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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
Milan Kundera has released The Festival Of Insignificance which, at 86, might be his last novel. The great wonder of the book, which is in truth slight, is that he wrote it in French, a language he acquired when he fled Czechoslovakia in 1975. To combine the separate achievements of writing a novel and mastering a second language is beyond all literary duty.
Nabokov’s first nine novels were composed in Russian but after Lolita in 1955 he wrote in English. “You can always rely on a murderer for a fancy prose style,” says Humbert Humbert. Nabokov, though, had grown up
Microsoft Skype Translator has introduced French and German to the line-up of spoken languages available in the Skype Translator preview app, according to reports.
Microsoft is now bringing French and German to its Skype Translator app and a few months ago, the company had added Italian and Chinese support to the Skype Translator app, according to a report on The Verge. With this, the Skype Translator app now supports six languages that include English, French, German, Italian, Mandarin, and Spanish, reports The Verge.
In its official Skype blog, Microsoft said, “We are now breaking down more language barriers, and bringing the world closer together, by offering six spoken Skype Translator languages -- English, French, German, Italian, Mandarin, Spanish -- along with 50 instant messaging languages.”
For Windows 8 users, Skype Translator is currently available only as a modified version of the Skype Modern app, reports Tech Times.
On May 12, Microsoft had announced that its Skype Translator Preview will be available for all Windows 8.1 and Windows 10 Technical Preview users. The company has removed the sign-up requirement making it easier to obtain the Skype Translator Preview. Windows 8.1 or Windows 10 preview PC or tablet users can now download the Skype Translator preview application from the Windows Store and they (users) can use it as soon as it is downloaded, which means users do not have to sign up or wait, Microsoft said through its Skype Blogs.
Skype Translator is used for real time transaction between two people but now the Redmond based software giant is turning its focus on people who are either deaf or have hearing defects, reports The Verge. The publication also mentioned that the company had recently opened up Skype Translator for anyone to try and with French and German support, Microsoft now has a bigger audience for its translation service.
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Shankar’s “Chowringhee” would have remained restricted to Bengalis and Manto’s work would have been imbibed only by Urdu readers if these works were not translated. In the past few years, translations in Indian literature have evolved with their own identity – reaching out to a wider audience.
English, being adopted as primary language, has opened up the doors for translators to escalate the works of vernacular writers.
Yet, there persists a void, which the translators at times fail to fill.
“Translations do fail to carry the same emotions at times. Sometimes, it is quite difficult to actually understand and communicate the same emotion effectively in another language,” said Prashant Pethe, 38, who translated into English the popular Marathi book “Aiwa Maru”, originally written by Anant Samant, told IANS.
A similar thought was echoed by Snehal Shingavi, who translated into English “Angaaray”, a collection of short stories in Urdu by Sajjad Zaheer, Ahmed Ali, Rashid Jahan and Mahmud-uz-Zafar.
“One almost always fails but must try. Otherwise it means giving in to parochialism and particularism in a world that is in desperate need of more understanding,” Shingavi, 39, told IANS.
Talking about the difficulties and complexities faced while translating their works, the authors emphasised on how crucial it becomes to play with words to avoid repetition.
“Word play is a challenge, but it is something that all translators have to do. Certain concepts can be very flexible in one language and rigid in another, but one tries to make sure that the sense of the original is retained. Sometimes you have to be creative in making that work,” said Shingavi, an assistant professor of English at the University of Texas, Austin.
Pethe, being a seaman (he has worked on offshore oil and gas rigs), could relate to the story of “Aiwa Maru”, which is a story based on life at sea and put himself in the narrator’s shoes. But this didn’t reduce his troubles while translating.
“The focus was always to understand what the writer wants to say and express it in English. I just tried to follow my instincts and it has worked in whatever little work I have done,” adds Pethe, who is settled in Pune.
Adding to the complexities, the translators also spoke about doing justice to the characters and bringing in changes without hampering the essence of the original.
“I did make changes. Sometimes the Urdu would sound strange when it was rendered in English. Sometimes I had to move words around. I think this is a necessary part of translation,” said Snehal when asked about changes made in his translated work.
Unlike Snehal, Pethe didn’t make many changes in his book as there was less scope to introduce new emotions, apart from changing a few technical terms.
The translators also spoke about the English versus vernacular languages debate.
“My intention was for the novel to reach more people and English was the natural option for that. ‘Aiwa Maru’ has remained popular in Marathi for 25 years, proving that if something is worth a read, it will work and the language doesn’t matter,” said Pethe, adding that he translated the work because he could relate to many things that he came across in the novel.
Shingavi said: “The entire ethic of translation is to argue that there are interesting things happening in languages other than English. The translation should be to enrich English, not to prove its supremacy.”
The translators, however, lamented at their works not being recognised on a larger scale in the Indian book scene.
“There are plenty of hidden gems in various Indian languages. It is only recently that they have been re- discovered and it will only enrich the Indian literature in English and ensure that these stories reach a lot more people than the ones in a particular language,” Pethe said.
The translators were also upset with their efforts not being adequately marketed.
Pethe felt that the commercial departments of publishing houses do not contribute wholeheartedly to make the translations reach wider audiences.
“Translations fill a much smaller niche market and, therefore, don’t always get noticed for the contributions they are making,” added Shingavi.
However, despite the difficulties in conveying the original emotions, it is clear that translators will soldier on with their works. Three cheers for that!
The Georgia Supreme Court Commission on Interpreters has been awarded a $15,000 grant to go toward the improvements of interpreter services in courts throughout Georgia.
The grant was funded by the National Center for State Courts, a nonprofit organization. It's part of a wider initiative by the State Justice Institute, a nonprofit corporation run by an 11-member board of directors appointed by the president. .
According to Shinji Morokuma, staff director of the commission, most of the funds will be used to pay consultant Cristina Llop, an attorney and federally certified interpreter, to help Georgia develop its first administrative guide on a model protocol for interpreter services.
Llop consulted on language access issues for the California courts in early 2015.
The guide, which Morokuma described as a how-to manual, will help Georgia courts know how to best handle various problems in court interpreting and language accessibility.
"The courts need some direction from us on how to fulfill their obligation," Morokuma said.
Morokuma, who will be working closely with Llop as well as commission member Jana Edmondson-Cooper, said that Georgia currently has about 150 interpreters, most of whom speak Spanish and are concentrated in Metro Atlanta. He said that through this project the commission hopes to recruit more interpreters from outside of the Atlanta area and more interpreters who speak less common languages.
"The goal of the project is to help Georgia trial courts identify the best ways in which they can address the language needs of our population, from an individual's first contact with a court to his last," said Justice Keith Blackwell, chairman of the commission, in a June 11 press release. "We are grateful to the National Center for State Courts and the State Justice Institute for funding this critical project."
In addition to creating the guide, the project will also involve collecting data from yearly case counts, allowing the commission to count the number of cases in Georgia this year that required an interpreter and better assess the courts' needs.
"The courts haven't collected that data very consistently around the state," Morokuma said.
Georgia courts have also been experimenting with video remote interpreting, which would allow interpreters in metro Atlanta, for example, to interpret for a court in rural Georgia by video, saving the rural court the interpreter's travel expenses, Morokuma said..
The Administrative Office of the Courts launched a pilot program for interpreting via video in 2012. The pilot program ended in 2014, but Morokuma said the commission is now considering implementing the system in certain courts around the state, pending funding.
Since the technology is fairly new, Morokuma explained, the equipment is expensive. The commission would need to evaluate how often each court tends to require a remote interpreter and determine whether the cost of the video system would be cost effective, he said..
Morokuma said that he hopes to have completed a final draft of the guide by fall 2016 and begin protocol training for judges, lawyers, clerks and other legal administrative staff in early 2017.
"SJI remains committed to improving language access in the state courts, and continues to support national, state and local court efforts addressing this critical issue," Jonathan Mattiello, State Justice Institute executive director, said in the release. "We are happy to assist the commission and its stakeholders in developing this model protocol, which will contribute to language access in Georgia."
Software related and artificial intelligence related technology is evolving very quickly, there are a lot of things that were not possible in the past but are possible in the current era. Google is one of the most technologically advanced companies in the world, which is responsible for creating products that are unmatched in quality as well as intellect.
One of the most famously used software or app called google translate can translate thousands of different languages, it also contains a feature to detect the language which is written and translate it to the intended language. Automation and software evolution has led to the increase reliability of the individuals over these technologies compared to humans.
Similarly, a large number of analysts believe that in future google translate could replace the manual or human translation industry around the globe. There are several reasons why this technology cannot replace actual human translation capabilities some of them are discussed below.
The first and most significant limitation of google translate is that it works on a set of rules without understanding. Rules may define a certain task can be accomplished but it does not brew understanding. Human languages are filled with rules and many circumstances where these rules become irrelevant and no longer apply, in such cases google translate fails to incorporate the correct translation and ends up doing a literal translation that is far inferior in quality as compared to a human or manually translated document. Google translation is a very good tool to understand the basic sense of what is being communicated but for official translations, transcripts and other translations it fails to achieve the similar results.
Human translators are able to discern the expression that an individual is trying to communicate in his piece of writing that is usually absent from machine based translation, due to this phenomenon the machine-based translations failed to incorporate the true intention of the piece of writing and end up going after the literal interpretation of the words that are placed in the software.
Human beings are very expressive and have a high level of intellect that enables them to play with words, expressions and meaning of certain sentences. The meaning of a sentence changes with the situation and intention of the speaker, which the google translate fails to incorporate and understand but a human speaker has a clear idea of the situation can discern the intended emotion that the writer wants to communicate very easily and effectively.
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BUENOS AIRES - ICANN announced in a press release that it has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Japan Network Information Center (JPNIC) and Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd. (JPRS) to forge an alliance fostering greater collaboration on translation.
Under the cooperative agreement, ICANN, JPNIC and JPRS will coordinate and collaborate to address the linguistic needs of the Japanese community by identifying and translating ICANN materials into Japanese. This increased coordination calls for greater communication with regard to the translation efforts undertaken by each party, avoids duplication of resources, and ensures that content of relevant interest are accessible to the local community.
"I am confident that this collaboration will be a good model that shows how ICANN and the local community can come together to help address the language needs of markets where English is not the main language medium. This is an important topic that we need to address as we move forward with ICANN's globalization efforts," said Fadi Chehadé, ICANN President and Chief Executive Officer.
The MoU was formalized and signed at ICANN's 53rd Public Meeting in Buenos Aires. JPNIC representative Akinori Maemura (on behalf of JPNIC President, Shigeki Goto) and JPRS representative Hirofumi Hotta (on behalf of JPRS President Koki Higashida) were present at the signing ceremony together with Fadi Chehadé and other staff members of ICANN, JPNIC and JPRS.
"Since ICANN was incorporated, JPNIC has been closely keeping track of ICANN's activities and disseminating ICANN information to the Japanese community. The recently-established Asia Pacific Hub has helped to bring us to a new stage of collaboration, and I am delighted to enter into this MoU, which concretizes one of our on-going cooperation," said Shigeki Goto, President of JPNIC.
"JPRS has introduced ICANN's activities in Japanese to the Japanese community in order to support private-sector-led Internet resource management. I am very pleased to enter into this MoU as it clearly expresses our intention to further contribute to the Japanese community through collaboration with ICANN and JPNIC," said Koki Higashida, President of JPRS.
Kuek Yu-Chuang, Vice President and Managing Director for ICANN Asia Pacific said that the region's diversity called for ICANN to work even more closely with their stakeholders to achieve common goals.
"We are very excited about this collaboration. Both JPNIC and JPRS are already doing a great job translating and sharing some ICANN materials, for example in their ICANN Readout sessions. With this MoU, we can better coordinate our resources to cover translation work more efficiently, so as to deliver ICANN materials to the Japanese community according to their needs."
"We also hope that this will pave the way for more communities to come forward to work with us. Together, we can help to overcome the language barrier and ensure that this is not an impediment to participation in ICANN and our policy development process," he added.
Christina Rodriguez, Director of ICANN Language Services Department, agreed. "This is a timely development and ties in very well with the department's recently refined approach in partnering with the community on ICANN's translation work. Such collaboration helps us to better reach audiences beyond those using the official ICANN languages (6 official UN languages + Portuguese), and provides a new avenue for community partnership."
ICANN's mission is to ensure a stable, secure and unified global Internet. To reach another person on the Internet you have to type an address into your computer - a name or a number. That address has to be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN coordinates these unique identifiers across the world. Without that coordination we wouldn't have one global Internet. ICANN was formed in 1998. It is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with participants from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable. It promotes competition and develops policy on the Internet's unique identifiers. ICANN doesn't control content on the Internet. It cannot stop spam and it doesn't deal with access to the Internet. But through its coordination role of the Internet's naming system, it does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet. For more information please visit: www.icann.org
JPNIC (Japan Network Information Center) is a non-profit, membership-based corporation that contributes in supporting the Internet infrastructure in Japan, by providing allocation and registration services of IP addresses and AS numbers as the National Internet Registry, conducting research on technologies and policies, and through information sharing and international coordination on Internet related issues.
JPRS (Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd.) works to carry out JP domain name registration and management, and to undertake operation of the domain name system; and conducts research and development of various Internet-related services and technologies.
A estas alturas todo el mundo sabe lo que son las viñetas, bocadillos y otros términos comunes de la historieta. Pero… ¿alguien sabe decirme qué significa "lectoespectador", "liánhuánhuá" o "prolepsis". Esos son solo algunos de los términos que podemos encontrar en el Diccionario Terminológico de la Historieta (ACT Ediciones) de Manuel Barrero.
Un libro que el autor define así: “Se trata de un libro de consulta, de referencia, de esos que tienes ahí, en el anaquel, para cuando los necesitas. No fue planteado en principio como un texto para leer de corrido, o como lectura para la piscina ni para esos ratos en el bus. No, porque se trata de un nomenclátor riguroso, que pretende abarcar todos los conceptos relativos a las actividades de creación y producción de las publicaciones que contienen viñetas o cómics, y además añade una amplia terminología relacionada con su lenguaje y cuestiones técnicas. También acompaña muchas voces de la jerga de los aficionados, sobre todo de los seguidores de superhéroes y de manga, que son los que más actividad cultural han generado en torno al cómic en el mundo”.
“Es un planteamiento teórico ambicioso –continúa Manuel- porque además está escrito con un lenguaje que permite a cualquier lector comprender la mayoría de las explicaciones perfectamente. Como objeto, el libro está planteado para que resulte atractivo al tacto y a la vista (¡al gusto no, no le pasen la lengua en casa!); hemos cuidado el diseño, y además lleva al final un anexo con una bibliografía general sobre historieta y sátira gráfica que es accesible y adecuada para cualquier interesado, sobre todo para los que quieran profundizar en el conocimiento de los cómics y del humor”.
Un libro imprescindible
Manuel nos comenta por qué era necesario este libro: “Toda disciplina artística o científica tiene sus diccionarios o sus glosarios de referencia. Generalmente, varios o muchos. Del cómic solamente había uno en España publicado en plan monográfico, el divertido libro de Antoni Guiral Terminología (en broma pero muy en serio) de los comics, que él mismo editó bajo el sello Funnies en 1998. Ha llovido. ¡Casi veinte años han pasado, y no veas lo que ha cambiado el mundo del cómic! Es cierto que se han publicado glosarios parciales durante todo este tiempo, como los que el mismo Guiral se ha preocupado de incluir en su enciclopédica Del tebeo al manga (Panini), pero en ACyT pensamos que era conveniente disponer de un manual compacto, más ambicioso, que recogiese todo lo que sabemos hasta hoy en un bloque y lo pusiese al día”.
“Era necesario –continúa Barrero- para darle visibilidad al medio frente a la cultura o frente a otros medios. Imagino que si las instituciones y la prensa observan que existe un nuevo y grueso diccionario sobre el cómic y el humor a lo mejor caen en la cuenta de que esto de las viñetas “tiene miga”. De eso se trata. Por cierto que existe también un reciente diccionario en portugués, muy recomendable y ameno, elaborado por el historiador Leonardo de Sà: Dicionário Universal da Banda Desenhada. Pequeno léxico disléxico, editado en 2010 por Pedranocharco”.
Portada del 'Diccionario terminológico de la historieta'
“Hemos seleccionado 1.304 conceptos. La selección inicial era mayor porque quise abarcar demasiado, o sea, escoger términos genéricos que en realidad no deben estar en un diccionario especializado en cómic sino en el diccionario de la RAE, o de tipografía, o sobre comunicación en general, como correspondería. Los que han quedado también contienen términos genéricos, pero que he considerado que era importante describirlos en su aplicación específica al medio. Por ejemplo, “posmodernidad”, o “paradigma”, o “academicismo”. No obstante, de los escogidos inicialmente hemos desestimado tanto conceptos específicos como generales”.
“Uno de los específicos que hemos retirado –asegura Barrero- ha sido “injury-to-the-eye motif”, que se refiere a esas imágenes impactantes por su violencia que tanto detestaba Fredric Wertham pero que, a día de hoy, ya no es un término de uso entre la afición ni entre los teóricos. Otro de los que no entraron fue el término nipón “zasshi” que es verdad que bastantes aficionados al manga usan para referirse a una revista periódica con viñetas o historietas, pero en realidad es un término en japonés que significa simplemente “publicación periódica”, no siendo exclusiva del manga. Habrá algunos conceptos que el lector del diccionario entenderá desfasados, otros demasiado desconocidos para él, pero los escogidos creemos que si bien es posible que no sean “de uso” al menos sí sirven para conocer mejor el medio y las labores de los que trabajan en él y en su industria”.
8 años de trabajo
Un libro de estas características requiere de mucho trabajo, como nos cuenta barrero: “Comencé hace siete años, quizá ocho, cuando hallaba términos atractivos, distintos o confrontados en mis lecturas para documentarme sobre tebeos. Uno muy típico era el de la expresión francesa “mise en page” con respecto a su traducción “puesta en página”, pero que son conceptos distintos dependiendo del matiz del teórico o del autor que los utilice. Otro caso típico es el de “maqueta”, término que procede de un uso profesional en las imprentas para referirse a la obra impresa que se toma como plantilla o referente para tirar muchos ejemplares más y que hoy se utiliza como sinónimo de “diseño” (o sea, ha pasado de ser algo físico a ser algo virtual)”.
“El proceso de trabajo ha sido, por lo tanto, laborioso. De contraste –añade Barrero-. De ir apuntando ideas, opiniones opuestas, puliéndolas y construyendo definiciones objetivas hasta donde me ha sido posible para no dejar de lado ninguna de las acepciones que puedan tener los diferentes términos. Es más, si hay grupos de teóricos o divulgadores que entienden que un concepto debe definirse de otro modo, o simplemente porque ellos así lo emplean cotidianamente, eso queda recogido en este diccionario. Así ocurre con el binomio “novela gráfica”, que hace un sigo se utilizaba con un sentido en castellano, a mitad del siglo XX adoptó otro significado en España y hoy tiene otro muy distinto para gran parte de los lectores y también para la opinión pública”.
“Por esta razón –continúa el autor- el diccionario se ordena aportando hasta tres párrafos de cada concepto: una definición objetiva, una digresión sobre la etimología o los usos del mismo y, si hace falta, también una discusión sobre su mal uso o su caída en desuso. Un ejemplo de esto último sería la voz “comic-book”, que suele escribirse masivamente con guión pero más en España que en EE UU, su lugar de origen, donde solo se escribe así si se emplea como adjetivo. La costumbre, como tú sabes, hace la norma muchas veces…”
Páginas del 'Diccionario terminológico de la historieta'
El cómic y la tecnología
El avance de la tecnología cambia el mundo a velocidades insospechadas, algo a lo que no escapa el cómic. Aunque experimente menos variaciones que otros medios. “Hay que admitir –asegura Barrero- que la narración con imágenes fijas no se ha visto muy alterada por los hipermedios nuevos (hace unos años pensábamos que sí, que sería toda una revolución, como predijo el señor McCloud). O sea, se difunde mucha viñeta y mucho cómic por internet, pero siguen siendo las estructuras de partida, las dibujadas sobre el papel, trasvasadas a un ordenador. Cambian poco, y aunque hay autores que rompen moldes con sus webcomics, lo curioso es que los valoramos cuando a un editor se les ocurre recopilarlos en papel... ¿no es paradójico? De todos modos, hoy se está avanzando mucho en las minianimaciones, en los gifs narrativos, y por ahí el medio va a experimentar una mutación (pero cuando lleguemos a ella tendremos que plantearnos si estamos hablando del mismo medio o si es otra cosa)”.
“Por lo que se refiere a la terminología –afirma Barrero- desde luego que se ve afectada por la tecnología. Mucho. Los avances en informática, las mejoras de software y hardware, las redes sociales… no solo han cambiado conceptos, también perspectivas y han generado terminología nueva o diferente: "e-comic", "autoedición", "fanart", "meme", "scanlation", todos son términos que surgen nuevos o han modificado su definición desde que el mundo está en línea”.
“Sobre cómo esto ha afectado al diccionario –comenta el autor- una de las palabras que tuve que retirar fue “puntero”, porque en su día anoté que podía ser una herramienta de dibujo de cómic, pero claro, aún no se habían comercializado las tabletas gráficas, y al final opté por cambiar la denominación. Otro caso singular es el de “cinematic multiverse”, que es una idea compleja que afecta a todo un escenario compartido por muchas series tras la traslación al cine de sus personajes. Esto no hubiera sido posible si la tecnología de efectos especiales no hubiese llegado a donde está hoy. Aquellas pelis que hicieron de los héroes de Marvel en los noventa ni siquiera las tuvo en cuenta la afición, pero hoy cada estreno cambia la política de la empresa editorial”.
Algunos términos curiosos
En el libro no faltan términos curiosos, como apunta Barrero: “Por supuesto sonarán raros los términos técnicos, como es lógico. Nadie va a una librería de cómics, o se planta en un foro, y dice: “Aquí tiene lugar una "metalepsis" de gran eficacia”. En todo caso podría decir: “Estos super deformed me molan”. Pero el concepto semiológico es el que es y en el diccionario vienen recogidos ambos. La metalepsis es un término más amplio, por supuesto, porque alude a todo añadido al relato en curso que lo clarifica o lo apostilla, y puede ser una minicaricatura del personaje principal que emite un consejo o bien un icono o un rótulo que genera un paralelismo con lo que se está contando”.
“Otro que puede resultar raro a los lectores de cómic en general es “sustancia”, que parece una palabra comodín pero que tiene gran importancia, porque en lo sustancial (es decir, en la parte conceptual que liga la expresión con el contenido de una viñeta cualquiera, y da sentido a su plasmación gráfica con un sentido narrativo o ilustrativo) es donde radica la diferencia del cómic con otros medios. Un cómic no es una película. No es una novela. No es un manual de instrucciones de seguridad con siete dibujos ni un retablo con doce imágenes que recuerdan un fragmento de la Biblia. ¿Por qué? Porque tiene diferente sustancia comunicativa. Eso sí, para pillarlo del todo hay que leer la definición completa. Y para eso hay que comprar el libro”.
Convert.NET is a free (for personal use) text processing toolkit with maybe the most bizarrely mixed-up feature set we’ve seen.
Choose "Language Translation" from the list top-left and it seems reasonably normal. Type or paste text into the box, enter a URL, choose one or more files, select your source and target languages and the program translates them for you via Google, Bing, Yandex or Excite.
But then there’s also a C# to VB.NET converter, which again can be used to process pasted text or an entire set of project files.
An Encrypt/ Decrypt module allows you to create encoded text messages using AES, Rijndael, DES, TripleDES or SHA.
An Encoding/ Decoding module converts text and files between various encoding schemes (Base64/ HTML/ URL/ URL-js/ ESCAPE-js).
There’s also a LINQ tester, a regular expression tester, and -- just in case you needed one -- an HTML/ JSON/ XML browser thrown in as well (we’re not sure what they have to do with "converting", either).
Each module is easy enough to use manually, but Convert.NET also has a command line interface to automate running tasks from your own scripts.
Do you need all this? Almost certainly not. But the language translator and C# <> VB.NET converter are worth having, the encryption/ decryption and decoder modules could be useful occasionally, and there’s no adware or other penalty to pay for trying it out.
Convert.NET is available now for Windows XP and later.
Les très sérieux dictionnaires britanniques Oxford ont annoncé jeudi avoir ajouté cette année 500 nouveaux mots. Parmi eux, "twerker", popularisé par la danse lascive de Miley Cyrus, "webisode" et "e-cigarette".
Pour qu'un mot fasse son entrée dans cette vénérable institution, il doit avoir été utilisé communément dans les journaux ou les romans depuis au moins dix ans.
"Twerking", soit "twerker" en français, est décrit comme le fait d'effectuer une danse "de façon sexuellement provocante, en ayant recours à des mouvements des fesses et des hanches, jambes fléchies". Cette danse a ses racines à la Nouvelle-Orléans au début des années 90, précisent-ils encore.
Le mot a vu son usage exploser ces dernières années après la prestation controversée de la chanteuse américaine Miley Cyrus aux Music Awards en 2013. Les dictionnaires Oxford ont cependant trouvé que "twirk" avait été utilisé pour la première fois en 1820 en référence à un "mouvement de twist ou de jerk". Le verbe aurait quant à lui émergé en 1848, devenant à partir de 1901 "twerk".
La toile comme origine
Autre nouvel entrant, une "e-cigarette" est décrite comme "un dispositif en forme de cigarette contenant un liquide à base de nicotine ou d'autres substances que l'on vaporise et inhale afin de simuler l'expérience de fumer".
Figurent aussi désormais dans les dictionnaires le mot "Twitterati", qui qualifie les utilisateurs du réseau social ou encore "webisode", qui décrit "une courte vidéo pouvant être un épisode de série dramatique ou comique, diffusée en ligne plutôt qu'à la télévision". Il a été répertorié pour la première fois en 1996.
Une autre nouveauté est "Flotus", qui correspond à l'acronyme en anglais de Première dame des Etats-Unis d'Amérique. "Potus", qui désigne le président américain, figure déjà dans ce dictionnaire.
Dans sa très fameuse déclaration du 11 juin, Pour une vraie égalité des chances, l’Académie française, à l’unanimité de ses membres, indique qu’elle « a la certitude que le redressement du système scolaire, si impatiemment attendu par la Nation tout entière, devra, d’une part, s’inscrire dans la continuité de notre culture, faite d’enrichissements successifs et respectueuse de ses origines, et d’autre part, résister à la tentation de la facilité, qui n’a jamais eu d’autre résultat que l’aggravation des inégalités. »
On s’attachera ici au choix du terme « redressement du système scolaire», alors que, depuis 2012, le gouvernement et la représentation nationale ont adopté une démarche de « refondation de l’école ».
On va voir, d’après le dictionnaire de l’Académie française, ce que ce choix signifie.
Redressement a un sens propre et deux figurés : I. Action de rendre à quelque chose sa forme droite ou sa position habituelle ; le fait de reprendre cette forme ou cette position II. Fig. 1. Action de corriger, de rendre conforme à la norme, de réparer ; résultat de cette action. 2. Le fait de rétablir quelque chose ou de se rétablir, de redonner ou de reprendre de la vigueur, de la force.
Refondation : ce mot n’est pas plus admis que le verbe refonder par le dictionnaire de l’Académie française, qui va pourtant de A à renommer. Refonder, nous indique le dictionnaire Robert, c’est fonder « sur de nouveaux principes, de nouvelles bases ».
Cela nous suggère une première observation. Le Dictionnaire Robert date l’entrée de refonder dans notre langue à la fin du siècle dernier : 1993, celle de refondation étant attestée dès 1991. Or l’édition actuellement en vigueur du dictionnaire de l’Académie, la neuvième, a été préfacée en 1986 et porte un avertissement daté de 1992. Lorsque cet avertissement fut rédigé, le treme de refondation venait seulement d’apparaître…
L’emploi du terme redressement n’est évidemment pas dépourvu de sens. Il s’agit bien de « rendre (au collège en l’occurrence) sa forme droite ou sa position habituelle », c’est à dire de revenir à un état antérieur, au sens propre. Et, au figuré, de « corriger, de rendre conforme à la norme » (laquelle, sinon la tradition de l’ordre secondaire français ?), de « rétablir quelque chose », ce quelque chose ressemblant fort à l’ordre ancien. On est bien aux antipodes de la nouveauté signifiée par le terme « refondation ».
Le choix de « redressement » est d’autant plus chargé de signification qu’il a été récemment employé en politique. En 2015, à l’article 1 du projet de charte de la primaire de la droite et du centre, « ouverte à l’ensemble des citoyens partageant les valeurs républicaines de la droite et du centre et s’engageant pour l’alternance afin de réussir le redressement de la France ». Auparavant, il a été porté par M. Montebourg, qui fut, de 2012 à 2014, « ministre du redressement productif » dans les gouvernements Ayrault puis Valls.
Cette approche restauratrice, portée par le terme redressement, est confirmée par l’ensemble de la déclaration. Il s’agit, pour l’Académie, de condamner les prétendus « affaiblissement des disciplines fondamentales », « effacement des disciplines traditionnelles », puisque « les « enseignements pratiques interdisciplinaires » (E.P.I.) ne se développeront nécessairement qu’au détriment des disciplines qu’ils prétendent fédérer, seules à même de transmettre les savoirs fondamentaux qui manquent à tant de collégiens. » Le socle de la formation ne saurait être autre chose que « des bases solides dans les disciplines fondamentales », que n’assure pas l’actuel enseignement élémentaire : « Les difficultés rencontrées par un trop grand nombre d’élèves dès l’entrée au collège proviennent des lacunes constatées dans l’acquisition du socle des connaissances dispensées dans l’enseignement primaire : elles tiennent en particulier à une maîtrise insuffisante de la lecture et de l’expression écrite et orale.» L’Académie enfonce le clou : elle « appelle d’abord à préserver les disciplines traditionnelles sans lesquelles les lacunes dans l’apprentissage des savoirs fondamentaux, trop souvent constatées au sortir de l’école primaire, ne pourront être comblées au collège».
Le message est clair : en s’éloignant du modèle ancien, fondé exclusivement sur l’apprentissages des disciplines traditionnelles, on court à la catastrophe. Il s’agit donc bien pour l’Académie de redressement, et non de refondation, qui suppose de nouveaux principes, de nouvelles bases, dont l’Académie redoute les effets destructeurs. Par le titre de sa déclaration Pour une vraie égalité des chances, l’Académie pourfend implicitement la lutte contre les inégalités scolaires qui justifie pour la ministre la réforme du collège. Elle s’inscrit là encore dans une approche traditionnelle qui convient aussi à ceux qui opposent cette « idée nécessaire » à « l’idée fausse de l’égalité naturelle des hommes ». Entre tradition et changement, l’Académie sait choisir son camp.
This list of 10 endangered languages in the world contains languages that are rarely used and might soon be forgotten. Language is one of the vital parts of human society. It is also one of the trademarks of a culture, country or region. Before spoken language, we’ve learned to communicate with each other through gestures and actions. It’s amazing that despite our varied geography all of us were able to develop our own words and associations. These languages eventually developed into the common languages we know today. There are however a few languages in the world that are dying out.
A language that is endangered may have become so because of different factors and reasons. There might be a more common language that’s being used in the region or country that causes the language to die out. It could also be because the people that are speaking the language are also becoming fewer in numbers. New generations tend to adapt to the world view of modern society. They start to adapt languages that are more commonly known. Even through education, children are brought up to learn more common languages.
It’s not easy to learn a new language, and it’s good that the world, in general, knows and acknowledges English as an international medium. If you’re looking for another language to study then check out The 5 Easiest Second Languages to Learn for English Speakers. Let’s find out more about these 10 endangered languages as we start this list:
A language spoken in Southern Chile is slowly dying out because the people that still use this language are dying out as well. There are an estimated 20 speakers left of this endangered language. Qawasqar was derived from the original people that spoke the language, the Kawesqar.
Mumbai, June 22 (KNN) Hindi and other Indian languages can act as a bridge between the banker and the customer, RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan has said pressing for the need to arrange for financial literacy in the language poor people understand.
“Recently there have been many incidents where poor people were robbed of their money through Ponzi schemes. Very often people lose their lifetime earnings through these schemes. It is the responsibility of the Government and the banking sector to provide banking facilities to those who have money, but have no access to formal banking channels in a language that they would understand,” he said.
“We should also arrange for financial literacy in the language that they understand. In these efforts, Hindi and other Indian languages can act as a bridge between the banker and the customer, he added.
RBI Governor said this here last week while presenting the Rajbasha Shield for the year 2013-14 awards to the winning banks.
While congratulating the award-winning banks and financial institutions, S S Mundra, Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India stated that today banking interface is changing rapidly. It has moved from brick and mortar branches and computer banking to mobiles today.
“Efforts are being made to provide banking facilities through banking correspondents to cover more and more people. As the purview of banking expands, issues connected with it are also changing. In this era of advance technology, issues of hacking pose a major threat,” Mundra said.
“It is our responsibility to sensitise the customers about cyber security and care to be taken while using technology. I think, Hindi and other Indian languages will help us to fulfil this responsibility,” he added. (KNN Bureau)
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New digital magazines: Bohemian Bar launched in English and Russian editions
by D.B. Hebbard / 9 days ago /
First look: Luxury Trine, SBI Magazine, The Fridge Foundation magazines, launched into the Apple Newsstand, and sometimes the Google Play newsstand, as well
There continues to be a strong demand from both would-be magazine publishers and corporate brands for new digital magazine launches. Despite word that Apple will be discontinuing the Newsstand, too many projects are already under way to stop the flow of new titles. Likely we will see new digital magazines launched into the Newsstand right through Labor Day, though developers shouldn’t be surprised if the Apple App Store team warns some publishers of the upcoming change as the summer wears on (shouldn’t they say something now?).
TNM looked at four new digital magazines launched over the past week or so and by far the best of the bunch comes from the publishing team of Jan Becher and Karlovarská Becherovka. Bohemian Bar is a new digital magazine that comes in two editions: one in English, the other Russian.
The new Newsstand apps use the CoverPage digital publishing platform to produce a very readable, inventive digital magazine. The digital magazine is designed to be read in portrait, but the app also allows for landscape reading, as well. (CoverPage is included in TNM’s Guide to Digital Publishing Platforms.)
The app is universal and the premiere issue is free to access. It would have been nice if the publishers had included more screenshots in the app description, it might encourage downloads.
Although the two editions Bohemian Bar magazine are new to the Apple Newsstand, they have been inside Google Play since March (English edition, Russian edition).
Another magazine that comes in different language editions comes from The Fridge Foundation, an Italian organization with a unique mission statement: “We aim to promote a real “fridge culture” by showcasing different stories from around the world.”
“We believe that food is a culture in our society: it offers the ideal medium for people from diverse backgrounds to learn about each other and share experiences,” writes Alessandro Boperic of The Food Foundation. “Through food people can experience new sensations and practices that stem from a need or desire to make it their own: from how it is acquired and its role to how we eat it. We aim to promote a real “fridge culture” by showcasing different stories from around the world. By showcasing photographs of fridges not only can we learn more about how to use them and store food, but we can also share other people’s culinary customs, lifestyles, and individual diets whatever they may be.”
Unlike Bohemian Bar, however, The Fridge Foundation has not launched multiple apps, but instead just one app where the Italian and Engish editions of its magazine can be found (Issue #2 is also available in French).
Because of this, it gets a little confusing in the app’s library page, or “Fridge Shelf” as it is called. There is an issue labeled “numero 0″ available in Italian, then three subsequent issues available in both Italian and English, and finally there is that single issue that can also be found in French. And while the article text may be in different languages based on different editions, the advertising is Italian.
The publisher has likely used Issuu to produce the Newsstand app as a search online turned up some flipbooks from two years ago through Issuu. (Issuu is also inside TNM’s Guide to Digital Publishing Platforms.)
So these magazines appear to actually be quite old, though the app is new. Maybe getting a new lease on life through digital versions will spur the creation of new issues.
Another new publisher that launched first into Google Play is Luxury Trine, which is launching app under the name of Warwick Publishing. The company, which appears to be really a one-person operation, has launched four titles into Google Play, with only one of them so far showing up in the Apple App Store.
If the screenshots accurately reflected the actual apps, these would be truly horrible digital magazines, but this is one case where the app descriptions misrepresent the digital magazines. Those magazines, Luxury Trine Home Review, Luxury Trine Auto Review, Luxury Trine Travel Review and Luxury Trine Newsletter, are PDF based digital magazines, designed using tablet specs so they are a little easier to read than a typical replica editions.
The magazines are not much to speak of, just a few articles inside, all apparently written by Lynda Chervil. The quality of the digital magazines and writing may be poor, but one has to admire the shear volume of output.
Earlier today Chervil released an announcement saying that “Luxury Trine has announced the launch of a groundbreaking app-driven publishing platform.” She goes on to describe it as a “patent-pending digital platform,” though I’m at a loss to see what she is talking about as these new magazines are very simple, indeed, and hardly unique.
Sales Benchmark Index has released a digital edition for their company magazine, SBI Magazine. The digital edition app was released into the Apple Newsstand originally in late February and updated soon thereafter.
The print and digital magazines will be available quarterly, and are free to access.
The app has been sitting in my Newsstand folder for a while, obviously. It presents readers with what might be called a dumb replica, as opposed to an enhanced replica. Many replica editions today come with at least some feature that aids reading the digital issues: links from the table of contents to the stories, links inside ads or features, embedded or linked to videos, two-across pages in landscape.
This offers none of these features. On top of that, the PDF pages are not very crisp, though they are not unreadable.
The reason to produce an app like this one, of course, is to try and increase the distribution of the print magazines. Some digital publishing platforms, such as Mag+ and others, are targeting corporate communication departments in hopes of convincing them to invest in native digital publication apps. I would think that while the number of leads would be greater than targeting publishers – after all, there are thousands of businesses that could use their services – actually convincing those businesses to invest in a native digital edition might be as hard and frustrating as convincing traditional publishers to produce native digital editions.
ctress Tisca Chopra says an actor should not be bound by borders or languages.
Tisca, who is well versed in multiple languages, said: “It’s fulfilling for an actor to not be bound by borders or languages as emotions don’t need a language.”
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The 41-year-old has worked in several multilingual films like Ram Gopal Varma’s “Secret” in Hindi and Telugu, Mahesh Manjrekar’s “Kaksparsh” in Hindi and Tamil, and Umesh Kulkarni and Girish Kulkarni’s “Highway” in Marathi, and the latest being V.K. Prakash’s “Nirnayakam” in Malayalam.
As part of the ongoing Latin Fusion Series put on by Pangea World Theater and Teatro del Pueblo, playwright Marlina Gonzalez presents a staged reading of her new work, Isla Tuliro: Island of Confusion, this weekend.
Directed by Gonzalez and Meena Natarajan, the story looks at the evolution of language in the Philippines, and how the Tagalog language (or Filipino, in its standardized form), changed under 300 years of Spanish colonization followed by U.S. occupation and “all the other invasions in between,” Gonzalez says.
Meena Natarajan and Marlina Gonzalez
Rather than telling a story in a traditional narrative format, Gonzalez uses tropes, often not familiar to Western culture, to shape the play. While technically not a story, the play is about “concepts and values and opinions personified in characters,” Gonzalez says. In addition, she uses mythology folklore and a morality play approach in her technique.
“I feel that I’m using Filipino history and culture as a starting point,” she says, noting that the idea of language and colonialism reaches far beyond the experiences of that country. “Hopefully people are interested in learning what colonialism really means, and how it seeps into one’s blood and how we speak and engage with each other.”
Funded by the Joyce Foundation, the Latin Fusion Series is a collaborative project of Pangea World Theater and Teatro del Pueblo. The concept for the series fits with Gonzalez’s identity and lifestyle. “A lot of people think I’m married to a Latino or I was adopted,” she says. "Few people really understand Spain’s relationship with the Philippines, and how that bares similarities with places like Mexico and Puerto Rico."
Gonzalez is one of three commissioned writers for the Latino Fusion Series. The first was done last year, and was a piece directed by Harry Waters Jr.
This time around, Gonzalez is working with Pangea’s Natarajan, working with text in English, Spanish, and Tagalog. “The challenge with this play is dealing with language,” Gonzalez says. Rather than just using subtitles, the directors wanted to address the whole issue of always having to default to a dominant language. “Why can’t we have the ability to have a multilingual experience as audience members?” Gonzalez says. “We are used to the convenience of translation.
In discussions with Natarajan about the play’s title, Island of Confusion, they wanted to distinguish between making a play about confusion and confusing the audience, so they worked on preparing the audience to have an open mind. “You will experience three different languages, and sometimes you can’t tell which language you are hearing,” she says.
IF YOU GO:
Isla Tuliro: Island of Confusion
7:30 p.m. Friday and Saturday
Pangea World Theater
711 W. Lake St., Minneapolis
Decades before Hayao Miyazaki’s Spirited Away became the first anime film to win an American Academy Award in 2001, science fiction fans in the United States were discovering that anime was much bigger than the Speed Racer and Robotech of Saturday morning cartoons.
Like others in this subculture, Neil Nadelman and his high school friends in Connecticut thrived on grainy VHS tapes of ‘80s-era anime, such as Macross, Zeta Gundam and Dragon Ball—even though they had no clue what the colorfully coiffed, wide-eyed characters were saying.
“You could watch and sort of figure it out from the visuals,” Nadelman, 45, remembers. “We had no idea what was going on or who the characters were but we knew it looked awesome.”
Many early anime tapes made the rounds through the Los Angeles-based Cartoon/Fantasy Organization. Chapters of the original club, founded in 1977, sprung up all over the U.S., facilitating the import and sharing of exotic science fiction anime, subtitles not included. So Nadelman learned Japanese, at Boston University and through subsequent trips to Japan. He started translating anime for his friends as they watched, but that got old fast.
Enter his Commodore Amiga 500 computer—one of the first PCs with a video system capable of TV display. It wasn’t the most intuitive of tools, but it got the job done. “Every time you made a mistake, you had to open a new edit, and by the end it’d have hundreds or thousands of edits,” Nadelman said.
Soon, he and his friends were ripping copies the tapes they rented from Tokyo Video, a now-defunct VHS-import store in New York City, and adding their own subtitles. It’s called “fan subbing” in the hardcore fan communities, and back then, they had an idea what they were doing was probably illegal. But “nobody was selling anime in the United States yet, so nobody saw it as a big deal,” Nadelman said.
Now, that generation of American anime addicts who grew up translating Japanese cartoons into English subtitles make a living at the very companies whose copyrights they likely violated.
It’s the American Dream for Japanophiles, even if they’ll never get rich doing it. Their former hobby has become an important link in the process of localizing foreign media today.
From Hobby To Profession
Nadelman went from fansubber to pro in 1991 when he was hired by as a translator Central Park Media, one of the first North American anime distributors, shortly after he graduated college. He nailed the interview with his portfolio of illegally copied-and-fansubbed anime. Instead of getting reported, he got the job.
This was right before that same Central Park Media led a consortium of U.S. anime companies in a crack-down on “tape pirates.” Despite the resulting organization’s foreboding title, the Japanese Animation Industry Legal Enforcement Division (JAILED), it included little more than one lawyer on retainer and a tip line. With large-scale pirating as its target, fansubbers went largely ignored.
See also: Why Adults Fall In Love With (And Spend Big Money On) Cartoon Characters
What’s more, this underground market revealed economic opportunities for those distributors who could offer anime pre-translated. Enter distribution companies like Viz, Media Blasters, and AnimEigo, which needed anime obsessives able to deliver quality translations. Kara Dennison, 34, a freelance editor and former fansubber, said this is how she began working in the U.S. anime industry.
In her fansub days, Dennison’s group would stop translating a show when they received a “cease and desist” notice from a company, notifying them that the anime was now going to be legally available.
“What I think they realized is that, ‘we could shut these people down, but a lot of them have already done translations of shows we’ve just licensed,’” she said. “‘We could hire them because they have their own tools and they taught themselves to do this.’”
How Your Anime Subtitle Sausage Gets Made
Even now with advanced technology, translating Japanese anime is a team effort. First, you need somebody who can translate from Japanese, which is on record as one of the most difficult languages for English speakers to learn. Second, you need an editor, also known as a localizer, to ensure the translations make sense to a foreign audience. Third, you need a timer, somebody who can set the subtitles in the screen according to when the words are coming out of characters’ mouths.
Dennison works as a freelance localizer who works for anime distributors such as Crunchyroll from her home in Newport News, Virginia.
“My job is to make people forget they’re watching something that existed in another language,” she said. “When translation is impeccable, my job takes only as long as it takes to watch an episode. When the translation needs work, I do a lot of rewrites and a 20-minute episode will take me an hour or more.”
While Nadelman and Dennison work on their former hobby, one thing they haven’t left behind from their fansubbing days is a piece of software called Aegisub, the same open source program that was built for fansubbers to use.
“Almost everyone uses it, even professionals,” Nadelman said. “A lot of times, professional software isn’t even as good.”
Their hard work as hobbyists has paid off in flexible hours and a work-from-home career, albeit one from which they won’t get rich. Nadelman recalled the Great Recession of the late ‘00s, when several of his clients, including Central Park Media, folded or went bankrupt.
“Over the last few years when the economy crashed, there was a wholesale crash in the anime industry and it was really touch-and-go for a while,” he said.
Anime Streaming In The Hulu Era
Streaming sites marked a turning point—both for Nadelman and Dennison’s incomes and for the anime industry—was the popularity of streaming sites. Just as Netflix NFLX +0.44% and Hulu provide current TV shows to anyone with an Internet connection, sites like Crunchyroll and Funimation do the same with Japanese anime and films.
“When we first started, publishers doubted anime viewers would pay online to support the anime industry,” Crunchyroll CEO Kun Gao told me. “We showed them that anime fans are decent people willing to support the anime industry directly by subscription or ad support and that piracy is really a last resort for when they really love the content but can’t get it any other way.”
Once Crunchyroll went, as Gao said, “from YouTube to Hulu overnight” in 2009, fast-working translators and editors were in demand. Both Crunchyroll and Funimation pride themselves on their “simulcast” deals, in which Japanese companies agree to let them show the same episode, with subtitles, at the same time it is released in Japan. That means that for contractors, speed is everything.
The anime distributors in Japan “try to get episodes to you a week in advance, but it doesn’t always work out that way,” said Dennison, who remembers the deadline test she had to take when she started with with Crunchyroll. On occasion, translators have far less to work with. “A friend once had to translate based on animatics,” the episode’s unfinished animation storyboard.
Matices en Lenguas Extranjeras es una publicación del Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia- Sede Bogotá, orientada a la publicación de artículos científicos relacionados con el área de las lenguas extranjeras, desde la perspectiva de la didáctica, la pedagogía, la investigación en lenguas y culturas, y la traducción.
Call for papers - Revista Matices en Lenguas Extranjeras (Número 7)
Invitación a publicar en el Número 7 de la Revista Matices en Lenguas Extranjeras
العربية Deutsch English Español Français Italiano 日本語 Português русский Türkçe
Nos permitimos invitarlos a participar en el Número 7 de la Revista Matices en Lenguas Extranjeras.
Matices en Lenguas Extranjeras es una publicación científica electrónica anual del Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia fundada en 2007. Busca responder a la necesidad y a la misión de ser punto de referencia sobre la reflexión acerca de las lenguas extranjeras a nivel nacional e internacional, habida cuenta de la amplia tradición de más de cincuenta años del Departamento en este campo, tanto por la variedad de lenguas ofrecidas (inglés, francés, alemán, portugués, italiano, ruso, japonés, chino, turco, coreano y español lengua extranjera), como por las diferentes áreas de interés de su comunidad académica. Por ello, Matices en Lenguas Extranjeras está orientada a la publicación de artículos científicos relacionados con el área de las lenguas extranjeras, desde la perspectiva de la didáctica, la pedagogía, la investigación en lenguas y culturas, y la traducción.
En tanto revista especializada en el quehacer de las lenguas extranjeras, la revista tiene como objetivo la divulgación de resultados de investigaciones sobre experiencias de aprendizaje y de enseñanza significativas, implementación de nuevas tecnologías en la enseñanza y aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras, avances pedagógicos, así como sobre el ejercicio y estudio de la traducción y la traductología.
La revista del Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras está dirigida a profesores universitarios e investigadores y semilleros de investigación en lenguas extranjeras; a docentes e instructores de idiomas a nivel de educación básica y media; a estudiantes de programas en lenguas extranjeras; a traductores e investigadores en traductología; a responsables y encargados de política lingüística, y a la comunidad académica en general, interesados en los avances y resultados de estudios en lenguas extranjeras.
Matices en Lenguas Extranjeras ha publicado artículos en español, inglés, francés y alemán. Actualmente también está recibiendo artículos en todas las otras lenguas que ofrece el Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras, por lo cual la convocatoria de artículos originales es permanente y abierta.
Pueden encontrar los lineamientos de nuestra revista en el siguiente vínculo:
Are those woman’s breasts real? How long can one go without masturbating?
Jokes are the hardest things to translate into another language, another culture, another world. A good script for dubbing an American sitcom for foreign consumption does more than literally translate. It manages to convey the same meaning, the same feeling, the same story — the same direct hit to the lower frontal lobes of the brain that produces a laugh, even though those frontal lobes are steeped in a completely different cultural brew.
And because of Seinfeld’s unique approach to comedy, it poses special translation problems. In one Radboud University study of Dutch viewers’ reactions to Seinfeld, viewers commonly reported being baffled by the show’s laugh track; the audience regularly missed the joke. Some of those who did laugh told researcher Elke Van Cassel that they were laughing only because the characters reminded them of Americans they knew.
At its core, Seinfeld was, as the series famously dubbed itself, "a show about nothing": four self-centered New Yorkers making a dramatic showing of dealing with minor daily irritations and social faux pas. Can you hire a hitman to take out an annoying neighbor dog? Are those woman’s breasts real? How long can one go without masturbating? And do you care to make a bet on that answer?
When Seinfeld debuted on NBC in 1989, it felt like an acquired taste, a cult hit at best. It didn’t offer the simple, linear humor of The Cosby Show, Roseanne, or Cheers — the most popular shows at the time. Instead, it relied on sophisticated linguistic humor; implication instead of explicitness (abstaining from masturbation is, for instance, being "master of your domain"); and deconstruction of the social norms of a very particular group of New Yorkers — unlikeable New Yorkers.
Despite NBC’s low expectations, Seinfeld grew into an unlikely sensation throughout its run in the ‘90s, partly by expressing the consumerist, narcissistic elements of the era. It lasted for nine years until Seinfeld voluntarily ended it (despite NBC offering him $5 million per episode to return for another season). And it made icons of its four central characters: uptight Jerry (Jerry Seinfeld), bumbling George (Jason Alexander), manic Kramer (Michael Richards), and smart-ass Elaine (Julia Louis-Dreyfus). In its final season, Seinfeld hit a peak, averaging 38 million viewers per episode. Its 1998 finale was one of the most anticipated, most watched, most passionately debated hours of American television of the last 20 years.
Seinfeld deconstructed a very particular group of New Yorkers — unlikeable New Yorkers
Even its closest cohort at the time, Friends — which Seinfeld co-creators Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld have often insisted "stole" its concept from them — couldn’t touch what made Seinfeld unique. Yes, both shows centered on groups of young-ish, single friends in New York City. But where Friends employed traditional A- and B-plot lines, Seinfeld zigged and zagged until bringing the most seemingly unrelated story elements together in a balletic denouement. Where Friends exploited its touchy-feely relationships, Seinfeld avoided them at all costs.
This made Seinfeld the rare TV show that was both innovative and wildly popular. It seemed poised for world domination as it entered the international syndication market. After all, as America goes, so goes the world. Right?
Sabine Sebastian hoped so. Sebastian — a jovial woman who resembles the actress Emma Thompson — works as a director, scriptwriter, and sometimes voice actor in Germany’s lip-synch dubbing business, bringing American movies and TV shows to her countrymen and women. She knows the dangers of direct translations, particularly when it comes to sitcoms. For every language-based joke that works easily — Elaine’s quest for "schwämmchen-würdig," or "spongeworthy," suitors was a one-to-one translation — many others don’t. Canadian translation company LingoStar, for instance, cites a joke that had to be simplified in a Friends episode in which Monica saw a woman’s huge engagement ring and cracked, "Oh my god, you can’t even see where the Titanic hit it." This was translated as, "Oh my, but it’s an iceberg."
The German voice actors soon became a united cast, as bonded as their American counterparts
Sebastian had done a lot of work for Brandtfilm, a Berlin company responsible for the dubbed German versions of American sitcoms such as M*A*S*H and The Odd Couple. In 1995, they asked her to direct their newest project, Seinfeld.
She loved the show. She’d appreciated its sarcastic wit since watching the very first episode, and she enjoyed the next-level humor it delivered as it grew ever more self-referential, nowhere better exemplified than in the episodes about the fictional sitcom Jerry. She felt lucky to get the gig, and she knew that Brandtfilm was lucky to have her on it — these things always went better when the translator was a real fan. She wanted to help her fellow Germans appreciate Seinfeld as much as she did.
With her cast and crew, she plowed through the five seasons of the show that had already aired in the United States — she would record them all in succession, then tackle the show’s remaining seasons as they concluded in America. But things went off track soon, she later told me. She didn’t care much for the scripts she was getting from the dialogue book writers. They were translating too literally. Subtle word choices could make a difference, and she changed a lot of the scripts as she recorded. By the show’s eighth season, she finally took over all writing duties.
Her main voice actors — Oliver Feld as Jerry, Traudel Haas as Elaine, Detlef Bierstedt as George, and K. Dieter Klebsch as Kramer — pitched in as well, refining lines as needed whenever they thought the translations weren’t funny enough. They soon became a united cast, as bonded as their American counterparts. (Years later, the team even reunited to reprise their roles in the German version of the Curb Your Enthusiasm episodes in which the cast of Seinfeld gets back together.)
As the actors got better at working together, they had more suggestions for improving the scripts. Often, Sebastian took entire scenes home to rework them overnight.
When it came to Dolores, of course, Sebastian had to work extra hard. Finally, she hit upon a distinctly German solution: she substituted Dolores (rhymes with "clitoris") with Uschi (rhymes with "muschi," slang for vagina). Uschi is a relatively common German name, short for Ursula. Perfect.
“Shakespeare is universal. It is so exciting to see Shakespeare being made accessible to Deaf children,” said Kseniya Filinova-Bruton, founder and director of the Shakespeare Schools Festival South Africa.
For the first time, two sign language interpreters were on hand to make the rich language of Shakespeare accessible to a group of deaf learners from the Dominican School for Deaf Children at the fifth Shakespeare Schools Festival which took place this week.
Learners from four Cape Town schools performed 40-minute abridged versions of three of Shakespeare’s plays at Artscape, with two schools rendering different productions of one play.
Vista Nova High School and the Lalela Project both performed different interpretations of Romeo and Juliet, Chris Hani Arts and Culture Focus School performed Hamlet, and Sans Souci Girls High performed As you Like It.
The 16 learners from the Dominican School for Deaf Children, who are doing grades 9, 10 and 12 this year, arrived at Artscape at 5pm on Wednesday before the show began so the two sign language interpreters – South African Sign Language (SASL) interpreter, Marsanne Selzer and visiting Irish artist and interpreter Amanda Coogan – could prepare them with a short workshop.
The workshop ensured the children would understand Shakespeare and what the plays were about when they watched the plays on the stage. By the time 7pm arrived, the children were excited and ready to watch the plays.
Filinova-Bruton told the African News Agency that was exciting to see how the Shakespeare Schools Festival had grown from eight schools in 2011 to 52 schools this year.
“I am very excited to open theatre and Shakespeare to the Deaf communities who could not access the theatre before. We want to make it accessible to them,” Filinova-Bruton said.
She said she hoped to see Deaf schools participate in the festival next year.
Filinova-Bruton said she started the Shakespeare Schools Festival South Africa in the country (the festival has its roots in the UK) because: “I grew up in Russia and my parents are both acting directors, so I am passionate about theatre and teaching children and young adults about drama and theatre. This festival is a great opportunity to combine my passion to work with children and introduce them to theatre as actors so they become actors.”
“Shakespeare is universal – he is global. He is the only playwright who is still relevant today in any country, society and culture, and his plays can be interpreted in many ways through for instance, modern art, poetry, dance and even ballet.”
Before the show started, teacher Colleen Bohringer said that the Grade 9 and Grade 12 classes were studying The Merchant of Venice and Romeo and Juliet respectively, and the Grade 10 class would be introduced to Shakespeare later in the year.
“It is the first time for deaf children from the school to watch professional productions, and we are very excited,” said Bohringer.
She said the children have participated in theatrical productions at the school. “I hope that next year learners from Dominican School will perform in a professional play at the theatre. I hope tonight will lead to these types of performances in the future,” she said.
During the performances, the audience remained silent, especially as the red curtain was raised, and the spotlight shone on the sign language interpreter. The audience consisted of parents, educators, learners and families of the schoolchildren acting in the productions.
During the intermission, Ancilla Julius, 17, a learner at the Dominican School told the African News Agency in South African Sign Language that she enjoyed the performances. “I am enjoyed the plays so much, and I preferred Romeo and Juliet to Hamlet because of the emotions that come through and I understood the interpreting,” she said.
Gary Siberman, an educator from Silikamva High School commented that the interpreting was much needed. “It’s brilliant because it is inclusive and everybody can enjoy the play,” he said.
Theatre goer and science teacher at Silikamva, Cristi Little, said of the festival: “I wish we had this festival when we were at school because Shakespeare was boring! This festival makes Shakespeare come alive.”
“It is a good idea to have interpreters for Deaf children.”
But, she added she initially struggled to notice the interpreters as they were too far away to see from where she was sitting. Little said the interpreters should have been positioned at the back of the stage where the audience could see them all the time.
The Lalela Project’s Romeo and Juliet, which was the last performance was a modern day narration of the iconic love story which saw Romeo banished to the Eastern Cape, police sirens being used and paramedics arriving at the scene of the lovers’ tragic deaths.
Deaf learner Yazeed Moosa, 20, said he enjoyed the second version of Romeo and Juliet the most. The Dominican School learner, who is in Grade 12, said: “The last play was amazing, and if there were no interpreters, I wouldn’t have understood the play.”
Moosa said that he is currently studying Romeo and Juliet at school. “I don’t understand the play when I read it, but when I see it on the stage with the interpreters, I now understand it,” he said.
At the end of the festival, Filinova-Bruton awarded each learner from the participating schools with a certificate of recognition for their efforts, saying each school was a “winner.”
Coogan, whose mother tongue is Irish Sign Language and who grew up in Ireland with Deaf parents, is visiting Cape Town to look at partnership possibilities with organisations and schools in Cape Town.
“The British Council is exploring a project called Shakespeare Reworked and they sent me here to Cape Town to explore a performance of Shakespeare in sign language,” she said. South African Sign Language, she said, had a strong link with Irish Sign Language.
“The aim of the project is to propose a full production for 2016 between Cape Town and Belfast through sign language with Deaf actors,” Coogan said.
Selzer shared her excitement for “interpreting for theatre and mobilising and developing a Deaf audience for attending the theatre”.
“I believe Deaf people have the same entertainment needs as other people do, as a form of escape from reality,” she said. Selzer said she was looking forward to seeing deaf children perform on the stage next year.
La start-up a créé une plate-forme de mise en relation dans le domaine de la traduction. Elle vise avant tout l’Europe.
Le « Uber de la traduction » sera-t-il français ? La start-up tricolore TextMaster s’en donne en tout cas les moyens. Elle vient de boucler une nouvelle levée de fonds de 4 millions d’euros, portant à 6,5 millions le total levé depuis sa création en 2011. Le tour de table a été réalisé en majorité par le fonds d’investissement Serena Capital. Déjà actionnaire (comme quelques « business angels », dont le fondateur d’OLX Fabrice Grinda , celui de Webedia, Cédric Siré, ou le patron d’ eFounders, Thibaud Elzière), Alven Capital y a aussi participé. Les fonds d’investissement sont désormais majoritaires.
TextMaster propose une plate-forme de mise en relation entre des particuliers ou des professionnels cherchant à faire traduire un document et des traducteurs, sur un marché très éclaté dominé par quelques agences traditionnelles. « Nous avons l’un des réseaux les plus importants au monde, avec des traducteurs dans 40 langues, disponibles 24 heures sur 24 et sept jours sur sept », affirme Thibault Lougnon, directeur général de TextMaster. La technologie de la start-up analyse automatiquement les besoins des uns et des autres pour faire rencontrer l’offre et la demande.
Traduction assistée ?
La tarification dépend ensuite du nombre de mots à traduire, de la langue (les langues rares sont plus chères) et de la complexité du contenu (s’il s’agit d’un langage courant ou plus technique). Le prix peut ainsi varier de quelques euros pour la traduction simple d'un e-mail à plusieurs milliers d’euros pour des sites Web complets, spécialisés dans un domaine précis.
Parmi les 5.000 clients de TextMaster, on trouve essentiellement des entreprises (Google, General Electric ou Canal+ par exemple). La France concentre encore 50 % de l’activité, le reste se répartissant sur 80 pays. «Mais nous nous concentrons surtout sur l’Europe, beaucoup plus mature que les Etats-Unis pour la traduction », note Thibault Lougnon. La société, qui connaît en moyenne une croissance de 150 % par an depuis sa création, vise un chiffre d’affaires de 10 millions d’euros l’an prochain. Elle a atteint l’équilibre et les 100 millions de mots produits. Ses effectifs devraient passer de 25 salariés actuellement à 35 en fin d’année. Quant à l’avenir du secteur, TextMaster ne s’estime pas menacé par la traduction automatique. « Nous sommes agnostiques, mais nous croyons davantage à une traduction humaine assistée par ordinateur, où l’automatique pourrait servir de base de travail », estime Thibault Lougnon.
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John Roberts’s Principled Mistake
Instead of “textualism,” the chief justice chose “purposivism”—much to the benefit of progressives.
June 29, 2015
PHOTO BY DAVID
Chief Justice John Roberts’s decision in King v. Burwell, upholding the capacity of federal exchanges to provide insurance subsidies, has drawn fire as an unprincipled expression of support for Obamacare. This charge is unfair. It is a principled decision, implementing a well-established, if wrong-headed, theory of statutory interpretation, giving greater weight to what the Court sees as the overriding purpose of legislation rather than its text. Unfortunately, that theory is one that is likely to aid progressivism, because it tends to make judges partners in legislative programs to expand state power.
The essence of King v. Burwell comes down to the divide between Roberts and Justice Antonin Scalia. The case turned on the question of whether insurance subsidies would be available for those who signed up to federal exchanges as opposed to state exchanges. The statute clearly restricts subsidies to “an exchange established by the State.” “State,” in turn, is expressly defined as “each of the states and the District of Columbia.” Thus, for Scalia, the case is an easy syllogism. Subsidies are available on exchanges established by a state; exchanges established by the federal government are not exchanges established by a state.
For Roberts, however, this interpretation would defeat what he sees as the purpose of the Act: to expand insurance for those previously uninsured. If a state didn’t set up an exchange, the federal exchange operating in the state could not accomplish this purpose, because most people without insurance could not afford to purchase at market prices. Worse still, the lack of subsidies would create a risk of a “death spiral” in the availability of insurance. Because Congress prohibited insurers from excluding people with preexisting conditions, many people would wait to purchase insurance until they got sick—a rational decision for some, since even the cost of paying a fine for failing to comply with the mandate to buy insurance would be small compared with the amount required to buy unsubsidized insurance.
Roberts’s approach privileges the purpose or intent of the statute over the most plausible import of its text. It is not a novel move in statutory interpretation, and it has many adherents among legal theorists. The method works well, for instance, in interpreting the contracts made between two people—understanding their language not in terms of its plain meaning but in terms of the shared intent of the parties, i.e., the overriding purpose that the contract was intended to serve.
But as law professor Mark Movsesian has suggested, while such a method of interpretation may be appropriate for contracts, it is not appropriate for statutes. One formidable difficulty is that while a contract, when it is an agreement between two people, may have a single overriding purpose, federal legislation is a product of 535 legislators plus the president. It’s hard to distill an overriding intent or purpose from such a collection of wills, particularly in complex statutory schemes.
The Affordable Care Act is a case in point. While one objective was indeed to insure the uninsured, another was to encourage the states to experiment and to prevent undue location of authority in the federal government. As the now famous video by Jonathan Gruber shows, some of the ACA’s supporters embraced the natural purpose of the plain meaning of its subsidies provision. Permitting only state exchanges has the advantage of motivating each state to establish exchanges. Otherwise, their taxpayers will wind up paying for the subsidies in other states. Indeed, now that subsidies will become available on federal exchanges, a number of states will likely give up their exchanges, further centralizing power in the federal government.
Moreover, unlike a contract, a statute is written for people who are not parties to its making. This difference provides another reason to interpret a statute according to its plain text rather than forcing citizens to figure out which of many purposes the text should be thought to serve—let alone trying to divine the intentions of the legislators who passed it. In this sense, “textualism” reflects the rule of law, rather than that of particular people.
“Purposivism,” by contrast, makes the task of progressives easier. Textualism requires progressives to change the world expressly, one line of text at a time, but purposivism enlists the courts as allies. They can then use the broad purposes of the legislation to smooth out obstacles that compromises, mistakes, and tensions among multiple objectives may have created.
One section of Roberts’s opinion demonstrates how his method of interpretation transforms the judiciary and the legislature’s role under the separation of powers. In response to the argument that interpreting away the clear import of the text would traduce the venerable rule against treating language as without effect, Roberts noted that the statute as a whole seemed so badly drafted that this rule—against “surplusage”—might not apply. And indeed, the statute was badly drafted, because it didn’t go through the regular order of a House and Senate conference committee, where different objectives are often reconciled and language is revised. The reason was that Senator Scott Brown’s victory in Massachusetts deprived the Democrats of their filibuster-proof majority and forced ACA proponents to enact the original unrevised version that the Senate had already passed. Thus, Roberts’s method of statutory interpretation allows progressives to push legislation fraught with contradictions and tensions through the legislature, confident that the Supreme Court will refine it through interpretation to advance its broadest and most abstract purposes. Conservatives, in contrast, rarely enact the kind of comprehensive legislation reordering markets or society that requires such help to make it coherent.
Justice Scalia decried Roberts’s opinion as showing favoritism toward the Affordable Care Act. Perhaps. The more substantial concern is that the chief justice has endorsed a method of statutory interpretation that aids the progressive agenda more generally.
John O. McGinnis is the George C. Dix Professor in Constitutional Law at Northwestern University School of Law and the author of Originalism and the Good Constitution.
Amoz Oz wins major German literature prize for 'Judas'
Oz and translator Mirjam Pressler to receive prize July 8 in Berlin.
By Haaretz | Jun. 29, 2015 | 6:27 PM
Amos Oz Photo by Ilan Assayag
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The cover of the German version of Judas.
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Renowned Israeli author Amos Oz was named winner of Germany's International Literature Prize on Monday for his novel "Judas," according to media reports.
The work, which explores the theme of treachery and looks at key questions of Israel's existence – including its foundation in the wake of the Holocaust, the wars it has fought since then, and its ongoing conflict with the Palestinians – tells the story of five characters, three living and two dead.
Oz, together with Mirjam Pressler, who translated the work into German, will be presented with the award on July 8 in Berlin. The duo will receive prize money of 25,000 euros and 10,000 euros respectively, Deutsche Welle reported.
The judges' decision did not go without criticism. Literary critic Sigrid Löffler accused them of selecting Oz in an effort to draw international attention to the award. According to Deutschlandradio Kultur, the culture-oriented station of the German national radio service, Löffler said the decision to grant the prize to such a famous writer as Oz distorts the very purpose of the award: to draw attention to parts of the world that have received little literary attention thus far.
The judges, however, said Oz masterfully conveys the major issues and conflicts of the Middle East in his novel, and recognized the fine nuances of Pressler's clever translation, according to the Austrian daily Der Standard.
The International Literature Prize, now in its seventh year, is presented by the Haus der Kulturen der Welt (House of World Cultures) and the Elementarteilchen Foundation in Hamburg.
In March, Pressler won the Leipzig Book Fair Prize for her translation of this novel.
Missing Translation is an intriguing pixel art puzzler that contains its very own language and is out now on Android and coming to iOS soon.
The entire game is colourless and set in a western post-modern world. You choose between a male or female character and then solve over 100 puzzles as you progress throughout the story.
Missing Translation includes its very own language which you must decipher. It's very intriguing.
You can also explore a town full of interesting characters which you can interact with.
Head on over to Google Play [download] to check out Missing Translation right now. We'll keep you posted on that iOS version.
Le social democratic front dénonce le non-respect de l’article 1 à son alinéa 3 qui dispose «La République du Cameroun adopte l’anglais et le français comme langues officielles d’égale valeur».
La dernière boutade du gouvernement qui fait monter le Sdf au créneau, est une erreur survenue durant le concours des inspecteurs de police de mars 2015. Une faute de traduction ayant induit en erreur les candidats anglophones. Une phrase. «who shall represente the deputies ? » traduction anglaise de « qui les députés représentent-ils ? ». Le député Awudu Mbaya Cyprian, a dès lors porté cette erreur à l’attention du ministre de la Fonction publique et de la réforme administrative Michel Ange Angouing. «Qu’est ce qui sera fait pour réparer le préjudice causé ? » demande le Social democratic front.
« Rien » a répondu Michel Ange Angouing. « Cela n’impacte pas sur le résultat final, chaque question a son quota. Si erreur il y a eu, ce ne peut être qu’une erreur commise de bonne foi » argue le ministre de la Fonction publique. Selon ce dernier, les traducteurs travaillant dans son ministère sont reconnus pour leur expertise en la matière. Ils bénéficient d’ailleurs de stage d’amélioration de performance. Toujours dans la même logique, Michel Ange Angouing a argué que ce sujet ne concernait de fait pas son ministère, la personne devant s’expliquer devant la représentation nationale étant le délégué général à la sureté nationale. Mais voilà, Martin mbarga Nguélé en déplacement se dit disposé à recevoir les députés du Social democratic front à son retour. Une proposition qui n’a pas eu le suffrage du groupe parlementaire Sdf. Le plus important pour ce dernier étant la prise en compte de cette erreur au cours des corrections.
Outre ce problème de traduction, le Sdf revient depuis le début de la session de juin sur l’utilisation de l’anglais par l’administration publique. Un autre qui a dû passer par une question orale de ce parti politique portant sur l’usage de cette langue, c’est le ministre du Tourisme et des loisirs, Bello Bouba Maïgari. Ce dernier a dès lors dû expliquer comment les hôtels de chefs-lieux de région notamment se mettaient au bilinguisme. « Tous les documents utilisés dans ces hôtels : menus, règlement intérieur etc. sont dans les deux langues. Tous les promoteurs seront sensibiliser sur des deux langues dans leur établissement » a précisé le Mintourl.
La semaine du 19 juin 2015, le Ministre des enseignements secondaires était lui également passé devant la représentation nationale. Le Sdf l’accusait alors de cloisonner les meilleurs traducteurs dans son ministère, tout en privilégiant le français au détriment de l’anglais dans la confection de documents administratifs.