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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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From Robin Williams to MH370: this was Google's 'Year in Search'

The new year is almost upon us, and that means that it's time for Google's quantified look back at the most searched people, trends, and events of 2014. Formerly referred to as "Zeitgeist," the...
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Skype Translator Preview : Microsoft démantèle la barrière de la langue - CNET France

Skype Translator Preview : Microsoft démantèle la barrière de la langue - CNET France | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Microsoft vient de lancer une page Web dédiée à son programme de traduction vocale en direct avec Skype Translator. Disponible en bêta, le système est capable de traduire en simultané un dialogue en anglais et en espagnol.

Par Eureka Presse
@cnetfrance mardi 16 décembre 2014 à 08:55
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Hier soir, Microsoft a lancé son programme de traduction vocale à la volée par Skype. Baptisé Skype Translator, il est actuellement disponible en bêta sur un site dédié. Impressionnante, la fonction permet de traduire de façon orale pratiquement en temps réel une discussion menée par deux interlocuteurs parlant des langues différentes. Pour le moment, seuls l’espagnol et l’anglais sont disponibles et les traductions sont énoncées par une voix artificielle de façon pratiquement fluide d’un côté comme de l’autre.

Pour les discussions écrites, ce sont quarante langues que Skype sait traduire de façon simultanée. Si ce système ne va pas aider les peuples à apprendre de nouvelles langues, il permettra au moins de les aider à communiquer entre eux. Pour tester Skype Translator Preview, il est nécessaire de s’inscrire au programme et d’utiliser un ordinateur équipé de Windows 8.1. (EP)
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Google: 'How to snog' - top questions Leicester folk ask search engine

Google: 'How to snog' - top questions Leicester folk ask search engine | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Every year, international search engine Google puts together a 'top trending' list and for Leicester, the results are quite a surprise.

The top trending questions asked by people in Leicester in 2014, was 'how to spell', followed by the likes of 'how to snog' and 'how to shave'.

The top trending search term of the year was 'World Cup 2014', with 'Kasabian' and 'Flappy Bird' also making the list.

Here is a full list of the top 10 trending terms in Leicester, along with the top 'How to..' questions.

LEICESTER TOP TRENDING       LEICESTER HOW TO
World Cup 2014 How to spell
Robin Williams How to factorise
Peaches Geldof How to knit
Flappy bird How to draw
Missing Plane How to detox
Kasabian How to wallpaper
Rik Mayall How to make cushions
Philip Seymour Hoffman How to snog
Bigg Boss 8 How to meditate
Michael Schumacher How to shave
Here is a couple of the most searched for from across the UK:

The most searched for news story: The Ebola crisis

The top 'what is?': What is Ebola

The top 'how to?': How to draw

The most searched for recipe: Burgers

The most Googled holiday destination: Paris

The most searched for sports person: Michael Schumacher

For the full lists, click here.
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Skype releases real-time translation program

Skype releases real-time translation program | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
SAN FRANCISCO – Video-chatting service Skype launched a preview program of its live translating software Monday.

The new Skype Translator offers real-time translation of spoken and text conversation.

The preview is open to Skype users with Windows 8.1 on a desktop or mobile device and currently offers spoken translation for English and Spanish, but translates more than 40 languages in instant messaging.

As the program rolls out, Skype plans to add more spoken and text translation. The company has discussed and briefly demonstrated its translator for several months. 

Microsoft bought Skype for $8.5 billion in 2011. Research conducted by the tech giant in speech recognition and machine learning technology helped Skype develop the project.

“Using innovations from Microsoft Research, Skype is now removing another barrier to make it possible for people to communicate irrespective of what language they speak,” wrote Gurdeep Pall, corporate vice president for Skype, in a blog post published Monday.

The software powering Skype Translator “learns” – the quality of the translation becomes better as more and more customers utilize the translator, honing the program’s understanding of language.

In a video that showcased the preview, students from elementary schools in the United States and Mexico asked each other questions through Skype, one group spoke English and the other spoke Spanish, respectively. As the students attempted to figure out where the others are located, their speech was translated instantly.

“This is just the beginning of a journey that will transform the way we communicate with people around the world,” Pall added. “Our long-term goal for speech translation is to translate as many languages as possible on as many platforms as possible and deliver the best Skype Translator experience on each individual platform for our more than 300 million connected users.”

Because the software is improved by use, Skype has asked its large community to adopt Translator, which in turn will expedite more language releases, the company claimed.

Copyright © 2014 Anadolu Agency
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¡Sorpresón!:.... Las más buscadas en el diccionario en 2014 presente

¡Sorpresón!:.... Las más buscadas en el diccionario en 2014 presente | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Actualidad: Entérate ahora cuáles fueron todos los significados más buscados por las propias personas este año solo en inglés, según Merriam-Webster. Estas fueron las más buscadas en el diccionario en 2014 presente.
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Merriam-Webster's 2014 word of the year: 'Culture' - am New York

Merriam-Webster's 2014 word of the year: 'Culture' - am New York | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Whether popular, corporate or entitled, "culture" was named word of the year by U.S. dictionary Merriam-Webster on Monday as a flexible catch-all that can easily identify a subject, idea or issue.
Merriam-Webster defines culture as the beliefs, customs and arts of a "society, group, place or time." The word was buoyed by media coverage about "celebrity culture," "company culture" and "rape culture" dominating media and public conversations, the dictionary publisher said.
It was chosen for its large amount of online lookups and significant increase in lookups from last year, Merriam-Webster said. The publisher said the word usually spikes in fall when students return to school.
Culture beat out nostalgia, insidious and legacy for word of the year, as all received significant media references in relation to politics, film, sports and the deadly Ebola virus outbreak.
British rival, the Oxford English Dictionary, chose "vape" - the act of drawing on an electronic cigarette - as its word of 2014. The dictionary tends to choose neologisms that gain mass usage.
Last year, Merriam-Webster's word of the year was science while socialism and capitalism shared the 2012 honor.
 
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Merriam-Webster Picks "Culture" as Its Word of the Year

Merriam-Webster Picks "Culture" as Its Word of the Year | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
While other dictionaries have gone with buzzier terms, the editors at Merriam-Webster have tackled something a little bit bigger for their 2014 word of the year: culture.

And for good reason. Culture has "moved from the classroom syllabus to the conversation at large, appearing in headlines and analyses across a wide swath of topics," the company wrote on its website. 

In a way, the word nominated itself: Unlike the selection process at other dictionaries, determined by editors' choices, Merriam-Webster's is decided by whatever has the highest search traffic. Culture has had a surge in interest this year, largely because, as its editors suspect, it can mean so many things. "When you put it next to another word it means something very different," Peter Sokolowski, editor at large for Merriam-Webster, told the Associated Press. "For example, 'consumer culture' or 'rape culture,' which we've been reading about lately."There has also been a flurry of business stories this year about 'corporate culture' or a 'culture of transparency.'"

Interestingly the runner-up was "nostalgia," which is everywhere online, especially of the #TBT variety. Following that were "insidious," "legacy," and "feminism." 

Actually we're surprised feminism didn't rank higher, considering everyone from Beyoncé to the Supreme Court tackled the topic this year. Well, there's always 2015...
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WATCH: Cute kids demo Skype real-time translator

WATCH: Cute kids demo Skype real-time translator | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Skype, Microsoft's videoconferencing platform, is moving a step closer to becoming a real-life "Star Trek" universal translator with its Skype Translator preview program.
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Ngarrindjeri language learned in Victor Harbor

Ngarrindjeri language learned in Victor Harbor | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
At Victor Harbor High School, (front) linguist Dr Mary-Anne Gale congratulates Ngarrindjeri elder Phyllis Williams on completing a certificate four in teaching an aboriginal language. Also involved in the program are (middle) Archie Kartinyeri, Jillian Heppner, Leonie McCallum, Rose Childs, Kyla McHughes and Anita Wano-Sumner. (Back) The University of Adelaide's Clayton Cruise, Murray Thomas, David Hammond and Steve Ferris.

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Every Friday, Victor Harbor High School hosts Ngarrindjeri elders, lecturers, students and community members who are studying or have an interest in the endangered language of the Ngarrindjeri.

On Friday, December 5, the class celebrated students completing the Certificate 3 - Learning an Endangered Aboriginal Language, and one student who completed the Certificate 4 - Teaching an Endangered Aboriginal Language. 

There are another six students who are currently studying the course.

Ngarrindjeri elder Phyllis Williams completed the Certificate 4. She said she enjoys the opportunity of passing on the Ngarrindjeri language and culture to everyone who has an interest in it.

“I love being with the people and sharing my knowledge and stories,” Phyllis said.

Since the certificate course’s inception in April 2013, 30 participants have engaged in studies, and there has been interest in a great number of visitors along the way. 

“The Ngarrindjeri language has never gone to sleep; there are around 500 words still commonly used and we think there are about 50 local families who use it at home,” Phyllis said.

The class is backed by the University of Adelaide, and run by Dr Mary-Anne Gale.

Mary-Anne said the program is trying to revive the Ngarrindjeri language, which has not been fluently spoken since the 1960s. 


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“We’re trying to reconstruct the language to be able to make whole sentences and relearning the grammar,” Mary-Anne said.

She said the classes at Victor Harbor High School involve making speeches and songs.

“It hasn’t been a language learnt by children for over 100 years, but the Ngarrindjeri are very proud that they still have remembered those 500 words.”

The course is based at the school, because of Ngarrindjeri elders who live in the area.
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Niega que no exista mestizaje en el español hablado en Canarias

Niega que no exista mestizaje en el español hablado en Canarias | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El autor del "Diccionario Canario de la Lengua", José Luis Concepción, ha negado que no exista mestizaje en el español hablado en Canarias, tal y como ha manifestado el catedrático de Filología Española de la Universidad de La Laguna Marcial Morera en una conferencia en la que ha afirmado que algunos textos sostienen que en las islas se habla otro idioma distinto al español.

Según Marcial Morera, en el "Diccionario Canario de la Lengua" el autor compara la relación entre el canario y español con la del gallego y el portugués. Además, asegura que la lengua que se habla en las islas es producto del mestizaje entre el guanche, el portugués y el español.

Durante la conferencia, en la que Marcial Morera defendía que en Canarias "nunca se ha hablado el castellano", también enumeraba las tres hipótesis planteadas erróneamente por algunos autores hasta la fecha: la hipótesis castellana, la guanche y la mestiza, pues, tal y como llegó a afirmar, "todas ellas carecen de fundamento científico".

Para José Luis Concepción, se trata de afirmaciones "desafortunadas e impropias" de un catedrático. En primer lugar, porque no sostiene que en las islas se hable otro idioma distinto al español, pues "¿si utilizáramos todas estas voces, tendríamos un idioma?", se pregunta. En su opinión, hay menos diferencia entre el "canario" y el español que entre el gallego y el portugués.

Según el autor, esto es si emplearan las más de 12.000 voces que contiene el "Diccionario Canario de la Lengua" (actualmente agotado) y en la que se aportan unos 1.000 vocablos que no se habían registrado. Añade que "en absoluto" propone que se sustituya la lengua española, pero sí que "se reconozca nuestra habla y que se enseñe en los colegios".

Respecto al mestizaje, Concepción considera "evidente" que el catedrático comete un "grave error" al negarlo, pues "incluso en uno de sus libros, titulado Lengua y colonia en Canarias, el prologuista de esta obra, el catedrático Antonio Tejera Gaspar, expone que "...la nueva sociedad canaria que surge como consecuencia de la fusión de pobladores de origen peninsular y europeo, así como de los aborígenes que sobrevivieron (...) irá creando unas formas peculiares de cultura de la lengua...".

José Luis Concepción recuerda que en este mismo sentido, con relación al mestizaje, se pronuncia el catedrático Antonio Lorenzo Ramos, actual presidente de la Academia Canaria de la Lengua, en su libro 'Sobre el español hablado en Canarias" (1988).
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World Cup and Disney’s Frozen top UAE’s Google searches | The National

World Cup and Disney’s Frozen top UAE’s Google searches | The National | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
DUBAI // The football World Cup in Brazil and Disney movie Frozen were among the year’s top internet search terms.

Google users were also captivated by Apple’s iPhone 6, Malaysian Airlines, Ramadan, the actor Robin Williams, the TV show Ramez Qersh Al Bahr, the Flappy Bird smartphone game, the Indian prime minister Narendra Modi and Diwali.

“If we compare the results this year to last year, they are very much in line and similar to global trends, and I think that reflects how international the UAE is as a country,” said Joyce Baz, head of communications at Google in the Middle East and North Africa.

The company’s annual search report looks at trends from trillions of searches worldwide throughout the year, calculated using algorithms to aggregate searches using anonymous data based on location, time and date. The top trends look at searches that register the highest spike in traffic over a sustained period.

Google also looked at trends in three distinct categories: people, events and movies. “The purpose behind it is to showcase the people, topics, events and places that capture the attention of people in the UAE,” said Ms Baz.

Frozen topped the list of trending movies in the country, ahead of Interstellar, Maleficent, Godzilla, Edge of Tomorrow, Captain America 2, Dracula Untold, Gone Girl, Lucy and American Hustle.

Trending events were the World Cup, the Malaysian Airlines crash, Ramadan, Diwali, the Gitex conference in Dubai, the Gaza conflict, the Ice Bucket Challenge, the Ebola outbreak, the Oscars and the Scottish referendum.

Celebrity deaths caused three people to trend in UAE Google searches – Robin Williams, the comedian Joan Rivers and actor Philip Seymour Hoffman.

“We find that people tend to end up searching and trying to understand more, and we find even related searches to the context of the death,” said Ms Baz.

The company found people looking up depression, for instance, after finding out about Robin Williams’s death in August.

The actor and comedian was the top search trend for the UAE, followed by the late businesswoman Sunanda Pushkar, Narendra Modi, Joan Rivers, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Formula One star Michael Schumacher, lawyer Amal Alamuddin, actress Renee Zellweger, celebrity Kim Kardashian and author Jordan Belfort.

UAE searches set the country apart from others in the Middle East, said Ms Baz.

“It’s very much in line with the global trends and way more international than any other country in the region,” she said.

Egypt and Saudi Arabia, for instance, show trends that are more locally relevant and less global. For the UAE, on the other hand, all of this year’s trending people are international.

“Obviously, in other countries, you find more search queries in Arabic than English,” Ms Baz said.

Google looked at trends in 72 countries for this year’s report.

“We really look at it as a way to capture the spirit of the times for that year,” said Ms Baz.

People can visit google.com/trends, an online tool to look up search terms they are interested in and see how search volumes have changed over time.

“It’s a tool for them to be able to draw the insights on their own,” said Ms Baz.

lcarroll@thenational.ae
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Modern Language Association prize goes to author of book on 'Global Englishes' | Penn State University

Modern Language Association prize goes to author of book on 'Global Englishes' | Penn State University | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Suresh Canagarajah, the Edwin Erle Sparks Professor in Applied Linguistics, English and Asian Studies at Penn State, will receive the 33rd Mina P. Shaughnessy Prize from the Modern Language Association for his book "Translingual Practice: Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations," published by Routledge. The prize is awarded for an outstanding work on language, culture, literature, or literacy with strong application to the teaching of English.
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Skype Translator Hands-On: Close But No Babel Fish

Skype Translator Hands-On: Close But No Babel Fish | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
To test, I decided to have some lengthy convos with Manuel Méndez, managing editor at Gizmodo Español. Having not spoken a syllable of Spanish since high school, I opted to speak in my native Inglés (that's one of about five words that I remember) while Manuel, who's a completely fluent English speaker and smarter than me, checked Skype's Spanish-to-English accuracy.

In Translator, you're given a live translation on the right as you're speaking, both in your native language and whatever language your caller is speaking. Now, picture all of the Skype conversations you've ever had. This will not be like that. For Skype Translator to work properly, there is a little mental conditioning involved. For one, you must speak slowly. Skype Translator's speech recognition is good, and plenty fast, but that accuracy decreases as you speed up in words per minute. "Hey, how is it going?" can change to "Hey is going?" pretty quickly.

Also, you'll need to make exaggerated pauses when you're done speaking. Skype Translator will translate pretty quickly. If you're someone who "ums" and "ahhs" and pauses between phrases, your sentence will appear in little chunks, which can be annoying as hell.


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Skype Translator will start the conversation with audio translation turned on, meaning after every translated sentence, your male or female avatar, will hop in and basically ready what was just translated. After about five minutes, I turned this feature off (which turns it off for the other speaker as well) and just read the transcripts.

Once you're able to rewire your brain to Translator speak, then this program is really quite amazing. The speech recognition is the foundation of all the translation work. It needs to be perfect. Microsoft says headphones with a dedicated microphone will yield the best results, and for the most part, that was true. But even talking unplugged and over loud music, Translator was still able to do its thing pretty accurately.

But where Skype aces speech recognition, Translator might need some extra credit to get a passing grade in translation. For example, during a Skype chat translation of the following sentence:

"I think I have a handle on this guy."

I was saying to Manuel that I think I understand Skype Translator, calling said program by "guy." However, Skype Translator didn't know that (understandably) and translated:

"Pere creo que tengo un mango de este tipo."

Which literally means "I think I have a dick of this type," with "mango" meaning "handle" but also being a slang term for "dick." Your Grandma living in Honduras just became very concerned.


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This is probably an outlier in possible translation mishaps, but they do pop up here and there. That's why Skype Translator Beta really feels like a language assistant that a true translator. According to Manuel, if a Spanish speaker with no English knowledge tried to decipher Skype's rendition of my beautiful prose, they would have a tough time understanding.

Because I know no Spanish whatsoever, I can relate. Generally, I could get the impression of what Manuel was trying to say, but it would show up somewhat broken. But if you have a basic understanding of the language, not necessarily fluent but know a couple hundred words and general grammar, Skype Translator fills in the blanks.

How It Works

In a follow-up post to Skype's Monday beta launch, the team created a helpful little infographic showing how exactly the program's cogs turn:


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This an overly simplistic representation of the advanced computer science going on here, but Skype Translator recognizes your voice, corrects for any stuttering or ticks, translates and then delivers to the listener—all in a split second.

After some setup—selecting your language, your digital voice avatar—you enter the Translator app, which looks basically like Skype proper on Windows 8.1 but with a few extras. Now, when you chat with a friend, a translation toggle pops up beneath their profile. When you switch on the toggle, Skype will ask you what language the person you're about to call speaks and writes.

This is important because if you get this confused, Skype will try to translate English phonetically into Spanish, which comes out like jumbled nonsense. Set this up right (and make sure your caller does the same), and place the call like normal.


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The verdict? Translator isn't quite there yet. For now, the language barrier is still here. But Skype has created the battering ram that will one day hopefully breach its walls.
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Skype ofrecerá servicio de traducción simultánea en inglés y español | RPP NOTICIAS

Skype ofrecerá servicio de traducción simultánea en inglés y español | RPP NOTICIAS | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El servicio de telefonía a través de internet Skype ofrecerá traducción simultánea para usuarios que mantengan una conversación en inglés y español, un servicio que lleva más de una década en desarrollo.

El programa desarrollado por Microsoft, empresa propietaria de Skype, traduce el audio durante la conversación, de forma que cada una de las dos personas participantes escuchan la voz de un robot que traduce en su propio idioma.

Skype Translator ofrece también una transcripción de la conversación en ambas lenguas.

Microsoft ofrecerá en un primer momento traducciones solo en inglés y español, pero planea ampliar la oferta a otros idiomas.

El nuevo sistema de traducción simultánea solo está disponible para las versiones de Skype para Windows 8.1 y Windows 10.

Skype utilizó para promocionar el servicio el vídeo de dos niñas, una en una escuela en la Ciudad de México y la otra en un colegio en la ciudad de Tacoma, en el estado de Washington, en la costa oeste de Estados Unidos.

El programa estará disponible para los usuarios que se registren a través de la página de la versión de prueba de Skype Translator.

EFE
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Skype Translator Debuts, Draws Comparisons To Star Trek’s Universal Translator

Skype Translator Debuts, Draws Comparisons To Star Trek’s Universal Translator | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Microsoft’s newest version of Skype helps users eliminate language barriers with real-time language translation. Skype translator converts a users voice and video calls in a matter of seconds.

The program, which was shown in beta form several months earlier, takes a users native language and auto-translates their messages into the other users native tongue. The computerized voice has already drawn comparison to the Universal Translator in “Star Trek.”

In a blog post Skype’s corporate vice president Gurdeep Pall writes:

“Skype is now removing another barrier to make it possible for people to communicate irrespective of what language they speak. … People will no longer be hindered by geography and language.”
In the early public beta stages Skype Translator only works with Windows 8.1 and it only works between English and Spanish. However, real-time texting is available in 40 different languages.

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Microsoft plans to add many additional languages to its real-time Skype translation program in the near future.

The best part about Skype translation services? The program learned through user involvement, which means as it rolls out to more users, it will become smarter.  According to Pall, “Skype Translator relies on machine learning, which means that the more the technology is used, the smarter it gets. We are starting with English and Spanish, and as more people use the Skype Translator preview with these languages, the quality will continually improve. We also need your help to expedite new language releases. So make sure you sign up, let your language preferences be known and get involved!”

 

When the new translation service is eventually added to Skype for Web, users will be able to browse their favorite websites, watch movies, and even play games with people around the world, all while enjoying a fully translated platform that obliterates the language barrier.

On its official company blog Skype also claims that its new translation program will open up a world of possibility for school children.



The only question remaining is whether or not Skype’s new translation service can actually deliver on its promises.
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PhD candidate in Semantics, Pragmatics and Cognition - Universiteit van Amsterdam

The Institute for Logic, Language and Computation (ILLC) is a research institute at the University of Amsterdam, in which researchers from the Faculty of Science and the Faculty of Humanities collaborate. Its central research area is the study of fundamental principles of encoding, transmission and comprehension of information. Research at ILLC is interdisciplinary, and aims at bringing together insights from various disciplines concerned with information and information processing, such as computational linguistics, logic, mathematics, computer science, linguistics, cognitive science, artificial intelligence and philosophy.
The PhD position is part of the larger Dutch NWO Gravitation consortium 'Language in Interaction'. This research consortium brings together researchers from nine different research institutions in the Netherlands, with complementary expertise in a highly interdisciplinary area of research. This project will involve collaborative work to be carried out at the Institute of Logic, Language, and Computation (ILLC) at the University of Amsterdam (Prof. Van Rooij) and the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour at Radboud University (Prof. H. Schriefers). The position will be embedded in the ILLC. Both involved institutes offer an international research.
Project description
Processing vague expressions: The interplay between semantics, pragmatics, and cognition
A vague term like 'big' can be easily used and processed when there is a clear gap between bigger and smaller objects. We will test the hypothesis that a gap in distribution is the default criterion used in the processing of vague words in classificatory tasks, but that other criteria might also come into play. Secondly, we will test whether a similar default exists for the processing of quantity expressions like 'most': use the approximate number system, if there is a gap, and precise counting otherwise. The ultimate goal is a unified theory of the processing of vague expressions.
The PhD candidate is expected to:
complete and defend a PhD thesis within the official appointment duration of four years;
collaborate with the researchers in other relevant parts of the Language in Interaction project and the ILLC;
regularly present intermediate research results at international conferences and workshops, and publish them in proceedings and journals;
assist in relevant teaching activities.
Requirements
We are looking for a highly motivated, creative and talented PhD candidate to enrich a unique consortium of researchers that aims to unravel the neurocognitive mechanisms of language at multiple levels. The goal is to understand both the universality and the variability of the human language faculty from genes to behaviour.
The selection criteria include:
a Master's degree in any relevant field;
a strong interest in language and meaning and a strong background in either (a) Experimental cognitive psychology and statistical data analysis (with preferably hands-on experience with the measurement of ERPs and analyses of ERP data), or (b) logical semantics;
strong motivation;
excellent proficiency in written and spoken English.
Applications from excellent candidates with a less than ideal profile will be equally considered.
Further information
Informal enquiries may be directed to:
Prof. Robert van Rooij
Appointment
The full-time appointment at ILLC will be on a temporary basis for a maximum period of four years (18 months plus a further 30 months after a positive evaluation) and should lead to a dissertation (PhD thesis). An educational plan that includes attendance of courses and (international) meetings will be drawn up.
The gross monthly salary will range from €2,083 in the first year to €2,664 in the final year, according to the Dutch salary scale for PhD students). The collective labour agreement (CAO) of Dutch universities is applicable.
The successful applicant will work under the daily supervision of Prof. Robert van Rooij.
Job application
The administration of the Language in Interaction project is carried out by the Radboud University in Nijmegen. N.B.: Applicants should consult the vacancy notice for this PhD position on the Language in Interaction website, and apply according to the instructions given there. The deadline for applications is 1 February 2015.
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Skype mise sur la traduction vocale automatique

Skype mise sur la traduction vocale automatique | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Skype Translator démarrera avec l'espagnol et l'anglais. L'objectif de l'entreprise est de faire tomber la «barrière des langues».
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Des étudiants de l’UQAM inventent le petit dictionnaire montréalais - Infopresse

Des étudiants de l’UQAM inventent le petit dictionnaire montréalais - Infopresse | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
On tricolore, on poutine et l'on brrrrr. Voici quelques exemples du lexique créé par des étudiants pour l’identité visuelle du 375e anniversaire de Montréal.
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How are creativity and longevity connected? | PostIndependent.com

How are creativity and longevity connected? | PostIndependent.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Spending a day at the Georgia O’Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe this fall inspired me to take a fresh look at creativity and longevity. O’Keeffe (1887-1986) was a force in American art for longer than 70 years, but when I think of her, I picture her aging face and see the same depth there as in her swirling flower and bleached-bone paintings of the New Mexican desert.

How are creativity and longevity connected? Can thinking and working creatively — in art, science, business — help us live longer, healthier lives?

Several recent reports have associated the personality trait of openness, which includes mental flexibility and a willingness to consider novel ideas, with longer life. But “openness” is a broad category, and a study published in the June 2012 Journal of Aging and Health indicates that creativity, not intelligence or overall openness, is the subcategory that reduces mortality risk.

Creativity draws on a variety of neural networks within the brain. Study author Nicholas Turiano said, “Individuals high in creativity maintain the integrity of their neural networks even into old age.” A Yale study published earlier in 2012 correlated openness with the robustness of study subjects’ white matter, which supports connections between neurons in different parts of the brain.

Creative thinking can also help us handle stress. If we view life’s stressors as challenges to overcome rather than as insurmountable obstacles, we are more likely to use the neurochemical stress response to respond appropriately. Otherwise, we tend to shuttle it underground where it chronically chips away at body and brain.

Although most studies thus far have looked at those who are naturally open-minded, the results suggest that practicing creative-thinking techniques could improve anyone’s health by lowering stress and exercising the brain.

In June 2013, Jeffrey Kluger reported in Time magazine another possible contribution of creativity to mental and physical health. In general, our processing power and speed do decline with age. However, our brains have the remarkable ability to compensate by reorganizing and creating new pathways. Functions in younger brains are more lateralized — language in the left hemisphere, spatial reasoning in the right — but much less so in older brains.

As we age, different areas of the brain are more likely to call on each other for help. Perhaps this develops from necessity, but those we think of as creative seem to do it naturally. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies show this ability lasts well into the 80s.

Myelination, laying down of fatty insulation along neurons, is a biological process that helps neural transmissions run smoothly. Scientists recently discovered that this process is not complete until young adulthood, when a person’s prefrontal cortex becomes fully developed. More surprisingly, though, researchers now know that the process can continue into our 50s and 60s. Kluger went on to say that we are continually eligible for new parts and repairs, but the key to getting in line for them is remaining mentally active. And creative pursuits are among the best ways of doing so.

CASALS AND SCHWEITZER

Norman Cousins included a chapter on creativity and longevity in his book “Anatomy of an Illness as Perceived by the Patient” first published in 1983. In it, he profiled two creative geniuses who were friends with each other, cellist Pablo Casals and physician and musician Albert Schweitzer. Both were octogenarians when Cousins met them and “were fully creative — almost explosively so.”

Cousins described Casals’ daily routine as evidence of the power of creativity on the body as well as the mind. Nearing age 90, Casals looked like an old man when he started his day. He needed help getting dressed, was seriously stooped and walked with a shuffle. He had arthritis and emphysema.

But Cousins described Don Pablo’s physical transformation when he went to the piano to play Bach, which is how he started every day (he had learned several musical instruments before he started playing the cello).

“His entire body seemed fused with the music; it was no longer stiff and shrunken but supple and graceful and completely freed of its arthritic coils,” Cousins wrote. He observed that the positive physical effects of Casals being “caught up in his own creativity” were as pronounced as the negative effects of chronic stress.

Like his friend Casals, the great doctor Schweitzer was purposeful and creative to the end of his life at age 95. Cousins said Schweitzer once told his hospital staff, “I have no intention of dying so long as I can do things. And if I do things, there is no need to die. So I will live a long, long time.”

Both Casals and Schweitzer “were committed to personal undertakings that were of value to other human beings,” Cousins said.

Creativity and a creative approach to life are not limited to great artists, musicians and scientists. Because it is available to all of us who choose to look at life a little differently and try new things as we age, I want to greet the new year with some of your stories. Tell me about your creativity and how it is helping you age successfully. Tell me about yourself or about someone you know.

Email your stories to: afrankenberg@postindependent.com.

Successful Aging appears on the third Tuesday of each month.
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Shelli Mansfeld's curator insight, December 16, 5:36 PM

Interesting, worth reading to the end, conclusion is creatively optimistic and constructive.

 

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Peak Positions Named Sixteenth Best Search Engine Marketing Agency by topseos.com for December 2014 | SYS-CON MEDIA

Peak Positions Named Sixteenth Best Search Engine Marketing Agency by topseos.com for December 2014 | SYS-CON MEDIA | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
NAPLES, FL--(Marketwired - December 16, 2014) - topseos.com has reported the rankings of the 100 best search marketing companies for December 2014. Peak Positions has been named the sixteenth best company due to their strong performance during the topseos.com meticulous evaluation process. The recommendations are released each month to assist clients of search engine marketing services in selecting reputable companies.
The independent research team at topseos.com performs an in-depth examination of the competing firms in order to stay apprised of their latest accomplishments within the industry. Competing firms are evaluated through the use of five verticals of evaluation in areas including on page optimization, needs analysis, keyword analysis, reporting methods, and off page optimization. The ratings consist of the best SEO firms each month with the ratings being updated due to the latest information obtained from the examination.
The ratings are reviewed each month based on the assumption that the internet marketing industry changes over time. Companies are evaluated based on the most recent trends and developments most important to buyers. Often times the research team at topseos.com spends time connecting with clients of competing companies for a more thorough look.
The rankings are released monthly to assist businesses in selecting a top performing search engine optimization service. Peak Positions has been showcased in the list due to their reliable solutions. Thousands of search marketing firms are considered each month but only the truly best are considered for the rankings.
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The end of search engines? TNS reveals 10 tech trends to watch - Mumbrella Asia

The end of search engines? TNS reveals 10 tech trends to watch - Mumbrella Asia | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Research firm TNS has revealed 10 trends that it predicts will change the technology landscape over the next five years, including the emergence of selfie phones, the return of Windows and the beginning of the end for search engines.
The announcement:
16 December 2014 – TNS today revealed ten trends that are set to disrupt the technology landscape in China and beyond over the next five years. TNS has identified these trends based on ‘World of Convergence’, an extensive study of over 5,900 people in China to understand what they are most looking for from gadgets and tech services.
“Our study highlights a real opportunity for tech companies, if they look beyond technology-led innovation.” says Chris Bonsi, CEO Greater China, TNS, “We’ve found that if you start with what people are actually looking to do with their devices – rather than the pure technology potential – you open up a whole new world of convergence opportunities.”
The 10 trends identified by TNS are set to impact devices, software, and services in China in 2015 and beyond are:
Selfie phones? We’re just getting started…
HTC may have become the first smartphone manufacturer to put its best camera on the front of the handset – but there’s still plenty of scope for perfecting the ‘selfie phone’. TNS predicts that smartphone manufacturers will fight for positioning on their phones’ capacity to deliver idealised, share-able self-images.
Music – the next wearable battleground
Music fans expect to be able to stream tunes straight from the likes of Spotify and Pandora without carrying bulky fragile smartphones around. TNS predicts that the next generation of wearable technology will focus on eliminating wires, tethering to smartphones, and removing poor network connectivity and other frustrations from the mobile music experience.
Gamify your life
Convergence applies to activities as much as it does to devices – and ‘play’ has already proven the most potent activity to weave into digital solutions. TNS predicts that gamification will take on a major role in the next generation of mobile technology: fitness and health applications, productivity solutions and heightened employee engagement, through making tedious tasks fun.
Disruption in a docking station
Amongst low income consumers in emerging markets, the smartphone is now the single go-to device whether you are watching TV, making payments, or texting friends around the world. TNS predicts that as the processing power and multi-tasking capabilities of smartphones improve, their capacity to take share from conventional computers will continue to grow – keyboard docking stations and interfaces will transform smartphones into simple desktop PCs.
Modular computers
The second major threat to PCs and laptops comes from the difficulty and expense in upgrading and replacing them. Consumers are less likely to make a big investment in technology if they believe that it will become obsolete quickly. TNS predicts that modular computers will provide the solution. Expect memory, batteries, and screens that can easily be swapped out without the need for specialist knowledge or tools.
Smart Computers
We have smart phones, but our PCs aren’t taking advantage of their own inherent processing power – and as a result they’re not keeping up. TNS predicts that a new generation of smart computers will become the command centre for the smart home.
The beginning of the end for search ads?
The power of search engine giants such as Google and Baidu stems from the fact that people seeking information online are obliged to look at pages of search results – where they form a highly targeted audience for search advertising. TNS predicts that Siri, Cortana, and other virtual assistants could provide the first major disruptive challenge to the search engine business model.
Windows – the comeback kid
Based on our China data, Windows tablets’ growth in share-of-time is outpacing iPad and Android tablets. We could be seeing the emergence of a more productive, task-oriented, and revolutionary tablet device, which will steal share from those current models which primarily meet entertainment needs. TNS predicts that it’s no longer a question of if Microsoft will catch up with mobile devices; it’s just a matter of how quickly.
Home security: the next killer app
Confident technology buffs already have all the wifi-enabled cameras, sensors and remote viewing technology they need to keep watch on their homes, but the average consumer doesn’t want the hassle of building such solutions themselves. TNS predicts that the next billion-dollar opportunity will be in the home security arena, waiting for a beautifully packaged and intuitive solution to protect consumers’ home and family.
Mobile privacy
Mobiles are the most intimate device that people own – and yet those people’s mobile lives are currently visible to anyone glancing over their shoulder. TNS predicts that a privacy-enhancing display that is only visible to those holding a device is likely to represent a far more attractive upgrade option.
Commenting on the trends, Chris Bonsi, CEO TNS Greater China said, “People’s interest in – and desire for – new technology and gadgets is based on what it is that they really want to do – or ‘jobs to be done’. There are real needs that cry out to be addressed. All technology companies seek to drive competitive advantage through innovation and taking a more customer-led – based on ‘jobs to be done’ introduces new opportunities.”
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Darío Villanueva presentó en Santiago el nuevo diccionario de la RAE, «una rareza»

Darío Villanueva presentó en Santiago el nuevo diccionario de la RAE, «una rareza» | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Celebró en Compostela, ciudad de la que es vecino, su primer acto oficial como director de la Real Academia Española
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World Cup tops Google search lists - BelfastTelegraph.co.uk

World Cup tops Google search lists - BelfastTelegraph.co.uk | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

16 DECEMBER 2014

The World Cup in Brazil, Ebola and the iPhone 6 where the biggest trends and news stories UK users searched for on Google in 2014.

ADS BY GOOGLE
The search engine giant has revealed the things we've been using Google to find out, and it includes the answer to the question "who is Banksy?", as well as "what is ALS?".

The deaths of Peaches Geldof, Robin Williams and Rik Mayall also featured in the top 10 trending searches list, alongside mobile game Flappy Bird, the Grand National and actress Jennifer Lawrence.

Google is the world's most popular search engine, with more than two trillion searches registered in 2013.

Ebola was the top news story of the year, followed by ALS - inspired by the ice bucket challenge that swept the internet promoting awareness of the disease - and Malaysia Airlines, which lost two passenger planes in separate incidents during 2014.

Luis Suarez's bite on Italian defender Giorgio Chiellini during the World Cup was fourth, with Scottish Independence fifth. Cliff Richard, the celebrity photo hack and Oscar Pistorius were also in the top 10.

Google's Stephen Rosenthal said of the results: "Google's Year in Search gives us the best snapshot of what moved, inspired, shocked and intrigued us in 2014.

"With so many of us now having multiple computers, phones and tablets immediately to hand, these results are the most accurate and comprehensive collection of what the UK's been talking about this year."

Google is commonly used to directly answer questions, and the most common this year was "who is Banksy?" - referencing the anonymous street artist. This was followed by "who is Frenchy?" - the Celebrity Big Brother star, with rapper Dappy, Palestinian group Hamas and ISIS also appearing on the list.

Googlers in 2014 were also asking for tips on learning new skills, with the most popular being "how to draw", followed by "how to kiss" and "how to crochet".

Finding out how to meditate, knit, twerk and squat were also among the most popular things Google users wanted to know.

While there were a host of celebrity deaths in 2014, the loss of Peaches Geldof was the most searched for, followed by Robin Williams and Rik Mayall.

The all-conquering Beyonce topped the most searched female celebrity list, beating the likes of Jennifer Lawrence and Katy Perry to the number one spot.

Pop star Ariana Grande topped the rising female celebrity list, with British vlogger Zoella also making it into the top five.

Ed Sheeran tops the male celebrity list with fellow singer Pharrell sitting at the top of the rising list. Sherlock star Benedict Cumberbatch was second.

In sport, there was something of a surprise as Hull City were the fourth most searched for Premier League team, ahead of the likes of Chelsea and Manchester City.

Liverpool topped that particular table ahead of rivals Manchester United, with Arsenal in third.

Michael Schumacher was the top sportsperson search of the year as Google users looked up how the seven-time Formula One world champion continued his recovery from a skiing accident.

The German came ahead of Oscar Pistorius and Andy Murray. Former footballer and I'm a Celebrity star Jimmy Bullard also made it into the top 10.

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Five Official Languages Endorsed for Kurdish Region in Iraq

BEIRUT -- Iraqi Kurdistan President Massoud Barzani endorsed Monday new legislation that establishes five official languages for the largely autonomous region.

Tarek Jawhar, media adviser to the Kurdistan parliament, made the announcement in a news conference.

According to the official website of Irbil governorate, the first article of the law designates Kurdish and Arabic as Kurdistan's official languages, while the second article allows three others -- for the Turkmen, Assyrian and Armenian communities -- to become official languages in administrative units where these communities form the majority of the population. Kurdistan's Parliament ratified the law in late October.
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Top 10 Google Search Tricks And Tips

Top 10 Google Search Tricks And Tips | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The unassuming Google search page has so much functionality hidden beneath the single text box and the two buttons. Using the search engine every day does not guarantee knowing all the Google search tricks and tips. Therefore, here is a list of top 10 Google search tricks, collated by Time Magazine, which can be utilised in everyday life to make searching easier, efficient and fun. It is worth noting that, along with the age-old search tricks, there are new tricks as well.




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REUTERS/Dado Ruvic
People are silhouetted as they pose with laptops in front of a screen projected with a Google logo, in this picture illustration taken in Zenica October 29, 2014.

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Enclose The Search Query Within Quotes

A good majority of everyday Google users would be cognizant of this trick, where searching a query enclosed in quotes will bring up only those pages with the exact words, following the same order. This feature is extremely helpful in weeding our irrelevant search results, especially when the user exactly knows what he/she is looking for. Example: "Justin Bieber's Twitter Rant"

Flip A Coin Feature

This is one of the new Google search tricks added recently. Upon pressing the mic icon on the Google search bar and by telling Google to "flip a coin" or "heads or tails," the search engine will flip a coin for the user, when there is no real coin handy.

Add Asterisk Enclosed In Quotes In Place Of Unknown/Variable Words

In case, Google search users do not know a particular word or phrase in a search query, replacing the word/phrase with an asterisk, will enable search on all variations of that word/phrase usage. Notably, this feature is very helpful when searching for lyrics of a song. Example: "Who can say where the * goes"

Weed Out Irrelevant Results By Using Minus Sign

This feature is very helpful especially when there is a truckload of results getting displayed for a particular word search. And also, when users exactly know what they want. Say for instance, Apple represents the tech giant as well as a fruit. Hence, readers can eliminate results of the unwanted by saying the following: "Apple -fruit"

Keyword Specific Search For Websites

The feature "site:" can be used to search only a specific website. In case, readers would like to see if the word "Google" was mentioned in Yahoo.com, the Google search query should be "Google site:Yahoo.com."

Comparison

In case, readers could not decide where to go or what to eat, they can just type in "cheese vs. butter." Google search will list out the side-by-side comparisons of the nutritional details like calories, carbohydrates and fats, among others.

Filter

This feature can be used to search for specific or favourite items by customising the search. In case, readers are searching for a favourite food type, upon clicking "Search Tools," located beneath the search bar, readers can filter recipes based on ingredients, cook time, calories and more.

Definition

This Google search trick can be used to learn the definition of anything. Say for example, upon using "DEFINE: mortgage," along with the definition, users will also be shown the etymology and a graph of its use over a period of time. In addition, slangs can also be used along with this search trick.

Tilt

Bored at work? Try this simple Google search trick to tilt the Google search page. Apparently, this was created by Google engineers as part of the fun activities.

Images Search

In case, users stumble upon an old photo, which looks familiar and would like to know the details about the image, this Google search trick is a life saver. Upon saving the photo/image and searching it on the Google Images, the search engine will list down similar images from across the web.

Also Read

1. Snapdragon 810-Powered 'Sony Xperia Z4 Compact' And 'Xperia Z4 Ultra' Specifications Leaked - [Read]

2. Apple 2015 Release Roundup: Apple iPhone 6S, iPhone 6 Mini, iPhone 7, Apple Watch, iPad Pro/Air 3/Mini 4, Retina MacBook Air - [Read]

3. Microsoft Lumia 535's Touch-Screen Extremely Sensitive Says User Complaints; Microsoft To Fix The Problem Via Software Update - [Read]

To report problems or to leave feedback about this article, e-mail: p.rathinavel@ibtimes..com.au

To contact the editor, e-mail: editor@ibtimes.com
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