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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Professor examines convergence of languages, cultures in Chinese Inner Asia

Professor examines convergence of languages, cultures in Chinese Inner Asia | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
When Arienne Dwyer identified an area in Chinese Inner Asia as a language convergence zone some 19 years ago, she discovered that the grammars of unrelated languages had grown to resemble one another. Moreover, when some speakers of these diverse languages come together in song contests, they would ...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Her acclaimed research is aimed at understanding the rise and fall of human languages—how they disappear under threat from other languages and how new languages emerge. In Chinese Inner Asia, conglomerations of unrelated languages are giving rise to new languages.

Dwyer studies the linguistic, ecological and social conditions under which languages and cultures can merge or split apart. Languages and cultures everywhere in the world converge and diverge; Chinese Inner Asia, however, is a hot spot for these processes.

"There's no such thing as a pure language or a pure culture, but the degree to which they mix varies. I work in an area in Central Asia where they mix really heavily," she said.

Beyond being able to research the universal processes of language emergence and disappearance, the many individual languages of Inner Asia— which are mostly unwritten and unknown— provide insights about speakers' conceptual organization of the physical and abstract world, she said.

"From ethnomedicine to biological and grammatical classification, all are organized differently in different languages, and it's scientifically interesting to be able to document and compare these practices," said Dwyer, a University of Kansas professor of linguistic anthropology and co-director of the Institute for Digital Research in the Humanities.

Dwyer recently received two prestigious fellowships—a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation fellowship and another from the National Endowment for the Humanities. The Guggenheim fellowship will allow her to bring together several previously separate projects of her academic career in Central Asia into a book to analyze how grammars and cultures converge in this language contact zone.

This area, whose epicenter is the north Tibetan region of China, has two dominant languages, Tibetan and Chinese, but both were influenced by a dozen nondominant languages related to Mongolian and Turkish. Extending from Tibet to Mongolia and western China to Central Asia, Chinese Inner Asia is centrally important to human history, traversed by the Silk Routes and the site of some of the oldest Indo-European languages. Dwyer is one of the few experts in the world on Inner and Central Asian languages, and she speaks and reads many of them fluently.



Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-09-professor-convergence-languages-cultures-chinese.html#jCp

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Diccionario urgente del buen catalán

Diccionario urgente del buen catalán | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
<p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="https://pbs.twimg.com/media/BxcU7KbCUAA1AqJ.jpg:la...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Democracia. Concepto consistente en saltarse la ley que la protege y reconoce a las instituciones y cargos públicos autonómicos remunerados que no la reconocen a ella.

- Consulta: prólogo ilegal de la independencia.

- Soberanía: fascismo cuando se refiere a la opinión de los 48 millones de personas de un país y democracia cuando se remite a un número incierto pero nunca superior al 3% de esa población que pretende valer más que el 97% restante.

- Diálogo: hacer lo que yo diga y cuando yo diga, aunque sea ilegal y minoritario, bajo amenaza de ruptura social, altercado callejero y fractura constitucional y llamándote mientras "intolerante".

- Federalismo: escurrir el bulto. Segunda acepción: cambiar de nombre lo que ya existe a ver si así no se enfada nadie aunque al final todo el mundo acabe más indignado. Hasta Castilla y León acabaría queriendo ser un Estado.

- Robo: lo que le perpetra España transfiriendo al menos 20.000 millones de euros extra desde el comienzo de la crisis para evitar la quiebra de Cataluña mientras los políticos señalados por llevarse dinero a paraísos fiscales o mirar para otro lado cuando el vecino lo hacía gritan "Espanya ens roba".

- Persecución: lo que hace la justicia española para evitar que el William Wallace catalán, sus hijos y su esposa, se lleven a Suiza y Andorra el dinero de los catalanes.

- Progresismo: actitud consistente en defender que el que más tiene no comparta una parte de su renta con el que menos tiene si dispone de otra lengua propia, salvo que sea el alemán, en cuyo caso debe darlo todo.

- Pueblo: unidad de decisión cuando es el mío y de imposición cuando se refiere a todos.

- Nacionalismo: sentimiento rancio y totalitario de quienes han reconocido las particularidades identitarias, nacionales, lingüísticas, competenciales, simbólicas y económicas de regiones con una historia tan rica como la de Aragón o Castilla y, en segunda acepción, sentimiento noble y romántico de quienes no reconocen nada a nadie salvo a sí mismos.

- Constitución: herramienta de imposición fascista que fue respaldada por el 90% de los catalanes y reconoce y garantiza, en el artículo 2 del Título Preliminar, la autonomía de las distintas regiones y "nacionalidades" y la solidaridad entre todas ellas.

- Independencia: tener Estado propio pero depender de España para no salirse de la UE, no jugar al fútbol contra el Terrassa, no quedarse con el 18% de la deuda pública acumulada durante el matrimonio y no perder hasta los 44.000 millones de euros procedentes del hasta entonces comercio interior con el ya ex opresor Estado.

- TV3: reducto de la verdad que, para defenderse de la intoxicación española, necesita para un territorio regional disponer de una plantilla casi tres veces superior a la de ATresMedia para todo el país en una Comunidad que se ha visto obligada a cerrar 40 centros de salud.

- Buen catalán: ver mal español.

- Mal español: cualquier español.

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Rain Trueax : on writing and editing

Rain Trueax : on writing and editing | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

After mentioning how much time I spent editing my books, like the whole summer, I thought it might be of interest what that means. Assuming you are doing your own, cannot afford to hire a professional editor, as best I know it, there are various ways to approach the job. I'll discuss two.

A writer can literally edit each chapter as they go. Write a chapter and go at it word for word as they write. Make sure each word/sentence/paragraph/page is polished before going onto the next. Have an outline nearby and stick to its basics. If they vary from it, they have a good reason and create a new outline. 

If such a writer has a beta group to check what they are writing, they'd write that chapter, probably still trying to keep it right for spelling, punctuation, consistency, etc. Then send it off to their readers or even their editor-- while writing on the next chapter. When it comes back, they will take into account what the beta readers thought, if there is a majority opinion and, if it was also sent to an editor, what they suggested. Use what works and argue about what, as the writer, they believe did not.

Basically chapter by chapter editing, with or without beta readers, likely means the book is ready to go out the day it's finished.

There is another approach to editing, and it's mine. It's how I used to paint and sculpt also. Write it in a white hot heat of feeling the energy of the story. Don't worry if it's perfect, although for those who tend to write with grammar as a natural part of their writing, it's not going to be totally unreadable. Basically this approach captures the characters, the plot, much of the dialogue. For me, those aspects usually end up being what stays with the book. 

For any book I have ever written, I had spent a lot of time thinking about it before I ever start writing. I know the characters and what I want them to be. I know the plot. What I have fun with along the way are the things that crop up, which I didn't expect. That doesn't keep me from the ending I knew it would have. The ending can be tweaked, but the gist of it won't be different.

Ideally I set my rough draft aside for a couple of weeks and work on other projects. It's hard to do an edit when you literally just finished-- it's too fresh.

Some writers have a different purpose for each subsequent edit. They look at specifics like say spelling or logic, etc. 

My approach is that I go for the polish whether it's the first or the seventh. I look for typos, punctuation that is missing, and the long blue line that Word uses to say a sentence is not correct. I always check out Word's opinion, but sometimes they are wrong especially when it's dialogue. In editing, I look for consistencies of timing and character behavior.

If in editing the first time, I can enrich a scene by more details; or if it had too much detail, I'll add/delete it there. The future edits are less likely to add but might still end up with deletions. 

Edits are also where I double-check my research when I come across specific points where I can see there might be a question. Literally I don't write anything that I haven't researched first, but sometimes I've forgotten the details, and I look for my notes or go back to the original source to be sure I got it right. This is true for historic, of course, but also contemporary. There are a ton of ways to goof up even a contemporary.

With each edit, I look for where I can enhance the action. This happens  a lot with 'said' where it is better to insert the accompanying action instead. It still must make clear the character speaking.

Editing also looks for consistency in thinking. I don't have this happen often but if say a character has a fear of snakes and the next chapter is handling one with no fear, that doesn't work. Likewise I ran into one, early on, where I had a heroine who didn't like coffee and then had her drinking it one morning on her desert patio. Definite no-no. 

Recently, when I had edited a rough draft that I had written in one lunar cycle, I was very upset that on the sixth edit, I still found redundancies or places I'd gone on and on. I had not expected that. For awhile, it gave me some doubt about my writing ability, but I looked at the characters, dialogue, plot, conflict, the WWW, and felt overall it was all I wanted it to be. 

The characters and story warmed my heart where I wanted it to do so and made me feel the action. A writer has to find all of that in their own writing or there is no hope any reader will. If reading it to edit makes me lose interest in the story or feel it's blah, it probably means the book has a bigger problem than punctuation.  

Charles Tiayon's insight:

After mentioning how much time I spent editing my books, like the whole summer, I thought it might be of interest what that means. Assuming you are doing your own, cannot afford to hire a professional editor, as best I know it, there are various ways to approach the job. I'll discuss two.

A writer can literally edit each chapter as they go. Write a chapter and go at it word for word as they write. Make sure each word/sentence/paragraph/page is polished before going onto the next. Have an outline nearby and stick to its basics. If they vary from it, they have a good reason and create a new outline. 

If such a writer has a beta group to check what they are writing, they'd write that chapter, probably still trying to keep it right for spelling, punctuation, consistency, etc. Then send it off to their readers or even their editor-- while writing on the next chapter. When it comes back, they will take into account what the beta readers thought, if there is a majority opinion and, if it was also sent to an editor, what they suggested. Use what works and argue about what, as the writer, they believe did not.

Basically chapter by chapter editing, with or without beta readers, likely means the book is ready to go out the day it's finished.

There is another approach to editing, and it's mine. It's how I used to paint and sculpt also. Write it in a white hot heat of feeling the energy of the story. Don't worry if it's perfect, although for those who tend to write with grammar as a natural part of their writing, it's not going to be totally unreadable. Basically this approach captures the characters, the plot, much of the dialogue. For me, those aspects usually end up being what stays with the book. 

For any book I have ever written, I had spent a lot of time thinking about it before I ever start writing. I know the characters and what I want them to be. I know the plot. What I have fun with along the way are the things that crop up, which I didn't expect. That doesn't keep me from the ending I knew it would have. The ending can be tweaked, but the gist of it won't be different.

Ideally I set my rough draft aside for a couple of weeks and work on other projects. It's hard to do an edit when you literally just finished-- it's too fresh.

Some writers have a different purpose for each subsequent edit. They look at specifics like say spelling or logic, etc. 

My approach is that I go for the polish whether it's the first or the seventh. I look for typos, punctuation that is missing, and the long blue line that Word uses to say a sentence is not correct. I always check out Word's opinion, but sometimes they are wrong especially when it's dialogue. In editing, I look for consistencies of timing and character behavior.

If in editing the first time, I can enrich a scene by more details; or if it had too much detail, I'll add/delete it there. The future edits are less likely to add but might still end up with deletions. 

Edits are also where I double-check my research when I come across specific points where I can see there might be a question. Literally I don't write anything that I haven't researched first, but sometimes I've forgotten the details, and I look for my notes or go back to the original source to be sure I got it right. This is true for historic, of course, but also contemporary. There are a ton of ways to goof up even a contemporary.

With each edit, I look for where I can enhance the action. This happens  a lot with 'said' where it is better to insert the accompanying action instead. It still must make clear the character speaking.

Editing also looks for consistency in thinking. I don't have this happen often but if say a character has a fear of snakes and the next chapter is handling one with no fear, that doesn't work. Likewise I ran into one, early on, where I had a heroine who didn't like coffee and then had her drinking it one morning on her desert patio. Definite no-no. 

Recently, when I had edited a rough draft that I had written in one lunar cycle, I was very upset that on the sixth edit, I still found redundancies or places I'd gone on and on. I had not expected that. For awhile, it gave me some doubt about my writing ability, but I looked at the characters, dialogue, plot, conflict, the WWW, and felt overall it was all I wanted it to be. 

The characters and story warmed my heart where I wanted it to do so and made me feel the action. A writer has to find all of that in their own writing or there is no hope any reader will. If reading it to edit makes me lose interest in the story or feel it's blah, it probably means the book has a bigger problem than punctuation.  

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How to Prevent Blog Post Blunders and Other Grammar Pet Peeves

How to Prevent Blog Post Blunders and Other Grammar Pet Peeves | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
(#WorkloadWednesday) One of the many hats I wear, both at home and at work, is Copy Editor. At home, I began as a spell checker, run-on-sentence catcher and grammar coach for my school-aged kids. At work, I’m a collaborator, dangling modifier catcher and moving commas and repossessing possessives editor for our social media blog posting team. I have…
Charles Tiayon's insight:

One of the many hats I wear, both at home and at work, is Copy Editor. At home, I began as a spell checker, run-on-sentence catcher and grammar coach for my school-aged kids. At work, I’m a collaborator, dangling modifier catcher and moving commas and repossessing possessives editor for our social media blog posting team. I have no idea what the last sentence means but it certainly sounds impressive.

In my various editorial roles, one of the most important things I have learned is the importance of having someone, preferably a copy editor or a well-educated meticulous friend, check your work. I can’t emphasize this editing process enough. I may be a decent writer but I make mistakes (plenty of them – truthfully) and believe me, so do the experts.

When you’ve finished researching and crafting a compelling social media blog post, uploaded breathtaking visuals and believe you are ready to hit “publish” to go live — wait! 

Neglecting to have a second set of eyes scan your work can lead to unprofessional, embarrassing and misleading results.

#WorkloadWednesday Tip of the Week:

Do everything possible to make certain your article is grammatically correct, tightly drafted and professional. The editing process is vital to the success of your social media post. If you don’t have a second person editing your posts, or if you are on a budget, here is what I suggest:

  • Step away from your article and review it later when you can give it a fresh look
  • Drop your copy into Microsoft Word to use as your editor
  • Splurge on Grammarly.com as an online editing tool
Copy Editing on a Budget

I’m fortunate to have a great editing partner at dlvr.it.  We’ll write more about our team editing process in future social media posts (make sure to signup for the Social Media Minute newsletter to not miss out). However, regardless if we have both “signed off” on the post and set the status to ‘Ready to Launch’, I still have one more step to complete before launch.  My final editorial review process is to always drop the entire post into Microsoft Word (assuming the post has not been drafted and edited in Word).

From the original source:

  1. Copy and paste into Word
  2. From Tools, run the Grammar and Spelling check

In my opinion, Word picks up more errors than most word processors including Google Docs and WordPress. You’ll be surprised what you missed – from misspelled words, to extra spaces and fragmented sentences. As this review has yielded me more corrections than I care to count on any one of our social media posts, I never skip this final editing step.

If budget allows, in addition to this internal editing process for all our social media posts, there are numerous online editing tools and services available. I recently splurged on a monthly subscription to Grammarly.com. It claims to be the world’s best grammar checker. Quite a few educators I know use the service for online editing. I plan on testing it for the next couple months and will provide a feature review in a future#ToolboxTuesday post.

Copy Editing Tips

There are numerous articles listing copy editor’s pet peeves. One such list is contained in Barry Feldman’s article, Copy Editing Tips: Delete + 12 More Ways to Improve Your Writing. My favorite tip from this list is something that I catch myself doing again and again is to use an unnecessary “that”. (See, there I go again with that unnecessary “that):

Pet peeve #1: Cut “that” out

I can always spot an unprofessional writer by the repetitive and unnecessary use of “this,” “that,” and “these.” A specific pet peeve of mine is finding them as the first word of sentence. When you review your drafts, remove every instance of these (that) you can. See what I mean?

One of my newest “editorial” peeves is to check for:

  • Having two or more spaces after a period

Did you know you no longer have to put two spaces after a period?  I had an editorial argument with my young daughter about this.  She was adamant her teacher only wanted one space after each period and would be “marked down” for two.  This was news to me and clearly dated me once I had read this article from my friend Lorna’s Facebook stream, Nothing Says Over 40 Like Two Spaces after a Period!

Lorna is the Education Editor for our local paper, The Sonoma Index Tribune. To quote her, “I have been reprimanded repeatedly by my editors over this. It is a HARD habit to break.” Apparently, I’m not the only one to not get the memo.  The comments Lorna received from her friends and followers, who are obviously over 40, and her editor were hilarious:

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Israel cuts Thai interpreters from Health Ministry translation services - National

Israel cuts Thai interpreters from Health Ministry translation services - National | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Israel cuts Thai interpreters from Health Ministry translation servicesHealth Ministry cites budgetary restrictions.
By Or Kashti Sep. 18, 2014 | 9:00 AM
Thai workers tending a farm in Israel. Photo by Eliyahu Hershkovitz

The Health Ministry is not going to add Thai interpreters to the hotline that supplies translation services for patients due to “a lack of an appropriate budget.” That was the ministry’s response to the chairman of the Knesset Committee on Foreign Workers, MK Michal Rosin, who requested this service in May during a hearing devoted to the deaths of foreign agricultural workers, particularly those from Thailand. At the end of 2013 there were some 20,000 Thai workers in Israel, most of whom do not have full access to health services.

The Knesset committee hearing came following a story in Haaretz about the deaths of 120 Thai workers between 2008 and mid-2013. About a third of the deaths, according to the ministry, were attributed to “sudden nocturnal death syndrome,” – sudden death during sleep which is a documented cause of unexplained death among young and otherwise healthy men from East Asia.

After the hearing in May the ministry supplied more comprehensive statistics, saying that between 2004 and 2013, 197 foreign agricultural workers had died in Israel. Some 44 percent had died from sudden nocturnal death syndrome. A source familiar with the data said that in the past, various authorities had adopted the syndrome as a blanket explanation for the deaths of Thai workers, even in cases that were totally unrelated to it.

Two suggestions made at the May hearing – electrocardiogram tests for potential workers in Thailand (since the night death syndrome may be related to heart irregularities) and making sure all the authorities with information on a worker provide it to police after his death – are being implemented. But the most basic factor in making health services available to these workers – the ability to understand and be understood – still has no solution.

The Health Ministry’s medical translation hotline has been in operation since 2013. It provides simultaneous translation in cases where a person comes for medical care and cannot communicate with medical personnel. The service is available in Russian, Arabic and Amharic, and operates from Sunday at 6 A.M. through Friday at 3 P.M. It is provided only to government hospitals and Health Ministry bureaus.

In a letter to Rosin last week, the ministry said there was no money to add translation into Thai. In response to a query by Haaretz, the ministry said that the cost of adding another language is 50,000 shekels ($13,700) a month.

The lack of Thai interpreters “perpetuates the lack of access by migrant workers to health services,” said the agricultural workers coordinator at the Kav LaOved workers’ hotline. “This increases the risk of workers getting sick, and keeps the insurance money in the hands of the medical insurers because of the low use of health services.”

Rosin said that these workers’ employers “pay good money for health insurance, but what’s the point of paying for health insurance when in the end the Thai worker sits in front of a doctor and the two can’t understand each other? What kind of medical treatment can he get?”

Charles Tiayon's insight:
Israel cuts Thai interpreters from Health Ministry translation servicesHealth Ministry cites budgetary restrictions.
By Or Kashti Sep. 18, 2014 | 9:00 AM
Thai workers tending a farm in Israel. Photo by Eliyahu Hershkovitz

The Health Ministry is not going to add Thai interpreters to the hotline that supplies translation services for patients due to “a lack of an appropriate budget.” That was the ministry’s response to the chairman of the Knesset Committee on Foreign Workers, MK Michal Rosin, who requested this service in May during a hearing devoted to the deaths of foreign agricultural workers, particularly those from Thailand. At the end of 2013 there were some 20,000 Thai workers in Israel, most of whom do not have full access to health services.

The Knesset committee hearing came following a story in Haaretz about the deaths of 120 Thai workers between 2008 and mid-2013. About a third of the deaths, according to the ministry, were attributed to “sudden nocturnal death syndrome,” – sudden death during sleep which is a documented cause of unexplained death among young and otherwise healthy men from East Asia.

After the hearing in May the ministry supplied more comprehensive statistics, saying that between 2004 and 2013, 197 foreign agricultural workers had died in Israel. Some 44 percent had died from sudden nocturnal death syndrome. A source familiar with the data said that in the past, various authorities had adopted the syndrome as a blanket explanation for the deaths of Thai workers, even in cases that were totally unrelated to it.

Two suggestions made at the May hearing – electrocardiogram tests for potential workers in Thailand (since the night death syndrome may be related to heart irregularities) and making sure all the authorities with information on a worker provide it to police after his death – are being implemented. But the most basic factor in making health services available to these workers – the ability to understand and be understood – still has no solution.

The Health Ministry’s medical translation hotline has been in operation since 2013. It provides simultaneous translation in cases where a person comes for medical care and cannot communicate with medical personnel. The service is available in Russian, Arabic and Amharic, and operates from Sunday at 6 A.M. through Friday at 3 P.M. It is provided only to government hospitals and Health Ministry bureaus.

In a letter to Rosin last week, the ministry said there was no money to add translation into Thai. In response to a query by Haaretz, the ministry said that the cost of adding another language is 50,000 shekels ($13,700) a month.

The lack of Thai interpreters “perpetuates the lack of access by migrant workers to health services,” said the agricultural workers coordinator at the Kav LaOved workers’ hotline. “This increases the risk of workers getting sick, and keeps the insurance money in the hands of the medical insurers because of the low use of health services.”

Rosin said that these workers’ employers “pay good money for health insurance, but what’s the point of paying for health insurance when in the end the Thai worker sits in front of a doctor and the two can’t understand each other? What kind of medical treatment can he get?”

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This new translation of Crime and Punishment is a masterpiece

This new translation of Crime and Punishment is a masterpiece | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoevsky, translated by Oliver Ready

Penguin, pp.702, £8.99, ISBN: 9780141192802

Subscribers to this periodical, while Mark Amory has been literary editor, must often have felt they were enjoying an incomparable feast. Even The Spectator at its best, however, could not quite rival the periodical the Russian Herald (Russkii Vestnik) under the editorship of M.N. Katkov. This phenomenal editor, in the year 1866, secured serial publication of the two giants of Russian fiction. Tolstoy had been slow in giving Katkov enough material for continuous serial publication of War and Peace. To fill the gap, Katkov enlisted Dostoevsky. Readers could enjoy episodes from War and Peace in the spring numbers of the magazine. Then in May, they could startCrime and Punishment.

Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, who never met (Tolstoy refused a meeting), had parallel and deeply contrasting visions and careers. Tolstoy paints a huge canvas which appears to be more objectively real than reality itself. Dostoevsky, instinctively distrustful of any attempt to portray a thing-in-itself, is the ultimate subjectivist. The contrast is vividly demonstrated by the differences between the two great novels. War and Peace is the story of a national awakening, and the spiritual regeneration which occurred to Russia, and to several key figures in the novel, during the invasion of 1812. Napoleon is cut down to size in the book, made insignificant compared with the great elemental forces of fate: God, winter, Russia.

Raskolnikov, the murderous student of Dostoevsky’s novel, has interiorised Napoleon, made him his pattern to live and to die. Raskolnikov did not set out to conquer worlds, but he is a Napoleonist in the sense of believing that geniuses (he is one, naturally) are above the morality which governs the lives of lesser mortals. To prove this to himself, he carries out the callous murder of the old female pawn-broker from whom he has been getting cash in St Petersburg. Everything goes wrong, and then right.

That is, he is witnessed killing the old woman by her sister — so, in order to silence the witness, he has to perform a double killing. Yet, far from being the inhuman brute he had believed himself, he is a neurotic, fearful, self-doubting mortal who possesses a soul. While the cynical, giggling detective Porfiry Petrovich homes in on the murderer, Sonya, the virtuous prostitute who is in love with him, pleads with him to repent and to rediscover true life by kneeling at the feet of Christ. Awakening comes for Raskolnikov, as it came to Dostoevsky, in the prisons of Siberia. Whereas for Tolstoy, Christianity consisted, literally, in rewriting the gospels and making them more rational, Dostoevsky rejoiced in their saving irrationality, the inner capacity to be healed by mystery.

Sometimes new translations of old favourites are surplus to our requirements.  It might be fun for the translator, and it might make the hopeful publisher a bit of money — but has any translation of the Iliad ever been as good as that of Alexander Pope? And has any English translation of War and Peace actually been as good as Louise and Aylmer Maude’s? Sometimes, though, a new translation really makes us see a favourite masterpiece afresh. And this English version of Crime and Punishment really is better than, say, David Magarshack’s (excellent) Penguin, or Constance Garnett’s old Heinemann translation.

Take some of the most dramatic moments in the story. The murder of the first old lady, for example. The story is so electrifyingly exciting that, the first time you read it — perhaps in one of those old red Heinemann hardbacks — you did not notice how clumsy Garnett could be. ‘Fearing the old woman would be frightened by their being alone…’ This is an ambiguous clause, and you really need the explanation which Oliver Ready gives us: ‘Fearing that the old woman would take fright at finding herself alone with him…’ When Raskolnikov tries to hurry her, and she is fumbling with the ‘pledge’ of her loan — the silver cigarette case which he has pawned — Garnett is hopelessly uncolloquial. ‘But why, my good sir, all of a minute.’ Ready’s ‘Why all the hurry, sir?’ is miles better.

She is so small that he is able to land her a blow with the blunt part of his axe directly on top of her greasy old skull. Then the blood gushed ‘as from a toppled glass’ in Ready. Better than ‘overturned’ (Garnett) or Magershack’s ‘overturned tumbler’ — the use of the word ‘tumbler’ here being inept, since, strictly speaking, a tumbler is a vessel designed to wobble, without being overturned. (Incidentally, keeping the murder weapon as an axe is also better than Magershack’s ‘hatchet’.)

So much of Dostoevsky’s effectiveness as a narrator depends on tiny details that  it is of true importance to have a punctilious translator — but also a lively one; and Ready’s version is colloquial, compellingly modern and — in so far as my amateurish knowledge of the language goes — much closer to the Russian. The central scene in the book — long before Raskolnikov has fully confessed — in which Sonya reads to him the story of the raising of Lazarus from the fourth gospel — is a masterpiece of translation. He is attracted to her because he sees her, at this point, merely as a fellow sinner. He does not realise that she is to be his saviour.

Crime and Punishment, as well as being an horrific story and a compelling drama, is also extremely funny. Ready brings out this quality well — especially in the protagonists’ families. Raskolnikov’s mother and sister are wonderfully annoying. And Sonya’s dreadful old father Marmeladov has never come so vividly to life for an English readership. It is Marmeladov’s need for vodka which has driven his daughter on to the streets, of course.

The very fine fabric of his green drap de dames is the last vestige of their genteel way of life — before vodka conquered. The shawl is wrapped round his 14-year old child to make her seem like a courtesan, and off she goes on the game. Objects — guns, knives, bits of paper — so often resurface in a Dostoevsky novel with shocking effect and the same shawl is found wrapped round Raskolnikov’s sickbed in Siberia as he lies, with the gospels under his pillow, a regenerate Lazarus.

When Raskolnikov gets waylaid by the drunken father at the beginning of the book, Marmeladov says:

This very pint of vodka was bought with her money, sir… Brought me out 30 copecks, in her own hands, her very last coins; it was all she had, I saw for myself. Didn’t say a word, just looked at me in silence. That’s how — up there, not down here — people grieve and weep, but never a word of reproach, not a word!

There are only three writers known to me who can do this blend of high comedy which at the same time makes you weep — the Shakespeare who created Falstaff, Dickens and Dostoevsky. That knife-edge between sentimentality and farce has been so skilfully and delicately captured here. A truly great translation.

Available from the Spectator Bookshop, £8.54. Tel: 08430 600033A.N. Wilson was literary editor 1981-83.

This article first appeared in the print edition of The Spectator magazine, dated 20 September 2014

Tags: Book review - fictionclassic Russian literaturenew translationTolstoy
Charles Tiayon's insight:
Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoevsky, translated by Oliver Ready

Penguin, pp.702, £8.99, ISBN: 9780141192802

Subscribers to this periodical, while Mark Amory has been literary editor, must often have felt they were enjoying an incomparable feast. Even The Spectator at its best, however, could not quite rival the periodical the Russian Herald (Russkii Vestnik) under the editorship of M.N. Katkov. This phenomenal editor, in the year 1866, secured serial publication of the two giants of Russian fiction. Tolstoy had been slow in giving Katkov enough material for continuous serial publication of War and Peace. To fill the gap, Katkov enlisted Dostoevsky. Readers could enjoy episodes from War and Peace in the spring numbers of the magazine. Then in May, they could startCrime and Punishment.

Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, who never met (Tolstoy refused a meeting), had parallel and deeply contrasting visions and careers. Tolstoy paints a huge canvas which appears to be more objectively real than reality itself. Dostoevsky, instinctively distrustful of any attempt to portray a thing-in-itself, is the ultimate subjectivist. The contrast is vividly demonstrated by the differences between the two great novels. War and Peace is the story of a national awakening, and the spiritual regeneration which occurred to Russia, and to several key figures in the novel, during the invasion of 1812. Napoleon is cut down to size in the book, made insignificant compared with the great elemental forces of fate: God, winter, Russia.

Raskolnikov, the murderous student of Dostoevsky’s novel, has interiorised Napoleon, made him his pattern to live and to die. Raskolnikov did not set out to conquer worlds, but he is a Napoleonist in the sense of believing that geniuses (he is one, naturally) are above the morality which governs the lives of lesser mortals. To prove this to himself, he carries out the callous murder of the old female pawn-broker from whom he has been getting cash in St Petersburg. Everything goes wrong, and then right.

That is, he is witnessed killing the old woman by her sister — so, in order to silence the witness, he has to perform a double killing. Yet, far from being the inhuman brute he had believed himself, he is a neurotic, fearful, self-doubting mortal who possesses a soul. While the cynical, giggling detective Porfiry Petrovich homes in on the murderer, Sonya, the virtuous prostitute who is in love with him, pleads with him to repent and to rediscover true life by kneeling at the feet of Christ. Awakening comes for Raskolnikov, as it came to Dostoevsky, in the prisons of Siberia. Whereas for Tolstoy, Christianity consisted, literally, in rewriting the gospels and making them more rational, Dostoevsky rejoiced in their saving irrationality, the inner capacity to be healed by mystery.

Sometimes new translations of old favourites are surplus to our requirements.  It might be fun for the translator, and it might make the hopeful publisher a bit of money — but has any translation of the Iliad ever been as good as that of Alexander Pope? And has any English translation of War and Peace actually been as good as Louise and Aylmer Maude’s? Sometimes, though, a new translation really makes us see a favourite masterpiece afresh. And this English version of Crime and Punishment really is better than, say, David Magarshack’s (excellent) Penguin, or Constance Garnett’s old Heinemann translation.

Take some of the most dramatic moments in the story. The murder of the first old lady, for example. The story is so electrifyingly exciting that, the first time you read it — perhaps in one of those old red Heinemann hardbacks — you did not notice how clumsy Garnett could be. ‘Fearing the old woman would be frightened by their being alone…’ This is an ambiguous clause, and you really need the explanation which Oliver Ready gives us: ‘Fearing that the old woman would take fright at finding herself alone with him…’ When Raskolnikov tries to hurry her, and she is fumbling with the ‘pledge’ of her loan — the silver cigarette case which he has pawned — Garnett is hopelessly uncolloquial. ‘But why, my good sir, all of a minute.’ Ready’s ‘Why all the hurry, sir?’ is miles better.

She is so small that he is able to land her a blow with the blunt part of his axe directly on top of her greasy old skull. Then the blood gushed ‘as from a toppled glass’ in Ready. Better than ‘overturned’ (Garnett) or Magershack’s ‘overturned tumbler’ — the use of the word ‘tumbler’ here being inept, since, strictly speaking, a tumbler is a vessel designed to wobble, without being overturned. (Incidentally, keeping the murder weapon as an axe is also better than Magershack’s ‘hatchet’.)

So much of Dostoevsky’s effectiveness as a narrator depends on tiny details that  it is of true importance to have a punctilious translator — but also a lively one; and Ready’s version is colloquial, compellingly modern and — in so far as my amateurish knowledge of the language goes — much closer to the Russian. The central scene in the book — long before Raskolnikov has fully confessed — in which Sonya reads to him the story of the raising of Lazarus from the fourth gospel — is a masterpiece of translation. He is attracted to her because he sees her, at this point, merely as a fellow sinner. He does not realise that she is to be his saviour.

Crime and Punishment, as well as being an horrific story and a compelling drama, is also extremely funny. Ready brings out this quality well — especially in the protagonists’ families. Raskolnikov’s mother and sister are wonderfully annoying. And Sonya’s dreadful old father Marmeladov has never come so vividly to life for an English readership. It is Marmeladov’s need for vodka which has driven his daughter on to the streets, of course.

The very fine fabric of his green drap de dames is the last vestige of their genteel way of life — before vodka conquered. The shawl is wrapped round his 14-year old child to make her seem like a courtesan, and off she goes on the game. Objects — guns, knives, bits of paper — so often resurface in a Dostoevsky novel with shocking effect and the same shawl is found wrapped round Raskolnikov’s sickbed in Siberia as he lies, with the gospels under his pillow, a regenerate Lazarus.

When Raskolnikov gets waylaid by the drunken father at the beginning of the book, Marmeladov says:

This very pint of vodka was bought with her money, sir… Brought me out 30 copecks, in her own hands, her very last coins; it was all she had, I saw for myself. Didn’t say a word, just looked at me in silence. That’s how — up there, not down here — people grieve and weep, but never a word of reproach, not a word!

There are only three writers known to me who can do this blend of high comedy which at the same time makes you weep — the Shakespeare who created Falstaff, Dickens and Dostoevsky. That knife-edge between sentimentality and farce has been so skilfully and delicately captured here. A truly great translation.

Available from the Spectator Bookshop, £8.54. Tel: 08430 600033A.N. Wilson was literary editor 1981-83.

This article first appeared in the print edition of The Spectator magazine, dated 20 September 2014

Tags: Book review - fictionclassic Russian literaturenew translationTolstoy
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Toastmasters say social media is killing social oratory, public speaking

Toastmasters say social media is killing social oratory, public speaking | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
IF you are a “social” being, chances are you’ve heard about Toastmasters, an organisation that trains members in public speaking.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

ne of the most active branches in NSW is in Wattle Grove, formed in 1999.

“We give our members the tools they need to gain confidence in public speaking, and to perform well in any social or public setting,” Wattle Grove Toastmasters executive member Dell Pedemont said.


Members of Wattle Grove Toastmasters Club.


Ms Pedemont says membership of Toastmasters has done wonders for many people, including a plumber who joined so he could impress guest at his wedding with his speech, and university students hoping to make memorable presentations to impress peers.

Wattle Grove Toastmasters has about 40 members, and it is keen to attract more. That was a step Liverpool accountant Ash Said, 53, took last year.

“I had migrated from South Africa several years earlier, but I needed to improve my public speaking skills. Toastmasters put me on a pedestal,” Mr Said said.

He says Toastmasters is very important now, a time social media has taken over communication,

“Our youngsters need to come out and deliver great speeches in public. They’re missing out on the satisfaction that great oratory brings”.

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Miranda Inniss's curator insight, Today, 10:12 AM

Social Media is not a subsitute for proper speaking skills.

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M. Lahlimi, vous n’avez rien compris à la question amazighe !

M. Lahlimi, vous n’avez rien compris à la question amazighe ! | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Dans le cadre du recensement qu’organise le Haut commissariat au Plan (HCP) à partir de septembre 2014, deux questions figurent dans le questionnaire (page 4) élaboré pour cette opération.

La première concerne la rubrique « Langues locales utilisées » qui concernent : la darija marocaine, le tachelhit, letamazight, le tarifit etla hassaniya. 

La deuxième question figure dans la rubrique « Langues et analphabétisme » et demande au citoyen de dire s’il sait lire et écrire les langues suivantes : l’arabe, l’amazigh (tifinagh), le français, l’anglais, l’espagnol et d’autres langues.

Dans la deuxième rubrique « Langues et analphabétisme », le questionnaire précise que la lecture de l’amazigh standard concerne l’amazigh en alphabet tifinagh.

Ce questionnaire a immédiatement provoqué des réactions de la mouvance amazighe qui le juge biaisé, délibéré et visant la remise en question de l’adoption officielle du caractère tifinagh, le 10 février 2003, par le Cabinet royal et la négation du travail scientifique et académique accompli par l’Institut royal de la culture amazighe (IRCAM).

En effet, ce dernier a réussi à codifier et à aménager le caractère tifinagh et a soumis son travail à son conseil d’administration qui a adressé une requête au souverain marocain qui y a adhéré après avoir consulté toutes les formations politiques marocaines.

Des organisations amazighes dont l’Assemblée mondiale amazighe ont appelé les citoyens à boycotter le recensement qui va à l’encontre des recommandations onusiennes en matière de langue, d’autant plus que le HCP a déjà falsifié le pourcentage des Amazighs lors du recensement de 2004.

En outre, ces réactions ont pointé du doigt la déclaration du premier responsable du HCP, Ahmed Lahlimi, qui, lors de la conférence de presse qu’il a donnée le mercredi 11 juin 2013, avait affirmé que l’intégration de la question portant sur le tifinagh dans le questionnaire se justifie par l’incompréhension que les Marocains manifestent vis-à-vis de ce caractère, sans donner de statistiques et sans citer d’étude menée dans ce domaine.

Tout juste avant le lancement de l’opération de recensement, et dans la précipitation, le HCP a affirmé avoir adressé une note aux personnes chargées du recensement afin d’éliminer la question relative au tifinagh.

Les raisons des réactions contre le recensement sont les suivantes

  • La décision royale d’adopter le tifinagh comme caractère officiel pour enseigner l’amazigh au Maroc est le fruit d’un consensus national ;
  • L’enseignement de l’amazigh, son intégration dans les médias et dans les institutions de l’Etat se sont faits en caractère tifinagh ;
  • Grace au travail académique accompli par l’IRCAM le tifinagh a été codifié et aménagé. Travail qui fut couronné par une reconnaissance internationale de la part de l’organisme ISO-UNICODE en 2004 ;
  • Le tifinagh est l’alphabet naturel pour l’amazigh, des communautés amazighes l’ont sauvegardé ;
  • Les citoyens qui ont bénéficié d’une scolarisation en amazigh en caractère tifinagh sont les écoliers du primaire âgés de 6 à 12 ans, et le recensement ne les concerne pas ;
  • La tranche d’âge concernée par la question du recensement n’a jamais bénéficié d’une formation en caractère tifinagh ;
  • Le recensement semble tabler sur une question à résultats garantis pour remettre en question un acquis national : le tifinagh ;
  • Le recensement interroge les citoyens sur une compétence dont ils n’ont jamais été objet de formation ;
  • La maîtrise du caractère tifinagh devra se limiter aux citoyens qui ont bénéficié d’une formation et des élèves scolarisés en langue amazighe, et ce travail devra être confié au ministère de tutelle en collaboration avec l’IRCAM ;
  • Dans la rubrique « Langues locales utilisées », la question limite le nombre de langues utilisées à deux et donc se limite à une approche bilingue, fait qui contredit la réalité multilingue nationale ;
  • Le questionnaire a omis de préciser le caractère des autres langues par rapport à la compétence du citoyen pour les lire et les écrire ;
  • Le questionnaire n’a pas pris en considération les langues parlées et écrites par les Marocains résidant à l’étranger (Hollande, Belgique, Allemagne…) ;
  • L’expérience marocaine en matière de tifinagh a servi de modèle à d’autres Etats d’Afrique du Nord (Libye, Tunisie…)…

En principe, le recensement de la population a pour objectif le dénombrement des logements et de la population résidant au royaume et la connaissance de leurs principales caractéristiques (âge, sexe, profession, langue(s) …) en vue d’élaborer des politiques qui visent à palier aux insuffisances et aux lacunes,et autres actions devant permettre l’amélioration des conditions de vie de la population.

Il semble que les différents recensements réalisés au Maroc, y compris celui de 2014, répondent à une vision politique sécuritaire et idéologique. Particulièrement au niveau des questions relatives à la composition ethnique de la population et au paysage linguistique.

L’Etat marocain de nature centralisé hésite et a du mal à se regarder devant un miroir.

Le recensement de 2014 supervisé par le délégué du Haut commissariat au Plan, qui, comme son nom l’indique, devrait s’atteler dans son recensement à collecter des données objectives à même de lui permettre d’avoir une vision concrète de ce qu’est le royaume, en conformité avec son histoire.

Cette opération malmène l’amazighité et lui fait subir un traitement discriminatoire. L’objectif est non de collecter des données objectives mais de conforter la politique d’arabisation et de déracinement culturel et linguistique entamée depuis l’indépendance.

Une manière parmi d’autres de perpétuer le mépris des Amazighs et de leurs langue et culture et un ingrédient supplémentaire qui met en danger la stabilité du pays et la paix sociale.

Car l’avenir du Royaume du Maroc se confond avec l’amazighité en tant qu’identité et civilisation autochtone fondée sur des valeurs modernistes que sont la démocratie, la laïcité, la tolérance, le respect de l’autre, la liberté d’expression et de conscience.

Le référentiel idéologique de l’Etat marocain basé sur l’arabo-islamisme et la vision monolithique a vécu.

L’amazighité est l’unique alternative salvatrice pour le royaume et pour sa pérennité.

C’est ce que M. Lahlimi n’a pas encore compris. Il se situe ainsi aux antipodes des multiples discours du souverain marocain qui affirment et réaffirment que l’amazighité constitue le socle et le substrat de base de notre identité nationale. Les autres apports sont des affluents qui se déversent dans le grand fleuve amazigh. Ils sont historiquement datés et datables. M. Lahlimi draine une conception arabo-baathiste héritée de Saddam et consorts. Il a peur de la vérité qui veut que notre pays soit amazigh et que la souveraineté amazighe reprenne tôt ou tard ses droits inaliénables et légitimes. Il refuse d’admettre que son « Orient arabe », qui lui sert de repère et d’inspiration, a volé en éclats parce que fondé sur des régimes népotistes dirigés par des gangs mafieux et des potentats véreux, anachroniques et malades de la haine des autres.

La revendication formulée par l’Assemblée mondiale amazighe pour son limogeage est plus que légitime. C’est une revendication salvatrice pour notre pays gangréné par des mentalités arabo-totalitaristes séniles.

Les Amazighes sont un peuple de paix et de tolérance. Lahlimi n’a qu’à comprendre que les conflits et les guerres qui éclatent un peu partout sur la planète ont des soubassements ethniques et linguistiques.

Nous espérons de tous nos vœux que notre pays en sera épargné.

Moha Moukhliss

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Dans le cadre du recensement qu’organise le Haut commissariat au Plan (HCP) à partir de septembre 2014, deux questions figurent dans le questionnaire (page 4) élaboré pour cette opération.

La première concerne la rubrique « Langues locales utilisées » qui concernent : la darija marocaine, le tachelhit, letamazight, le tarifit etla hassaniya. 

La deuxième question figure dans la rubrique « Langues et analphabétisme » et demande au citoyen de dire s’il sait lire et écrire les langues suivantes : l’arabe, l’amazigh (tifinagh), le français, l’anglais, l’espagnol et d’autres langues.

Dans la deuxième rubrique « Langues et analphabétisme », le questionnaire précise que la lecture de l’amazigh standard concerne l’amazigh en alphabet tifinagh.

Ce questionnaire a immédiatement provoqué des réactions de la mouvance amazighe qui le juge biaisé, délibéré et visant la remise en question de l’adoption officielle du caractère tifinagh, le 10 février 2003, par le Cabinet royal et la négation du travail scientifique et académique accompli par l’Institut royal de la culture amazighe (IRCAM).

En effet, ce dernier a réussi à codifier et à aménager le caractère tifinagh et a soumis son travail à son conseil d’administration qui a adressé une requête au souverain marocain qui y a adhéré après avoir consulté toutes les formations politiques marocaines.

Des organisations amazighes dont l’Assemblée mondiale amazighe ont appelé les citoyens à boycotter le recensement qui va à l’encontre des recommandations onusiennes en matière de langue, d’autant plus que le HCP a déjà falsifié le pourcentage des Amazighs lors du recensement de 2004.

En outre, ces réactions ont pointé du doigt la déclaration du premier responsable du HCP, Ahmed Lahlimi, qui, lors de la conférence de presse qu’il a donnée le mercredi 11 juin 2013, avait affirmé que l’intégration de la question portant sur le tifinagh dans le questionnaire se justifie par l’incompréhension que les Marocains manifestent vis-à-vis de ce caractère, sans donner de statistiques et sans citer d’étude menée dans ce domaine.

Tout juste avant le lancement de l’opération de recensement, et dans la précipitation, le HCP a affirmé avoir adressé une note aux personnes chargées du recensement afin d’éliminer la question relative au tifinagh.

Les raisons des réactions contre le recensement sont les suivantes

  • La décision royale d’adopter le tifinagh comme caractère officiel pour enseigner l’amazigh au Maroc est le fruit d’un consensus national ;
  • L’enseignement de l’amazigh, son intégration dans les médias et dans les institutions de l’Etat se sont faits en caractère tifinagh ;
  • Grace au travail académique accompli par l’IRCAM le tifinagh a été codifié et aménagé. Travail qui fut couronné par une reconnaissance internationale de la part de l’organisme ISO-UNICODE en 2004 ;
  • Le tifinagh est l’alphabet naturel pour l’amazigh, des communautés amazighes l’ont sauvegardé ;
  • Les citoyens qui ont bénéficié d’une scolarisation en amazigh en caractère tifinagh sont les écoliers du primaire âgés de 6 à 12 ans, et le recensement ne les concerne pas ;
  • La tranche d’âge concernée par la question du recensement n’a jamais bénéficié d’une formation en caractère tifinagh ;
  • Le recensement semble tabler sur une question à résultats garantis pour remettre en question un acquis national : le tifinagh ;
  • Le recensement interroge les citoyens sur une compétence dont ils n’ont jamais été objet de formation ;
  • La maîtrise du caractère tifinagh devra se limiter aux citoyens qui ont bénéficié d’une formation et des élèves scolarisés en langue amazighe, et ce travail devra être confié au ministère de tutelle en collaboration avec l’IRCAM ;
  • Dans la rubrique « Langues locales utilisées », la question limite le nombre de langues utilisées à deux et donc se limite à une approche bilingue, fait qui contredit la réalité multilingue nationale ;
  • Le questionnaire a omis de préciser le caractère des autres langues par rapport à la compétence du citoyen pour les lire et les écrire ;
  • Le questionnaire n’a pas pris en considération les langues parlées et écrites par les Marocains résidant à l’étranger (Hollande, Belgique, Allemagne…) ;
  • L’expérience marocaine en matière de tifinagh a servi de modèle à d’autres Etats d’Afrique du Nord (Libye, Tunisie…)…

En principe, le recensement de la population a pour objectif le dénombrement des logements et de la population résidant au royaume et la connaissance de leurs principales caractéristiques (âge, sexe, profession, langue(s) …) en vue d’élaborer des politiques qui visent à palier aux insuffisances et aux lacunes,et autres actions devant permettre l’amélioration des conditions de vie de la population.

Il semble que les différents recensements réalisés au Maroc, y compris celui de 2014, répondent à une vision politique sécuritaire et idéologique. Particulièrement au niveau des questions relatives à la composition ethnique de la population et au paysage linguistique.

L’Etat marocain de nature centralisé hésite et a du mal à se regarder devant un miroir.

Le recensement de 2014 supervisé par le délégué du Haut commissariat au Plan, qui, comme son nom l’indique, devrait s’atteler dans son recensement à collecter des données objectives à même de lui permettre d’avoir une vision concrète de ce qu’est le royaume, en conformité avec son histoire.

Cette opération malmène l’amazighité et lui fait subir un traitement discriminatoire. L’objectif est non de collecter des données objectives mais de conforter la politique d’arabisation et de déracinement culturel et linguistique entamée depuis l’indépendance.

Une manière parmi d’autres de perpétuer le mépris des Amazighs et de leurs langue et culture et un ingrédient supplémentaire qui met en danger la stabilité du pays et la paix sociale.

Car l’avenir du Royaume du Maroc se confond avec l’amazighité en tant qu’identité et civilisation autochtone fondée sur des valeurs modernistes que sont la démocratie, la laïcité, la tolérance, le respect de l’autre, la liberté d’expression et de conscience.

Le référentiel idéologique de l’Etat marocain basé sur l’arabo-islamisme et la vision monolithique a vécu.

L’amazighité est l’unique alternative salvatrice pour le royaume et pour sa pérennité.

C’est ce que M. Lahlimi n’a pas encore compris. Il se situe ainsi aux antipodes des multiples discours du souverain marocain qui affirment et réaffirment que l’amazighité constitue le socle et le substrat de base de notre identité nationale. Les autres apports sont des affluents qui se déversent dans le grand fleuve amazigh. Ils sont historiquement datés et datables. M. Lahlimi draine une conception arabo-baathiste héritée de Saddam et consorts. Il a peur de la vérité qui veut que notre pays soit amazigh et que la souveraineté amazighe reprenne tôt ou tard ses droits inaliénables et légitimes. Il refuse d’admettre que son « Orient arabe », qui lui sert de repère et d’inspiration, a volé en éclats parce que fondé sur des régimes népotistes dirigés par des gangs mafieux et des potentats véreux, anachroniques et malades de la haine des autres.

La revendication formulée par l’Assemblée mondiale amazighe pour son limogeage est plus que légitime. C’est une revendication salvatrice pour notre pays gangréné par des mentalités arabo-totalitaristes séniles.

Les Amazighes sont un peuple de paix et de tolérance. Lahlimi n’a qu’à comprendre que les conflits et les guerres qui éclatent un peu partout sur la planète ont des soubassements ethniques et linguistiques.

Nous espérons de tous nos vœux que notre pays en sera épargné.

Moha Moukhliss

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#MaddyTools : Fliplingo, l'outil de traduction automatique du contenu de vos réseaux sociaux - Maddyness

#MaddyTools : Fliplingo, l'outil de traduction automatique du contenu de vos réseaux sociaux - Maddyness | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Fliplingo est une startup fondée par Matthieu (CEO, CTO) et Guillemette (chargée de communication et clientèle) qui sont aussi partenaires dans la vie.
Charles Tiayon's insight:
D’où vient l’idée? Quel a été le constat de départ?

Alors que les médias sociaux ont démystifié le rapport entre influencers (personnes ou marques) et leur communauté, la barrière de la langue persiste et continu d’être l’obstacle qui empêche ces médias sociaux d’être réellement « globaux ». L’autre constat c’est que l’anglais n’est pas non plus la solution unique. D’ailleurs 65% des tweets par exemple ne sont pas rédigés dans cette langue. Il y a donc énormément d’autres utilisateurs à approcher dans une multitude de langues pour les marques qui cherchent à se faire connaître. 

Des solutions off-line existent, comme engager un Country Manager pour chaque marché; mais seules les très grandes marques ou entreprises peuvent en bénéficier, telles que Coca-Cola, ou bien H&M. Avec Fliplingo nous avons créé un outil pour permettre à tous de communiquer dans n’importe quelle langue sur les réseaux sociaux, en commençant par Twitter et Facebook.

Pouvez-vous nous présenter votre outil?

Fliplingo traduit et publie les posts de médias sociaux automatiquement.

Le contenu peut être soumis de deux façons: 

  • Manuellement à partir de la plateforme Fliplingo.
  • Automatiquement, en créant un « Flip » qui constitue un flux automatique de traduction d’un compte. Ce flux permet de garder les mains « libres » et ne pas répéter les même demandes de traductions. Par exemple, votre Flip pourrait traduire tous vos tweets (fonction modulable) depuis le compte @bymaddyness en Anglais, puis les poster a l’heure de NYC sur @bymaddyness_EN.


Dans les deux cas, fois le contenu soumis, Fliplingo l’envoie à un traducteur, puis le publiera immédiatement ou bien à l’heure définie par l’utilisateur (scheduler). Les fonctions les plus utilisées par nos client sont: le scheduler, qui fonctionne comme Buffer; la page de conversation, qui permet de lire ses mentions et réponses dans sa propre langue (Google translate) et y répondre (traducteurs) dans la langue de l’interlocuteur et le rapport, qui analyse la répartition des langues parlées de tous les followers et donne les résultats sous forme de graph.  

Le temps de traduction varie selon la paire de langue, mais 80% des traductions sont effectuées en moins de 15 minutes, et 90% en moins d’une heure. Actuellement Fliplingo traduit en 36 langues (97 paires de langues). Nous intégrons Twitter (depuis le lancement) et Facebook ainsi que Buffer depuis le 1er septembre.

Qui sont vos principaux concurrents actuellement sur votre marché?

Nos concurrents sont Transfluent, et plus généralement les agences médias sociaux offrant leurs services en plusieurs languages et agences de traductions. L’utilisation de la plateforme de Transfluentest très compliquée (difficile pour quelqu’un qui n’est pas Tech Savvy), leur pricing aussi. Ce service s’est d’ailleurs tourné depuis un an vers la traduction d’application et jeux. Pour ce qui est des agences, nos avantages compétitifs sont le prix, le fonctionnement 24 heures sur 24, et la rapidité des traductions.

Quel est votre business model?

Les utilisateurs s’abonnent à une souscription mensuelle qui leur donne un certain crédit de traduction (calculé en mots) + accès à certaines fonctionnalités. La fonctionnalité clé c’est le Flip, qui permet de traduire automatiquement tous les tweets (modulable) par le biais de traducteurs humains et en temps-réel.

Une actualité financière?

Nous sommes une startup bootstrapped, et avons levé environ 115 000 euros en seed funding initialement.

Quels sont les autres outils que vous utilisez au jour le jour?
  • Slack, énormément pour collaborer, envoyer des fichiers, garder un oeil sur l’activité des traductions, etc.
  • Mixpanel, pour générer des funnels et avoir une vue d’ensemble sur nos utilisateurs et clients.
  • Wunderlist, pour collaborer sur les liste de tâches quotidiennes, hebdomadaires, mensuelles.
  • Trello, pour gérer la progression du product development.
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Le site Internet du Mémorial national lance des éditions en langues étrangères_French.news.cn

Le site Internet du Mémorial national lance des éditions en langues étrangères---Le Mémorial national, un site Internet chinois visant à promouvoir la commémoration du Massacre de Nanjing de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, a lancé mercredi des éditions russe, française, allemande et coréenne.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

NANJING, 17 septembre (Xinhua) -- Le Mémorial national, un site Internet chinois visant à promouvoir la commémoration du Massacre de Nanjing de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, a lancé mercredi des éditions russe, française, allemande et coréenne.

Le site (www.cngongji.com), co-financé par le Mémorial aux victimes du Massacre de Nanjing par les envahisseurs japonais et le site Internet de l'Agence de presse Xinhua (Chine Nouvelle) Xinhuanet.com, a lancé des éditions chinoise, anglaise et japonaise le 6 juillet.

Le site Internet vise à promouvoir la compréhension internationale de l'histoire de la guerre et à favoriser la réflexion à ce sujet, a indiqué Zhu Chengshan, conservateur du Mémorial aux victimes du Massacre de Nanjing.

Son application mobile en chinois, en anglais et en japonais a été lancée le 2 septembre et permet aux utilisateurs d'accéder au site via leurs smartphones.

Mercredi, le site Internet du Mémorial National avait enregistré plus de 40 millions de clics, et 1,7 million de personnes avaient participé aux activités de deuil numériques, selon M. Zhu.

Durant les six semaines du Massacre de Nanjing perpétré à la fin de 1937, les soldats japonais ont tué plus de 300.000 habitants de Nanjing, alors que cette ville de la province du Jiangsu était à l'époque la capitale du pays.

Les internautes peuvent se connecter au site et allumer des bougies ou planter des arbres virtuels pour rendre hommage aux victimes.

L'organe législatif suprême de la Chine a fixé en février 2014 le 13 décembre comme journée nationale de commémoration pour les victimes du Massacre de Nanjing.

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Murdoch renews hostilities with Google over 'contempt' for copyright - Telegraph

Murdoch renews hostilities with Google over 'contempt' for copyright - Telegraph | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
News Corp chief executive Robert Thomson urges EU to rein in "overwhelming power" of dominant search engine
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Rupert Murdoch has intervened in a European row over the power of Google, with News Corp accusing the search engine of being "contemptuous of intellectual property" and having "cynical management" that provides "a platform for piracy and the spread of malicious networks".

In a letter to Joaquin Almunia, the European Commissioner at the head of a long-running investigation of allegations that Google abuses its dominance of the web search market to crush competition and exploit publishers, Robert Thomson, chief executive of News Corp launched a scathing attack.

He said: "There is no doubt that the case is one of profound significance for many media companies in Europe but also for the people of Europe, whose ability to access information, independently and meaningfully, is put at risk by the overwhelming power of Google.

"The company has evolved from a wonderfully feisty, creative Silicon Valley startup to a vast, powerful, often unaccountable bureaucracy, which is sometimes contemptuous of intellectual property and routinely configures its search results in a manner that is far from objective.

"The shining vision of Google’s founders has been replaced by a cynical management, which offers advertisers impressively precise data about users and content usage, but has been a platform for piracy and the spread of malicious networks, all while driving more traffic and online advertising dollars to Google."

News Corp publishes newspapers including the Wall Street JournalThe Times and The Sun in Europe, as well as books via HarperCollins.

Its intervention in the investigation comes after Mr Almunia said concessions proposed by Google in an effort to avoid a potentially damaging and expensive anti-trust case did not go far enough.

The EC has voiced concerns about four areas of Google’s business: its links to its own services, such as YouTube and Maps; the copying of content from rivals; restrictions on rival advertising and the difficulty in transferring adverts on to other platforms. The investigation is based on allegations from Microsoft, TripAdvisor and Oracle, among others.

Google mocked News Corp's complaints by referencing famous Sun headlines.

A spokesman said: "Phew what a scorcher! Murdoch accuses Google of eating his hamster."

Mr Almunia has said the investigation of Google will now not be completed before his term as Europe's competition chief finishes at the end of October.

The full text of Robert Thomsons' letter to Joaquin Almunia

September 8, 2014

Dear Vice-President Almunia,

Your decision to reconsider Google’s settlement offer comes at a crucial moment in the history of the free flow of information and of a healthy media in Europe and beyond. There is no doubt that the case is one of profound significance for many media companies in Europe but also for the people of Europe, whose ability to access information, independently and meaningfully, is put at risk by the overwhelming power of Google. The company has evolved from a wonderfully feisty, creative Silicon Valley startup to a vast, powerful, often unaccountable bureaucracy, which is sometimes contemptuous of intellectual property and routinely configures its search results in a manner that is far from objective.

News Corp has significant interests in Europe, including The Times, The Sun and The Wall Street Journal Europe, and a network of local language business newswires, as well as the HarperCollins book publishing business. We are not a small company, and we do use Google products and partner with the company on various projects (it would be impossible not to given the scale and influence of Google) but our cherished content is vulnerable to exploitation. Benefitting significantly from the efforts and investments of others, Google must do more to ensure that rights are respected and that its powerful search platform is not abused to eliminate competition.

While there are many, many honorable and thoroughly professional individuals working at Google, we have learned not to be naïve about the company. The shining vision of Google’s founders has been replaced by a cynical management, which offers advertisers impressively precise data about users and content usage, but has been a platform for piracy and the spread of malicious networks, all while driving more traffic and online advertising dollars to Google. A company that boasts about its ability to track traffic chooses to ignore the unlawful and unsavoury content that surfaces after the simplest of searches. Google has been remarkably successful in its ability to monetize users, but has not shown the willingness, even though it clearly has the ability, to respect fundamental property rights.

Sudden changes are made to the ranking and display of Google search results, which inevitably maximise income for Google and yet punish small companies that have become dependent on Google for their livelihood. Meanwhile, in recent months, Google has developed a “certification” process for Android-related products which allows it to delay or deny content companies and other businesses access to the mobile operating system, while giving itself the freedom to develop competing products. This development reflects the exponential evolution of Google from a company that is “open” to one that is selectively closed and willing to exploit its dominant market position to stifle competition.

It is worth pausing for a moment to contemplate how the world of content has evolved, and why five years is an eternity in internet time. Virtually every newspaper in Europe is in the midst of upheaval, and some will surely not exist five years from now, in part because of their own flawed strategy and lack of leadership, but also because the value of serious content has been commodified by Google. The uniqueness of news sites has been undermined by aggregation of content which transfers the front page to the Google home page. Readers have been socialized into accepting this egregious aggregation as the norm. The second phase of aggregation is that of the audience. By tracking readers and exploiting its dominance in online advertising, Google is commodifying the audience of specialist publishers and limiting their ability to generate advertising revenue. Data aggregators attempt to sell audiences at a steep discount to the original source, for example, access to 75 per cent of The Wall Street Journal demographic at 25 per cent of the price, thus undermining the business model of the content creator. This process is at a relatively early stage and needs constant monitoring to ensure that abuses are halted and that there is a fair return for newspapers, publishers and other investors in original content.

Clearly this habitual appropriation of content and audiences does serious commercial damage, but there is also a profound social cost. The internet should be a canvas for freedom of expression and for high quality content of enduring value. Undermining the basic business model of professional content creators will lead to a less informed, more vexatious level of dialogue in our society. There will be no shortage of opinions, in fact, opinions will proliferate, but they will be based on ever flimsier foundations. The quality of discourse will inevitably deteriorate and the intemperate trends we are already seeing in much of Europe will proliferate.

“Internet idealism” is used by Google and certain other digital companies as an injudicious justification for inappropriate business practices. Specifically on search, there is clear evidence that Google systematically diverts users away from relevant sites to its own related sites for commercial reasons. Google’s illustrious founders, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, sagely stated that “since it is very difficult even for experts to evaluate search engines, search engine bias is particularly insidious”. Unfortunately, Google no longer heeds that wisdom and warning (a search for “insidious” quickly lead to pirate sites where the film of that name can be viewed illegally). With video, Google routinely displays YouTube results at the top of its search pages, even if YouTube is not the original source of that content – the reason for that bias is that YouTube gets a cut of the revenue and takes income away from the company or person who created and posted that video.

We genuinely respect the sincere and arduous work that you have undertaken on the case, but our close examination of the proposed remedies suggests that they will not resolve existing problems yet alone deal with fast-developing challenges that will inevitably become serious issues over coming years. The company’s power increases with each passing day, so to allow it five years to fashion the future of content and to abuse its dominance in search would be a mistake of magnitude. Google will certainly be the winner, and among the losers will be those who create content and, undoubtedly, the people of Europe.

As you continue the investigation, we would be delighted to share with your team our expertise and experience in search and on other matters related to the Google case. We can provide both detail and context that would lead to a fuller understanding of the short and long-term consequences of the Commission’s profoundly important decision.

Thank you for your serious consideration.

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«La globalización provoca que cada día haya mayor demanda de traductores»

«La globalización provoca que cada día haya mayor demanda de traductores» | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Xosé Castro se formó en el mundo de la interpretación de manera autodidacta, algo que no ha impedido que alcance el éxito en su trabajo traduciendo películas como Mátrix y series que marcaron a toda una generación como Chicho Terremoto. Este gallego participó ayer en el Congreso celebrado en la UMU sobre Traducción e Interpretación, un trabajo que está muy presente en el día a día -«de hecho todo el mundo se ha llevado a un traductor a la cama, porque está presente en un libro o en una película», bromea- pero que muchos desconocen.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Xosé Castro se formó en el mundo de la interpretación de manera autodidacta, algo que no ha impedido que alcance el éxito en su trabajo traduciendo películas como 'Mátrix' y series que marcaron a toda una generación como 'Chicho Terremoto'. Este gallego participó ayer en el Congreso celebrado en la UMU sobre Traducción e Interpretación, un trabajo que está muy presente en el día a día -«de hecho todo el mundo se ha llevado a un traductor a la cama, porque está presente en un libro o en una película», bromea- pero que muchos desconocen.

- ¿Cómo se presenta el futuro de la traducción?

- Muy bien. Gracias a la globalización cada vez hay más demanda de trabajo. Es cierto que, como en los demás sectores, los precios tienden a estabilizarse hacia la baja, pero la globalización está permitiendo que empresas que nunca habían pensado en traducir sus productos ahora lo estén haciendo. Hay mucha demanda a escala internacional.

- ¿Es un trabajo estresante?

- Sí. Debido a la informática se trabaja con plazos de tiempo muy limitados, pero internet también ha ayudado a mejorar las condiciones de trabajo.

- ¿Qué es lo peor que le puede pasar a un traductor?

- Sin duda encontrarse con cosas que no entiende o que se escapen de su control.

- ¿Se necesita una capacidad especial para dedicarte a ello?

- Para la interpretación sí. Se necesita tener don de gentes, imagen y sobre todo confianza en ti mismo.

- Es un oficio en el que tienes que tener muchos conocimientos...

LO MÁS

- Sí. Un traductor hoy está trabajando en un catálogo para una lavadora y mañana en una legislación sobre caramelos.

- ¿Qué es lo que más demandan las empresas?

- (Ríe). Instrucciones de lavadoras. Demandan sobre todo traducción técnica. Donde menos demanda hay es en películas y libros, curiosamente lo que más le gusta a la gente. La traducción está en todas partes. De hecho todo el mundo se ha llevado a un traductor a la cama en un libro o en una película.

- No estudió la carrera en la Universidad, sino que ha sido autodidacta. ¿Se aprende más fuera del mundo académico?

- Es imprescindible pasar por la Universidad. Yo lo eché mucho en falta porque en su momento no existía la carrera como tal. Eso sí, en el mundo académico en general deberían darle un poco de más protagonismo a la parte profesional.

- ¿Qué es lo mejor y lo peor de ser traductor?

- Lo mejor, sin duda, es conocer a gente de otros países y aprender sobre muchísimas cosas. Lo peor, que al no tener horarios es una profesión difícil de separar de la vida privada. Somos traductores en todo momento.

- ¿Cuáles son los idiomas que más se demandan?

- El inglés, francés y alemán. Pero cada vez son más emergentes el árabe y el chino.

- ¿Cuál es la situación más curiosa con la que se ha encontrado?

- (Ríe). Como intérprete, en una reunión entre empresarios que se enfaden entre ellos, se salgan del guión y se empiecen a insultar. A veces tienes que extralimitarte y 'dulcificar' la traducción para que no aumente la tensión. También metí la pata en una traducción de una película: en lugar de poner 'marca' puse 'maraca', nadie se dio cuenta del error y todo el tiempo salió así en la película, sin haber ninguna maraca presente.

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Les Reines du shopping : Anne-Marie séduit Cristina Cordula, les langues des concurrentes se délient dans les coulisses

Les Reines du shopping : Anne-Marie séduit Cristina Cordula, les langues des concurrentes se délient dans les coulisses | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Cristina Cordula proposait un nouveau numéro des Reines du shopping le mercredi 17 septembre. Une nouvelle candidate s'élançait dans les rues de Paris pour trouver la tenue idéale et s'habiller de la tête aux pieds.
Anne-Marie, mère au foyer de 55 ans, devait ainsi respecter le thème « rajeunissez-vous », imposé par la conseillère en image. Après divers essayages, la candidate épatait Cristina Cordula durant son défilé. La candidate laissait son style de côté et faisait place à un look plus lég
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Cristina Cordula proposait un nouveau numéro des Reines du shopping le mercredi 17 septembre. Une nouvelle candidate s’élançait dans les rues de Paris pour trouver la tenue idéale et s’habiller de la tête aux pieds.

Anne-Marie, mère au foyer de 55 ans, devait ainsi respecter le thème « rajeunissez-vous », imposé par la conseillère en image. Après divers essayages, la candidate épatait Cristina Cordula durant son défilé. La candidate laissait son style de côté et faisait place à un look plus léger et naturel. Son chemisier imprimé s’harmonisait alors parfaitement avec son pantalon orange selon la styliste. Sa mise en beauté naturelle était parfaitement dans le thème pour l’expert en mode. En coulisse, ses concurrentes étaient moins positives.

1.4 million de Français ont suivi le divertissement entre 17h47 et 18h55, soit 12.6% de part de marché auprès de l’ensemble du public âgé de 4 ans et plus, et 20.6% des ménagères de moins de 50 ans. Une performance qui ne permettait pas à M6 de devancer Secret Story (TF1) et C dans l’air (France 5).

Les Reines du shopping est de retour ce jeudi 18 septembre en fin d’après-midi sur M6.

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Not all languages are equal in SA - Crime & Courts | IOL News | IOL.co.za

Not all languages are equal in SA - Crime & Courts | IOL News | IOL.co.za | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
South Africa's Premier Online News Source. Discover the world of IOL, News South Africa, Sport, Business, Financial, World News, Entertainment, Technology, Motoring, Travel, Property, Classifieds & more.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Cape Town - The constitution does not require the “simultaneous and equal use” of all 11 official languages for all purposes, according to findings by the Equality Court.

Judge Bennie Griesel handed down a judgment on Wednesday in which he dismissed an application to get all the legislation of Parliament published in all official languages.

The current practice is to publish national legislation in only two official languages.

The application was lodged by North West attorney Cerneels Lourens, who has also been described as a language activist, in his latest court bid for recognition of the “official status” of all 11 official languages.

He contended that the current practice undermined the official status of the other official languages and elevated English to the status of a “super official language”.

Lourens said the judgment was “disappointing”, claiming that his case had been misinterpreted.

An application for leave to appeal would be lodged soon.

In his judgment, Judge Griesel said that if equal treatment of all official languages for all purposes were intended, one would have expected to find clear provision to that effect.

Instead, the constitution provided that all official languages “must enjoy parity of esteem and must be treated equitably”.

“Furthermore, the constitution does not require the simultaneous and equal use of all 11 languages for all purposes,” wrote Judge Griesel.

The constitution, he said, expressly permitted the use of only two official languages for certain purposes, thereby “sanctioning (by necessary implication) ‘discrimination’ against the other nine official languages”.

“This raises the question, to which (Lourens) has been unable to furnish a persuasive answer, as to why the position should be different when it comes to national legislation.

“The inevitable conclusion is that, to the extent that the practice of publishing national legislation in only two official languages may be discriminatory, such discrimination is fair,” the judgment read.

Lourens had also levelled a line of attack against the joint rules of Parliament, to which the speaker of the National Assembly had provided (in court documents) a comprehensive explanation as to why English was used as the predominant language in which Parliament conducted its business, said Judge Griesel.

Among the reasons was that all parliamentarians understood English.

Judge Griesel found that there was no constitutional or statutory duty on any of the respondents – among them the Speaker, the chair of the National Council of Provinces and the minister of arts and culture – to publish or translate all national legislation in all official languages.

To the extent that publication of legislation in only two official languages “may be discriminatory”, he said, such discrimination was fair in terms of the Equality Act. He made a similar finding in relation to the joint rules of Parliament permitting the use of only two languages.

No order was made as to legal costs.

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El diccionario de eufemismos del Gobierno - 18/09/2014 - Ver vídeo online LAS MAÑANAS DE CUATRO

El diccionario de eufemismos del Gobierno - 18/09/2014 - Ver vídeo online LAS MAÑANAS DE CUATRO | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Las mañanas de Cuatro, 18/09/2014, El diccionario de eufemismos del Gobierno. Ver vídeo online.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Regularización extraordinaria, despido en diferido, movilidad exterior, recargo de solidaridad, crédito para recapitalizar o impulsar el envejecimiento activo son algunas de las expresiones que utiliza el Gobierno para presentar sus medidas intentando que los ciudadanos no se enteren de nada.  

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Internship (San Francisco): Translation Intern (Spanish/English)

The FSD Translation Intern (TI), under the supervision of an International Programs Officer and in collaboration with the entire International Programs Team
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The FSD Translation Intern (TI), under the supervision of an International Programs Officer and in collaboration with the entire International Programs Team (IPT), will focus on translating written materials between Spanish and English. The TI plays a key role in supporting a dynamic international development organization through facilitating communications, program coordination, and non-profit organization development.

Spanish fluency and excellent writing skills in English and Spanish are required. Desired qualifications include university-level training in International Development, International Studies, Translation, or equal experience.

Duties include:

  1. Assisting FSD staff in translating written documents from English to Spanish and from Spanish to English.
  2. Collaborating with the Site Teams to ensure accuracy and relevance of vocabulary and documentation.
Comment postuler

Please submit a resume and cover letter to jobs@fsdinternational.org with "Translation Internship" in your email's subject line.

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Boehringer Ingelheim traduit automatiquement ses documents à usage interne - Actualités Projets

Boehringer Ingelheim traduit automatiquement ses documents à usage interne - Actualités Projets | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Le groupe pharmaceutique a déployé une solution de traduction en interne, disponible sur son intranet, pour sécuriser son processus de traduction.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Le groupe pharmaceutique a déployé une solution de traduction en interne, disponible sur son intranet, pour sécuriser son processus de traduction.

Fondé en 1885, Boehringer Ingelheim est un groupe pharmaceutique présent dans le monde entier au travers de 142 filiales. Il réalise un chiffre d'affaires de plus de 14 milliards d'euros par an dans la médecine humaine et vétérinaire grâce à ses 47 400 collaborateurs. Il consacre 19,5% de son chiffre d'affaires net à la recherche et au développement.
Son activité nécessite des échanges nombreux de documents sensibles entre des personnes de langues et de cultures très différentes et avec un vocabulaire technique spécifique. La sécurisation des traductions est donc essentielle.
Pour traduire en temps réel des documents bureautiques (lettres, contrats, présentations...) et des courriels des langues locales vers l'Anglais, la langue officielle du groupe, le groupe a donc choisi de déployer une solution interne personnalisable avec une bonne intégration dans les logiciels bureautiques et les navigateurs web via des barres d'outils. En l'occurrence, le groupe a choisi d'installer sur un serveur propre Systran Enterprise Server. L'un des critères du choix a été l'habitude de l'éditeur Systran de travailler avec de grandes organisations internationales. Un autre a été la capacité à personnaliser la terminologie employée.
Le coût du projet n'a pas été dévoilé.

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Instructor/Assistant Professor - Writing Specialist - HigherEdJobs

Instructor/Assistant Professor - Writing Specialist
Institution:Lock Haven University of PennsylvaniaLocation:Lock Haven, PACategory:
  • Faculty - Liberal Arts - English and Literature
  • Admin - Tutors and Learning Resources
Posted:09/17/2014Application Due:Open Until FilledType:Full Time
The University invites applications for a full-time, temporary position in English beginning August 23, 2014 and ending May 29, 2015. 

This position will provide instruction, developmental academic advising and writing consultations to program participants. 

Monitor and promote academic progress. 

Assist the SSS Director with components of the program - including advising, designing and implementing academic development workshops aimed at student retention, collecting and analyzing data for program assessment, facilitating social and cultural events, coordinating service learning projects, and promoting the program. 

Essential Duties: 
  • Promote and conduct writing consultations with program students. 
  • Teach, advise, and assist the Director with various initiatives. 
  • Serve on appropriate committees. 
  • Perform other appropriate and assigned faculty responsibilities. 
  • This position may require development and teaching of courses online. 
Specific Duties:
  • Promote and conduct writing consultations with program students. 
  • Develop and coordinate newsletter. 
  • Assess writing samples and special needs. 
  • Manage a lending library of writing-related materials. 
  • Conduct writing workshops. 
  • Address student concerns on an individual basis. 
  • Plan and participate in co-curricular activities. 
  • Promote practices that contribute to student success. 
  • Engage in professional development. 
Minimum Qualifications (Required Knowledge, Skills and Abilities):
  • Master's Degree in Education, English, or closely related field. 
  • Minimum of three years of higher education experience involving writing consultation, teaching, advising and/or program administration and/or "TRIO" administration. 
  • The successful candidate must be able to communicate well and/or perform well in an interview or teaching demonstration and successfully complete the interview process. 
Preferred Qualifications:
  • A doctorate degree is preferred. 
  • 5 years experience in Student Support Services or other TRiO programs. 
  • Background in writing. 
Special Instructions for Applicants: Review of applications will begin immediately and continue until the position if filled. Applications received by October 17, 2014 will be given full consideration. 

In addition to the items requested, applicants should request three letters of reference. References will be contacted via email to upload letters on behalf of applicant. 

The successful candidate will also have to complete a background investigation as a condition of employment. 

Position is dependent upon funding.
Application InformationContact:Ms. Deana Hill
Human Resources
Lock Haven University of PennsylvaniaOnline App. Form:http://jobs.lhup.edu/postings/2328More Information on Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania
Charles Tiayon's insight:
Instructor/Assistant Professor - Writing Specialist
Institution:Lock Haven University of PennsylvaniaLocation:Lock Haven, PACategory:
  • Faculty - Liberal Arts - English and Literature
  • Admin - Tutors and Learning Resources
Posted:09/17/2014Application Due:Open Until FilledType:Full Time
The University invites applications for a full-time, temporary position in English beginning August 23, 2014 and ending May 29, 2015. 

This position will provide instruction, developmental academic advising and writing consultations to program participants. 

Monitor and promote academic progress. 

Assist the SSS Director with components of the program - including advising, designing and implementing academic development workshops aimed at student retention, collecting and analyzing data for program assessment, facilitating social and cultural events, coordinating service learning projects, and promoting the program. 

Essential Duties: 
  • Promote and conduct writing consultations with program students. 
  • Teach, advise, and assist the Director with various initiatives. 
  • Serve on appropriate committees. 
  • Perform other appropriate and assigned faculty responsibilities. 
  • This position may require development and teaching of courses online. 
Specific Duties:
  • Promote and conduct writing consultations with program students. 
  • Develop and coordinate newsletter. 
  • Assess writing samples and special needs. 
  • Manage a lending library of writing-related materials. 
  • Conduct writing workshops. 
  • Address student concerns on an individual basis. 
  • Plan and participate in co-curricular activities. 
  • Promote practices that contribute to student success. 
  • Engage in professional development. 
Minimum Qualifications (Required Knowledge, Skills and Abilities):
  • Master's Degree in Education, English, or closely related field. 
  • Minimum of three years of higher education experience involving writing consultation, teaching, advising and/or program administration and/or "TRIO" administration. 
  • The successful candidate must be able to communicate well and/or perform well in an interview or teaching demonstration and successfully complete the interview process. 
Preferred Qualifications:
  • A doctorate degree is preferred. 
  • 5 years experience in Student Support Services or other TRiO programs. 
  • Background in writing. 
Special Instructions for Applicants: Review of applications will begin immediately and continue until the position if filled. Applications received by October 17, 2014 will be given full consideration. 

In addition to the items requested, applicants should request three letters of reference. References will be contacted via email to upload letters on behalf of applicant. 

The successful candidate will also have to complete a background investigation as a condition of employment. 

Position is dependent upon funding.
Application InformationContact:Ms. Deana Hill
Human Resources
Lock Haven University of PennsylvaniaOnline App. Form:http://jobs.lhup.edu/postings/2328More Information on Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania
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Community partners work together to improve language skills

Community partners work together to improve language skills | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Sometimes, the best way to improve something is to just sit down and talk about it.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Sometimes, the best way to improve something is to just sit down and talk about it.

That’s the idea behind the American Culture and Language Exchange, a program from Pitt’s English Language Institute. The exchange matches native English speakers with international students and members of the community who want to improve their English speaking skills. Through the roughly decade-old program, partners learn from one another in a casual, conversational matter. 

Those interested can sign up for the program through a Google form. Brianne Harrison, an ELI faculty member and community outreach coordinator, matches an English speaker with an international student.  

According to Harrison, there were 66 participants in the program this summer. On average, Harrison said roughly 75 international students request a partner, equating to an estimated 150 partner groups. Native speakers can also choose to “double-up” and take on more than one conversation partner. 

“I have always believed in an outside of the classroom, beyond the four walls type of learning experience,” Harrison said.

Harrison emails each partner the other’s contact information. Then, the speaker and student must arrange a day and time to meet and get together for at least one hour each week throughout the term. 

Melanie Marino volunteers with ELI and had a conversational partner from Taiwan during her freshman year.

Marino, a junior business major, and her partner, Pei Wu, would meet at the Cathedral of Learning roughly once a week to talk about “whatever popped into our heads,” she said, or topics from ELI textbooks. 

Marino studies Chinese and Japanese and found out about the program after her Japanese professor, Sachiko Takabatake, posted about ELI on Courseweb.

“Studying in class and interacting with other students is nice and all, but this definitely helps you to get a sense of why you are learning the language in the first place,” Marino said.

Harrison said it’s challenging for the American Culture and Language Exchange to get its name out to the Pitt community and others in the Pittsburgh area who would be interested in the program. 

“I’m always thinking of new ways to reach the community and Pitt campus, as well as outside volunteers,” Harrison said. “I reach out anywhere and to anyone that I think I am going to find people who are interested in this sort of thing,”

Last week, the Culture and Language Exchange participated in Pitt’s volunteer fair, through which they recruited native English speakers to pass out flyers and spread the word about the exchange on campus.

Every semester, the program also hosts a “speed friending” session between native speakers and international students. It is the same concept as speed dating, without the romantic aspect, and the students can choose to exchange contact information after any of the rounds.

Stacy Ranson, ELI student services supervisor, works with Harrison on student pairing and availability. 

According to Harrison, ELI is often hit with a higher demand from ELI students for native English speakers than they can supply during the summer terms, when many Pitt students have gone home for break. 

“For the future, this is something that we definitely would like to improve, so we’re always looking for opportunities to expand our connections and visibility here, within the Pitt community,” Ranson said. “The fact that our students continue, term after term, to show such enthusiasm for the program speaks to its success.”

Despite the American Culture and Language Exchange’s smaller size, Ranson said she really enjoys being able to witness such positive interactions among people with distant backgrounds.  

“We really do believe that this type of exchange is such a valuable experience for both partners, and we hope that we can continue to increase the number of people we are able to bring together,” Ranson said.

Speaking with Wu has improved Marino’s Chinese conversational skills, and it was rewarding to see her personal progress.

“In the end you are taking the class to be able to communicate with native speakers, not just get a good grade,” Marino said. “Sometimes in class, you can forget that.”

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Duolingo's Luis von Ahn on Making Language Lessons Available to Everyone | Big Think

Duolingo's Luis von Ahn on Making Language Lessons Available to Everyone | Big Think | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
According to Duolingo founder Luis von Ahn, 800 million poor people around the world are trying to learn English to better themselves and improve their economic conditions. But most language lessons are expensive. His solution: Duolingo, a free app that runs on smartphones and computers.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

According to Duolingo co-founder and CEO Luis von Ahn, 2/3 of the world's language learners satisfy the following three conditions:

-They are learning English

-They hope to use the skill to pursue a (better) job


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-They are of a low socio-economic status

That means that 800 million poor people around the world are trying to learn English to better themselves and improve their economic conditions. Von Ahn therefore finds it ironic that most available methods for learning languages are prohibitively expensive, an example being  Rosetta Stone, which can run up to $1000. This is why when von Ahn decided to found Duolingo, his goal was to make the service 100% free. While such an aim lacks little in the department of altruistic ambition, it doesn't quite read as the businesses model for a sustainable company. To keep Duolingo free, von Ahn and his co-founder Severin Hacker needed to find a way to finance it.

Von Ahn drew the solution from an idea he had as a kid:

"I wanted to have a gym where it was free to go to the gym. It's a free gym, but all the exercise equipment was connected to the power grid and people, when they went there as they exercise, they would generate electricity that the gym would sell to the power grid. So that's why it was free. We wouldn't charge people but we would make money by selling electricity to the electric company."

Although Von Ahn later learned that selling human-powered energy to sustain a gym wasn't anywhere near feasible, he knew that sustaining a business model like Duolingo's depended on the company's ability to extract value from its users. It's really not all that different of a concept from how Facebook makes money by selling your personal data. Duolingo instead makes its money through selling your translations:

"What we do with Duolingo, the way we finance Duolingo is that whenever we teach somebody a lesson, so we may teach them about food words in a given language, at the end, once we've taught them about it we say hey, if you want to practice what you just learned with something from the real world, here's this document that has never been translated before that is in the language that you're learning. Can you help us translate it to your native language? And then we sell that translation."

Duolingo's clients include CNN, who you can imagine has a ton of media they'd love to be able to get out to diverse audiences. Duolingo language learners are given the option to translate a CNN story as practice. After receiving multiple translations, the users then vote for the best one to be sent back to CNN.

In just under three years, Duolingo has grown to over 42 million users, making it the most popular language-learning service in the world. More Americans are currently learning through Duolingo than are enrolled in language courses throughout the entire U.S. public school system. And while von Ahn is proud of what he and his team have accomplished, he says they're not done yet:

"But I think we're only getting started. I think we're nowhere near as good as I want to be. I think we should be able to teach you a language three, four times more effectively than we do in terms of time it takes to learn it. And so we're going to be working on that on really making it so that we are your one-on-one tutor but it's a computer one-on-one tutor and I think we'll be able to do it."

For more on Duolingo, watch this clip from Luis von Ahn's Big Think interview:

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Translation of Bapu's work nearing completion in Guangzhou - The Times of India

The translators at Guangzhou, capital of southern China’s Guangdong province, are working feverishly on the ‘Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi’— published originally by Ahmedabad-based Navjivan Trust — to meet the December deadline.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

AHMEDABAD: The translators at Guangzhou, capital of southern China's Guangdong province, are working feverishly on the 'Selected Works of Mahatma Gandhi'— published originally by Ahmedabad-based Navjivan Trust — to meet the December deadline. 

The work, that started almost a year back, is nearing completion and has now taken a different dimension. Ahmedabad, the karmabhoomi of Mahatma Gandhi for many years, is all set to become sister city of Guangzhou where the translation is taking place by experts at Sun Yat-sen University. 

The Times of India had earlier reported that Navjivan, an organization established by Mahatma Gandhi in the city, had entered into an agreement with the Chinese organizations for translation and publication of Gandhi's works. As visiting China president Xi Jinping would visit Sabarmati Ashram to know the life and times of one of the greatest leaders of contemporary times, the experts attach symbolic value to the interest shown by Chinese in Gandhi's philosophy. 

Replying to the TOI's email, Huang Yinghong, assistant professor of School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Sun Yat-sen University, said that the Chinese translation of the selected works of Mahatma Gandhi will be over by September-end and it will be published in December by Yunnan People's Publishing House. "There are five main translators who are responsible for the translation and around nine assistants who helped them in volume 1 and volume 4. The rest are translated by either one or two translators," he said. 

Kapil Raval, trustee of Navjivan, said that the agreement was inked between Navjivan and Sun Yat-sen University for the translation and publication of books to disseminate Gandhi's ideology of satyagraha and non-violence in China. The selected works include his autobiography, his first public movement in South Africa, his ideas on religion, selected letters and speeches, he said. Gandhi's autobiography in Chinese has seen 12 reprints so far. 

Yinghong in his earlier correspondence had mentioned that while there are numerous books on Gandhi written by experts is available in China, they wanted to introduce original Gandhian works for scholars and common citizens alike so that they get to know his ideas on subjects such as non-violence, social reforms and swaraj. 

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CAMEROUN :: Cameroun,Diaspora:Me Labtè! Lydie Seuleu : Sur L'importance De La Langue Maternelle Pour Les Enfants De La Diaspora :: CAMEROON camer.be

CAMEROUN :: Cameroun,Diaspora:Me Labtè! Lydie Seuleu : Sur L'importance De La Langue Maternelle Pour Les Enfants De La Diaspora  :: CAMEROON camer.be | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
CAMEROUN : Pourquoi apprendre à un enfant né dans la diaspora une langue maternelle du pays d’origine des ou d’un des parents ? C’est là une question qui taraude trè
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Pourquoi apprendre à un enfant né dans la diaspora une langue maternelle du pays d’origine des ou d’un des parents ? C’est là une question qui taraude très souvent l’esprit de plusieurs jeunes parents dans la diaspora. Les enfants nés dans la diaspora doivent s’identifier avec et s’intégrer dans leur société de naissance. À ce niveau, il ne doit pas avoir de malentendu car c’est leur société que les parents aient un projet de retour ou pas. Partant de ce point de vue, la réponse à notre question semble simple. Certains diront qu'il faut être pragmatique. Au lieu de perdre le temps avec une langue qui de toute façon ne joue aucun rôle dans le concert international, il faut que l’enfant apprenne une langue qui lui sera utile à l’ère de la mondialisation. N'est-ce pas là la réduction de la valeur d'une langue? Il est en tout cas très important de prendre la décision pour ou contre l'apprentissage de la langue maternelle à la fin d'un processus de réflexion, donc en toute conscience et connaissance de cause. Autrement-dit, il ne faut pas laisser le cour des choses faire le choix à notre place. Le présent article a entre autre pour objectif d'animer les membres de la diaspora à se pencher sur cette thématique sensible et essentielle.   

1.    Langue comme clef de voûte de l'intégration

    La langue est un facteur d'intégration fondamentale. Par conséquent, l'apprentissage de la langue dominante de la société d'accueil est très essentielle. C'est cette langue qui facilite le contact social, garantie le succès scolaire et professionnel. En d'autres termes, l'apprentissage d'une langue du pays d'origine ne doit pas se faire aux dépens de la langue d'usage dans le pays de résidence.  Sur le plan typologique, on peut identifier quatre cas de figures par analogie à la typologie de l'intégration : Premièrement, la marginalisation qui se caractérise par la maîtrise d'aucune des deux langues. Le sujet ne parle ni bien la langue du pays d'origine, ni bien celle du pays d'accueil. Deuxièmement, la segmentation qui se détermine par le fait que le sujet parle bien la langue du pays d'origine, mais connaît des déficits considérable par rapport à la langue du pays d'accueil. À l'opposé et troisièmement, l'assimilation qui quant à elle s'exprime par la maîtrise de la langue dominante au grand dam de la langue du pays d'origine. Enfin, le bilinguisme ou le plurilinguisme qui se manifeste par la maîtrise et de la langue du pays d'accueil et de celle du pays d'origine. Dans ce cas, on parle de double intégration c'est l'idéal. Dans d'autres contextes, l'intégration peut être plus complexe quand par exemple des deux parents viennent des pays différents avec des langues maternelles différentes. Un argument souvent avancé contre le bilinguisme est que le temps que l'on prend pour apprendre une seconde langue irait au dépens du temps pour l'autre langue. À ce niveau, du moins pour les familles classiques, une division du travail entre les parents serait une réponse adéquate. Chaque parent s'occupe d'une langue. Les enfants des familles monoparentales n'ont qu'un parent et on ne saurait dire que leur compétence linguistique est déficitaire. Du reste, les études montrent que le plurilinguisme n'a pas d’effet négatif sur le rendement scolaire des enfants . Au contraire, le plurilinguisme rend les enfants flexibles dans la manière de penser. 
    Une particularité des familles africaines de la diaspora est que la thématique du choix de la langue est plus complexe. Cette complexité résulte du fait que le choix de la langue ne s'opère pas seulement entre deux langues, mais suivant les cas entre trois, quatre voir même cinq langues. Les langues maternelles des parents (entre une et quatre), la langue officielle du pays d'origine et la langue du pays d'accueil. La réponse du pragmatisme ambiant serait le choix de la langue officielle du pays d'origine puisque celle-ci est souvent internationale et présenterait un avantage comparatif pour l'enfant à l'heure de la mondialisation. Le français, l'anglais, l'espagnole et le portugais puisqu'il s'agit d'eux sont vraisemblablement plus avantageux sur le marché de l'emploi que le bambara, le bulu, le Swahili ou le lingala. Cette approche est compréhensible. Seulement, une fois que l'occasion d'apprendre une langue est ratée, il est extrêmement difficile de la rattraper. Par contre, les langues internationales peuvent s’apprendre plus facilement et à tout moment. Ce qu'il convient d'être souligné, c'est qu’au-delà du caractère pratique de ces langues, il ne faut pas perdre de vue qu'il s'agit avant tout des langues issues de l'asservissement colonial. Ce qui implique qu'un attachement passionnel à ces langues peut être remis en question. En outre, cette approche pragmatique est très réductrice. Elle confine la langue à sa valeur marchande. Elle ignore son aspect identitaire, mémoriel et instructif. 

2.    Au-delà du pragmatisme réducteur de la valeur de la langue

    Le replis occasionnel et répété sur soi en tant qu'individu ou groupe d'individus semble être un désir humain naturel. Ainsi nous voulons être comme tout le monde, mais en même temps nous voulons être particulier. Nous voulons appartenir sans différence à la société majoritaire mais parallèlement, nous voulons avoir quelque chose qui nous distingue des autres. Cette contradiction apparente relève en fait de la dialectique et de la dynamique sociale. Les replis (identitaires) peuvent se faire sur la base de l'age, du métier, du genre, de la langue, de l'ethnie, du loisir, … etc. Comme le précise Amartya Sen « le sentiment de l'appartenance identitaire n'est pas qu'une source de fierté et de joie mais aussi de force et de confiance en soi » . Ce sentiment, cependant, doit être un sentiment pour et non contre un groupe. Le replis identitaire doit donc être positif et non négatif. Le replis négatif cultive la haine entre les groupes car l'identité ici se forge par le dénigrement des autres, par le refus de la diversité. Dans notre contexte, la langue serait un facteur identificateur autour duquel un groupe peut se former pour s'échanger certaines expériences, fortifier sa personnalité et son amour-propre. La langue du pays d'origine dans le contexte de la diaspora est comme une sorte de jardin secret. La portée de la maîtrise de la langue maternelle est plus palpable lors des visites aux pays d'origine des parents. Quel grand bonheur pour tout le monde de constater qu'un enfant de la diaspora parle la même langue avec ses grand-parents, cousines et oncles! C'est de la communion tout simplement.
    Ainsi la langue est plus qu'un système de règles qui servent comme moyen de communication entre les membres d'une communauté linguistique. Elle ne permet pas seulement de communiquer, de s'entendre pour gérer le quotidien. La langue peut aussi être perçue comme base de données et témoin du temps. En ce sens, elle regorge et transmet par exemple la mémoire collective. C'est-à-dire les traditions qui sont transmises de génération en génération et nous influencent dans notre manière de faire ainsi que notre perception du monde. Parler la langue de ses ancêtres, c'est aussi actualiser le lien qui nous lie à eux. Sans tomber dans le radicalisme de l' hypothèse de Sapir-Whorf, la langue nous aide à nous connaître nous-même ainsi que notre univers. Celui qui ne comprend ou ne parle pas la langue de ses origines perd au moins une bonne partie de ses racines car comme le disait Wittgenstein « les limites de ma langue signifient les limites de mon propre monde ». En d'autres termes, la perte de notre langue d'origine limite considérablement notre accès à nos propres sources. 



La langue est un instrument par excellence de la diversité. Apprendre sa langue maternelle aux enfants devrait s’opérer non en vase clos, mais en faisant des comparaisons avec la langue du pays de résidence. À ce sujet, Goethe disait que celui qui ne maîtrise qu'une seule langue ne la connaît pas vraiment. C'est en faisant des comparaisons avec d'autres langues qu'on comprend mieux la sienne. Par ailleurs l'apprentissage de la langue maternelle devrait constituer la pièce maîtresse de tout un dispositif éducationnel. Les autres éléments devant être l'histoire (contemporaine également), la culture proprement dite. C'est aussi par ce biais qu'on peut gagner la compétence inter/transculturelle. À ce niveau il serait indiqué de rappeler que le plurilinguisme est différent du multilinguisme. Alors que le dernier se renvoie simplement à la diversification de son répertoire linguistique, le premier  « met l’accent sur le fait que, au fur et à mesure que l’expérience langagière d’un individu dans son contexte culturel s’étend de la langue familiale à celle du groupe social puis à celle d’autres groupes (que ce soit par apprentissage scolaire ou sur le tas), il/elle ne classe pas ces langues et ces cultures dans des compartiments séparés mais construit plutôt une compétence communicative à laquelle contribuent toute connaissance et toute expérience des langues et dans laquelle les langues sont en corrélation et interagissent. Dans des situations différentes, un locuteur peut faire appel avec souplesse aux différentes parties de cette compétence pour entrer efficacement en communication avec un interlocuteur donné. Des partenaires peuvent, par exemple, passer d’une langue ou d’un dialecte à l’autre, chacun exploitant la capacité de l’un et de l’autre pour s’exprimer dans une langue et comprendre l’autre. D’aucun peut faire appel à sa connaissance de différentes langues pour comprendre un texte écrit, voire oral, dans une langue a priori 'inconnue', en reconnaissant des mots déguisés mais appartenant à un stock international commun » . 

    Chaque personne qui a l'occasion d'apprendre ou de transmettre une de ces langues marginalisées et qui ne le fait pas contribue sans doute à l'altération de notre diversité. Il manque d'apporter sa part de contribution à ce « stock international commun » dont parle le Conseil de l'Europe. Pour que la réussite soit au rendez-vous, il faut au préalable lever le voile sur deux choses. D'une part, il est impératif de se défaire de tout complexe par rapport à nos origines et notre langue. Ceci commence par la reconnaissance de cette dernière comme langues à part entière et non patois ou dialectes. Nos langues sont très riches que ce soit au regard du lexique, de la grammaire ou de la sémantique. Au lieu de nier ou de refouler notre identité, il faut l'assumer non pas pour faire plaisir à quelqu'un, mais parce que nous sommes d'ici et d'ailleurs aussi. Nous avons une double identité ou si on veut une identité hybride. De toute façon, dans la plupart des sociétés d'accueil, les personnes ayant une histoire migratoire (africaine) qu'elles soient de la première, deuxième ou même troisième génération, sont toujours perçues comme des immigrées. Il revient à la diaspora de revendiquer la double appartenance. Et la meilleure manière de le faire commence par la maîtrise des deux langues. D'autre part, le bilinguisme ou le plurilinguisme n'est pas aisé car il exige la discipline et un certain sacrifice. Mais il faut d'abord surmonter la peur et l’incertitude qui planent dans nos esprits quand nous pensons à l'apprentissage de notre langue aux enfants. C'est un domaine assez bien étudié et il existe une bonne panoplie de conseils pratiques sur la gestion du bilinguisme ou du plurilinguisme . Les vietnamiens qui sont considérés comme des modèles d'intégration en Allemagne par exemple parlent le vietnamien avec leurs enfants et ça fonctionne. 

3.    Chaque langue a le mérite d'être préservée et transmise
    
    Alors que la stratégie du colonialiste, dans son élan de domination du monde, consistait à imposer sa langue partout aux détriments des langues locales, une approche humaniste était pourtant pensable. À la remarque de très bien parler le tswana, Makhaya, le personnage principal du premier romain de Bessie Head, répond : « Dès le temps de Shaka nous avons présumé que le monde entier nous appartient ; c'est pour ça que nous nous donnons la peine d'apprendre la langue de n'importe quel être humain » . Ce qui veut dire que pour comprendre quelqu'un, il faut apprendre sa langue et chaque langue mérite d'être apprise. Pour appartenir pleinement au monde, il faut non seulement préserver et transmettre sa langue, mais aussi en apprendre autant que possible. Cela, dans le meilleur des cas, pas dans l'intention de dominer le monde, mais de le rendre, plus paisible, plus humain car il nous appartient. Chaque langue à quelque chose de singulier à apporter « stock international commun » indépendamment de son rayonnement géographique et du nombre de personnes qui en font usage au quotidien. Étant donné que la charité bien organisée commence par soi-même, la maîtrise de la langue de ses origines est un impératif.

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Australian dollar slumps on US Fed speech

Australian dollar slumps on US Fed speech | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Australian dollar has fallen to a fresh low below US90c after the US dollar strengthened in the wake of the Federal Reserve delivering on expectations to taper its asset purchase program but defying bets that it would drop a pledge to keep interest rates near zero for a “considerable time”.
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The Australian dollar has fallen to a fresh low below US90c after the US dollar strengthened in the wake of the Federal Reserve delivering on expectations to taper its asset purchase program but defying bets that it would drop a pledge to keep interest rates near zero for a "considerable time".

The local currency is now trading at US89.6¢, it's lowest point since March 3, down from just below US91¢ on Wednesday. It is the third time this week that the dollar has dipped into the US89c range.

The Australian dollar fell 1.3 per cent overnight on Thursday, immediately after Fed chair Janet Yellen said that data showed the US economy was improving in her policy statement at the conclusion of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) meeting in Washington.

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"The labor market has yet to fully recover," Fed Chair Janet Yellen told a press conference. "There are still too many people who want jobs but can't find them." She added that "inflation has been running below the committee's 2 percent objective."

Westpac New Zealand senior market strategist Imre Speizer described the FOMC outcome as a "mixed bag" with Yellen's later press conference revealing a slightly hawkish tone compared to her dovish pledge that policy rates would stay low for the foreseeable future.

Australian short dated 3 year government bond future yields rose from 2.88 per cent to 2.96 per cent and are currently at 2.93 per cent. The 10 year yield rose from 3.68 per cent to 3.74 per cent.

Many economists and traders had expected the central bank to deliver the $US10 billion cut to its bond buying program, which now takes it to $US15 billion a month in purchases. But what surprised many was the fact that it did not alter its rate guidance or stop using the two word's "considerable time" in reference to the need for near zero rates.

Fed officials did however amend their estimate for the federal funds rate at the end of 2015, which will be 1.375 per cent, compared with an estimate of 1.125 per cent in June.

This is likely to mean that when rates do start to rise, the trajectory could either be steep or the Fed could start to raise rates early next year so that it has adequate time to reach its new target.

The central bank target for overnight lending between banks is in the range of zero to 0.25 per cent, where it has been since 2008.

Despite the Fed's unanimous decision, board member Charles Plosser of Philadelphia, who is against the central bank's easy money policies, argued that the use of considerable time should be abandoned.

Steen Jakobsen, chief economist and chief investment office of Saxo Bank said the end result shows that "Yellen is more in control of FOMC than market gives her credit for and regional Presidents has less."

He added that the US dollar is likely to unwind its gains once the market has time to digest that it will be more of the same from the Fed for a while longer.

"[The] Market(s) initial reaction is to extend the last few weeks trade of stronger US Dollar and higher yield but considering that NET the statement did not move the needle and the FOMC remains very cautious I expect these trends to reverse when the "final analysis" comes in," he said.



Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/business/markets/currencies/australian-dollar-slumps-on-us-fed-speech-20140918-10igr6.html#ixzz3Df6SkNO0

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China's top literary prize for JNU professor - The Times of India

China's top literary prize for JNU professor - The Times of India | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Priyadarshi Mukherjee’s father saw a direct connection between the date of his birth and his career as a Sinologist and professor of Chinese at Jawaharlal Nehru University.
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NEW DELHI: Priyadarshi Mukherjee's father saw a direct connection between the date of his birth and his career as a Sinologist and professor of Chinese at Jawaharlal Nehru University. Born on the day of the India-China ceasefire in 1962, Mukherjee, now 52, has been conferred China's highest literary prize — the Special Book Award — for his many books and works of translation, but more specifically, for translating the poetry of Mao Tse-Tung into Bengali. That was published in 2012.

Mukherjee had a way with languages even as a young lad growing up on campus at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. His father, who taught at IIT, spoke several languages — French, German, Chinese and Russian among others — and Mukherjee picked up smatterings. His CV on the JNU website lists over a dozen languages he knows well enough to read and write in. Mukherjee completed grade 12 at Shantiniketan and moved to JNU for higher studies.

Mukherjee joined JNU in 1979 and has noticed the increasing interest in Chinese. "When we started," he says, "China wasn't a big economic power. 1978-79 saw just the beginning of the reform that made it one. Our generation studied the language simply because we were passionate about it. The focus has changed now. Most of the students, take jobs in MNCs right after BA. You don't even learn the language properly by then."

Mukherjee has translated from and into Chinese. His Contemporary Chinese Poems were translated from Chinese into Hindi; he collaborated with another translator to translate works in Chinese and Spanish into English. He translated some of the Rabindrasangeet into Chinese and in a way that the songs can be sung. For his translation of Mao — he's translated all the poems - he had to "hunt down books all over China and compiled the anthology from about 15 books." "I had collected them all but sat down to seriously translate and annotate in 2009," he explains, "The Chinese has also appreciate by efforts to classify his works into categories." The 95 poems - Mukherjee had to "weed out" the propaganda slogans - have been classified into sections such as military campaign, anti-soviet revisionism, romantic (Mao has written a few poems for his wife) and ones written in collaboration with others. Mao was translated - that too from English - for purposes of propaganda in Bengal earlier.

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Unos aficionados trabajan en una traducción no oficial de The Elder Scrolls Online

Unos aficionados trabajan en una traducción no oficial de The Elder Scrolls Online | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Buscan nuevos colaboradores para terminar el proyecto.
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Un grupo de aficionados ha anunciado que está trabajando en la traducción al español de The Elder Scrolls Online, una tarea nada sencilla dada la enorme cantidad de textos que tiene el juego.

Actualmente cuentan con un equipo de solo ocho traductores, siendo uno de ellos un profesional de la industria, aunque todos colaboran de forma altruista en su traducción.

El equipo busca ampliar su plantilla para poder ofrecer el juego completamente traducido para abril del año que viene, ya que necesitan ayuda para cumplir esa fecha con éxito. Si estáis interesados en colaborar, podéis acceder a su web e informaros de todos los detalles.

The Elder Scrolls Online es un MMORPG ambientado en Tamriel que ya está disponible en PC, mientras que a PS4 y Xbox One no llegará hasta más adelante. Se estrenó el pasado mes de abril.

A continuación os dejamos con un vídeo en el que podéis ver los avances que han hecho hasta ahora.


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