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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World |

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World |

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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DNA Study Backs Theory of Massive Steppe Migration | Sci-Tech Today

DNA Study Backs Theory of Massive Steppe Migration | Sci-Tech Today | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
By Frank Jordans

A wave of migrants from the eastern fringes of Europe some 4,500 years ago left their trace in the DNA -- and possibly the languages -- of modern Europeans, according to a new study.
Scientists discovered evidence of this Stone Age migration by analyzing DNA of 69 people who lived across Europe between 8,000 and 3,000 years ago.

Among the shifts in the genetic make-up of ancient Europeans they found that DNA associated with the Yamnaya people appeared strongly in what is now northern Germany. The Yamnaya were herders who lived in the steppe north of the Black and Aral Seas.

This injection of DNA indicates "a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery," concluded the researchers, led by David Reich of Harvard Medical School.

Such a large-scale influx would likely have affected not just the DNA but ancient cultures as well. Although genes can't determine what people spoke, the researchers argue that their findings could influence the debate about the origins of Indo-European tongues that form the basis of modern languages such as English, German and Russian.

Linguists have long debated whether Indo-European languages came to Europe with farmers migrating from the Middle East or some other group, such as the Yamnaya.

"Major language replacements are thought to require large-scale migration," said the authors of the study, which was published Monday by the journal Nature. "Our results make a compelling case for the steppe as a source of at least some of the Indo-European languages in Europe."

Andrew Garrett, a linguist at the University of California, Berkeley, who was not involved in the study, said it was significant that the mass migration occurred at a time some models had previously identified for Indo-European expansion.

"It fills in a significant piece of a big and interesting puzzle," said Garrett.
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Genetics Study Reveals the Truth Behind How Languages Spread in Europe

Genetics Study Reveals the Truth Behind How Languages Spread in Europe | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
There may be some new information about the spread of Indo-European languages. Scientists have examined a massive migration of Kurgan populations (Yamna culture) which may shed some light on how these languages spread.
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Migration processes allow scientists to determine whether or not to give support to linguistic and archaeological theories of language and cultural spread. In the case of Europe, one of the many unsolved mysteries is the origin and diversification of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language, considered the source of most of the languages spoken today in Europe, Asia and America.
The Anatolian hypothesis defends that the diversification of PIE occurred about 8,500 years ago, when the first farmers from the Near East brought it to Europe. However, there's also the Kurgan hypothesis, which proposes that the language was spread by nomadic herders on the steppes found to the north of the Black and Caspian Sea. This means that language spread after the invention of wheeled vehicles about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago.
Now, scientists have taken a closer look to find out the truth of the matter. They conducted a genetic study, which reveals that there was a massive migration of herders from the Yamna culture of the North Pontic steppe toward Europe. This would have favored the expansion of a few of these Indo-European languages throughout the continent. Not only that, but these findings favor the Kurgan hypothesis.
This isn't the only thing that the researchers discovered. They also found that in contrast to the dominant view, today's European populations do not descend only from the first hunters-gatherers and from people arriving during the Neolithic expansion of the Near East. Instead, Eastern and Western European populations followed different paths 8,000 to 5,000 years ago and didn't come in contact with each other until about 4,500 years ago.
"Although ancient DNA tests cannot inform about the language spoken by the prehistoric humans analyzed, the magnitude of the migratory movement would also have implied a language change," said Roberto Risch, one of the researchers, in a news release. "If what the genetic data states is true, and these populations live on, they must have contributed to the formation of the Indo-European languages spoken today in Europe."
The findings are published in the journal Nature.
For more great science stories and general news, please visit our sister site, Headlines and Global News (HNGN).
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ABBYY® Announces Its Lingvo Live Social Networking Service at Mobile World Congress

ABBYY® Announces Its Lingvo Live Social Networking Service at Mobile World Congress | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
BARCELONA, Spain, March 4, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- ABBYY®, a leading provider of document recognition, data capture and linguistic technologies and services, today announced Lingvo Live, a social networking service for speakers and students of different languages.  The service provides a free online environment for language translation, knowledge sharing, language practice and more, and is accessible via the Web and through free client applications for iOS and Android platforms.

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Lingvo Live users can look up words and phrases in reliable licensed dictionaries, create an interactive Social Dictionary together with their fellow-users and ask the community for advice or help with translations. Entries with suggested translations can be ranked and commented on by any community member.  User-added content is post-moderated by ABBYY linguistic experts to ensure its accuracy and to provide the most accurate, up-to-date information.  

"We live in a fast-paced world and hundreds of new words are coined daily, it's virtually impossible for standard or academic dictionaries to add them on the spot, as ABBYY's 25 years of expertise in dictionary translation software has shown," said Artem Kumpel, Director of Lingvo & Mobile Products Department at ABBYY.  "However, the Lingvo Live community and the Social Dictionary that we're creating together have the potential to provide just that; to be an ever-evolving, all-in-one environment for handling language-related issues and tasks – from interactive learning within a community to a marketplace for professionals."

Currently, Lingvo Live supports 14 popular languages. It provides more than 130 dictionaries licensed by publishers and contains more than 6,100,000 entries that are all available for free. The Social Dictionary contains over 30,000 translations and approximately 5,000 words and phrases are looked up by community members every day.

* ABBYY welcomes cooperation with its peers and startup companies.  For partnership opportunities, please contact Email.


ABBYY is a leading provider of document recognition, data capture and linguistic technologies and services.  Its key products include the ABBYY FineReader line of optical character recognition (OCR) applications, ABBYY FlexiCapture line of data capture solutions, ABBYY Lingvo dictionary software, and development tools. ABBYY Language Services provides comprehensive linguistic solutions to corporate customers. Paper-intensive organizations from all over the world use ABBYY solutions to automate time- and labor-consuming tasks and to streamline business processes.  ABBYY products are used in large-scale government projects such as those of Australian Taxation Office, Lithuanian Tax Inspectorate, Ministry of Education of Russia, Ministry of Education of Ukraine, Montgomery County Government of the USA and Government of Canada. Companies that license ABBYY technologies include BancTec, Canon, EMC/Captiva, Hewlett-Packard, KnowledgeLake, Microsoft, NewSoft, Notable Solutions, Samsung Electronics and more. ABBYY OCR applications are shipped with equipment from the world's top manufacturers such as Epson, Fujitsu, Fuji Xerox, Microtek, Panasonic, Plustek, Ricoh, Toshiba and Xerox.  ABBYY is an international company with offices in Germany, the UK, France, Spain, Ukraine, Cyprus, Russia, the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan and Taiwan. For more information, visit

ABBYY, the ABBYY Logo, FineReader, ABBYY FineReader, FlexiCapture, Lingvo and PDF Transformer are either registered trademarks or trademarks of ABBYY Software Ltd. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be trademarks and/or registered trademarks of their respective owners and are hereby recognized.

Media Contact:

Anthony Dillistone




Skype - tonydbc


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Hampton entrepreneur seeks to launch privacy-friendly search engine

The typical web search produces jumbles of results, while telling Google -- and maybe the government -- a little more about the searcher, technologist Michael DeKort said Tuesday, as he launched a bid to create an alternative.

Mr. DeKort, 50, of Hampton -- whose systems engineering career was derailed when he became a whistleblower -- has designed Jumbawumba, which piggybacks off of Google’s search prowess, but aims to add convenience and privacy. He has started a funding campaign on the Kickstarter website, seeking $125,000 to turn Jumbawumba into a full-fledged business.

Jumbawumba would charge for large-scale, automated searching, but would be free for regular users who want what Mr. DeKort craved. “I need one place to go. I need one set of information,” he said. “And I want it to be private.”

Rather than offering separated pages of websites, images, video and news in response to a given search term, Jumbawumba puts all four on the user’s screen. It allows the user to create ongoing, automated searches, so they can get the latest information on their favorite topics delivered regularly.

Jumbawumba taps Google’s vast reach. To Google’s eyes, though, the queries come from Jumbawumba, not from the originating computer, Mr. DeKort said.

And while Google, Bing and Yahoo! keep records of each computer’s searches, and use them to tailor advertising, Jumbawumba pledges not to store any data on one-time searches. (It would keep records of ongoing search queries, but wouldn’t sell them to marketing firms, Mr. DeKort said.) Jumbawumba’s computer server will ultimately be overseas, limiting government access, though the company would respect law enforcement subpoenas.

“It’s a very interesting model,” said Frank Pasquale, a professor at the University of Maryland School of Law and author of the book The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms that Control Money and Information.

“I don’t know if there is ever going to be a mass demand,” he added, outside of “a small, passionate, and I think very smart group of people” who are dedicated to the principle of privacy. He added that regulation, rather than a “cat-and-mouse game,” is the best hope for restoring privacy to Internet use.

An earlier Pittsburgh start-up, Vivisimo, also offered a privacy-friendly search engine. Vivisimo founder Raul Valdes-Perez said he thought that search engine’s convenience was a bigger selling point than its privacy.

“If anything, users have gotten used to less privacy with the emergence of smart phones,” said Mr. Valdes-Perez, who sold Vivisimo to IBM in 2012. He’s now working on a new data mining business called OnlyBoth.

Mr. DeKort honed his technology chops with the Navy, State Department and defense contractor Lockheed Martin Corp.

In that last job, he designed communication systems for a new generation of Coast Guard boats. But he blew the whistle, and then sued the company, after he concluded that the systems ultimately sold to the government were neither secure nor even weatherproof, according to the complaint he filed in U.S. District Court.

His False Claims Act lawsuit resulted in a confidential settlement with Lockheed Martin, but other aspects of the seven-year legal fight essentially rendered it a financial wash.

“I lost my career, lost my security clearance,” he said. He filed Chapter 7 bankruptcy in 2014.

He’s hoping his latest venture will address one of today’s big communication problems.

Internet search data “is being sent to everyone, and you’re getting invaded,” he said. “There’s no reason to have to give up your privacy.”

Rich Lord: or 412-263-1542. Twitter: @richelord.
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10 More Problems Only a Language Lover Will Understand | Language News

10 More Problems Only a Language Lover Will Understand | Language News | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
You're not alone, language learners. We understand these 10 language learning problems just as well as you do.
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School of Languages and Linguistics | Dr Kimiko Tsukada - Perception of Italian and Japanese singleton/geminate consonants by listeners from different language backgrounds

Dr Kimiko Tsukada - Perception of Italian and Japanese singleton/geminate consonants by listeners from different language backgrounds
Friday, March 13, 2015 10:30 –11:30
Macquarie University

We investigated if and how the use of one or multiple languages (bilingualism hereafter) affects the perception of intervocalic singleton/geminate consonants in Italian and Japanese. Two groups of nonnative listeners (monolingual speakers of Australian English and bilingual speakers of Cantonese/ English or Vietnamese/ English) were examined. Two groups of native listeners (Italian and Japanese) residing in Australia acted as controls. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the bilinguals process unfamiliar sounds more efficiently than the monolinguals due to their expanded phonetic inventories. Results showed that bilingualism did not result in superior performance overall. However, while the monolinguals identified consonant length in Italian slightly more accurately (albeit nonsignificantly) than in Japanese, the bilinguals showed the opposite pattern, ie greater accuracy with Japanese than with Italian. Generally, bilingual and monolingual non-native listeners misperceived geminates as singletons more often than they misperceived singletons as geminates in Japanese, but not in Italian.

Phone: +61 3 9035 4777
Room 407, Babel (Building 139)
Kimiko Tsukada
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‘Alice in Wonderland’ Turns 150: Enjoy the Classic, Plus Film and Digital Spinoffs for Free

‘Alice in Wonderland’ Turns 150: Enjoy the Classic, Plus Film and Digital Spinoffs for Free | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
The former literature major in me was bummed to learn that an exhibit commemorating the 150th anniversary of “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland” is on display halfway across the country from me in Austin, Texas.

Lewis Carroll’s classic first published in 1865 is among my favorite books.

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Here’s Reuters‘ description of the University of Texas at Austin exhibit:

An exhibit in Texas traces its history to show how ‘Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland’ adapted and transformed through now-familiar concepts of merchandising and multimedia. …

The exhibit, at the Harry Ransom Center, a global leader in its holdings of manuscripts and original source materials, contains more than 200 items, including rare publications, drawings and letters and photographs by Carroll, the pen name for Charles Lutwidge Dodgson.

The exhibit shows how Dodgson, the University of Oxford mathematician who composed the story for the daughters of his Oxford dean, tried to balance his life in academics with his alter ego as the author of a widely popular book.
Unable to justify the cost of a plane ticket to Austin, I have nonetheless been celebrating the genius of the works by picking up a copy and rereading it.

Find the best price on everything you buy on our deals page!

Preferring physical books to e-books, I bought an old paperback for a few bucks at a used bookstore. But it’s easy to enjoy Wonderland without spending a dime. The book and its illustrations have been around long enough to become public domain, essentially meaning they’re no longer protected by copyrights. So enjoy.

How to Read Alice in Wonderland Free
Online: The Internet Archive and Project Gutenberg offer several free formats, such as PDF. They even offer the facsimile of Dodgson’s manuscript, which he illustrated himself. (The final, published version of the book was illustrated by Sir John Tenniel.)

E-readers: The Internet Archive and Project Gutenberg offer ePub and Kindle formats as well, and Amazon offers several free Kindle editions.

Search Amazon’s books section for the novel and then click on Kindle Edition and set the sort by option to price: low to high to quickly view all the freebies. The best-rated Kindle options include an HTML edition and an illustrated edition.

Not into classic literature? Twists on the original include Marie Hall’s romance novel “Her Mad Hatter,” and J.J. Maddox’s “Alice in Wonderland: The Vampire Slayer,” which are a free Kindle download or free with Kindle Unlimited, respectively.

Free downloads are also available for Nook. Search‘s books section for the novel and set the sort-by option to price – low to high. The highest-rated freebies include this two-in-one, which couples the 1865 book with its 1871 sequel, “Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There.”

No e-reader? Check out Reading Free E-books — Without Buying an E-reader.

Android devices: Publishers of freebies include gwofoundry (4.3 stars) and Virtual Entertainment (4.3 stars). also published English/Spanish (4.8 stars) and English/German (4.4 stars) editions.

Apple devices: Bookbyte Digital (4 stars), Public Domain (4 stars)

Windows Phone: WP Books (few ratings)

Audiobooks: How to listen to Alice in Wonderland free
Android devices: Fineapps2013 (few ratings) also offers many options for free with a 30-day trial of their Android app. Just search their site.

There are editions from big-name published such as HarperCollins, which includes the sequel, Simon & Schuster, which is narrated by Sally Field, and Random House.

If you’re in the mood for nonfiction, history or biography, there’s “The Alice Behind Wonderland.” For young-adult fiction, there’s the “Splintered” trilogy. And then there’s something for adults only, “Fifty Shades of Alice in Wonderland.”
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Doña Letizia, una reina con don de lenguas

Doña Letizia, una reina con don de lenguas | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
En inglés, alemán o portugués, la reina Letizia ha demostrado a lo largo de los últimos años tener una gran habilidad para hablar diferentes idiomas en los que la hemos podido escuchar expresarse con soltura y seguridad.

Pronunciación clara y cuidada dicción son las señas de identidad que definen los discursos de la Reina, independientemente de la lengua en la que estén pronunciados. Después del castellano, el inglés es el idioma que más utiliza cuando asiste a actos oficiales con aforos internacionales, como ocurrió en julio de 2014 durante la celebración del 150 aniversario de la Cruz Roja. La soberana bromeó en inglés (como puede verse en este vídeo a partir del segundo 32) con el representante de esta ONG de Filipinas, quien se había referido erróneamente a ella como 'Queen Happiness'.

Durante su primer viaje oficial como Reina, que tuvo lugar en octubre, doña Letizia sorprendió a los más de 200 asistentes a la inauguración de la exposición 'Velázquez' en el Kunsthistorisches Museum de Viena con una alocución en alemán (a partir del minuto 3:07 del vídeo). Se presentó a la concurrida audiencia en alemán en deferencia al país anfitrión como acostumbra siempre: "Buenas tardes y muchas gracias por su invitación y por su cariñosa acogida. Es un verdadero honor para mí estar hoy en Viena para inaugurar esta importante exposición". Luego, tras pronunciar sus primeras palabras en el idioma oficial austriaco, la reina Letizia continuó el resto de su intervención en inglés y declaró que "la mirada de Velázquez a su tiempo se conjuga ahora con la nuestra. Otros tiempos y otras circunstancias. Pero seguramente las mismas emociones".

En otro viaje al extranjero, en esta ocasión a Portugal, donde acudió a clausurar el II Congreso Iberoamericano de Enfermedades Raras, la Reina también quiso dirigirse a los asistentes en su lengua materna a los que sorprendió hablando en un portugués con una muy buena pronunciación.

"Buenos días y gracias por darme la oportunidad de regresar a Portugal de nuevo, un lugar donde me siento como en casa. No ha pasado mucho tiempo desde la última vez que estuve aquí con el Rey, una visita que mostró claramente la cercanía entre dos gentes, los españoles y los portugueses, que se quieren y se respetan. También agradecer a doña María permitirme compartir este día dedicado a nuestro compromiso común con las enfermedades raras", comenzó diciendo la Reina en un perfecto portugués.

Doña Letizia también nos ha sorprendido hablando en catalán. Fue en 2008, cuando aún era Princesa de Asturias, durante la XI edición de la entrega de premios de la Fundación Internacional de la Mujer Emprendedora (FIDEM). Doña Letizia pronunció una parte del discurso en catalán, momento en el que subrayó que Cataluña resaltaba desde hace muchos años "por la tarea de sus mujeres emprendedoras, que abren y gestionan sus negocios y comercios en zonas rurales y urbanas". Tras sus palabras, recibió una gran ovación del público.

Inglés, alemán, portugués, catalán y el lenguaje de signos. Doña Letizia demostró en 2012 que también maneja este lenguaje, durante la entrega de los Premios de la Fundación CNSE, que distinguen iniciativas a favor de la integración de las personas con alguna discapacidad auditiva. La Reina, por aquel entonces aún Princesa de Asturias, predicó con el ejemplo y animó a promover la enseñanza “bilingüe, oral y de signos", con el fin de que los niños con problemas auditivos superen el "entorno limitado en el que habitualmente se mueven las personas sordas en edad escolar". Por eso empleó la lengua de signos para agradecer su labor a todos los que ponen su granito de arena para mejorar la calidad de vida de estas personas.
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Special Olympics promotes language change

Special Olympics promotes language change | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
“That’s retarded.” How many times a day do you or someone you know use this phrase in casual conversation?’ COMMENT0 0
Posted Mar. 3, 2015 at 9:49 AM

“That’s retarded.” How many times a day do you or someone you know use this phrase in casual conversation?’
Special Olympics is committed to the Spread the Word to End the Word® — retard(ed) —campaign. The words “retard” and “retarded” hurt millions of people with intellectual disabilities and their families.
March is nationally recognized as Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Awareness month, so it’s the perfect time to show support for people of all abilities by visiting and making the pledge to eliminate the demeaning use of the R-word from everyday speech and promoting acceptance and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities.   
On Oct. 5, 2010, President Barack Obama signed Rosa’s Law (named for Rosa Marcellino), which removed the terms “mental retardation” and “mentally retarded” from federal health, education and labor policy and replaced them with “individual with intellectual disability” and “intellectual disability.” The law was commemorated by an 11-member delegation of Special Olympics athletes, leaders and self-advocates.
While this was a tremendous victory, change is still needed, and it begins with each and every person within communities. Talk to young people you know; discuss the Spread the Word to End the Word® campaign within your inner circle of family, friends, neighbors and coworkers. Perhaps one day, the R-word is one that will be all but wiped from people’s speech — a significant step in giving people with intellectual disabilities the dignity and respect they deserve.
Energized by the pride and power of teamwork, Special Olympics Kansas provides individuals with intellectual disabilities the opportunity to be an athlete and more through acceptance, inclusion, physical fitness, health and nutrition programs and leadership development.
For more information about Special Olympics Kansas, visit or call 913-236-9290. Special Olympics Kansas is located at 5280 Foxridge Dr., Mission, KS 66202.
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Giving the Internet a local language flavour

Giving the Internet a local language flavour | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
The number of Internet users in India could increase 24% with greater availability of local language content, says a report by the Internet and Mobile Association of India and market research firm IMRB International. Sensing a business opportunity, start-ups have begun providing software solutions to help companies and individuals access content in local languages. Mint profiles four such start-ups.
FIRM: Verse Innovation Pvt. Ltd
ENTREPRENEUR: Vishal Anand and Virendra Gupta
LOCATION: Bengaluru
EDUCATION: Delhi Institute of Technology, IIT-Bombay
Anand and Gupta realized that about “95% of the phones in India don’t support local languages”. They conducted a study on local languages, and stumbled upon the “huge opportunity” in this space. After starting with technological solutions, they ventured into content, beginning with news.
Verse has built an online regional news aggregator app called NewsHunt to browse news and read ebooks, and iPayy, a mobile carrier-based billing solution. NewsHunt provides news in 13 local languages from over 100 news sources, with over 25,000 articles every day. The current user base is 75 million, which the company is looking to double by FY16. It offers books in 10 local languages from across 18,000 publishers, with an average price of Rs.35.
“As India moves from a 100 million to 500 million smartphone user base, it is critical to bridge the gap of making available relevant content and applications for Indian language users,” said Anand.
The company raised Rs.250 crore from Matrix Partners, Sequoia Capital, Falcon Edge and Omidyar Network in February. By the end of this month, it is planning to expand to other areas such as test preparation for vocational exams and making local language mobile apps and games.

Vivekananda pani (left) and S.K. Mohanty. Photo: Hemant Mishra/Mint
FIRM: Reverie Language Technologies Pvt. Ltd
ENTREPRENEUR: S.K. Mohanty, Arvind Pani and Vivekananda Pani
LOCATION: Bengaluru
EDUCATION: IIT-Bombay; National Institute of Technology, Rourkela; Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
The Pani brothers always knew that local languages would pose a challenge for mobile phones. But it was only five years back that they launched Reverie, because they wanted to get the timing right.
“India spends $20 billion on local language content, in terms of print, television, cable and satellite services,” said Arvind Pani over the phone. The company was started with an initial investment of Rs.50 lakh. It provides local language services to companies and consumers. It works with 20 clients including handset maker Micromax Informatics Ltd, Celkon Impex Pvt. Ltd and Best IT World (India) Pvt. Ltd. “The companies can integrate their existing services with our cloud and create content in 11 local languages. For consumers, the services include providing the mobile keypad and converting the contact list in various languages through the app,” said Pani.
The company won the $100,000 QPrize in 2011, an international seed investment competition organized by Qulacom Ventures. This was followed by an angel investment of $150,000. It is looking to raise a series A round of funding by July.

Rakesh Kapoor. Photo: Manoj Verma/Mint
FIRM: Process Nine Technologies Pvt. Ltd
For Kapoor, Process Nine is the second coming in the local languages’ space. His first company, which was set up in the early 1990s, had a partnership with Microsoft Corp. (India) Pvt. Ltd to provide local language services for Windows in India. But Kapoor was quick to sense that the next major shift in local languages would be brought about by mobile phones, and this prompted him to set up Process Nine Technologies with an initial investment of Rs.1 crore.
“Every e-business today needs a localized language information and search engine to tap the the potential through local apps and content,” said Kapoor over the phone. It has partnered with Snapdeal to translate 200 million words in six local languages. The company has two models, per word translation charge and an annual subscription model rate. It provides tools and components such as fonts, keypads, spellchecks and translations to mobile device manufacturers in 21 Indian languages.
The company works with clients in the retail, travel, mobile devices and other sectors.
It recently raised a so-called series A, or first, round of funding, but Kapoor did not share details about the amount or investors citing confidentiality agreements.
He is looking to use the funds to acquire more customers, technology enhancement and international expansion to other Asian countries in the next 12 months.

Jagdish Sahasrabudhe.
FIRM: LinguaNext Technologies Pvt. Ltd
ENTREPRENEUR: Jagdish Sahasrabudhe
EDUCATION: University of Pune
LinguaNext helps companies generate output in local languages without altering the application code or database. It has worked with many government agencies, manufacturing companies and public sector banks to bridge language gaps. A case in point is the Hindi translation that is available on, the government website for cooking gas services.
“Linguify, our flagship product, allows users to operate the software in any language of their choice. We also provide a dictionary for every language and client that our software is used for,” Narendra Nayak, executive vice-president, said over the phone. The company’s solution allows banks to provide passbooks in local languages, he added.
LinguaNext is working with mobile handset makers and app providers to allow availability of apps and content in local languages.
The company earns revenue from its annual subscription-based model and software services and local dictionaries.
LinguaNext said it provides its services to 90 large companies. It raised its first round of funding from Helion Venture Partners in 2014. The company has over 100 employees and is looking to expand to Japan, Latin America and South-East Asian countries in the next one year.
There aren’t too many investors who are bullish on the local language space. However, every company will have to have a local language strategy in place. Flipkart, Snapdeal, Quikr and others are already in the process of doing so. Consumption growth of local languages is exploding, YouTube is a good example to track and measure this.
New companies would have to alter strategy quickly to make use of this growth. In fact, start-ups in the space of providing local language solutions to other enterprises would have to remodel to provide direct services to consumers.
There will be a few challenges that start-ups in this space would have to deal with. There would be a need to be a mobile-only company with low-customer acquisition cost that cannot be as high as Rs.50 and the need to create mobile apps, software solutions that are compatible with smartphones, which fall in the price range of Rs.5,000-7,000.
—Vikram Vaidyanathan, managing director, Matrix Partners
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Google Inc Could Lose Billions If Apple Inc. Doesn’t Renew Search Deal

Google Inc Could Lose Billions If Apple Inc. Doesn’t Renew Search Deal | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Google Inc (NASDAQ:GOOG), the largest search engine, has a lot at stake this year. For one, its annual revenue ‘fortune’ is dependent on the decision of its one client, Apple Inc (NASDAQ:AAPL).

The wait is for Apple Inc to renew a deal: To make Google the default search engine on iOS devices.

Recent media reports have indicated that Apple Inc is not very keen with extending the search engine deal, set to expire this year. As news about likely non-renewal of the deal makes the rounds, Google Inc investors are a worried lot.

In addition to investor concerns, analyst firm UBS, too has added to the negative impact. According to UBS, Google Inc’s revenues from Apple Inc’s default search engine use is nearly $7.8 billion, roughly 10% of Google’s gross revenue. Even with factoring in a substantial number of users – those who would prefer the switch back to Google Search Engine – the loss from the non-renewal of the deal could impact Google Inc (NASDAQ:GOOG) substantially.

If the number of users who do chose to switch back increased by 50%, UBS estimates that the impact on the gross revenue would be minus 3%. This is because Google Inc will no longer have to pay one-time fees to Apple Inc.

Google Inc has already seen a 75% drop in U.S. desktop use for its search engine, after Mozilla choose Yahoo as the default search engine for its browser Firefox, dumping Google. In turn, Yahoo saw an increase in number of searches coming from the desktop user segment, since the switch was made.

Google Inc (NASDAQ:GOOG) and Apple Inc (NASDAQ:AAPL) have had strained relations in recent times as patents and competition in the same segment affect their market share.  Apple currently has Microsoft’s Bing as the default search engine for its Voice-based searches, via Siri. Moreover, for higher privacy and security features, it can continue offering Duck Duck Go as an option for its iOS platform, as before.
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Chinese as a second language growing in popularity

Chinese as a second language growing in popularity | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
March 3, 2015
Guess what the former Australian Prime minister, Kevin Rudd; the successful entrepreneur, Mark Zuckerberg and the U.S. President Obama’s daughter, Malia Obama have in common? They all take Chinese as their second language. The study of the Chinese language opens the way to different important fields such as Chinese politics, economy, business opportunities, history or archaeology.

In 2010 alone, 750,000 people from around the world took the Official Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK). All these people from different industries, backgrounds are learning in hope to understand the often-misunderstood country better and benefit from knowing the most widely spoken language in the world whether it is for personal reasons or business opportunities.

There is a huge growth in numbers of non-Chinese heritage people learning Mandarin, but Westerners actually started learning Chinese as early as the 16th century. The first westerners to master Chinese, were the Italian Jesuits Michele Ruggieri and Matteo Ricci, they were also the first foreigners teaching Chinese. So the often-claimed “Asia Century” isn’t really as new of a trend as you may think, like the old saying “what comes around goes around”. The Chinese civilisation ruled the world in the 15th century when Europe was still in the dark ages. Now, after a couple centuries of the West being in the lead of the economy, the Chinese economy is predicted to overtake as the world’s largest economy once again.

China has over 5000 years of history and has 1.28 billion people, which equates to approximately one fifth of the global population; the significance of knowing Mandarin and understanding China in this world is more obvious than not. China is currently the second largest economy in the world that has strong economic ties with world powerhouses such as the U.S., EU and etc. It is said in 2014 that China’s 10 biggest trading partners are: the U.S. at $521 billion, Hong Kong at $401 billion then in following order, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Australia, Malaysia, Brazil and Russia.

That being said, one can only imagine the increase in demand for Chinese as a second language service. According to the Chinese Ministry of Education, there are 330 official institutions teaching Chinese as a foreign language around the world, with 40,000 foreign students enrolled. As of 2014, there were over 480 Confucius Institutes established on six continents. Confucius Institutes (孔子学院) are non-profit public institutions affiliated with the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China whose stated aim is to promote Chinese language and culture, support local Chinese teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges.

Chinese teaching services are increasing day by day, not only are there government-funded institutions such as the Confucius Institutes but also Mandarin Chinese courses held through universities, colleges, private companies as well as individual tutoring.

To further understand this growing phenomenon; I interviewed a few students from “the West” who are from countries among China’s 10 biggest trading partners’ list: U.S., Australia and Germany on why and how they started their Chinese learning journey, they bring us their insights on the importance of learning this language and what they have gained from acquiring this skill.
America, the “Chinese- trend setters”

“Chinese isn’t the new French, it’s the new English” says Robert Davis, director of the Chinese-language program in Chicago’s public school system, which has 8,000 students studying Mandarin.
Today, there are Chinese programs in more than 550 elementary, junior high and senior high schools, a 100% increase in two years. While at the college level, enrolment in Chinese-language classes has increased 51% since 2002, according to the Modern Language Association, a language and literature education organization. Marty Abbott, the spokeswoman for the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, says early figures suggest the number of students now studying Chinese has “got to be somewhere around 30,000 to 50,000.” (Information retrieved from USA Today)

Ford Johnson

Ford Johnson is a recent graduate with a degree in International Relations and Chinese from the Georgia Institute of Technology. Ford studied and continues to study Chinese because he wants to distinguish himself from other Non-Chinese Americans. He completed six semesters of Chinese at his university before going to Tsinghua University in Beijing for a year, where he credits his fluency in Chinese today.

“My greatest strides in Chinese came about when I first arrived at Tsinghua and had to navigate my new environment without any translators-and for a few days- any other foreigners. Playing basketball and other sports with Chinese people my age also opened up ability for me to build friendships and in turn practice my Chinese.”

Ford pursued Chinese because he believed the ability to speak a language other than Spanish or French by Americans who weren’t born into a non-English speaking culture is quite rare. His interest in Asia and China began early on and he wanted a better understanding of Chinese culture because it has such a rich history and exotic appeal to it. And the knowledge of Chinese is a great conversation starter.

“I think it’s important to learn it because China is a cultural and economic giant in today’s world. Having even a rudimentary knowledge of Mandarin allows a person to travel to China and navigate the culture and the country in ways totally inaccessible to non-Chinese speakers. Some of my greatest cultural insights were gained purely because I understand what natives were saying in a completely uncensored manner.”

When asked, compare to Americans, whether it is equally important for other nationalities to learn Chinese? Ford said:

“Other nationalities are in the exact same position as me and other Americans in my opinion. If someone wants to understand one of the most important cultures in the history of civilization while also distinguishing themselves as a well-rounded and capable individual, knowledge of Chinese is essential.”

Ford also mentioned that in the U.S., most private schools are offering Mandarin Chinese in their curriculums, especially targeting the younger students and many public schools are following the footsteps. “It’s the hot topic in language education at all levels”. Ford says his classmates at Tsinghua were from all over the world, some with Chinese heritage but surprisingly more not. Many came to China on scholarships and programs sponsored by the Confucius Institute or their universities.

Ford believes his fluency in Mandarin and experiences in China has made him standout against others from his degree, which consequently has provided him an advantage in the demanding workforce. He has now taken up a new challenge working at a tech start up based in Atlanta.

The Australians are jumping on the Mandarin Bandwagon

Many countries have started to introduce Chinese Mandarin in to their curriculums, and Australia has definitely been one of the leaders of this phenomenon. The Former Australian Prime minister, Kevin Rudd was renowned for his fluency in Mandarin and this has had its influence on the education system in Australia. Couple generations ago, when Australians chose to learn an Asian- Pacific language, it was often Japanese or Indonesian due to the countries’ close proximity and economic ties. But today there seems to be an increase in Australians learning Mandarin.

Annika Aitken

Annika Aitken received her Masters degree (Honours) from the University of Western Australia (UWA) where she had a major in Economics and International Studies and minor in Chinese. I was intrigued to know why a South African born Australian with a European heritage chose to study Mandarin as her second language at university. Annika started her Chinese studies at UWA and went on exchange programs to China during the summers during her summer holidays. After graduation, she continued to study at the Western Australia Confucius Institute.

Annika tells me that she chose to study Chinese for a number of reasons. China’s close proximity to Perth (Australia), has consequently led to many Chinese expats living in Perth, so she has been exposed to a lot of Chinese language and culture over the years, which has made her more eager to learn. Acquiring Chinese also gives her university degree in Economics and International Relations a more competitive international edge. She talks about the importance of learning Mandarin to herself as well as why others should also pick up this language:

“These days so many of our Chinese neighbours are expected to learn English in order to get ahead and foster positive ties with the West, but I think for Australia to really facilitate a strong relationship with China we too need to make an effort to understand Chinese language and culture. It goes both ways! I also think it’s equally important for other nationalities to learn Chinese, as it is the world’s most widely spoken language (ahead of both Spanish and English!).”

When asked how the Australian government demonstrated encouragement or influence on students to learn? Annika said that there are several government funded opportunities designed to encourage students to travel to China for tertiary study, but more recently there has been a push for Chinese language to be offered more widely as a subject even starting as early as primary and secondary school level.

The Deutsch are learning Mandarin. Imme Warneke is in her last year of studies at the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz, majoring in Asian Studies and Management. She has been learning Mandarin in Germany and China for approximately 5 years now. Imme has an education background from Germany, Canada and China as well as work experience in Germany and Hong Kong. She gave me her opinion on why she is chose to focus on Mandarin to her already international resume.

Imme Warneke

“I have discovered people have different motives to study Chinese:
1. Many choose to study Chinese due to China’s economic influence, so you see a lot of business students studying Mandarin.
2. Others want to learn an exotic language (so not just French or Spanish like everyone in Europe is doing) and who are drawn to China because of its economic success. These students either learn Chinese in Germany or go to China directly and combine some business studies with Chinese.
3. Some study Chinese because they are interested in the history and culture and think that the language is fascinating since it is so different from Romanic languages. And off course to explore a foreign culture it is crucial to learn the language.
4. Lastly, some just want to travel to China and are not students anymore, or who are interested in China, because of family relations. China has a major media influence in Germany and some people may study it due to pure fascination.”

And for Imme the reason to study Chinese is due to the combination of the four above. Imme wants to tell the Germans that want to learn Mandarin that they can attend classes at professional institutions such as universities, where they use books originally written in China with corresponding German translation. There are also prep courses accompanying the popular HSK tests, which are also offered in Germany. Although she thinks Chinese taught at school can often be slightly outdated, it is a good place to start and get your first taste of Mandarin. She suggests downloading Pleco, as well as obtaining a German- Chinese dictionary, which can also be downloaded on to your smartphones, all of which can help in increasing vocabulary, and bettering pronunciation.

She is now working on passing the HSK 5 test and she has given some useful tips on learning Mandarin as a native German:

“It is useful to follow some Chinese TV shows (teachers can often recommend something that is not too difficult, maybe even children’s show). Find books with CD recordings of the vocabulary and tests. Lastly, it is very useful to find a native speaker in your city to practise with.”

According to the German professional association for Chinese, there are approximately 10,000 students learning Mandarin in Germany. There are 15 established Confucius Institute in across Germany. The German government has also founded different scholarship programs, which support students for one or two semesters or an internship abroad in China.

Students from the U.S., Australia, and Germany shared their Chinese learning journey. There are various places and ways to start:
1. Universities offered classes, some are purely focused on the language while others combine Chinese studies (language and culture) with a business programme, but there are also more historical focused programs, which focus on ancient literature (古文古诗) and history.
2. High schools offer extracurricular activities with Chinese: either more culture focused or even some Chinese classes (many governments are supporting these efforts)
3. Chat groups where you meet up where you can meet native speakers to practise with or meet other students and share your study tips.
4. Study in China (with a scholarship) often universities have their own scholarships and partner programs, since a lot of Chinese students also want to come to Germany
5. Technology. From more well-known programs like Rosetta Stone to newer local Mandarin local portal Mandarin Minds, as well as online help developed by the Beijing Language and Culture University. However almost every student had the smartphone App Pleco (Chinese- English and English- Chinese all-in-one” dictionary) downloaded for the ease of digital flashcards and instant translation.

As China’s economy grow, the importance for non-Chinese to understand the culture, and language is becoming more and more imperative. Therefore many from elementary students to influential politicians to billionaire entrepreneurs are taking Chinese Mandarin lessons. Although Chinese is widely known as a very difficult language and often people quit before even starting due to this prejudice, some students actually said that Chinese has a relatively uncomplicated grammar. Unlike French, German or English, Chinese has no verb conjugation and no noun declension therefore once you build your base level of vocabulary, you can excel faster than other languages in comparison.

But it is learning the first few thousands of characters and the pronunciation that is the hardest for non- native speakers. With growing ties between China and the West, especially massive trading dependencies between China- U.S., China-Australia and China-Germany, the individuals learning this language are gaining a competitive advantage to their degree, differentiating themselves from peers, learning a new communication skill as well as increasing their global business acumen. With the asset of Chinese, they are not only helping themselves in the workforce but also closing gaps between the East and the West as a true citizen of the world. With this all said, what’s stopping you?

Written by Grace Shao.
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NETS contributes to global road safety with free employer guide available in 21 languages

NETS contributes to global road safety with free employer guide available in 21 languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
VIENNA, Va.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- The NETS’ Comprehensive Guide to ROAD SAFETY™ is now available, free of charge, in 21 languages at The Guide was initially launched in English last year as part of the Network of Employers for Traffic Safety’s (NETS) mission to assist employers in advancing global road safety. The document is designed to aid employers with fleets of any size at various stages of road safety program development, including those who are preparing to initiate a program, in the early stages of policy and program development or managing more mature road safety management systems and interventions.

NETS’ Comprehensive Guide to Road Safety™ was written by members of NETS’ Board of Directors, drawing from their companies’ road safety best practices. The guide also draws from information gathered by NETS’ STRENGTH IN NUMBERS® Road Safety Benchmark members, representing more than 100 companies with fleet operations in 153 countries. The Guide supports the goals of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, 2011-2020, a global World Health Organization-led initiative to improve road safety around the world.

“Making roads safer is a major global mission. NETS is grateful to The Coca-Cola Company, a NETS Board of Directors member, for translating the Guide from English into 20 additional languages,” said Jack Hanley, Executive Director of NETS. “Employers in most parts of the world now have a tool kit for contributing to the goals set by The Decade of Action for Road Safety. Through employers, the Guide has the potential to reach more than 50 percent of the world’s population.”

In addition to English, the Guide is available free of charge in the following languages: Arabic, Burmese, Chinese, French, German, Hindi, Indonesian, Japanese, Khmere-Cambodian, Lao, Malay, Portuguese, Russian, Swahili, Tagalog, Tamil, Thailand, Turkish and Vietnamese. It is supported by appendices with model policies and implementation tips and complements NETS’ two other signature programs—its annual STRENGTH IN NUMBERS® Road Safety Benchmark Program and the annual Drive Safely Work Week™ campaign.

About NETS

NETS is a 501(c) 3 organization, a partnership between the U.S. federal government and the private sector. Board members include Abbott, AmeriFleet Transportation, Chubb Group of Insurance Companies, The Coca-Cola Company, Hess Corporation, Johnson & Johnson, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group, Monsanto Company, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Group, Shell International Petroleum Company B.V. and UPS. In addition, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) serve as federal liaisons to the board of directors. Established in 1989, NETS’ programs and services are dedicated to improving the safety of employees, their families, and members of the communities in which they live and work by preventing traffic crashes that occur on-and-off the job.

Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS)

Jack Hanley, 314-680-3293

Source: Network of Employers for Traffic Safety (NETS)

Copyright: Copyright Business Wire 2015
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Supermarket staff told not to speak in foreign languages

Supermarket staff told not to speak in foreign languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Fresh supermarket has come under fire after a policy noticed emerged which informed foreign staff that they could no longer speak in their native tongue when working or while on their lunch break.

The memo, which appeared on states that the "use of various languages on the shop floor has resulted in misunderstandings and some negative customer comments".

"Where possible the company would much prefer if the staff member encourages English speaking."
Online commentators saw the logic in Fresh’s regulations, until they read the bottom part of the letter which told staff:

“This policy (is to be) be applied during rest breaks".
"Please be advised that going forward should anyone be heard on the shop floor or while working speaking another language other than English that they may be the subject of disciplinary action."

Today Fresh Opportunities founder Noel Smith apologised in a statement for any offence caused, but held fast that employees must speak either Irish or English while on the shop floor.

"As you may have seen from social media recently, we issued a communication policy to our staff members, to encourage them to speak English when in the workplace.
"This was to help avoid any misunderstandings between customers, staff and suppliers on the shop floor.

"We’ve been consulting with our staff over the last 24 hours and as our earlier communication policy caused some confusion, we decided to take the step of updating this policy.

"This updated communication policy has now been issued to all our staff members, to help create an inclusive and welcoming environment for all our team.

"We are encouraging our staff to speak English or Irish when in the workplace and this doesn’t apply to rest periods.
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Understanding the language of speech recognition services

Understanding the language of speech recognition services | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Understanding the language of speech recognition services

More from Ted Kritsonis,
Published on: March 4, 2015
Last Updated: March 4, 2015 8:52 AM MST

Voice and speech recognition services may have come under scrutiny lately because of confusion over how they work.

Ted Kritsonis, / Calgary Herald
The recent controversy over how Samsung’s Smart TVs could listen and record conversations has cast some light on how voice or speech recognition services work and who receives the data.

The press and social media were abuzz because of Samsung’s privacy policy for its newest Smart TVs, which noted the voice recognition could “include personal or other sensitive information” and that the data would be “transmitted to a third-party.” The implication was that the TV would record every word uttered in front of it and send it off to someone else for processing.

The language used in the privacy policy is fairly clear, but didn’t provide enough context. In Samsung’s case, there are two microphones that make voice recognition work in two distinct ways. First, is the embedded mic in the TV itself that can only understand basic commands, like changing the channel or raising the volume. That voice data isn’t transmitted anywhere, according to Samsung.

The second mic is in the remote control, which is triggered when you press the button and speak to it. That data is what is sent to a third-party, which is Nuance, in this case, to read the data, turn it into text and then send it back to the user’s TV. If you happen to say something personal or sensitive within your command, that will be recorded and sent to Nuance for conversion and transmission.

Users could opt to turn the feature off and only use basic recognition with preset commands, activated by pressing the microphone button on the remote. In doing it that way, the company confirmed that users would lose the added functionality and depth of voice search, meaning that they wouldn’t be able to search for a movie title, actor or ask for a recommendation, for example.

This isn’t altogether different from how other “smart” voice recognition platforms work, including Apple’s Siri or Google Now. In doing a search to locate a nearby point-of-interest for navigation, movie times or sports scores, the request has to go up to the cloud to be converted into text and then sent back down. This is why a data or Wi-Fi connection is required to use them on mobile devices.

To simplify things, some vendors make it possible to activate them by just voicing a specific phrase to wake it up. Apple has “Hey, Siri” and Google has “Hey, Google Now.” For Samsung, it’s “Hi TV”.

One reason for bringing the cloud into the equation is to improve its scope and efficiency. It’s why manufacturers sometimes market them as “learning” platforms that better understand you over time. English is made up of 26 letters and about 40 possible sounds known as phonemes, which the speech recognition platforms can learn, but the nuances of speaking — pitch, accent, annunciation — are where things tend to be the most challenging.

Security is still a murky piece of the puzzle, and could figure in more prominently as voice recognition continues to develop.
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Interpret + Person: Presentation of Self and Sign Language Interpreters | Street Leverage

Interpret + Person: Presentation of Self and Sign Language Interpreters | Street Leverage | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Robert Lee presented Interpret + Person: Presentation of Self and Sign Language Interpreters at StreetLeverage – Live 2014 | Austin. His talk explored how the identities of sign language interpreters as individuals cannot be removed from the communicative interactions of their work or the relations they have with the people with whom they work.
You can find the PPT deck for his presentation here.

[Note from StreetLeverage: What follows is an English translation of Robert's talk from StreetLeverage – Live 2014 | Austin.  We would encourage each of you to watch the video and access Robert's talk directly.]

Interpret + Person: Presentation of Self and Sign Language Interpreters

Hello, everyone. I’m going to start with a story.

I started learning to sign, and I do mean sign – it was not American Sign Language (ASL) – when I was about fifteen or sixteen. My father and I were going to take an adult education class together. When we saw a listing for “sign language” in the course catalogue, we thought it sounded good and signed up. We went to the class, but my father gave up after the first week. I persevered. The instructor for this class was hearing. I remember, on the first night of class, the person told us they would be teaching us to “sign” not that other thing that Deaf people did. Not knowing any better at the time, I continued in the class and learned to “sign”.  Later on, I read about ASL. I was intrigued and wanted to learn more. ASL classes weren’t available in the Deaf Education programs at the time, and there were no Deaf Studies programs then. That left the Interpreter Training Program, so I entered the ITP with Eileen Forestal, fortunately for me.

Before entering the Interpreter Training Program though, I could “sign”. When I was working at a department store, I remember a situation that came up. One day, in the appliance department next to mine, a Deaf couple came in, signing with the hearing salesperson who was struggling to communicate. I approached them, signing in an attempt to work with them. They were an older married couple and both seemed very nice. They were trying to purchase a microwave that day. I worked with them as they decided on their purchase and everything worked out pretty well. When they were checking out, the clerk asked if they were interested in having a credit card. They were, so the wife proceeded to fill out the application and signed it. The clerk then indicated that the husband would need to sign the form, as well. When the gentleman signed the form, he merely wrote an “X” on the paper. I was struck by that moment – not in judgment. I was intrigued and perplexed by the situation. Anyway, later on, I went into the Interpreter Training Program and ended up at the Deaf Club. This was my first time there, so I was nervously sitting there when someone tapped me on the shoulder. When I turned, I was surprised to see the man from the department store. He remembered our encounter with enthusiasm and gave me his stamp of approval with a “two-thumbs-up” endorsement. That acceptance was a milestone for me. Where I had previously been a hearing person named #Robert #Lee (first and last name fingerspelled), I became “ROBERT LEE” (Speaker indicates name sign of the combined fingerspelled letters ‘R’ and ‘L’ shaken in neutral space on the right hand). In that moment, I became INTERPRETER, even though I hadn’t completed my training yet. He recognized “who I was” in that moment. It was the beginning of my personal journey.

“I am large. I contain multitudes.” – Walt Whitman

Angela Roth said it’s poetry day today, so in keeping with that theme, a quote from a poem, “I am large, I contain multitudes.” (Speaker indicates waistline when signing “I am large,” laughs and continues.) We each have many identities within us and various identities come to the forefront at different times. We’ll discuss that more later today.

Imagine an Interpreted Interaction

We can all imagine what an interpreted interaction looks like, am I right? In a given situation, we have the interpreter, and minimally, we have a Deaf person and a hearing person. The interpreter is in the middle between the other two participants, so to speak. Let’s talk about “who we are” as the interpreter standing at the center of this interaction and what we represent to the other participants in the interpreted event. Both parties have their own perspective.

Layers of Identity

The multitudes of identity referenced earlier are layers of identity. We are going to focus on three primary layers in this instance. The first layer, and the last one we learn as interpreters, is the professional layer. It is the one we learn in school as we become interpreters. In her plenary presentation, Bilingualism: Are Sign Language Interpreters Bilinguals?, MJ Bienvenu talked about how interpreters use the mantra, “Code of Ethics, Code of Ethics, Code of Ethics,” as they take on a mechanized interpreter persona. She talks about how interpreters wear their professional identity as a shield rather than interacting and collaborating with others. As interpreters, we do have cultural and linguistic identities but they are subjugated by our professional identity. Essentially, we have discarded our human selves in favor of this mechanical “professional” interpreter identity. We keep ourselves separated by merely interpreting the words that are said and do not allow our other identities to surface. That behavior is odd. It’s odd and it is destructive. As interpreters, we stand between two people who do not share a language and therefore, cannot easily interact on their own. By removing our selves and trying to maintain that mechanical “professional” persona exclusively, by not utilizing the cultural and linguistic identities we have to communicate between the Deaf and Hearing parties more naturally, we end up creating more problems.

Interpreter – Interpret (verb) + Person (noun)

Angela Roth mentioned that it’s interesting what we learn by using a language. So, we have the ASL sign that represents “interpreter” – INTERPRET + PERSON. In English, the same concept is represented by the word “interpreter”, a single word utterance. Now, I’ve been pondering this idea. The ASL representation for “interpreter” consists of two parts: INTERPRET – an action, what we do, and PERSON – a noun, who does the action.

If we return to our interpreted interaction with a Deaf and Hearing person and our interpreter in the middle, what are those individuals seeing when they interact with the interpreter? Do they see the same identity? Do they see the identity the interpreter thinks they are portraying? The hearing party likely sees “hearing professional” but the interpreter may not have fully explored who they think they are. Ultimately, we have to question the likelihood that participants in interpreted events see interpreters the way they see themselves.

Identity: Experience vs. Perception

As an individual, I experience my own identity while others perceive it. Sometimes, the experience and the perception are the same, and other times, they are not. A famous British sociologist, Richard Jenkins, studied social identity. He said that we can’t create our identity on our own. Rather, we build identity through our relationships with other people. We cannot create identity for ourselves in isolation. We build our identities through interactions, our experiences and other people’s perceptions.

Tom Humphries and Carol Padden both talked about the physical body of the sign language interpreter. We use our bodies to interpret. American Sign Language, British Sign Language – other signed languages – are visual in nature.  If you are using a written language, a person can record a translation in writing and pass that translation along, completely separate from the physical body of the translator. With signed languages, our “self” must always be present, whether we are interpreting on-site in 3D space or on video, interpreting to and from a flat screen, our body, our physical self, is always present. There is no way to remove ourselves from those interactions.

Presentation of Self: I Can Not Interpret Without My “Self”

Robert Lee
As an interpreter, the only tool I have is me – my physical body, my facial expressions, my hands, my arms. I can’t become another person. I can use my body to express meaning for both parties in an interpreted event, but my physical self is always present. That’s important to remember. As a profession (and I confess, I’m guilty, as well), I think we have missed the mark in our attempts to ensure that we don’t influence the situations where we interpret. By virtue of taking on that “professional” persona, we are negatively impacting the interaction. This is a problem.

As interpreters, we don’t want to influence situations and we want to ensure that we are conveying meaning between the participants. At the same time, who we are – our selves – part of us, is still present. For example, I’m here presenting right now. Imagine if someone else came to present on this exact topic. Can you picture them? You are probably still seeing me as the presenter. Unfortunately, I’ve influenced you. You see me presenting this topic and it would be a challenge if someone came in and took over in the middle of the presentation. It would be quite jarring if someone came along and we tag-teamed the presentation. That would seem strange and yet, we use this technique all the time in interpreted interactions. We regularly switch interpreters midstream and believe, somehow, the meaning will still be conveyed. We tell ourselves that the Deaf people will adapt. Will they? It’s something to consider. I think we need to start being more aware of our selves as ourselves.

If we go back to the interaction we imagined, we have our interpreter and we have the perceptions the Deaf and hearing consumers have about the interpreter. What do they see? The problem is that they see what we choose to show them, whether on purpose or by accident.

I want to talk a little bit about some research done on racism.  Often, we see a person’s actions and we interpret the meaning of their actions. In her talk, Self-Awareness: How Sign Language Interpreters Acknowledge Privilege and Influence, Stacey Storme talked about how we see an “angry Deaf person” and we wonder what they are so angry about. It’s interesting when you look at it. I think this next slide will help us understand our reaction.

Observer vs. Actor Perspective

We have an actor – a person. The person carries all kinds of context with them, consisting of their experiences, background, etc. In any given interaction, we see a tiny portion of that context. We only have access to small parts of an individual’s context. The rest of it is inaccessible to us. If we think about Stacey’s example yesterday with the “angry Deaf person” or MJ’s example that people only see black instead of seeing a whole person – we only see a miniscule part of any given person’s context. As interpreters, our job is to provide that context, to convey it to the participants in interpreted events.

Let’s look at the next slide.

Observer vs. Actor Perspective – Interpreted Interaction

The issue is that we have the interpreter, a person, standing in the middle of a situation with two other people who don’t share a language. The Deaf consumer may see one part of the interpreter’s context while the hearing consumer may see something different. No one can see all of another person’s context. Our job as interpreters is to reveal context, but the problem is that we are always in the middle of the situation. It is difficult to separate how we use language, how we talk about the work and how we discuss our work with others. What kinds of language do we use when working with the Deaf consumer versus the hearing consumer? How can we convey more of the context that is implicit in the communication so that we can make more of each person’s context more explicit? Unfortunately, we haven’t had these conversations much yet. We need some way to provide consumers the opportunity to see through the interpreter’s presence to the reality of the other participants in the situation.

We Are Lenses, but Lenses Can Be Tinted

The context we bring to any situation can be considered a “tint”. For example, I’m a man. I’m white. I’m hearing and I’m an American. I started thinking about this particular topic when I moved to England six years ago. After I moved, I started to meet Deaf people there, started to learn British Sign Language, and started interacting with the language skills that I had. Interestingly, the British Deaf people I’ve met refer to me as “Interpreter.” I don’t interpret in England. I teach interpreting, but I don’t work as a sign language interpreter there – I never have. Still, their perception of me is “interpreter.” That’s how I fit into their community, their schema, their lens. I don’t fit any of their typical categories – my parents are hearing – I’m not a CODA, I’m not Deaf. The category that seems to fit best for that community is “interpreter” – that’s the label I’ve been assigned. I don’t have any issue with that – it’s fine with me. That label is how I fit into their world – it provides context about me. Those people have an idea of what “interpreter” means to them. This is similar to the story I told earlier about the older gentleman at the Deaf Club. Once I had his seal of approval, it served to say to others in the community, “He can be with us.” I was accepted and given a role.

It has been interesting to see that even though I don’t interpret in England, “interpreter” is my assigned role. That’s how the Deaf Community perceives me. Even after numerous attempts to explain that I’m a teacher, the community maintains their perception. I accept the label – I don’t mind being referred to in that way. It’s important to realize that this is a social identity – that identity was created through interactions and relationships I have had. It would be inappropriate for me to declare my own identity as “teacher” when that is not my social identity. My paychecks may say I’m a teacher, but the community’s view is that I’m an interpreter. That’s fine. It’s important for us, regardless of our contexts – interpreter, co-worker, Deaf Community member, etc., to consider the fact that other people’s perceptions and our own may not always match. What we think we are presenting as our identity, our context, may not be what others perceive. How we partner, how we express that is critical. This issue is very important for us. So, what should we be thinking about in terms of how we present ourselves?

Presentation of Self: Identities, Privilege(s) and Language(s)

Some of our identities are obvious. Things like race, gender, general age range, can be seen while others may be less obvious or visible. In England, I can “pass” as a British person until I speak. Once I do, it is easy for people to identify that I am not British. I’m not working towards picking up a fake British accent – at all. Some of my vocabulary has changed since moving to England, but still, when I speak, people can easily and swiftly recognize that I am not British.

I had an interesting experience with this. One night, I went to a pub with a British friend of mine who was hearing. After I ordered a drink, I noticed a man staring at me pretty intently. I acknowledged him and he finally asked if I was Canadian. I corrected him, letting him know that I was an American. He responded to the news by calling out to others that I was American. I was a little taken aback, but asked him about his response. Obviously, my accent is different, but I didn’t know why he had assumed I was Canadian. He explained that he knew I wasn’t British due to my accent, but after observing me in the pub, he realized that I seemed to know the cultural norms of the pub and how to behave appropriately.

To briefly explain, pub behavior in the U.K. is different than in the United States. For example, in the U.S., once patrons have paid for their drinks at the bar, they tend to leave their change there as their tab. In Britain, patrons put their change away after receiving it – they never leave the change on the table the way Americans do. That’s one example of a social rule. Another rule is related to tipping. In England, if a patron likes the service they receive, they may offer the server money to buy a drink for themselves instead of a tip as we know it in the United States.

I’ve learned some of these pub rules and follow them. So, while it was clear that I was a foreigner based on my accent, the man also noted my adherence to pub social rules, so he started ruling out options until he was left with Canadian or American. From there, he made an assumption based on what he had experienced with other Americans. He noted that Americans tend to be loud and exhibit brash behavior and struggle with British currency. When I did not behave that way, he guessed that I was Canadian. I wasn’t sure if I was being complimented, but I thanked him for discussing his perceptions with me.

In this instance, I was obviously an “other” – not “THE other”, but it did take some time for him to determine which “other” I was.  My own experience is that I’m an American, but his perception of me was different based on my behavior and his experience. Again, in MJ’s talk, she discussed the way interpreters behave while interpreting versus when they are interacting and how they move between the two. We must recognize that our behavior is how we present ourselves to others.

So, we have our identity and we also have our privilege(s). Stacey talked about privilege in her sessions. My privileges – I’m white, male, I work at a University – I carry multiple privileges. There are other parts of my identity which are not privileged – being gay – sometimes that is not privileged. So, we each carry a balance of privileges and areas where we are not privileged. Ultimately, I choose how I present myself and to whom.

In terms of languages, MJ talked about bi-lingualism and Angela talked about multi-lingualism. I know ASL and English and also I use British Sign Language (BSL) on a daily basis, so that is my third language and a part of how I present myself.

Carol Padden talked about the concept of accent in her talk, Do Sign Language Interpreter Accents Compromise Comprehension? When I sign BSL, most BSL users can immediately note that I am not a native BSL user. They see something about my accent that identifies me as a foreign user of the language. It’s fascinating. So, language is important – how and when we choose to use our language(s) is important. Here at StreetLeverage – Live 2014  in Austin, everyone is using ASL. If we decided not to use ASL here, what would that mean? If I know the language of a country and I refuse to use the language while I’m there, what does that imply? In that instance, that particular identity is not at the forefront. It is, in effect, removed from view. Purposely withholding parts of our identity from other people is a powerful statement. As interpreters, standing in the middle of interpreted interactions, we have to proceed with caution and care. We are in a powerful position.

Recall – INTERPRET (verb) PERSON (noun)

If you remember, we started with the sign for “interpreter” – INTERPRET + PERSON. Again, by using the language, using the ASL sign for “interpreter”, we can come to many understandings about the work, the person behind the work, etc. Maybe we have this concept wrong. Maybe we should consider something else.

Maybe Instead: PERSON (noun) INTERPRET (verb)

We could change the order from INTERPRET+PERSON to PERSON+INTERPRET. We need to explore who we are, our baggage. We need to unpack that baggage, straighten up our clothes a bit and then we can present ourselves to others. Only then can we begin to interpret. Without this self-exploration, everything else is meaningless. The problem MJ talked about – the “interpreter-as-machine” phenomenon – that model is the verb only. It is interpreting without the person. It is important to know the person – who they are. That occurs through negotiations with the Deaf and hearing participants in the interpreted event. Whether the interpreter should present more or less of their personal self can be negotiated. In some situations, it may be appropriate to reveal more of oneself – in settings where the interpreter works on a regular or daily basis, perhaps. Compare that to one-time-only interpreting assignments. At this type of event, it would be inappropriate to be overly effusive with the participants, even if the interpreter knows them well. The negotiation process is critical. It is important to consider how we negotiate and with whom, when we negotiate, etc.

In closing, if we consider the interpreter as a person first, remembering who we are and what we bring, we can then effectively interpret.

Thank you.


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Salon du Livre : des rencontres payantes, 'pas pour faire de l'argent'

Salon du Livre : des rencontres payantes, 'pas pour faire de l'argent' | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Traducteurs et bibliothécaires en colère
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10 More Problems Only a Language Lover Will Understand | Language News

10 More Problems Only a Language Lover Will Understand | Language News | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
You're not alone, language learners. We understand these 10 language learning problems just as well as you do.
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West African reality show dubbed Africa Roots Revelation launched -

West African reality show dubbed Africa Roots Revelation launched - | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Transimex Ghana Limited and Golden International Promotion of Benin, in collaboration with the Musicians Union of Ghana (MUSIGA), has launched a Pan-African Cultural event called “Africa Roots Revelation.”


The West African reality show dubbed “A2R 2015” which is in memory of the late reggae star Bob Marley aims at sensitizing the youth to understand the lyrics of Bob Marley for the building of Africa unity rather than the drug culture of the Rasta community.

It would see the overall best African imitator and interpreter of Bob Marley’s songs taking home $10,000.

Speaking at a press launch in Accra on Tuesday, Ras Caleb Appiah-Levi, Director, Musiga Reggae Department, said “A2R” went beyond a national context and sought to become truly international.

Touching on the primary objective of the reality show, Ras Appiah-Levi said it would promote reggae oriented sound as urban sound that comes from Africans in the Diaspora, specifically the Jamaica.

“This also aims at celebrating African unity through uncensored song’s lyrics of the reggae legend Bob Nesta Marley which preach freedom and justice, love and unification of the African continent,” he said.

He said participants must be Africans between 20 and 45 and must be a musician, singer, artist or composer and must be able to sing at least three songs of Bob Marley.

“Must be a Rasta and wearing dreadlocks is not compulsory but advisable,” Appiah-Levi said.

There will be a pre-selection of performers of Bob Marley songs in some African capitals including Ghana, Benin, Cote D’iviore and Mali.

Ten selected participants would systematically become nominees for the competition.

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Telefónica to debut Movistar TV Go with voice search on Windows Phone » Digital TV Europe

Telefónica to debut Movistar TV Go with voice search on Windows Phone » Digital TV Europe | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Spanish telecom operator Telefónica is to make its Movistar TV Go TV Everywhere service available on devices with Windows Phone OS with voice-enabled search in a joint initiative with Microsoft.

Telefónica’s Movistar TV Go service for Windows Phone 8.1 will enable Telefónica users to view linear and on-demand content and to search by speaking into the phone via Cortana voice recognition technology, which has been integrated for the first time in Telefónica’s worldwide commercial video service for Windows Phone users.

Telefónica aims to launch the final commercial version of the Movistar TV Go app on Windows Phone 8.1 shortly after the current Mobile World Congress trade expo in Barcelona, where it is showing the service. Microsoft’s Cortana voice recognition technology will be tested in a Spanish language beta version in the meantime.

The Movistar TV Go service for Windows Phone will be available first in Spain and then in other Latin American countries where Telefónica is offering pay-TV services.

Michael Duncan, CEO of Global Video Unit of Telefónica, said. “The availability of our television services on mobile devices increases the attractiveness and potential for enjoyment of the content we offer to our users, and places Telefónica at the forefront of video products with an offer of TV Everywhere which is increasingly diverse.”

Steven Guggenheimer, Corporate VP and Chief Evangelist, Microsoft Developer Experience and Evangelism at Microsoft, said: “We are very pleased to have achieved this milestone with Telefónica. Rather than just performing voice-activated commands, Cortana continually learns about each user and becomes increasingly personalized, with the ultimate goal of proactively performing the right tasks at the right time. Telefónica’s support is helping us to speed up this process.”
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OPEN LETTER TO PATIENT JONATHAN On Her Recent Blunder Of ‘Only Bus Conductors Ask For CHANGE – PLEASE DON’T LAUGH (JUST READ) | OSUN DEFENDER | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
Dear Patience Faka Jonathan,
How is everything going for you and the rest of the people in Aso Rock?
I write this letter in response to your statement, “We are not conductors so we don’t ask for change”.
I just want to tell you that in the real sense of it, bus conductors do not ask for CHANGE. It is usually the passengers who ask for CHANGE.
Your husband, Goodluck Jonathan was chosen as the driver to convey Nigerians to their destination; PDP was appointed the conductor; and the Nigerian masses were and are still the passengers. As passengers, we had paid our bus fares in 2011 using the vote currency and now, we are asking, demanding for CHANGE as we approach our destination, 2015.
Often times, bus conductors do not agree to give the
passengers their CHANGE easily (at least not without a fight or exchange of words ). Like the bus conductors we know, PDP does not intend to give us the CHANGE that is due us even when they know this is the right thing to do.
But we the Nigerian Masses (who live without basic amenities; who are unemployed; who do not feel secure at home and in public places; who have been designated as targets for shooting practice etc.) have decided to get our CHANGE from the conductor (PDP and Cabals).
You see the wind of change has so caught with you. This is
why even you ought to vote for CHANGE.
Thanks for gathering your things as you prepare to quit Aso Rock back to Otuoke or Okrika, the choice is yours
Yours sincerely.
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Why Grand Rapids may change 'gender orientation' language in non-discrimination ordinance

Why Grand Rapids may change 'gender orientation' language in non-discrimination ordinance | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
GRAND RAPIDS, MI -- As East Grand Rapids moves toward becoming the second city in Kent County to put LGBT protections in a non-discrimination ordinance, the first local city with such language on the books also is looking at making a change.

Grand Rapids in 1994 added "gender orientation" to a list of characteristics - race, color, creed, national origin, ancestry, age, sex, marital status, disability - in a civil rights section of city code. But that's a different term than the "sexual orientation and gender identity" clause proposed in East Grand Rapids, and adopted in some other Michigan communities.

Anti-discrimination forum
Rhonda Bacon speaks at Michigan Department of Civil Rights hearing on including LGBT protections in the state's anti-discrimination laws.

"We interpret 'gender orientation' to be inclusive of sexual orientation and gender identity," said Patti Caudill, the city's director of diversity and inclusion. But "that is being looked at because the language has changed so much since 1994," she said.

"It's something that we're aware of and we're reviewing right now," said Caudill, noting that City Commission ordered a review of diversity and inclusion policies as part of a plan related to body cameras. "We're going to look at changing it to be consistent with other ordinances (in other communities) that separate them out."
RELATED: Discrimination against LGBT people in housing, jobs could be banned in East Grand Rapids

Grand Rapids in 1994 added the "gender orientation" phrase to a civil rights section of city code that deals with discrimination in housing, employment and public accommodation. City Commission at the time voted 4-3 against putting the issue to voters, then voted 4-3 to add the phrase.

Mayor George Heartwell, then a Third Ward commissioner, voted in favor of the language. A subsequent petition drive to put the language up for a citywide vote fell 188 signatures short.

Statewide, 36 municipalities have LGBT protections in local code, according to Unity Michigan, a coalition that endorses anti-discrimination policies. The Michigan Municipal League in 2013 became a member of Unity Michigan.

West Michigan communities with LGBT protections include Battle Creek, Douglas, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo Township, Muskegon, Saugatuck and Saugatuck Township.

East Grand Rapids has scheduled a 6 p.m. Monday, March 16, hearing on adding LGBT protections to its non-discrimination ordinance. That proposal includes a $500 penalty for violations.

The Grand Rapids code includes no penalty for discrimination based on gender orientation. Rather, the language gives LGBT individuals a forum to complain about discrimination, which prompts an investigation by the city's Community Relations Commission and, sometimes, a mediation process.

Over the years "there haven't been a lot of complaints," Caudill said.

Matt Vande Bunte covers government for MLive/Grand Rapids Press. Email him at or follow him on Twitter and Facebook.
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French Speaking Hotel Reservations Assistant Nottingham

French Speaking Hotel Reservations Assistant Nottingham | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
French Speaking Hotel Reservations Assistant Nottingham
Location: Midlands Position: Retail Sales Consultant

My client is a busy, growing tour operator who due to the expansion of the company are looking for a French Speaking Hotel Reservations Assistant. You would be responsible for sourcing, booking and paying for accommodation in Europe, Using your fluent French speaking skills you will be liaising with suppliers and reporting to the Hotel Manager.
My client is a busy, growing tour operator who due to the expansion of the company are looking for a French Speaking Hotel Reservations Assistant. You would be responsible for sourcing, booking and paying for accommodation in Europe, Using your fluent French speaking skills you will be liaising with suppliers and reporting to the Hotel Manager.

*You will be required to request and secure suitable accommodation according to the group requirement/budget, via telephone and emails.
*Answer queries regarding hotels, prices, facilities, single room supplements, damage deposits etc.
*Research and negotiate accommodation rates for bespoke quotes
*Monitor the option deadline dates and keep hotels updated
*Liaise with colleagues & customers about accommodation centres, explaining about the facilities and location
*Update the internal admin system with hotel prices, accurate descriptions, pictures and information
*Check and process payments of hotel invoices
*Maintain files and keep accurate records
*Assist the hotel reservations manager with daily tasks

*The successful candidate must be a confident, fluent French speaker
*Effective communicator- both written & verbal
*Numerical accuracy (Test at interview)
*Excellent organisational and time management skills
*Able to work independently but also as part of a team
*Ability to work to and meet tight deadlines
*Good initiative and decision making skills
*Positive work ethic

The successful candidate will be rewarded with an excellent basic salary, dependant of experience £15000 - £16000. Your working hours will be Monday - Friday 9am - 5.30pm, this really is a great company to work for!

If you think you have what it takes for this exciting new role, please follow the instructions to apply, send your CV to or call Helen on 0121 450 9776.


Location Midlands
Position Retail Sales Consultant
Salary Band £10,000 - £19,999
Reference 15177
Salary £15000 - £16000 annum
Location Midlands
Start date 04/03/2015
End date 01/04/2015
Closing date 01/04/2015
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PIL challenges classical language status of Malayalam

PIL challenges classical language status of Malayalam | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
PIL challenges classical language status of Malayalam
Wednesday 04 March 2015 05:06 PM IST
by Agencies

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Chennai: A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) was filed at the Madras High Court on Wednesday challenging the classical language status accorded to Malayalam.

In his PIL, advocate R. Gandhi submitted that he was not against any Indian language getting classical status provided it satisfied the criteria. He claims that Malayalam does not fulfill the criteria laid down by the Centre.

The PIL also questions the classical status accorded to Oriya. Based on the PIL, the High Court ordered to issue notices to the Centre, and Kerala and Odisha governments.

Gandhi contended that Ministry of Culture and Home affairs should adhere to criteria laid down to determine the eligibility of a language to be considered for classification as a "Classical Language" as per the notification of the Centre on November 25, 2005.

As per the criteria, the status should be given to the language with "high antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years", he contended.

The claim of any language for classical language has to be evaluated in terms of the criteria which are really based on recommendations of the Gopichanth Nareng Committee appointed by Government of India, he contended.

He also prayed the court to direct the Centre to strictly adhere to implement the criteria laid down in the 2005 notification for determining the eligibility of languages to be considered as "Classical Language" before declaring classical status to any language.

It was in May 2013 that Malayalam was granted the coveted classical status.
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Sprechen Sie Russian? Genetic Proof Russia Home to Indo-European Languages / Sputnik International

Sprechen Sie Russian? Genetic Proof Russia Home to Indo-European Languages / Sputnik International | Metaglossia: The Translation World |
An international team of scientists, including specialists from St.-Petersburg and Samara, have discovered a new genetic confirmation of the 'Kurgan hypothesis' regarding the origin of Indo-European languages. The scientists published the results of their research in Nature.
According to the paper, at least some Indo-European languages in Europe originated as a result of the mass migration of proto-language native speakers from the European territory of modern Russia. In particular, the Balto-Slavic, Germanic and Romanic languages also most likely a result of this migration.

The scientists made their conclusion after analyzing the genomes of 94 people who lived between three and eight thousand years ago in Europe. The geneticists found that starting from 4.5 thousand years ago, about 75% of the population in Central Europe had ancestors from the Russian steppes. These representatives of the Corded Ware culture appear to be the forefathers of people from other Yamna cultures which lived on the territory between the Dnieper and the Volga.

This seems to confirm the idea that the Corded Ware culture was formed under the influence of the Yamna culture. The specialists also noted that Yamna people could have spread their technology to Europe, including the wheel. Wheeled vehicles and domesticated horses only appeared in Europe about five to six thousand years ago.
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