depois com a própria editora, os direitos da tradução. "Como não consegui, contratei Olga Savary, que está com mais de 80 anos e vibrou com o trabalho."


    Verter Paradiso não é simples. No romance barroco - e quase autobiográfico -, o poeta experimenta com a linguagem para contar a história do também poeta José Cemí - da infância asmática à descoberta da vocação.


    Hoje Angel Bojadsen se arrepende de ter investido tanto tempo no processo de edição. Ele conta que quando a Martins anunciou a obra, sua versão não estava totalmente pronta. "Ainda estávamos debatendo detalhes com a Josely, que é extremamente meticulosa e reviu a tradução até os últimos detalhes. Combinamos de lançar apenas quando considerássemos a edição à altura da obra-prima de Lezama Lima", explica. E completa: "Mas eu devia ter dado prioridade total e publicado a obra em 2007 ou 2008, neste caso não teria havido polêmica possível.

    Mas hoje a editora está em outro momento e decidimos abordar a literatura latino-americana de forma mais endêmica e continuada. Lançar Lezama Lima naquela época seria lançá-lo meio solitário em nosso catálogo".


    Cada uma das editoras mandou imprimir 2 mil exemplares da obra. "De minha parte, Paradiso é tão fundamental e fundador para a literatura latino-americana que comporta duas traduções em nosso mercado", diz Bojadsen. Evandro Martins Fontes não concorda e disse que poderá tomar medidas legais. "Sou a favor do estado de direito. Não é legalmente possível que duas editoras tenham direitos exclusivos para uma mesma obra."


    Nessa quinta-feira, 11, à tarde, a Agencia Latinoamericana acompanhava a movimentação e confirmou, em e-mail enviado pela diretora Wanda Canals, que a instituição é mesmo a detentora dos direitos da obra do cubano. Canals se colocou à disposição da Martins para o que fosse necessário. As informações são do jornal O Estado de S. Paulo.

    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    Na melhor das hipóteses, o leitor brasileiro poderá, a partir da próxima semana, escolher entre duas traduções do romance Paradiso, do cubano José Lezama Lima (1910-1976): a de Josely Vianna Baptista, feita para a Estação Liberdade, ou a de Olga Savary, encomendada pela Martins. Mas a obra do poeta e romancista não está em domínio público para que novas traduções saiam assim à vontade.

    A história é complicada. Angel Bojadsen, diretor editorial da Estação Liberdade, comprou os direitos do título em 2006 diretamente da irmã do escritor, Eloísa Lezama Lima. Foi nessa época que Josely, que já tinha traduzido a obra para a Brasiliense em 1987, iniciou uma nova versão (os direitos daquela primeira edição também foram comprados de Eloísa). Antes disso, porém, em 1983, os direitos de Lezama Lima passaram para o Estado cubano, já que ele não deixou testamento. E desde 1997, a Agencia Literária Latinoamericana é responsável pelas negociações estrangeiras. Foi com essa agência que o editor Evandro Martins Fontes fez negócio em 2011. Ou seja, os dois têm contratos assinados e querem honrar seus compromissos.


    A edição da Martins, feita em menos tempo, já começou a ser vendida. A da Estação Liberdade, que traz textos da irmã do autor, está em gráfica e deve ficar pronta na próxima semana.


    Bojadsen chegou a sugerir uma coedição, mas, segundo Martins explicou, o contrato que fechou com a agência literária não permitia isso ou a cessão dos direitos. "Este tipo de solução seria complicado, pois teríamos que ter o aceite de todas as partes, inclusive do governo cubano e do sobrinho do Lezama Lima", diz. O editor tentou, primeiro com Josely Vianna Baptista e depois com a própria editora, os direitos da tradução. "Como não consegui, contratei Olga Savary, que está com mais de 80 anos e vibrou com o trabalho."


    Verter Paradiso não é simples. No romance barroco - e quase autobiográfico -, o poeta experimenta com a linguagem para contar a história do também poeta José Cemí - da infância asmática à descoberta da vocação.


    Hoje Angel Bojadsen se arrepende de ter investido tanto tempo no processo de edição. Ele conta que quando a Martins anunciou a obra, sua versão não estava totalmente pronta. "Ainda estávamos debatendo detalhes com a Josely, que é extremamente meticulosa e reviu a tradução até os últimos detalhes. Combinamos de lançar apenas quando considerássemos a edição à altura da obra-prima de Lezama Lima", explica. E completa: "Mas eu devia ter dado prioridade total e publicado a obra em 2007 ou 2008, neste caso não teria havido polêmica possível.

    Mas hoje a editora está em outro momento e decidimos abordar a literatura latino-americana de forma mais endêmica e continuada. Lançar Lezama Lima naquela época seria lançá-lo meio solitário em nosso catálogo".


    Cada uma das editoras mandou imprimir 2 mil exemplares da obra. "De minha parte, Paradiso é tão fundamental e fundador para a literatura latino-americana que comporta duas traduções em nosso mercado", diz Bojadsen. Evandro Martins Fontes não concorda e disse que poderá tomar medidas legais. "Sou a favor do estado de direito. Não é legalmente possível que duas editoras tenham direitos exclusivos para uma mesma obra."


    Nessa quinta-feira, 11, à tarde, a Agencia Latinoamericana acompanhava a movimentação e confirmou, em e-mail enviado pela diretora Wanda Canals, que a instituição é mesmo a detentora dos direitos da obra do cubano. Canals se colocou à disposição da Martins para o que fosse necessário. As informações são do jornal O Estado de S. Paulo.

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    Google Translate Fail: Marin Cilic

    According to Google, Marin Cilic's name translated into English is Roger Federer!

    How about this for a little bit of fun on a Friday?
    According to Google's translation service, new US Open champion Cilic, and current world No. 3 Federer have the same name!
    Cilic recently defeated Federer in the semi-finals of the 2014 US Open, but it would appear that even when the Swiss Maestro doesn't win a Grand Slam, he still wins a Grand Slam!
    Not convinced? See for yourself here!
    Charles Tiayon's insight:

    According to Google, Marin Cilic's name translated into English is Roger Federer!

    How about this for a little bit of fun on a Friday?
    According to Google's translation service, new US Open champion Cilic, and current world No. 3 Federer have the same name!
    Cilic recently defeated Federer in the semi-finals of the 2014 US Open, but it would appear that even when the Swiss Maestro doesn't win a Grand Slam, he still wins a Grand Slam!
    Not convinced? See for yourself here!
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    Scooped by Charles Tiayon
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    Second Language Educators Confer Sept. 27 at SUNY Cortland

    Second Language Educators Confer Sept. 27 at SUNY Cortland | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
    Marisol Marcin, a Spanish/English as a second language (ESL) teacher in the Sidney (N.Y.) Central Schools, will discuss whether or not schools are prepared to meet New York state's Common Core standards on Saturday, Sept. 27, at SUNY Cortland.
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