Your new post is loading...
Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
STOCKHOLM, Sweden, March 29 (UPI) -- The editors of Sweden's official dictionary have added the gender-neutral "hen" to the Swedish language.
"It's quite simple," the dictionary's editor in chief, Sven-Goran Malmgren, told The Independent on Thursday. "It is a word which is in use and without a doubt fills a function."
The Swedish language already uses the words "han," meaning "he," and "hon," meaning "she."
"Hen" can now be used when someone's gender is unknown, when someone is transgender or when gender is unnecessary in context.
According to Buzzfeed News, "han" is already used in many official texts.
"You hear it all the time on TV shows, radio, and magazines, and you don't even think about it anymore," a Swedish resident told the site. "I was confused by it when I first heard it a few years ago, but now it's just another word in our dictionary -- though with an important purpose, of course."
BRADFORD residents whose main language is not English can get a leaflet on when they need a TV licence.
The leaflets are available to view online or free to order in 20 languages including Albanian, Arabic, Polish, Punjabi, Turkish and Urdu.
The Polish Saturday School in Bradford is one of the community groups offering the service.
Information is available on the TV Licensing website, tvlicensing.co.uk/languages, in 16 languages, including Bengali, Cantonese and French.
People who are not confident speaking in English can call TV Licensing on 0300 7906044 and use a language translation service, which allows customers to set up or pay for a TV Licence over the phone in more than 120 languages. Go to tvlicensing.co.uk/languages.
Eriksen Translations Inc. (http://www.eriksen.com) will be joining the museum community at the American Alliance of Museums’ 2015 Annual Meeting & MuseumExpo, held April 26-29 in Atlanta, Georgia. Eriksen works with many prominent museums, both domestically and abroad, helping them make exhibition materials accessible to international visitors as well as local non-English speaking communities.
Max Shrem, who serves as account manager to many of Eriksen’s clients in the museum and cultural sector, will represent the company in Atlanta. The conference provides the opportunity for Max to join museum professionals from around the world and further explore the ways in which organizations can use translation and localization to expand their reach and deepen visitor engagement.
Since 1986, Eriksen has worked with departments such as visitor services, marketing, exhibitions, strategic development, conservation, and publication on the translation of materials such as guidebooks, maps, exhibition labels, websites, and apps. Eriksen’s clients include The Metropolitan Museum of Art, MoMA, the 9/11 Memorial Museum, the Getty, the Guggenheim, The San Diego Museum of Art, the National Museum of the American Indian, the Peabody Essex Museum, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Eriksen also partners with companies such as Antenna International to develop audio, multimedia, and virtual tours to help enrich museum visitors’ experiences.
“Translating for the arts is a real passion for Eriksen Translations,” states Eriksen’s Founder and CEO, Vigdis Eriksen. “Accuracy is of the utmost importance when dealing with items of cultural and artistic significance, and we pride ourselves on offering translations that meet the exacting standards of so many prestigious museums.”
The American Alliance of Museums’ 2015 Annual Meeting & MuseumExpo offers more than 180 substantive program sessions, presentations from countless thought leaders, opportunities to view and sample the latest museum products, and the chance for museum professionals to share challenges and solutions with colleagues. This year’s conference features the topic, “The Social Value of Museums; Inspiring Change.”
About Eriksen Translations Inc.
Eriksen Translations Inc. helps companies reach their audiences in the domestic and global marketplace. Founded in 1986, Eriksen provides multilingual services in over 100 languages, offering translation, interpreting, layout and production, web and software localization, cultural consulting, and voiceover and subtitling services. Headquartered in Brooklyn, Eriksen partners with leading museums and cultural institutions worldwide, as well as major companies in finance and insurance, health care, and education. For more information, visit http://www.eriksen.com.
About the American Alliance of Museums
The American Alliance of Museums (formerly the American Association of Museums) is the one organization that supports all museums. Through advocacy and excellence, the Alliance strengthens the museum community, and supports 21,000 museums, individuals and companies. The organization develops standards and best practices, provides resources and career development, and advocates for museums to thrive. For more information, visit http://www.aam-us.org.
The Annual Meeting & MuseumExpo will be held April 26-29 in Atlanta, GA. For details, visit: http://www.aam-us.org/events/annual-meeting.
The International Association for Intercultural Communication Studies consists of scholars from a range of the cultural sciences who are dedicated to doing research on communication across cultures. The group meets annually at different locations around the world. Its membership is made up of participants from over 32 countries. These participants meet annually to discuss common research interests. The results of their investigations are published in the journal of the organization, Intercultural Communication Studies (ICS).
IAICS-2015 Call for Submissions
March 29, 2015 4:00 pm
Google deals with over 40,000 searches every second (on average). Many of these queries ask it to translate certain words or phrases. With nearly 3 million downloads of the Google Android app alone, we can safely say that a lot of foreign communication is informed by Google.
But does that mean professional translators may soon be a thing of the past? The answer is: not anytime soon.
Translators may have to up their game
The advances in translation technology and free apps may mean translators will be taking on more technical work. With apps like Google translate beginning to provide some very basic insight into foreign language text, we’ll have a diminished need for more germane translation.
However, the demand for technical translation, necessitated by global commerce, is likely to continue to produce a sustained demand for human translators.
This is largely because in any technical translation small errors can cause big problems. A piece of translation software functions on an algorithm that tells it what each word means and thus does not have an awareness of what a sentence is saying.
A professional with specific knowledge of an industry and both of the translations languages is going to do a much better job. This does mean though that there will likely be a call for many translators to acquire specific knowledge of various industries. They will have to become specialists in their chosen field as well as the required languages.
The view from the industry
Industry professionals have not, as some may assume, taken a negative stance against the technological advances. In fact the response has been quite the opposite. According to London Translations, Britain’s first translation company to be awarded with the British Standard for Translation, Google Translate and machine translation are a good thing. They help to open people’s minds to the possibilities of working with overseas clients.
If you’re travelling for business and you need to get basic information across then one of the 5 best translation apps for business travellers may do the job, but it would be dangerous to rely on such programs for anything more critical.
Professional translators understand content and colloquialisms
Machine translation technology functions on algorithms. Unlike fluent speakers of a language they do not understand what they are translating and thus cannot utilise logic and common sense to translate at the highest standard. They work on literal translation.
This can be very detrimental to important documents. Translation technology can be used most effectively when it is backed by human ability that can logically rectify errors. For professional services a person can work with such software in order to become more efficient.
For example if using translation to any medical purposes the mistakes can be life or death. There is a big difference between someone being “trained as a doctor” and having been “on a train with a doctor”.
Of course this a very extreme example, but it illustrates the problems in effective translation that an algorithm that has little alternative than to work literally, can cause.
It seems apps aren’t eradicating the world of professional translators – it’s just making them better.
March 29, 2015 6:00 pm
Online privacy nowadays is a luxury way too hard to find. People are gradually becoming aware of this issue. They turn to special software and browser extensions that block cookies, or they rely on“private browsing” features and use anonymous browsing services. However among the major change that they could adopt and have not thought about is to switch to privacy-focused search engine.
Google is a worldwide leader in the search engine industry, however its domination does not stop at simply crawling and indexing the web – it tries to dominate over its users’ privacy by collecting storing and sharing sensitive data with third parties.
There is an alternative to Google’s personalized type of search and it comes in the face of a much younger and less popular search engine called DuckDuckGo.
So on one hand there is a search engine that is all about personalizing its search results for its users thanks to all the data it collects including user activity, IP address, search history, etc. And on the other – there is this utopic version of the net: a search engine that does not track its users. One that lists useful search results, which are free from spamming sneaking ads and promotions.
It’s up to you to decide, which option you like better, but first, let’s compare our two contenders: Google and DDG!
Como ya viene siendo tradición, a finales de cada mes seleccionamos los 20 mejores artículos de traducción, interpretación, localización y lenguaque hemos podido leer este último mes de marzo, ya casi por finalizado. Ya hicimos lo mismo el pasado mes de enero y de febrero obteniendo un alto seguimiento de nuestros lectores a los que nos gusta hacer propuestas lingüístico-culturales interesantes.
Desde este 2015, a finales de cada mes seleccionamos los 20 mejores artículos de traducción, interpretación, localización y lengua.
Como ya os comentamos con anterioridad, hemos estrenado nuestra página de20.000 lenguas en Facebook donde estamos creciendo poco a poco con buenos resultados. Os invitamos a descubrirla y a hacer vuestras propuestas y comentarios para que todos juntos podamos disfrutar de la riqueza de la lengua, la traducción y todas las ciencias afines.
La selección para este mes de marzo es muy interesante y todos los artículos se caracterizan por su calidad y las buenas plumas que los han escrito. He aquí el resultado, tomad nota:
- La última tendencia en la industria de la traducción: escrito por la traductora británica Nikki Graham y traducido por la también traductora Victoria Principi. Interesante artículo sobre traducción automática que os recomendamos abiertamente por su contenido altamente cautivador.
- Estudiar chino y no morir en el intento: un artículo reflexivo sobre los motivos y las decisiones que le han empujado a estudiar chino al traductorIldefonso Muñoz. Me gustan las reflexiones en voz alta, por este motivo os sugiero su artículo.
- El texto en localización de páginas web: un post de nuestra autora-colaboradora Chiara Zanardelli. Como cada mes volvemos a recalcar lo importante que es la localización y para ello no podemos dejar nuestra lista mensual sin invitaros a leer este gran artículo. Además, recordaros sólo queOlgaJeNo autora del blog 20.000 lenguas colabora como autora-invitada en elblog de Chiara contribuyendo con posts interesantes en los que destaca por su agudez a la hora de seleccionar su contenido. Os invitamos a conocerlo desde cerca.
- 5 razones por las que puedes arrepentirte de utilizar un traductor automático: los traductores Ruth Gámez y Fernando Cuñado, conocido en la red como @traduccionjurid nos presentan este sugestivo artículo muy bien estructurado sobre los motivos que nos invitan a desestimar la utilización de un traductor automático. En el blog de 20.000 lenguas ya hablamos de este tema en un post anterior “Traductores automáticos: ¿nos quitarán el trabajo?“.
- 25 blogs de traducción que no puedes pasar por alto: es un artículo de Leon Hunter que enumera 25 blogs de traducción seleccionados según varios criterios y que él mismo propone que son interesantes por su gran calidad. Entre los 25 destacados se cita el blog de 20.000 lenguas como uno de los que vale la pena tener en cuenta, por lo que estamos muy contentos y satisfechos y os damos las gracias por confiar en nosotros (yo, Olga y todos los demás autores-colaboradores).
- ¿Qué es el servicio telefónico de intérpretes? Entrevista a Hamlet Pérez: es de la autora del blog de 20.000 lenguas, la traductora e intérprete @OlgaJeNo que entrevista al intérprete de teléfono Hamlet Pérezquien nos explica en qué consiste su trabajo y a quién podéis seguir en su cuenta de twitter. Una entrevista desenfadada y ligera de leer.
- 7 (More) Spanish Worlds That Have No Direct English Translation: un artículo, esta vez en inglés, de la periodista y editora venezolana Ana María Benedetti que publica en el Huffington Post sobre términos intraducibles del español al inglés.
- En tiempos de bonanza, don’t get carried away!: un curioso post de la traductora-intérprete Montserrat Sardà a quién ya conoceréis por anteriores menciones en nuestro blog, que explica el flujo de trabajo analizado según el año académico y da una serie de buenos consejos sobre cómo sobrevivir durante esta época.
- Estudios descriptivos de traducción según Gideon Toury: por si alguien se lo perdió, una clase de teoría de la traducción según el traductor y lingüista israelí el autor Gideon Toury de la mano de la autora de este blog, la traductora-intérprete Olga JeNo.
- ¡5 blogs pro que no puedes perderte! + Encuesta: otra antología de buenos blogs de variedad que el traductor David Miralles nos propone. Es interesante porque la temática de los blogs es de redes sociales, gastrodecoración y mucha más información que nos parece realmente útil.
- 6 datos que necesita un traductor para decidir si se acepta un encargo y hacer el presupuesto: un artículo de la agencia de traducción “Traducciones con tilde” que podéis seguir en twitter como@CONTILDE_trad. Un texto que gracias a su gráfico explica en tan sólo 6 pasos para saber si se debe o no aceptar ese encargo de traducción que se tiene entre manos.
- ¿Qué es el lenguaje jurídico?: características de este tipo de lenguaje analizado desde un punto de vista lingüístico en varios puntos esquemáticos. Un artículo de la autora del blog de 20.000 lenguas, la traductora-intérpreteOlgaJeNo.
- Entrevista con el pijama: Gabriel Cabrera: una interesante entrevista hecha por Jorge Repiso al traductor-intérprete Gabriel Cabrera que explica paso a paso cómo se ha consolidado como profesional en su campo.
- Quick tips: el corrector ortográfico: del blog de la agencia Tridiomque vende trucos muy valiosos sobre cómo sacarle provecho al corrector ortográfico de Microsoft World. Seguramente a más de uno se le encenderá la bombilla tras haberlo leído :)
- Diccionarios y glosarios jurídico-económicos para traductores e intérpretes: volvemos a hacer hincapié en la importancia de los diccionarios y glosarios, esta vez, en el ámbito jurídico y económico de la mano deOlgaJeNo que ya conoceréis. Muy recomendable para todos aquellos que trabajen en este campo.
- Recursos útiles para el traductor jurídico y jurado del inglés: un gran post recopilatorio de buenos instrumentos de la traductora Irene Corchado, a quien ya citamos en posts anteriores, para aquellos que sean especialistas de este ámbito tan especializado.
- Herramientas lingüísticas para periodistas: nuestra tercera y última propuesta de posts recopilatorios de gran utilidad, en este caso con una especialidad particular como es la del periodismo, pero muy recomendable para todos aquellos profesionales de la lengua que busquen herramientas de calidad para su trabajo. Es un artículo de la traductora-intérprete OlgaJeNo que se maquilla de periodista en el blog de Miquel Pellicer que destaca por publicar artículos y entrevistas de calidad como una de las últimas que le hice aChiqui Esteban. Para los que no lo conozcáis es hora de clicar en el enlace.
- Yihadismo: etimología y concepto: del traductor-corrector Santiago González que analiza etimológicamente y con varias explicaciones y aclaraciones el origen del término “yihadismo”, tan popular estos últimos tiempos. Podéis encontrar su artículo como autor-colaborador del blog de20.000 lenguas y en su proprio blog “el nuevo europeo“.
- Life as a translator: esta vez Scheherezade Surià nos propone este curioso post en inglés sobre la vida de los traductores mediante varias viñetas de cómic. Un guiño a la profesión.
- Cosas que un traductor nunca debe decir a un cliente: un recopilatorio de frases, imágenes, algún que otro artículo enlazado y humor para saber qué es lo que se debe de evitar cuando se habla con un cliente. Es de la agencia de traducciones Agora.
Así pues, llegamos nuevamente al final de nuestra selección de mejores artículos de este mes. Este marzo nuestra antología se caracteriza sobre todo por artículos recopilatorios con propuestas de herramientas de utilidad para la traducción, lainterpretación, el periodismo, buenas entrevistas, sabios consejos por aplicar en el mundo de la traducción, blogs de interés que recomendamos que tengáis en cuenta y mucho más. Os invitamos a conocer los artículos que seleccionamos para los meses de enero y febrero para aquellos que se lo perdieron. Recordaros sólo que nuevamente hemos limitado la selección de artículos a 20, ya que la lista podría ser mucho más larga al haber contenido de gran naturaleza.
Seguimos mes a mes haciendo buenas propuestas y os invitamos a que nos sigáis leyendo para ir descubriendo curiosidades de la lengua y del mundo de la traducción, la interpretación y la localización.
Invités par « L'Orient-Le Jour » à s'exprimer sur la situation de la francophonie au liban, nos lecteurs ont été nombreux à réagir sur firstname.lastname@example.org et sur Facebook. Avis évidemment variés entre déception, lucidité et appui total.
à partir de 1$
Régression et trilinguisme
Je pense que la francophonie au Liban est en régression et que la situation est préoccupante.
De nombreux établissements scolaires et universitaires n'enseignent plus en français, et le trilinguisme n'est plus jugé indispensable à leur formation par une bonne partie des Libanais.
Même ceux qui ont appris le français à l'école le pratiquent très mal, à cause d'une baisse de niveau générale, imputable en partie au manque de lecture chez les jeunes.
Car, c'est bien connu, l'école est là pour inculquer les bases d'une langue, mais c'est par un travail personnel qu'on maîtrise la grammaire et l'orthographe, qu'on enrichit son vocabulaire et qu'on se forge un style.
Et dans un monde envahi par la technologie et par la communication à distance où un anglais très élémentaire suffit pour se comprendre, les jeunes d'aujourd'hui se détournent de plus en plus de l'approfondissement des langues.
Les chaînes de télé françaises accessibles aux Libanais sont cependant une aubaine.
Heureusement, de nombreux établissements scolaires prestigieux ( N-D de Jamhour, Louise Wegmann, N-D de Nazareth, Champville, Mont La Salle, Saints-Cœurs, Lycée français, etc.) portent haut l'étendard de la francophonie.
Il est nécessaire de sensibiliser les familles et les écoliers sur l'importance du français :
– comme vecteur de culture et de rapprochement avec un pays comme la France avec lequel le Liban a toujours eu des liens culturels et économiques très forts ;
– comme atout majeur dans l'ouverture à de nombreux pays, tel le continent africain dont la moitié est francophone et où les opportunités professionnelles sont énormes ;
– comme tremplin pour l'apprentissage d'autres langues latines qui ouvrent des horizons culturels et économiques intéressants (l'italien, l'espagnol et le portugais).
Dans un monde globalisé, le trilinguisme est une richesse rare, spécifique au Liban. Préservons-le.
La francophonie au Liban ? Vivante !
Quel pays méditerranéen, sinon le Liban, peut se prévaloir d'avoir plus de 30 % de locuteurs francophones qui parlent un français presque sans faute et une presse quotidienne qui utilise des mots comme picrocholine ? Bien sûr, il y a des libanismes, mais il y a aussi des belgicismes, des romanismes, des particularités régionales sur les territoires gouvernés par Paris, qui n'étonnent pas, et les Français parlent souvent très mal la langue. Dans nombre de pays, le français est le privilège des classes sociales aisées. Au Liban, c'est une langue qui appartient à tous. De l'enfant au retraité, à Saïda, à Beyrouth, au Chouf, à Tripoli, à Baalbek, les visages s'illuminent à chaque fois que je réponds que je viens de France. Immédiatement, de l'anglais, mes interlocuteurs passent au français. Il n'y a alors plus de frontières, plus de religions, plus de politique, il n'y a qu'une langue aimée qui est la nôtre. Car oui, le français appartient aussi aux Libanais, il fait partie de l'identité du Liban. Le Salon du livre francophone de Beyrouth est le troisième au monde en termes de volume et d'importance ; partout les panneaux indicateurs et enseignes sont en arabe et en français. Tania Hadjithomas, directrice des éditions Tamyras, m'a appris que le mot Beyrouthin, qu'il soit gentilé ou adjectif, n'existe pas dans les dictionnaires de français. J'ai trouvé l'adjectif beyrouthine, déformation française du mot arabe baïroûti, employé dans un article de l'hebdomadaire lyonnais L'Écho de la fabrique du 15 mars 1844 ; à ma connaissance, c'est la première utilisation imprimée du mot. Cent soixante et onze ans d'emploi ininterrompu de l'adjectif et du gentilé, une histoire commune et pas un article dans nos dictionnaires ! Une pétition qui vise à demander à l'Académie et aux éditeurs du Larousse et des Robert que l'on répare cet oubli est à signer sur Internet. N'est-ce pas une preuve supplémentaire de la vivacité du français au pays du Cèdre ? (La pétition en ligne sur :
Loup de Tenishev
* Francophonie ? Ben, y a plus que Hamadé et quelques Gemayel de l'ancienne génération qui la défendent au Liban. Ça ne fait pas grand monde déjà. Bon, le français en soi, c'est une autre question car les Libanais sont bons communicateurs outre leur qualité de bons commerçants, ils aiment les langues fashion et aiment même les triturer en kaftas en les mélangeant savamment avec le parlé local genre « il est venu lui dans son huile », traduction « Ija houwwé b'zéto ». En plus, le français en a tellement pris aussi dans la gueule par maître Ingliche galopant (IG), 4e dan et sans staff d'anglophonie pour le soutenir SVP, que même l'arabe de la rue (el-3ammiyéh) le regarde avec indifférence battu sur le tatami.
* Moi qui suis de culture francophone de souche orientale, habitant Paris depuis une trentaine d'années, je suis scandalisé à quel point les Libanais ne sont plus en phase avec cette culture.
À chaque voyage au Liban, je me rends compte que l'actuelle génération est absolument conditionnée par l'anglophilie.
Le nombre élevé des établissements pédagogiques et culturels privés anglophones implantés au Liban depuis maintenant une vingtaine d'années me conforte dans l'idée que la France a démissionné de son rôle culturel dans ce pays !
Le rayonnement de la langue de Molière qui est en voie de disparition me laisse perplexe sur un retour réel de notre culture tant chérie aux XIXe et au XXe siècles.
L'ancienne génération des années 50 et 60 garde de l'affection à notre culture, mais à l'avenir, quels sont nos projets dans ce domaine pour remonter la pente ? Il y a urgence !
* Si la francophonie disparaissait, à Dieu ne plaise, le Liban perdrait sa singularité et deviendrait un pays arabe comme les autres. Ce serait une perte de 150 ans de présence francophone prodiguée par les jésuites depuis un siècle et demi. J'ajoute qu'il perdrait surtout l'amitié séculaire de la France envers le Liban.
* Quand on a un grand Libanais écrivain et membre de l'Académie française, qui s'appelle Amin Maalouf, la francophonie va bien et on en est fier dans ce pays qui résiste pour préserver sa vocation.
Halim ABOU CHACRA
*Le Liban, tribune d'expression plurilingue, fête depuis des années leMois de la francophonie par des manifestations et des activités de toutes sortes. Mais nous, Libanais, sommes-nous aussi francophones que nous le prétendons ? Truffé de mots d'anglais, notre français est imprégné du trilinguisme libanais, typique du « Hi, kifak, ça va ? ». La qualité s'en ressent... à en faire mal aux oreilles averties. D'autant plus que certains insistent à s'exprimer dans la langue de Molière sans pour autant la maîtriser et versent dans les faux sens et les libanismes. Mal de l'époque, de nombreuses personnes massacrent l'orthographe avec les abréviations sur les messages téléphoniques et les réseaux sociaux. Pour finir, n'oublions pas ceux qui roulent les r. De quoi vous gâcher la meilleure « pronanciatian » !
Vicente L. Rafael
The Journal of Asian Studies / FirstView Article / March 2015, pp 1 – 20
DOI: 10.1017/S0021911814002241, Published online: 24 March 2015
This paper examines the role of language in nationalist attempts at decolonization. In the case of the Philippines, American colonial education imposed English as the sole medium of instruction. Native students were required to suppress their vernacular languages so that the classroom became the site for a kind of linguistic war, or better yet, the war of translation. Nationalists have routinely denounced the continued use of English as a morbid symptom of colonial mentality. Yet, such a view was deeply tied to the colonial notion of the sheer instrumentality of language and the notion that translation was a means for the speaker to dominate language as such. However, other practices of translation existed based not on domination but play seen in the classroom and the streets. Popular practices of translation undercut colonial and nationalist ideas about language, providing us with an alternative understanding of translation in democratizing expression in a postcolonial context.
Link to this article: http://journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S0021911814002241
He, she or hen? Sweden's new gender-neutral pronoun(NPR) The official dictionary of the Swedish language is having a fresh infusion of 13,000 new words, editors of the Swedish Academy have announced. Amongst the additions is a gender-neutral pronoun. Instead of just he (han) and she (hon), there will now...Paylaş
(NPR) The official dictionary of the Swedish language is having a fresh infusion of 13,000 new words, editors of the Swedish Academy have announced.
Amongst the additions is a gender-neutral pronoun. Instead of just he (han) and she (hon), there will now be hen as nicely.
The Guardian says: “The pronoun is utilized to refer to a individual without having revealing their gender — either simply because it is unknown, due to the fact the person is transgender, or the speaker or writer deems the gender to be superfluous facts.”
Read the full story ›
Our editors found this article on this site using Google and regenerated it for our readers.
Actualmente Internet es el paraíso para quienes gozan de consumir información de cualquier tipo, aunque también es el infierno sin compasión para los que tienen sensibilidad hacia el resguardo de la lengua española.
Los foros, comentarios o cualquier espacio abierto para los usuarios son un caldo de cultivo para los “grammar nazi”, concepto prestado del inglés para denominar a quienes estiman conveniente evidenciar de forma agresiva los errores ortográficos y de redacción del resto.
Al redactar, especialmente cuando los plazos urgen -sobre todo para los profesionales de la comunicación-, es fácil caer en algunos vicios, palabras mal tipeadas o derechamente algún error que despertará la furia de los que duermen con el diccionario como cabecera.
La Real Academia Española, el organismo encargado de la normalización lingüística, es el punto final de muchos debates en torno a la correcta escritura. Doctos, amateurs o simplemente dos individuos que no están seguros de alguna expresión determinada suelen recurrir a ella.
A continuación te presentamos una selección de las dudas más frecuentes según la RAE, que puedes consultar en su Diccionario de la lengua, el Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas o la Fundación del Español Urgente, que se desempeña bajo el alero de la Academia.
Octavo, noveno, décimo… ¿”onceavo”?
Para referirse al orden o sucesión de elementos, los numerales ordinales son los que llegan al rescate. De esta forma podemos establecer si una deportista arribó a la meta en la primera posición, si Alemania ganó su cuarta copa del Mundo en 2014 o si el caso Fraude al FUT fue visto por el Octavo Juzgado de Garantía.
Erróneamente, muchos hispanoparlantes invocan los numerales fraccionarios para denominar el lugar que emplea un elemento en una sucesión. Por ejemplo, es un error decir que actualmente Chile está en el “quinceavo” lugar del ranking FIFA (dicha palabra denomina a un entero dividido en 15 partes). Lo que corresponde decir es que el seleccionado nacional está en el decimoquinto lugar.
Por qué / porque / porqué / por que
En este apartado abordamos lo que es un dolor de cabeza para algunos, un motivo de peleas para otros o, derechamente, una eterna incertidumbre para una buena parte de la población.
Para introducir una oración interrogativa o exclamativa -directa o indirecta- se emplea el “por qué” (preposición más la locución interrogativa/exclamativa).
“Tu madre no entiende por qué no te vas de la casa si ya tienes 35 años“, puede emplearse como ejemplo. Sin embargo, algo más ilustrativo más ilustrativo puede ser el clásico “¿por qué no te callas?“, la impaciente pregunta del rey Juan Carlos al ya desaparecido mandatario venezolano Hugo Chávez.
Si se pretende introducir una oración que denote causa nos sirve la conjunción átona “porque” (sin tilde), y también en el caso de responder a una pregunta encabezada con un “por qué”, la que se puede reemplazar por las locuciones “puesto que” o “ya que”.
Presentó el requerimiento ante el Tribunal Constitucional porque no quería que lo investigaran.
- ¿Por qué él pudo mirar el show de Molotov desde el escenario? – Porque le regalaron una pulsera “all access”.
Para emplear el “porqué” se debe considerar que es un sustantivo, por lo general, dispuesto posterior a un artículo o algún determinante. Lo más usual es verlo escrito bajo la forma de “el porqué”.
El partido evitó explicar el porqué de su negativa a congelar la militancia de los parlamentarios.
Por último, la secuencia “por que” (sin tildar) es ocupada frecuentemente apuntando a la locución “que” como un pronombre relativo, siendo habitual que lo preceda un artículo. En este caso, “que” puede ser reemplazado por la secuencia “por el/la cual”.
Ella dio su excusa por (la) que se retiró de la reunión.
De forma incorrecta, algunos aseguran a pie juntillas que la palabra “hubieron” no existe. De hecho, es la tercera persona plural del pretérito perfecto simple (modo indicativo) del verbo haber (hube, hubiste, hubo, hubimos, hubisteis, hubieron).
El problema es cuando se intenta emplear dicha forma para expresar la presencia de elementos o personas, especialmente para su uso como impersonal. Según explica la RAE, para estos efectos solo vale la tercera persona del singular (hubo), debido a que en estos casos el verbo carece de sujeto.
Por lo anterior, es totalmente incorrecto decir “hubieron muchos accidentes durante la mañana“. Lo apropiado es decir “hubo muchos accidentes durante la mañana“.
Echo / Hecho
La silente “H” es la causante de muchos males cuando se convierte en la primera letra de una palabra. Una de ellas es la protagonista de este apartado.
Para simplificar las cosas; cuando se emplea la palabra “echo” -sin la “H”-, hace referencia a una forma del verbo “echar” (depositar, expulsar, añadir).
Echa las monedas en tus bolsillos.
El jefe la echó porque siempre lucía enojada.
Te prohíbo que le eches cerveza a la carne que está en la parrilla.
También alude a “extrañar” o, más informalmente, “echar de menos”. Igualmente se utiliza para denotar el inicio de una acción.
Te echaré de menos, pero se me pasará.
Se echó a dormir bajo la sombra de un árbol.
Por su parte, cuando se escribe con “h” alude al verbo “hacer“, al sustantivo masculino “hecho” y a la locución adverbial “de hecho” (que significa “en realidad”).
Él ha hecho la tarea un minuto antes de que comenzara la clase.
El hecho de que haya cumplido con escribir la nota para el fin de semana le vale un aumento de sueldo.
De hecho, se divorciaron.
Sino / Si no
¿Junto o separado? Ambas formas también generan problemas al escribiente. La primera se utiliza como una conjunción adversativa, para contraponer dos elementos cuando uno de estos se negó con anterioridad. También es empleada para unir dos enunciados, en donde el segundo añade información al primer enunciado.
Ella no renunció, sino que la despidieron.
Él no solo lo golpeó, sino que también le robó la billetera.
Cuando utilizamos las palabras por separado, quiere decir que se está dando inicio a una oración condicional.
Si no hubiera sido por Juan, la casa se habría incendiado.
Sobre todo / sobretodo
En este punto también suelen enfocarse las dudas de las personas que se encuentran redactando. En términos simples, “sobre todo”, por separado, tiene la función de una locución adverbial y quiere decir “principalmente” o “especialmente”, de acuerdo al Diccionario Panhispánico de dudas.
Las últimas lluvias afectaron al norte, sobre todo a las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta.
Algo muy distinto es el “sobretodo” (junto), que es un sinónimo de abrigo o vestimenta que se dispone por encima de las otras prendas.
Sobre todo en la prensa, este adjetivo distributivo -como lo denomina la RAE- suele utilizarse incorrectamente como un equivalente de “ambos” o de “dos”. Por ello, es un error decir:
PDI busca a autores de sendos robos a locales comerciales en Valparaíso.
Lo correcto, según la Academia, es que el adjetivo se emplee bajo el significado de “uno para cada una de las cosas mencionadas“.
Cuatro detenidos dejan sendos procedimientos policiales en Los Ángeles.
La Academia también cede
Si bien hay muchos que creen que las reglas son inamovibles, otros estiman que el idioma es un ente vivo al igual que las personas y, por lo tanto, ambos evolucionan a la par.
Por años, la palabra “deleznable” estaba circunscrita a describir algo de importancia menor o “escurridizo”. Sin embargo, muchos la ocuparon como un sinónimo de “reprobable”, despreciable o “censurable”. Tanto fue su uso que al final, según consigna Fundeu, el Diccionario del Estudiante de la RAE terminó dando validez a esta acepción.
Del mismo modo, el plural de “nariz” fue un motivo de controversia y de crueles guerras (quizás estemos exagerando). Hasta hoy, muchos de los autodenominados “puristas” de la lengua aseguran que para aludir al órgano del olfato se debe ocupar la palabra única y exclusivamente en singular.
Pero este tema ya está dirimido por la RAE, que en su diccionario apunta a que “narices” puede utilizarse “con el mismo significado que en singular”. Por ello, si alguien osa corregirte cuando te rasques “las narices”, golpéalo con tu diccionario.
Por último, una de las más controvertidas concesiones que entregó la RAE en 2010 fue la eliminación de la tilde en la palabra “solo” cuando cumple una función adverbial (solamente).
Solo pido que te calles unos dos o tres días.
La eliminación se justificó en el errado uso de la tilde, que en teoría debía aplicarse única y exclusivamente cuando el adverbio pudiera confundirse con el adjetivo (“solo” de soledad).
Dejó a su perro solo en la casa una semana.
A Wisconsin project that shows regional differences in how Americans use the English language is running low on money.
The Dictionary of American Regional English, known by the acronym DARE, was founded at the University of Wisconsin-Madison more than a half-century ago. The dictionary pulls together regional words from 1,002 communities across the country, drawn from newspapers, maps, diaries and obituaries as well as from Americans who fill out a survey.
The dictionary has survived previous financial crises. But this time, the project will begin the fiscal year in July with a little under $100,000, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ( http://bit.ly/1CmChNj ) reported. That's not even 20 percent of its usual annual budget.
John Karl Scholz, dean of the College of Letters and Science, declined to comment to the newspaper.
Chief editor Joan Houston Hall, who has devoted almost 40 years to the project, recently sent layoff and nonrenewal notices to all five staffers, including herself.
"I've lost many nights of sleep trying to figure out where we're going to get funding, and in recent months I just haven't thought of any place left to go. I recognize that the university is stretched to the limit," she said.
"I believe in this project. It has been an important gift to the nation and there is still work to be done," Hall added.
Grant Barrett, co-host and co-producer of the public radio show, "A Way With Words," called the dictionary's financial woes a shame.
"It's a shame that this country can no longer support scholarly work of this magnitude," Barrett said. "It's one of the great reference works."
Planned in 1963 by its first editor Frederic Gomes Cassidy, the project stretched far beyond its first deadline of 1976, and even beyond Cassidy's death in 2000 at the age of 92.
DARE finally reached the final volume including "Z'' in 2012. A digital version was published in December 2013, by which time editors already had begun working to update the early volumes.
Discovering such words and preserving them has practical applications.
Dr. Douglas Kelling, an internist in Concord, North Carolina, said he became convinced of the value of DARE from hearing unusual expressions used by his patients.
A couple of months ago, Kelling was examining an 80-year-old woman when the patient turned to him and said: "Doc, how's my ticklebox?"
The doctor asked what she meant by "ticklebox."
"Well, my heart, course," the woman answered.
In almost 40 years of practice, the doctor has heard patients use the terms "Smiling Mighty Jesus," for spinal meningitis, "fireballs of the uterus" for fibroids of the uterus and "old-timer's disease" for Alzheimer's disease.
"And that's just a small sample of the phrases I've run into," Kelling said.
Information from: Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, http://www.jsonline.com
I love going to Mexico. For every task, there is a "guy" who does it. They do not have jack-of-all-trades handymen. If you are working on your house, you do not call one person, but have to contact a separate plumber, electrician, and painter. And it is not just about home repairs. If you need your shoes shined, there is a guy for that. Our Mexican friend would never consider shining her own shoes; it is not her role, and she would be taking away someone else's job. She looks at us with a quizzical face when we talk about how much we do on our own. If you need a key made in Mexico, you don't go to Ace but to the locksmith. If you need supplies for dinner, you have to make three stops to the carnicería (butcher), the tortillera (tortilla bakery), and verduleria (vegetable market). For every task, there is a specialist, a professional who gets it done. But not in America, we do it all ourselves.
We are a country of over-responsible, over-committed, overwhelmed multitaskers.
Our professionals are not specialists but generalists accepting every challenge given to them. As individuals, we are not focused on just one role but many. Now with the advent of technology, we have the ability to do everything ourselves, and we do. Neuroscientist Daniel J. Levitin points out, "Thirty years ago, travel agents made our airline and rail reservations, salespeople helped us find what we were looking for in shops, and professional typists or secretaries helped busy people with their correspondence. Now we do most of those things ourselves." Think of all you can do at your fingertips: order groceries to be delivered, create your own business cards, research apartment listings, create an ad to sell items, and a host of other tasks. As I write this post, I am also having a conversation with my sister on Facebook and watching an online auction (and because of this, the article is taking three times longer to write). We pride ourselves on doing everything ourselves all at once. Adding technology's constant connectivity and expectation of immediate response to this ability to do more ourselves, becomes a recipe for disaster.
Our brains are not wired to do as much as we are. We are not built to handle multiple projects at once. We think we can be at the same time mother-professional-philanthropist or do at the same time driving-texting-parenting, but we can't. What is actually happening is we are rapidly switching between each role or task. And every time we switch, we are producing more cortisol, the stress hormone that clouds our mind, messes with the functioning of our brain, and negatively affects our physical body. According to Glenn Wilson, professor of psychology at Gresham College, multitasking reduces cognitive abilities more than smoking marijuana does. Our multitasking is hurting us.
Maybe it is time to slow down.
On our visits to Mexico, we immediately experience a slower way of life. No one is rushed, unless they are a visiting Gringo. People have time to talk and connect. The locals work hard but they are not frantic. Expectations of the community are realistic. No one is expected to be a superhero. No one is responsible for everything. Everyone focuses on their job, then walks away and focuses on their life. Things get done while allowing individuals to live.
Why not try it for a day, or just an hour. Instead of expecting to be able to respond to everything coming your way, why not see if you can focus on only one thing at a time. Turn off your phone and email. Release every other obligation and thought. See how focused attention can not only create better results, but also provide more calm and peace in your life.
To help you release your multitasking ways and in honor of April being National Stress Awareness month, sign up to win a copy of From Type A to Type Me.
Enjoy reading books, whether Arabic or English. And while reading books in both languages, one thing that always stands out to me is how both languages address the sexes.
In Arabic writing, the masculine form is always used, even when both sexes are addressed. If a subject addresses men only, the context informs the reader. If women are addressed, then almost everything is switched to the feminine. Not just pronouns and adjectives, but verbs and nouns as well.
Grammatical gender is a somewhat difficult part of Arabic, but it is part of its extraordinary precision, even if new speakers might think it a cumbersome chore. In English, people today commonly view the use of the masculine tone as politically incorrect. They frown upon sentences like “Man can be anything he wants to be if he puts his mind to it.” Unacceptable! Offensive! Outrageous!
But is it? Interestingly, using the masculine pronoun to address a general audience is a sound and old practice in English, and only in recent times did it change due to social pressure.
It may be politically correct not to use the masculine form in English anymore, but it makes the language a lot clumsier in my opinion. The above sentence becomes “One can be anything he or she wants to be if he or she puts his or her mind to it.” You can hear the clunk of this plodding beast miles away. A sentence such as, “One can be anything one wants to be if one puts one’s mind to it” is painfully repetitive and obviously unusable. And something like, “A person can be anything they want to be if they put their mind to it” feels weak and bland.
It’s confusing and clumsy, when reading an English book, to see the adjectives and pronouns vacillating between masculine and feminine. An author might write a sentence, “If solution X does not solve the customer’s problem, she should try solution Y.” And then a few paragraphs later, “The customer who could not resolve his problem using solution Y is advised to try solution Z.” And so it goes, throughout the book. I feel as if authors are writing in a worried state, walking on eggshells, counting the number of times she/her were used against he/his, afraid of offending anyone.
Social movements affect many aspects of society: Politics, culture, education, even everyday etiquette. But when a movement (like feminism) affects language itself; language that predates the social movement by hundreds or even thousands of years, there’s something wrong — either the language is too weak to withstand such an unnecessary assault, or the movement’s proponents are so sensitive that they are willing to deform their own culture, their own language, just so they would not be “offended.” And currently in the West (and the US especially), protection from “offense” is now a sacred right. What are the parameters of “offense”? What is offensive and what is acceptable? No one knows, the definition changes regularly.
And the victim, among others, is this once-great institution, now a victim to bullying and pressure: The English language.
New CorelDRAW® Technical Suite X7: A Powerful Technical Communication Solution
Suite Features Tools that Allow Users to Envision, Illustrate and Communicate Effectively
OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - March 17, 2015) -
Editors Note: There is a photo and a video associated with this press release.
Corel today released CorelDRAW® Technical Suite X7, its latest solution for technical communication professionals. With new 3D PDF publishing capabilities, connectivity to Translation Memory Systems (TMS) and a redesigned user interface, this new version gives companies the ability to increase ROI on their CAD system investments by repurposing CAD and 3D data for technical illustration and visual communication workflows.
CorelDRAW Technical Suite X7 features Corel DESIGNER® for dedicated technical design and illustration, including advanced isometric drawing tools, leading file compatibility, and publishing capabilities for print, online and mobile. The program helps technical communication professionals create projects quickly by accessing and repurposing technical design assets from various sources. The advanced Lattice3D Studio CAD add-on supports 3D CAD assembly formats from CATIA, Inventor, NX, PTC Creo, SolidWorks and others. With file export capabilities covering graphics, bitmap and other document formats, from Microsoft Office, CGM, SVG, EPS, TIFF, JPEG and PNG to PDF/A and S1000D industry standards, CorelDRAW Technical Suite X7 allows users to distribute technical communications to a variety of media publishing options.
"With CorelDRAW Technical Suite X7, we want to help technical communication professionals enhance their workflow and productivity as much as possible," said Klaus Vossen, Senior Product Manager for CorelDRAW Technical Suite, Corel. "Together with Lattice3D Studio CAD Corel Edition, the latest version of CorelDRAW Technical Suite offers tools to help streamline the workflow from 3D design to technical communication. By allowing users to repurpose 3D CAD data to efficiently create high-quality technical communications, and update their deliverables from modified 3D CAD sources, the program helps resolve bottlenecks in the technical publication workflow."
New and Enhanced Features in CorelDRAW Technical Suite X7 Include:
New 3D PDF Publishing: Export layouts directly to 3D PDF and generate documents with all pertinent data in one publication for cross-media publishing.
New Translation Memory System (TMS) Support: Send text from a document in Corel DESIGNER to Translation Memory Systems and receive translated text back for efficient translation of technical illustrations.
New Automated 3D CAD-to-Illustration Update Capability: With the optional Lattice3D Studio CAD add-on, streamline the technical illustration process by accessing early 3D designs as a source file and update technical illustrations from modified 3D CAD data in an automated process.
New Redesigned User Interface: Select from predefined workspaces or set up a custom workspace to match a specific workflow with the fully customizable user interface, featuring full support for high-dpi screens and multi-monitor environments.
Enhanced Hotspot Capabilities: Add interactive functionality to callout shapes using the Object Data Manager in Corel DESIGNER.
New Equation Editor: Manage mathematical equations as editable elements within technical illustrations.
New QR Code Generator: Create QR codes with Corel DESIGNER and include them in printed materials such as documentation, machine labels and more.
New Precision Layout and Drawing Tools: Create and position objects more accurately with new tools like Outline Position options, the Parallel Drawing tool and Alignment Guides.
New Membership and Subscription Options: Choose between perpetual or subscription licensing options, and access Standard or Premium Membership features.
Subscription: Rent the software on a monthly or annual basis, and access it for the duration of the subscription term. This is ideal for companies and individuals who are on a fixed monthly or annual software budget, but need the most up-to-date tools. A subscription license includes Premium Membership features during the term of subscription.
Memberships: Stay informed on the latest news from CorelDRAW Technical Suite with a free Standard Membership, or upgrade to a Premium Membership for access to additional features and automatic upgrades to the next major version. Maintenance, which is offered to volume license customers, includes all Premium Membership benefits for the term purchased.
Corel DESIGNER® X7 - Precision illustration and technical design
CorelDRAW® X7 - Vector illustration and page layout
Corel® PHOTO-PAINT™ X7 - Professional image editing
Corel® PowerTRACE™ X7 - Bitmap-to-vector tracing
Lattice3D Studio Corel Edition - 3D visualization and authoring
Corel® CONNECT™ - Content finder
Corel® CAPTURE™ X7 - Screen capture
PhotoZoom Pro 3 - Enlarging digital images
Lattice3D Studio CAD Add-On:
CorelDRAW Technical Suite X7 can be expanded with an optional add-on of Lattice3D Studio CAD Corel Edition, which gives users access to advanced authoring tools for leveraging 3D CAD data across technical communications and marketing in an enterprise. Users can author powerful work instructions, and create a wide range of technical documentation and marketing collateral from manufacturing designs. Learn more at www.coreldraw.com/techsuiteaddons.
Availability and Pricing:
CorelDRAW Technical Suite X7 is available for $999 (USD), and the upgrade version is $429 (USD). Subscription licenses start at $30 per month (for annual subscription). For more information, or to purchase the program, visit www.coreldraw.com/technicalsuite.
About Corel Graphic Design Software:
Whether you're an occasional graphics user, creative professional or technical illustrator, Corel Graphic Design Software helps you make a major impact with your artwork. The Corel Graphic Design product family includes the renowned CorelDRAW® Graphics Suite, a complete graphic design solution, CorelDRAW® Technical Suite for technical communication, and CorelCAD™, affordable and powerful CAD software.
Boasting some of the industry's best-known brands, Corel's product lines also include Corel® Painter®, Corel® PaintShop® Pro, Corel® PDF Fusion™, Corel® VideoStudio®, Corel® WordPerfect® Office, Roxio®, Pinnacle™ and WinZip®. For more information about Corel Graphic Design Software, please visit www.coreldraw.com.
© 2015 Corel Corporation. All rights reserved. Corel, the Corel logo, the Corel Balloon logo, CorelDRAW, the CorelDRAW balloon logo, Corel DESIGNER, CAPTURE, CONNECT, CorelCAD, Painter, PaintShop, PDF Fusion, PHOTO-PAINT, Pinnacle, PowerTRACE, Roxio, VideoStudio, WinZip and WordPerfect are trademarks or registered trademarks of Corel Corporation and/or its subsidiaries in Canada, the U.S. and elsewhere. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners. Patents: www.corel.com/patent
To view the photo and video associated with this Press Release, please visit the following links:
613-728-0826 ext. 1323
Rodney Johnson: One of the craziest things in our culture is the existence of Star Trek conventions. The show only ran for about three years in the mid-1960s, and yet fans — most of whom were not even born when the show was broadcast — flock to these conventions by the thousands.
Some of these participants speak to each other in “Klingon,” a made-up language from a fictional planet in the Star Trek universe. I often wonder — are they just making this up? How would anyone know?
That’s kind of how I felt reading the Fed’s latest press release. Judging by the words and phrases they use, it seems like they just made up a lexicon on the fly.
Have you ever wondered how billionaires continue to get RICHER, while the rest of the world is struggling?
"I study billionaires for a living. To be more specific, I study how these investors generate such huge and consistent profits in the stock markets -- year-in and year-out."
CLICK HERE to get your Free E-Book, “The Little Black Book Of Billionaires Secrets”
Luckily, I’m here to help. I think I have a grasp on Fedspeak — or at least as good as anyone else — so I thought I’d offer my translations:
The Committee continues to see the risks to the outlook for economic activity and the labor market as nearly balanced.
Translation: Things could go up — or down — from here. It’s a toss-up.
The Committee continues to monitor inflation developments closely.
Translation: We don’t know what’s going on, but we keep looking at it, hoping to figure it out. We’ll get back to you if we think of something.
In determining how long to maintain this target range, the Committee will assess progress–both realized and expected–toward its objectives of maximum employment and 2 percent inflation.
Translation: We’re still trying to figure out what to do about employment and inflation. But if new numbers look different (“realized”), or if we have Mexican food for lunch and feel differently about the future (“expected”), we might just do something. Or not.
The Committee judges that an increase in the target range for the federal funds rate remains unlikely at the April FOMC meeting.
Translation: Expect nothing to happen anytime soon. We’re still looking at things we can’t figure out.
Just because we removed the word “patient” from the statement doesn’t mean we are going to be impatient.
Translation: See? We can pretend to be lawyers too. The absence of patience is… oh, wait a minute, that really does mean impatient.
Looking ahead, however, the Committee continues to expect a moderate pace of GDP growth, with robust job gains and lower energy prices supporting household spending.
Translation: Everything will be fine, trust us. It will all work out. We control the world, remember?
While it is still the case that we consider it unlikely that economic conditions will warrant an increase in the target range at the April meeting, such an increase could be warranted at any later meeting, depending on how the economy evolves.
Translation: We won’t do anything at our next meeting, but after that, all bets are off. Deal with it.
April has been declared National Literature Month (Buwan ng Panitikang Filipino), as per Proclamation No. 968, which was signed last Feb. 10.
Proclamation No. 968 recognizes that “Philippine literature, written in different Philippine languages, is associated with the history and cultural legacy of the State, and must be promoted among Filipinos,” and that “national literature plays an important role in preserving and inspiring the literature of today and in introducing to future generations the Filipino values that we have inherited from our ancestors.”
April is only befitting for the celebration as the month marks Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar Day, and the birth and death anniversaries of literary icons such as Emilio Jacinto, Paciano Rizal, Nick Joaquin, Edith Tiempo and Bienvenido Lumbera. Also, international literary celebrations such as International Children’s Book Day, International Day of the Book or World Book Day, and World Intellectual Property Rights Day are being celebrated in this month.
National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), led by its chair Felipe M. de Leon Jr. and OIC-executive director Adelina M. Suemith, and Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (KWF) with National Artist Virgilio Almario as chair, are spearheading the first ever celebration of the National Literature Month.
National Literature Month will kick off with a youth camp and the unveiling of a new monument of Tagalog poet Francisco Balagtas and park in Wawa in Orion, Bataan.
In celebration of “Balagtas Day,” some 500 Grade 8 students in Region III and select indigenous youths from all over the country will gather March 30-31, in Orion Elementary School for a youth camp. It will begin with the inauguration of a new monument of Balagtas, created by sculptor Julie Lluch, and the opening of the Hardin ni Balagtas.
On April 2, simultaneous wreath-laying ceremonies will be held at Balagtas monuments in Pandacan, Manila; Balagtas, Bulacan; and Orion, Bataan.
On April 6, 2 p.m., the first of a series of Tertulya sa Tula: Isang Hapon ng mga Makata ng Taon will be held at the KWF, where the audience will have the opportunity to interact with Makata ng Taon winners. Subsequent events will be held on April 13, 20 and 27.
From April 9-11, Lingayen, Pangasinan, will host the first Baybayin Summit to be in participated in by teachers, scholars, researchers and students. They will tackle the issue of introducing the Old Tagalog script into the school curriculum.
On April 11, Ateneo de Manila University’s Ateneo Institute of Literary Arts and Practices will hold the High Fantasy and Young Adult Writing Workshop. It will be held every Saturday of the month (April 11, 18 and 25).
From April 13-15, Uswag Filipino! will be held at the Bulacan State University, while the Filipino poets’ group Linangan sa Imahen, Retorika, at Anyo will conduct the “Lakbay-Panitik para kay Emilio Jacinto” in Majayjay, Laguna, on April 16, in celebration of the hero’s death anniversary.
The Gunglo dagiti Mannurat nga Ilokano iti (Gumil) Filipinas, or Ilokano Writers Association of the Philippines, will hold its 47th national conference at the Cubao Expo in Quezon City April 17-19, with the theme, “Ang Papel ng Gumiliano sa Lipunang Ilokano.”
The Bienvenido Santos Creative Writing Center of the De La Salle University will hold the Young Writers Workshop for children with literary inclinations on April 17. Also on the same day, Lira will host a poetry session program at the Conspiracy Bar in Quezon City.
On April 20, Manila Times College in Intramuros, Manila, will conduct a Literary Journalism Workshop with critic Isagani Cruz, while the University of Santo Tomas’ Center for Creative Writing and Literary Studies will conduct “Tradisyon at Modernidad: Isang Simposyum,” on April 21.
From April 21 to 23, a translation seminar will be at the Western Mindanao State University in Zamboanga City.
April 23 is National Book and Copyright Day, and National Book Development Board will spearhead the celebration. On April 24, the Klasrum Adarna session will tackle “Pagtuturo ng Noli at Fili/ Ibong Adarna” in Makati City, while Folk on Badiw: Ibaloy Legacy to Poetry and Music will be held at the University of the Philippines in Baguio City, April 24-25.
On April 26, Fit ’n’ Fun: Fun Run for Writers will be at the UP Academic Oval, organized by the Filipinas Institute of Translation.
On April 26-28, the Iyas National Writers Workshop of University of St. La Salle-Bacolod will be held in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. And from April 29 to 30, the Pambansang Kongreso sa Wikang Filipino will be held in Baguio City by the Kapisanan ng mga Superbisor at Guro sa Filipino.
On April 29, the Pambansang Araw ng Gawad sa KWF Timpalak Uswag Darepdep will be held. Uswag Darepdep is a contest of the KWF for 12 to 17-year-old aspiring writers writing in different Philippine languages. This year, language categories that are open for competition are Ilokano, Sebwano, Bikol and Mëranaw.
On April 30, a poetry reading by the Katig Writers Network will be held at UP Tacloban in Leyte and at the Northwestern State University in Calbayog City, Samar.
Visit KWF office at Watson Bldg., 1610 J. P. Laurel St., Malacanang Complex, San Miguel, Manila. Call Kriscell Largo Labor, executive assistant IV, Sangay ng Edukasyon at Networking, at 7362524 or 7362525; e-mail email@example.com; visit www.kwf.gov.ph.
“The Good Book,” the play by Denis O’Hare and Lisa Peterson now receiving a supremely artful world premiere at Court Theatre, is so full of complexity, ambition, contradiction, humor, satire, intellectual history, political manipulation, questions about translation, ancient and contemporary references and characters, and profound matters of faith (as well as skepticism) that it should come as no surprise to learn that the book that inspired it was the Bible — both the Old Testament and New Testament.
But this is no “illustrated Bible stories” production, or pop musical take, or dry history. Rather, it is a hip yet sophisticated exploration of early Judaism and Christianity, and of all the forces that have combined over the millennia to create a work by countless (often anonymous) authors and innumerable outside forces, and contains more layers (and enigmas) than any archaeological site. In effect, the Bible is a crazy quilt — an intricate collage that, ironically, is frequently interpreted in terms of an omnipotent voice when in fact it is the result of a cacophony of voices recorded over thousands of years, in various languages and on several continents.
‘THE GOOD BOOK’
When: Through April 19
Where: Court Theatre, 5535 S. Ellis
Tickets: $45 – $65
Info: (773) 753-4472;
Run time: 2 hours and 50 minutes with one intermission
The script, by the same team that triumphed with “An Iliad,” combines the talents of an actor (O’Hare) and a director (Peterson), and together they have devised a work that showcases the abilities of seven of this city’s most virtuosic actors (five of whom play a slew of different roles) and a design team that has deployed many lovely tricks. The show demands intense concentration, but the storytelling is accessible and laced with eclectic vocal work and music (from Bach, to Dave Brubeck, to Paul Simon). And the authors possess a knack for never taking themselves too seriously.
There are two “modern times” anchors in the production. One is Miriam (Hollis Resnik, in bristling, brainy form) as an attractive university professor in middle age who has little patience with Bethany (Emjoy Gavino), the fundamentalist Christian student in her Bible 101 class who persistently challenges her ideas. Miriam’s life also is complicated by a long-distance romance with a Middle Eastern archaeologist with Christian roots (Kareem Bandealy) — a relationship as imperfect as their comically warped Skype connection. Miriam, who witnessed the death of her mother (Jacqueline Williams) at an early age, is a woman of little traditional faith.
Kareem Bandealy and Hollis Resnik in “The Good Book” at Court Theatre. (Photo: Michael Brosilow)
The other anchor is Connor (Alex Weisman, who thinks as fast as he moves). We see him mostly at age 15, during the 1970s, when he is contemplating life as a priest, but also, to the horror of his father (Allen Gillmore), is becoming aware of his homosexuality. And here again, O’Hare and Peterson have found a deft metaphor — in this case, for the way the Bible began as oral storytelling, with Connor using his sessions with a cassette tape recorder as a sort of electronic “dear diary” equivalent. (Connor returns as a man of 52 in a later scene in the play.)
Alex Weisman in “The Good Book.” (Photo: Michael Brosilow)
Along the way, “The Good Book” charts crucial moments in the development of the Bible, from the laws of the Israelites of the Old Testament, and the sayings of the prophets, to other writings on parchment and scrolls (many of them lost), to the early Christian gospels and their translation (often “revised”) from Hebrew into Greek and Latin. A wonderful scene, set in the Dark Ages, finds monks copying precious texts and illustrating them in glorious, often teasing illuminated manuscripts. Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press in 1439 brings about other monumental changes. So does England’s King James (zestily played by Erik Hellman), whose 1611 version of the Bible became the standard English text.
The authors playfully suggest the roots of Bible Belt fundamentalism in the 19th century, the guitar-playing of post-Vatican II masses in the 1960s, and the efforts in the 1970s and ’80s to “gender neutralize” the Bible — hilariously recounted in a scene that brings academics together at Princeton University, with two women (Gavino and Williams) facing off on the issue.
If some of the earliest history can be a bit arcane (despite the use of supertitles supplying essential dates and places), things coalesce beautifully in the second act. And Peterson’s fluid staging on Rachel Hauck’s sleekly minimalist black and white set — with stunning projections by Mike Tutaj, sound and music by Mark Bennett, lighting by Keith Parham and costumes by Linda Roethke — is exemplary.
Ultimately, “The Good Book” is about the human impulse to find faith, with religion a means of ordering society, promoting a spirit of love (even if it often sows the seeds of hatred), and above all, offering a balm for mortality. A tall order for any play, or book.
La délégation de nos décisions au smartphone prend chaque jour davantage d’ampleur. Ecrire à la main, lire une carte, parler une langue étrangère sont autant de compétences menacées
Google, Uber, Amazon: comment la disruption transforme des industries entières
Du choix du restaurant à celui du chemin à prendre pour nous amener à un rendez-vous, les décisions de tous les jours sont de plus en plus déléguées au smartphone. Ce processus devrait gagner de l’ampleur. Cinq compétences pourraient bientôt se révéler sans intérêt, selon le futuriste bâlois Gerd Leonhard.
Apprendre une langue étrangère
Avec «Skype Translate» ou l’application «Say Hi», nous pouvons dès maintenant nous adresser à des étrangers dans notre langue maternelle. La traduction est réalisée en temps réel et notre message parvient à notre interlocuteur dans sa propre langue. A l’avenir, notre téléphone portable se chargera de la traduction simultanée, par exemple au restaurant.
S’orienter dans l’espace
Auparavant, nous apprenions à lire une carte qui se présentait sous une forme de vaste dépliant. Nous pouvions aussi nous orienter à partir de certains bâtiments, d’églises ou de l’horizon. Pour beaucoup d’entre nous, il n’est pas aisé de s’orienter dans une ville ou de comprendre une carte routière qui ne soit pas digitale. La raison en est claire: chacun s’est habitué à la géolocalisation (GPS) et aux cartes interactives des portables. Le sens de l’orientation est menacé.
Le voyage découverte
Auparavant, nous partions spontanément sans trop savoir où le voyage nous mènerait. Aujourd’hui, l’individu ne laisse plus guère de place au hasard et se réfère à YouTube, Tripadvisor, Google Maps, Waze et Facebook. Les «apps» et les «maps» nous font des propositions et des évaluations de curiosités, de restaurants et d’hôtels. Il en résulte souvent un microcosme trompeur construit à partir d’algorithmes et les données triomphent de l’intuition, selon le futuriste.
Savoir bien écrire à la main
Auparavant, il paraissait normal de pouvoir écrire une lettre à la main. La nouvelle société est différente. Elle est visuelle et orale. Nous n’avons plus besoin d’écrire. L’ordinateur nous écoute et répond à nos indications. Dorénavant, nos gestes servent surtout à gérer des outils différents du stylo. Pourquoi apprendre à écrire?
This month our nation took one more crucial step in promoting early childhood education by helping millions of American Indian and Alaska Native children sustain their Native languages and heritage as an essential component of their academic success.
We commend the federal Office of Head Start for reaffirming its commitment to the integration of American Indian/Alaska Native tribal languages and culture in Head Start and Early Head Start Programs across the country. This action will help the 45,175 American Indian/Alaska Native children currently served by Head Start to thrive both academically and culturally.
Research studies conducted by Neblett and Umaña-Taylor; Phinney; and the Office of Head Start have shown that culture-based education increases Native students’ socio-emotional development and improves educational outcomes.
It can be seen firsthand with the ‘Aha Punana Leo Native Hawaiian immersion schools, where students have achieved significantly higher graduation and college attendance rates than their counterparts in other schools. Learning their Native language can give children a sense of security and pride in their cultural identity, which in turn is associated with greater self-esteem, more positive peer and family relationships and stronger ties to the community.
Immersion and dual-language teaching approaches are essential to reverse the tragic and rapid loss of indigenous languages. At one time, there were more than 300 indigenous languages spoken in North America. By 1998, this number was reduced to 175, and unless urgent action is taken scarcely 20 of these languages are expected to be spoken in 2050.
The Office of Head Start’s recent action acknowledges the important federal role in revitalizing Native languages, since the Native American Languages Act of 1990 found that the “lack of clear, comprehensive, and consistent Federal policy … has often resulted in acts of suppression and extermination of Native American languages and cultures.”
This is why the tremendous language revitalization, racial healing and early childhood education work taking place in Native communities in New Mexico and other parts of the country is so important — and supported by the Kellogg Foundation.
The Pueblo of Jemez has developed a clear vision for culturally based early childhood development and is now implementing a Towa language immersion approach in their Head Start programs.
Additionally, the University of New Mexico’s American Indian Language Policy Research and Teacher Training Center is increasing the overall quality of Pueblo Indian tribes’ early learning programming by providing Native language curriculum design, development and implementation support.
The federal guidance to support language immersion and dual language models in Head Start should be applauded as a key step in revitalizing our nation’s indigenous languages. This action taken by the Office of Head Start can contribute to improved outcomes for children and families if accompanied by funding that supports strong tribal governance and partnerships; improved teacher training and support; robust parent engagement and leadership; and the creation of tailored curriculum, materials and assessment tools.
While the federal government has a primary role in implementation, state and tribal governments and the private, philanthropic and nonprofit sectors each have an important part to play.
At the Kellogg Foundation, we believe every child, regardless of race or income, deserves an equal opportunity to succeed in school and life.
The early childhood years are the most critical in establishing our children’s trajectories for success. The need for educational systems serving Native students to embrace indigenous languages and cultures builds on a racial justice framework that is focused on ensuring that all Native children thrive.
Email this article
Print this article
On September 5, 2008, when Mini Krishnan, Editor of Translations at Oxford University Press, asked me to translate UR Ananthamurthy’s Bharathipura, I was nervous because she told me he was not very happy with an earlier translation of the novel. I had never translated anything before.
But Mini put me through the paces. She sent me three stories by Vaidehi and she liked what I had done with them. She felt I could do it. She trusted me when I did not know what it was to be trusted as a translator. I was new to the experience but I knew Mini would steer me. She had been my student of the English Honours batch of 1971 at Mount Carmel College and we were good friends.
Late one evening, I sent her the first chapter of my Bharathipura as a sample. I told her she could take a call after reading it. The next morning, I received a call.
‘Naanu, Ananthamurthy.’ Prof. UR Ananthamurthy introduced himself in Kannada.
‘Namaskaara, Meshtre,’ I said, ‘I sent the first chapter to Mini last evening.’
‘I’ve got it. I’ve read it. I don’t know how to tell you how good it is… I couldn’t have written this way.’
‘But it’s yours,’ I protested. I was new to translation, you see.
‘Yes, that’s true,’ he said, ‘I can write this way in Kannada but I can’t do it in English. My English is academic. You’ve written from your heart, from your spirit.’
That was an invaluable insight. It helped me see my mission as a translator: I was to transport the heart, the spirit of the text in Kannada into its English version. Much later when I did read the first translation of Bharathipura I could see why he had not liked it; the variety of prose was academic
Learning to fail
There was so much else to translation I was yet to discover.
The most humbling was to realise there was something in Bharathipura that I could not translate. It is the way the Brahmin protagonist, Jagannatha, sees the Holeyas.
Part of the problem is with grammar. The English plural, they, does not differentiate between human and non-human animates. For instance, in English, when we say, “They came”, we could be referring to a group of people or a herd of animals. But in Kannada, we say, “avarubandhar” for human and “avu bandhavu” for non- human animates.
The other part of the problem is with usage. One context in which we use avu bandhavu for human beings is while referring to children, to express endearment, to be indulgent. Here, the attitude is positive. But in any other context when we use it to refer to adults it is generally negative. The use implies contempt, as if we are equating people with animals. And that’s exactly what Jagannatha thinks when a group of Holeyas come to him every evening to attend the adult education classes he conducts for them; ‘avu bandhavu’, he says to himself as if they were not human.
This is tragic, because he is a well-meaning social activist committed to breaking down caste barriers and yet he has not transformed himself; he cannot see them as people. Jagannatha’s inability to change his attitude towards the lower castes is central to the angst in the story and yet I could not transfer it to the English version because the language is not equipped to describe that kind of othering.
English has no way of showing how the protagonist dehumanises the Holeyas by using the non-human third person plural personal pronoun to refer to them. And so, they came as it occurs in the translation, is neutral in attitude. It is not coloured with contempt as it is in the original. I had to add, as if they were a herd of cattle to the text to bring out the negative attitude of the protagonist towards them.
I have faced similar problems many times since then. The idiom of the Holeya, Chooda’s mother in Bharathipura as she defends her dead son has no equivalent variety in English. And so, I could not transfer her pronunciation and style of speaking to the master, Jagannatha. It is unfair to her that her lines are in chaste English.
I had similar problems while translating Vaidehi’s Asprushyaru. I could not be faithful to the local variety of Kundapur Kannada with its mix of Tulu and Kannada. It was indeed a tightrope walk to find a fine balance between being faithful to the flavour of the text and being concerned with its intelligibility to the reader.
Learning to read as an outsider
As a Kannadiga, I had to learn to read Kannada novels as an outsider. For instance, I did not realize what avu signified contextually in Bharathipura. I owe this insight to Mini. I was reading the novel to her and she was following it in translation when she stalled me to seek clarification. ‘What is avu?’ she asked.
As I was explaining to her the sophistication of a structure in Kannada grammar that is absent in English, I became aware of its implication is terms of meaning and attitude. Mini does not know Kannada and the Kannada reader in me was too much of an insider to see the purpose in the incongruity of the non-human third person plural pronoun with reference to the Holeyaru.
Thanks to her question, I could become enough of an outsider to interpret the cultural significance of its use in the context. I became sensitive to language as a vehicle of culture-specific implications.
Learning to retain
This insight helped me retain the title of one of S Diwakar’s stories as Runa. The story is based on a real-time connection that Masti Venkatesha Iyengar, the eminent writer in Kannada, shared with a cobbler. I could not translate the title to either of its equivalents in English, Duty or Obligation, because neither expression brings out the depth of meaning embedded in the culture-specific term runa.
While runa does mean duty, its reach goes far beyond the meaning of the expression; it describes the sense of responsibility we feel towards some people due to an inexplicable bond with them that goes beyond lives. We talk about it as runaanu sambhandha. I retained the original title, much to the writer’s delight, and added a few lines in the story to unfold its deeper significance.
Similarly, with the title to the lead story in a collection of Vaidehi’s stories, Kruancha Pakshigalu and Other Stories; there was no way I could have rendered the title in English as The Curlews, for instance, without tampering with the mythological framework on which the story rests. The very expression, Krauncha Pakshigalu, is rich in connotative value since the fate of a pair of those water-birds is said to have inspired Valmiki to write the Ramayana.
I wish I could have similarly retained the expression gudi in Bharathipura. It is a significant instance of polysemy in the context of the theme; gudi refers to both temple and the dwelling of the Holeya. But, to avoid confusion in English, I had to translate it as either temple or hut, whichever was relevant to the context.
Learning to let go
Fortunately, any story gains significance not only through its language but also through the images it creates. And, sometimes, the way I saw these images helped me interpret the texts in ways not envisaged by the authors. And, in collaboration with them, I could transcreate the titles instead of translating them.
One such title is Diwakar’s, Krauya. The story is about the disgust an Iyer professor and his wife feel towards their only child, a daughter. She disappoints them at birth for they had longed for a son for several years. She disappoints them as she grows up for she is not even attractive. And, as if to add insult to injury, she becomes a victim of polio. The parents share a companionship and Alamelu feels alienated.
And so, everyday, while walking to the vegetable market, she takes a detour through the slums to enjoy the sense of community the dwellers share. She feels one with them when one of them calls out to her in Tamil, “Enna, Iyer kutty”’ He sees her as an outsider, an Iyer woman, and tries to tease her but Alamelu is happy to be acknowledged at all. She is thrilled when some of men pass lewd remarks as she walks by. And one day, as an innocent victim of a local brawl she lies dying in the lane.
A vegetable vendor leaves his cart and sits down by her side leaning her against his chest. The gathering mob feels sorry for her, brings her a cool drink when she asks for water. She breathes her last filled with a deep sense of belonging. I asked Diwakar if I could focus on that final epiphanic revelation of kinship Alamelu experiences. He said that made better sense and now the title is transcreated as Epiphany; a literal translation of Kraurya would be Cruelty.
The other example is Vaidehi’s Asprushyaru. A literal translation of the title would be Untouchables, reminding us of Mulk Raj Anand’s classic, The Untouchable. But the overall image the novel creates is not so much of segregation based on caste and class as of connections forged through humane considerations.
Vasudevaraya, the head of a Brahmin household, tries to make the ideal Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, (The whole earth is one family) as real as possible in his house. In his compassion for Thukri, the Koraga woman who is with child, he brings her home to be tended during childbirth and after. The word rakham in Hebrew refers to womb in the singular and, in the plural, stretches to mean compassion. The patriarchal connotation for the term would be gut.
With gut-wrenching compassion Vasudevaraya takes Thukri, who belongs to the lowest of the low castes, into his home and his family; into his womb as it were. But the title cannot become Vasudevaraya’s Family because the protagonist’s name is Vasudeva. The suffix, raya defines his Brahminical antecedents. Vasudeva, the person, has the courage to go beyond the restrictions of his caste to fulfill his basic urge to be humane. And so, with her permission, I had to let go of Vaidehi’s title, Asprushyaru, and transcreate it as Vasudeva’s Family to acknowledge the positive energies the novel contains.
Learning to wonder
I wonder if there is a deeper writer-self writing itself out through the writer. Is that why there are patterns in their stories that the writers are not aware of? How else can I explain why Diwakar or Vaidehi could not see the positive patterns in Kraurya and Asprushyaru that made me change the titles to Epiphany and Vasudeva’s Family, respectively?
Why didn’t URA see the full significance of the character, Chikki, in his Bharathipura? I remember the twinkle in URA’s eyes when I pointed it out to him. To me the image of Chikki, Jagannatha’s maternal aunt, making ganji and sending it with some mango pickle to the Holeyas on the night they are victims of arson is like Christ feeding the five thousand. Here is a child-widow rising beyond the restrictions of ritual purity of her caste to fulfill her maternal compassion for the homeless by making pots of gruel for them. She is the counter-point to the protagonist, Jagannatha; naturally being what he is striving to become but failing.
And then there is URA’s female protagonist, Chandri from Samskara. URA gave me a high-five when I showed him where AK Ramanujam had misinterpreted Chandri’s character in his translation of Samskara. In 2012, while interviewing URA for the Oxford Perennials edition of Samskara, I read out a passage from the original and matched it with AKR’s translation of it (p 46 in AKR’s text).
AKR’s version reads: Her mother used to say prostitutes should get pregnant by such holy men. And there is no equivalent of holy in the relevant paragraph in the Kannada text (p 39). My version of the original would be: Chandri said to herself, ‘Remember what Amma used to say about the kind of men from whom a prostitute should receive the fruit of the womb (garbhaphala)? Such a man is Acharya, in looks (roopa), in character (guna) and in charisma (varchassu).’ (p 137 of Samskara, OUP Perennial)
My version brings out the essence of Chandri’s character in URA’s text. Chandri is prakriti and sees Praneshacharya as purusha, a stud. She has the primeval desire to procreate, natural and pure. She has no sense of guilt; she was born to a way of life and she lives it fully. AKR changes the intention of the original version by adding an ethical overtone; he imputes to Chandri the need to feel redeemed by a holy man. URA says, ‘Well, not everyone would agree but that was the problem with Ramanujam. He tried to write English like an Englishman.’ (ibid) Did AKR have a Victorian code of morality in mind? Does a translator translate for his readership? I wonder.
And learning to add
Although I had quibbled about the intrusion of an expression in Samskara that had altered the author’s intention in creating Chandri, I found the technique of elaboration useful in bringing out the contextual meaning of a word while translating Na D’Souza’s Dweepa. The novella is full of eloquent silences; the silence of the voiceless and the silence of the stifled. What can one say about a despicable situation in which the families of the bonded labourers, Brya and Hala of the Hasalara community find themselves when they are bundled out of their environment like commodity in a story where a landlord, Ganapayya, becomes a victim of displacement in the name of progress and development?
In Kannada, one word suffices to describe Byra and Hala: Huttalugalu. The expression connotes with their social and cultural predicament. But translating that expression literally as labourers bonded from birth would puzzle a reader unaware of a specific social system in India. The contextual value of the original expression, huttalugalu, requires an extended explanation in English: They were bonded labourers, bonded from birth to their masters as repayment of debt owed by their father or grandfather.
I found that the translation of the intention in a piece of literary writing is achieved through multiple levels of reading that lead to multiple levels of writing. The spontaneity of retelling a story is stalled by the meta-reader in the translator as she sees gaps in meaning, significance and flavor and closes them by choosing from both languages to make the third language of the specific translated text. And this third language keeps changing to meet the peculiar demands of each text.
The most difficult part of this exercise was in transferring the flavour of the original in Vasudeva’s Family where Vaidehi uses a local variety of Kundapura Kannada which is a mix of Kannada and Tulu expressions. And then there were the cultural nuances of Sanskrit in URA’s Bharathipura and of Tamil in Diwakar’s Kraurya.
As you can see, I could have not worked isolation. Translation is a collaborative effort. My interactions with the authors taught me more than I could have asked for. Mini, my editor, honed my skills by advising me to work the meanings of expressions into the context wherever possible to keep the footnotes to a minimum. She also suggested chapter headings as sign-posts.
Translation is a means to an end. Let us hope that the connections we make through translations will equip us to see more similarities than differences in our multicultural milieu. That would serve to make translation a powerful tool for a cultural confluence. To be worthy of its mission, translation has to fulfill that deeper necessity.
Susheela Punitha has translated Vaidehi's Kruancha Pakshigalu and Other Stories for the Sahitya Akademi and the other stories mentioned in the article for Oxford University Press. Her translation of U R Ananthamurthy's Bharathipura (2011) was shortlisted for both The Hindu Literary Prize and the DSC Prize for South Asian Literature in 2011.
We welcome your comments at firstname.lastname@example.org.
5 IT Terms All Small Business Owners Should Know
By Monique Valeris For America's Backbone Weekly
Running a successful small business is about more than just resolving employee issues, fostering collaboration among team members and meeting sales goals. An understanding of technology is key to remaining competitive, boosting productivity, and expanding your operations in an effective manner. Here are five IT terms small business owners need to grasp if growth and efficiency are part of your plan.
A content management system (CMS) is a tool designed to manage content on a website. It includes features that enable you to create, publish and manage Web content, including text, images and video, even if you have very little technical expertise. Many systems accommodate third-party plug-ins that allow you to offer advertising features, conduct polls or launch chat rooms. It can also enable you to alter the visual look of your site. A comprehensive content management system is key to planning and managing Web site content.
Search engine optimization (SEO) is crucial to marketing any business online. It's a strategy to improve your website's ranking in search engine results. SEO is a very involved process that involves the positioning of keywords within content, among other tactics. With SEO, it's important to think about the ways people search online when producing content. The goal is for users to find your website easily when browsing through search engine results relevant to your business or industry.
This is when you host your Web site data on virtual servers at a remote location from your physical business. The term "cloud" means the server is accessible via the Internet.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Software as a Service refers to accessing an application online without the need for a physical copy of the program on your device. A SaaS vendor hosts the application and provides support, which means you don't need to use your own hardware space or rely on in-house IT to maintain the software.
Invoices can be delivered to customers and other business partners electronically. In lieu of paper, electronic invoices can create significant time and cost savings for businesses.
These terms are just a few of the basics all small business owners need to be familiar with if they want to be competitive in today's hyper-competitive, networked economy.
More on http://www.uscellular.com/business/index.html?utm_source=americasbackbone.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_content=logo&utm_campaign=abb from our sponsor
Copyright (c) 2015 Studio One Networks. All rights reserved.
Technology is changing at an incredible pace. Keeping up with tech terms can be confusing and intimidating.
You run across them all the time -- reading online, listening to the news and watching TV. Instead of understanding the story, you're left scratching your head and missing the point.
Well, those days are over! Below, you'll discover the true meaning behind five confusing tech terms.
1. Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a new category of technology that includes smart thermostats, smart locks, smart cars and many other things. At its very basic level, IoT refers to connecting everyday objects to the Internet with built-in wireless technology so they can be controlled and monitored via an app on your smartphone.
In February, the Consumer Electronics Show was dominated innovations in "smart" household items. Tea kettles with Wi-Fi controlled temperature, toothbrushes that tell you when to stop brushing and wall sockets that allow you to control any appliance with a voice command. It's kind of like the excitement we all felt when we got our first TV remote.
But just because you can control something with your smartphone, does that mean you should? It will be interesting to watch what really has an impact on our day-to-day lives.
Do you wonder who came up with the "Internet of Things" term? It was coined by Kevin Ashton, executive director of the Auto-ID Labs:
"I could be wrong, but I'm fairly sure the phrase 'Internet of Things' started life as the title of a presentation I made at Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999." - Full article
2. Net Neutrality
Net neutrality is a concept that ensures that everyone gets equal access to the Internet, wherever and whoever you are.
It's in the news because on February 26, 2015, the Federal Communications Commission FCC approved new rules that safeguard the neutrality of the net. This ruling included reclassifying broadband access as a telecommunication service, which makes it subject to heavier regulation and prevents providers from creating "fast lanes" for payment.
This means that big companies like Amazon, Netflix and Google can't pay to have a faster pipeline to deliver their services. Everyone has the same access to Internet speeds, so the little guy can compete equally with the big guys when it comes to Internet access.
The new net neutrality rules also prevent companies from throttling, which means they can't restrict or slow down Internet service for some customers.
Blocking is also now prohibited, as seen in this recent news story, where Comcast was trying to block access of HBO Go on Sony consoles.
3. Jail Broken
You may have seen used phones for sale that are marked as "jailbroken" or "unlocked".
Even though it appears these two terms are used interchangeably, they have very different meanings when it comes to technology.
When a phone is unlocked, it means that it can work on any mobile network. For example, if you buy your phone from Verizon, you can only use it on the Verizon network unless the phone is unlocked.
A jail-broken phone, on the other hand, allows you to install apps not approved by Apple and not in the App Store. This makes the warranty invalid, since you've compromised the device by installing apps not approved by the manufacturer of your phone.
Unlocking and jail breaking are in the news because of a legal ruling that went into effect on February 11, 2015, that requires U.S. carriers to unlock out-of-contract phones so they can be used by any carrier.
AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, U.S. Cellular and Verizon are now required to notify customers whose devices are eligible for unlocking.
A meme (rhymes with "team") is a modern-day fable or parable that spreads rapidly on the Internet. It can also be a joke, mesmerizing story or an expression of speech.
Evolutionary biologist, Richard Dawkins, first introduced the term "meme" in 1976. It comes from the Greek word "mimema", meaning "something imitated" according to the American Heritage Dictionary).
I recently heard the term used on "The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon." His meme is associated with his teenage-girl character, whose favorite word is "'ew."
If you want to get in on the action, you can adapt a meme to apply to many situations. There are meme generators that let you add your own clever twist and share with your friends and family.
Wearables-- also known as wearable technology, wearable sensors, and wearable devices-- are a category of technology that you wear on your body to enhance your experience with technology.
Wearables have been around for a while. You may have had one of the original wearables-- the 1980s calculator watch.
This category of technology has been in the news because tremendous advancements in wearable technology are under way. The long-awaited Apple iWatch is set to be released on April 24th.
With wearable technology, you can easily listen to music, track daily fitness results and set goals, and capture amazing video footage practically anywhere. Popular products include headphones, activity trackers, smart watches and action cameras.
Are there any tech terms you've heard lately that baffle you? Leave a comment and I'll do my best to explain them.
Sign up for our weekly update to stay current with technology.
Two Doctoral Student Positions in Translation Studies are now available for application at our department. The Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies is part of the Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
This year’s announcement will focus on applications in the field of interpreter-mediated interaction/interpreting as a linguistic and social practice, but applications in the area of translation will also be considered. The availability of adequate supervision is essential when admitting a doctoral student. Read more about our research areas.
Please note that the PhD programme in Translation Studies takes place in a Swedish language education and research environment. Non-Swedish speaking doctoral students are expected to acquire a working knowledge of Swedish as soon as possible, but this is not part of the PhD programme.
Information regarding Swedish language courses at Stockholm University can be found at:
Swedish language course for international employees at Stockholm University
In the Admission regulations you will find more information about how to apply for the position.
Ref. No. SU FV-0637-15
Deadline for applications: 15 April 2015
The University site: Doctoral Student Positions in Translation Studies
PhD Programme in Translation Studies
Global businesses understand the importance of using style guides for the creation of content, but many are unaware that similar guides can be designed specifically for their translation projects. A typical style guide contains a company’s standards and expectations for materials that must be followed when writing and designing documents, websites, or graphics. Guides like this are created to ensure that brand image is accurately portrayed and it remains consistent across the variety of content an organization produces. This same concept can be applied to the translation of content, and it is equally important to define the styles and conventions that should be used in international markets.
What Is a Translator Style Guide?
A translator style guide outlines the grammar, syntax, and tone that translators should use to represent a company’s product to the target audience. When starting a translation project, it is crucial for businesses to implement these style guidelines. Creating a document for the translator to follow that explicitly defines the expected style for translated materials allows translators to know which methods they should use upfront. It removes the inefficient decision-making process for translators concerning issues such as personal or formal tone, writing in active or passive voice, using sentence fragments, and using technical versus simplified terms. In addition, these style guides contain information about the target audience, such as level of education and technology skills. This valuable insight can be used by the translator to cater content for a specific audience’s needs and capabilities.
In the guide, a translator may also find the key terms that an organization is using for a particular campaign, as well as the desired translations for them. For example, McDonald’s “I’m lovin’ it” campaign had its slogan translated in a few markets, such as Germany, while keeping the original US English in the majority of world markets, including Japan.
How Do I Create a Translation Style Guide?
Organizations with employees based in the target markets should utilize their style and wealth of local knowledge by involving them in the creation of the style guide. This can be especially helpful if these personnel are reviewing translated content prior to its publishing because they will eventually be using the guide for editing purposes. To simplify the process for the busy reviewers, consider using a checklist where your in-country reviewers indicate their personal style preferences. An organization can either use the completed checklists to create a formal guide or have their language service provider craft it.
An alternative approach is to create a style guide for one market, have reviewers from other markets comment on it, adding their own input, and then base the guides for other markets on the feedback received. Once the style guide has been created, it should be handed off to the language service provider, who can then distribute the guides to the translators. Since translation style guides are created for a specific market, companies should have a separate style guide for each market in which they do business. The actual guides can either be written in English with examples in the target language, or entirely in the target language.
Why Should My Business Use One?
Typically, translated content is checked by a business’s localization testing once the translation has been completed. The problem with this method of review is that mistakes in the translation go unnoticed until the very last minute. This makes it more challenging and costly to correct them. By using translator style guides, businesses can save time and money by decreasing the number of corrections that must be made during the review process, thereby avoiding delays in publishing.
Another issue with these translation assessments is that many of the reviewers tend to make changes based on personal preference, causing inconsistencies in translated content and overall brand image. The style guides remove the discrepancies in personal taste because they give reviewers specific quality and style guidelines to follow. The average translation style guide only takes between 8 and 10 hours to create, but saves countless hours of correcting errors in tone, style, and grammar in the long run.
To learn more about translator style guides and why all global businesses should use them for translation projects, check out this FAQ from Lionbridge: What Are Translator Style Guides?