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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
This month our nation took one more crucial step in promoting early childhood education by helping millions of American Indian and Alaska Native children sustain their Native languages and heritage as an essential component of their academic success.
We commend the federal Office of Head Start for reaffirming its commitment to the integration of American Indian/Alaska Native tribal languages and culture in Head Start and Early Head Start Programs across the country. This action will help the 45,175 American Indian/Alaska Native children currently served by Head Start to thrive both academically and culturally.
Research studies conducted by Neblett and Umaña-Taylor; Phinney; and the Office of Head Start have shown that culture-based education increases Native students’ socio-emotional development and improves educational outcomes.
It can be seen firsthand with the ‘Aha Punana Leo Native Hawaiian immersion schools, where students have achieved significantly higher graduation and college attendance rates than their counterparts in other schools. Learning their Native language can give children a sense of security and pride in their cultural identity, which in turn is associated with greater self-esteem, more positive peer and family relationships and stronger ties to the community.
Immersion and dual-language teaching approaches are essential to reverse the tragic and rapid loss of indigenous languages. At one time, there were more than 300 indigenous languages spoken in North America. By 1998, this number was reduced to 175, and unless urgent action is taken scarcely 20 of these languages are expected to be spoken in 2050.
The Office of Head Start’s recent action acknowledges the important federal role in revitalizing Native languages, since the Native American Languages Act of 1990 found that the “lack of clear, comprehensive, and consistent Federal policy … has often resulted in acts of suppression and extermination of Native American languages and cultures.”
This is why the tremendous language revitalization, racial healing and early childhood education work taking place in Native communities in New Mexico and other parts of the country is so important — and supported by the Kellogg Foundation.
The Pueblo of Jemez has developed a clear vision for culturally based early childhood development and is now implementing a Towa language immersion approach in their Head Start programs.
Additionally, the University of New Mexico’s American Indian Language Policy Research and Teacher Training Center is increasing the overall quality of Pueblo Indian tribes’ early learning programming by providing Native language curriculum design, development and implementation support.
The federal guidance to support language immersion and dual language models in Head Start should be applauded as a key step in revitalizing our nation’s indigenous languages. This action taken by the Office of Head Start can contribute to improved outcomes for children and families if accompanied by funding that supports strong tribal governance and partnerships; improved teacher training and support; robust parent engagement and leadership; and the creation of tailored curriculum, materials and assessment tools.
While the federal government has a primary role in implementation, state and tribal governments and the private, philanthropic and nonprofit sectors each have an important part to play.
At the Kellogg Foundation, we believe every child, regardless of race or income, deserves an equal opportunity to succeed in school and life.
The early childhood years are the most critical in establishing our children’s trajectories for success. The need for educational systems serving Native students to embrace indigenous languages and cultures builds on a racial justice framework that is focused on ensuring that all Native children thrive.
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On September 5, 2008, when Mini Krishnan, Editor of Translations at Oxford University Press, asked me to translate UR Ananthamurthy’s Bharathipura, I was nervous because she told me he was not very happy with an earlier translation of the novel. I had never translated anything before.
But Mini put me through the paces. She sent me three stories by Vaidehi and she liked what I had done with them. She felt I could do it. She trusted me when I did not know what it was to be trusted as a translator. I was new to the experience but I knew Mini would steer me. She had been my student of the English Honours batch of 1971 at Mount Carmel College and we were good friends.
Late one evening, I sent her the first chapter of my Bharathipura as a sample. I told her she could take a call after reading it. The next morning, I received a call.
‘Naanu, Ananthamurthy.’ Prof. UR Ananthamurthy introduced himself in Kannada.
‘Namaskaara, Meshtre,’ I said, ‘I sent the first chapter to Mini last evening.’
‘I’ve got it. I’ve read it. I don’t know how to tell you how good it is… I couldn’t have written this way.’
‘But it’s yours,’ I protested. I was new to translation, you see.
‘Yes, that’s true,’ he said, ‘I can write this way in Kannada but I can’t do it in English. My English is academic. You’ve written from your heart, from your spirit.’
That was an invaluable insight. It helped me see my mission as a translator: I was to transport the heart, the spirit of the text in Kannada into its English version. Much later when I did read the first translation of Bharathipura I could see why he had not liked it; the variety of prose was academic
Learning to fail
There was so much else to translation I was yet to discover.
The most humbling was to realise there was something in Bharathipura that I could not translate. It is the way the Brahmin protagonist, Jagannatha, sees the Holeyas.
Part of the problem is with grammar. The English plural, they, does not differentiate between human and non-human animates. For instance, in English, when we say, “They came”, we could be referring to a group of people or a herd of animals. But in Kannada, we say, “avarubandhar” for human and “avu bandhavu” for non- human animates.
The other part of the problem is with usage. One context in which we use avu bandhavu for human beings is while referring to children, to express endearment, to be indulgent. Here, the attitude is positive. But in any other context when we use it to refer to adults it is generally negative. The use implies contempt, as if we are equating people with animals. And that’s exactly what Jagannatha thinks when a group of Holeyas come to him every evening to attend the adult education classes he conducts for them; ‘avu bandhavu’, he says to himself as if they were not human.
This is tragic, because he is a well-meaning social activist committed to breaking down caste barriers and yet he has not transformed himself; he cannot see them as people. Jagannatha’s inability to change his attitude towards the lower castes is central to the angst in the story and yet I could not transfer it to the English version because the language is not equipped to describe that kind of othering.
English has no way of showing how the protagonist dehumanises the Holeyas by using the non-human third person plural personal pronoun to refer to them. And so, they came as it occurs in the translation, is neutral in attitude. It is not coloured with contempt as it is in the original. I had to add, as if they were a herd of cattle to the text to bring out the negative attitude of the protagonist towards them.
I have faced similar problems many times since then. The idiom of the Holeya, Chooda’s mother in Bharathipura as she defends her dead son has no equivalent variety in English. And so, I could not transfer her pronunciation and style of speaking to the master, Jagannatha. It is unfair to her that her lines are in chaste English.
I had similar problems while translating Vaidehi’s Asprushyaru. I could not be faithful to the local variety of Kundapur Kannada with its mix of Tulu and Kannada. It was indeed a tightrope walk to find a fine balance between being faithful to the flavour of the text and being concerned with its intelligibility to the reader.
Learning to read as an outsider
As a Kannadiga, I had to learn to read Kannada novels as an outsider. For instance, I did not realize what avu signified contextually in Bharathipura. I owe this insight to Mini. I was reading the novel to her and she was following it in translation when she stalled me to seek clarification. ‘What is avu?’ she asked.
As I was explaining to her the sophistication of a structure in Kannada grammar that is absent in English, I became aware of its implication is terms of meaning and attitude. Mini does not know Kannada and the Kannada reader in me was too much of an insider to see the purpose in the incongruity of the non-human third person plural pronoun with reference to the Holeyaru.
Thanks to her question, I could become enough of an outsider to interpret the cultural significance of its use in the context. I became sensitive to language as a vehicle of culture-specific implications.
Learning to retain
This insight helped me retain the title of one of S Diwakar’s stories as Runa. The story is based on a real-time connection that Masti Venkatesha Iyengar, the eminent writer in Kannada, shared with a cobbler. I could not translate the title to either of its equivalents in English, Duty or Obligation, because neither expression brings out the depth of meaning embedded in the culture-specific term runa.
While runa does mean duty, its reach goes far beyond the meaning of the expression; it describes the sense of responsibility we feel towards some people due to an inexplicable bond with them that goes beyond lives. We talk about it as runaanu sambhandha. I retained the original title, much to the writer’s delight, and added a few lines in the story to unfold its deeper significance.
Similarly, with the title to the lead story in a collection of Vaidehi’s stories, Kruancha Pakshigalu and Other Stories; there was no way I could have rendered the title in English as The Curlews, for instance, without tampering with the mythological framework on which the story rests. The very expression, Krauncha Pakshigalu, is rich in connotative value since the fate of a pair of those water-birds is said to have inspired Valmiki to write the Ramayana.
I wish I could have similarly retained the expression gudi in Bharathipura. It is a significant instance of polysemy in the context of the theme; gudi refers to both temple and the dwelling of the Holeya. But, to avoid confusion in English, I had to translate it as either temple or hut, whichever was relevant to the context.
Learning to let go
Fortunately, any story gains significance not only through its language but also through the images it creates. And, sometimes, the way I saw these images helped me interpret the texts in ways not envisaged by the authors. And, in collaboration with them, I could transcreate the titles instead of translating them.
One such title is Diwakar’s, Krauya. The story is about the disgust an Iyer professor and his wife feel towards their only child, a daughter. She disappoints them at birth for they had longed for a son for several years. She disappoints them as she grows up for she is not even attractive. And, as if to add insult to injury, she becomes a victim of polio. The parents share a companionship and Alamelu feels alienated.
And so, everyday, while walking to the vegetable market, she takes a detour through the slums to enjoy the sense of community the dwellers share. She feels one with them when one of them calls out to her in Tamil, “Enna, Iyer kutty”’ He sees her as an outsider, an Iyer woman, and tries to tease her but Alamelu is happy to be acknowledged at all. She is thrilled when some of men pass lewd remarks as she walks by. And one day, as an innocent victim of a local brawl she lies dying in the lane.
A vegetable vendor leaves his cart and sits down by her side leaning her against his chest. The gathering mob feels sorry for her, brings her a cool drink when she asks for water. She breathes her last filled with a deep sense of belonging. I asked Diwakar if I could focus on that final epiphanic revelation of kinship Alamelu experiences. He said that made better sense and now the title is transcreated as Epiphany; a literal translation of Kraurya would be Cruelty.
The other example is Vaidehi’s Asprushyaru. A literal translation of the title would be Untouchables, reminding us of Mulk Raj Anand’s classic, The Untouchable. But the overall image the novel creates is not so much of segregation based on caste and class as of connections forged through humane considerations.
Vasudevaraya, the head of a Brahmin household, tries to make the ideal Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, (The whole earth is one family) as real as possible in his house. In his compassion for Thukri, the Koraga woman who is with child, he brings her home to be tended during childbirth and after. The word rakham in Hebrew refers to womb in the singular and, in the plural, stretches to mean compassion. The patriarchal connotation for the term would be gut.
With gut-wrenching compassion Vasudevaraya takes Thukri, who belongs to the lowest of the low castes, into his home and his family; into his womb as it were. But the title cannot become Vasudevaraya’s Family because the protagonist’s name is Vasudeva. The suffix, raya defines his Brahminical antecedents. Vasudeva, the person, has the courage to go beyond the restrictions of his caste to fulfill his basic urge to be humane. And so, with her permission, I had to let go of Vaidehi’s title, Asprushyaru, and transcreate it as Vasudeva’s Family to acknowledge the positive energies the novel contains.
Learning to wonder
I wonder if there is a deeper writer-self writing itself out through the writer. Is that why there are patterns in their stories that the writers are not aware of? How else can I explain why Diwakar or Vaidehi could not see the positive patterns in Kraurya and Asprushyaru that made me change the titles to Epiphany and Vasudeva’s Family, respectively?
Why didn’t URA see the full significance of the character, Chikki, in his Bharathipura? I remember the twinkle in URA’s eyes when I pointed it out to him. To me the image of Chikki, Jagannatha’s maternal aunt, making ganji and sending it with some mango pickle to the Holeyas on the night they are victims of arson is like Christ feeding the five thousand. Here is a child-widow rising beyond the restrictions of ritual purity of her caste to fulfill her maternal compassion for the homeless by making pots of gruel for them. She is the counter-point to the protagonist, Jagannatha; naturally being what he is striving to become but failing.
And then there is URA’s female protagonist, Chandri from Samskara. URA gave me a high-five when I showed him where AK Ramanujam had misinterpreted Chandri’s character in his translation of Samskara. In 2012, while interviewing URA for the Oxford Perennials edition of Samskara, I read out a passage from the original and matched it with AKR’s translation of it (p 46 in AKR’s text).
AKR’s version reads: Her mother used to say prostitutes should get pregnant by such holy men. And there is no equivalent of holy in the relevant paragraph in the Kannada text (p 39). My version of the original would be: Chandri said to herself, ‘Remember what Amma used to say about the kind of men from whom a prostitute should receive the fruit of the womb (garbhaphala)? Such a man is Acharya, in looks (roopa), in character (guna) and in charisma (varchassu).’ (p 137 of Samskara, OUP Perennial)
My version brings out the essence of Chandri’s character in URA’s text. Chandri is prakriti and sees Praneshacharya as purusha, a stud. She has the primeval desire to procreate, natural and pure. She has no sense of guilt; she was born to a way of life and she lives it fully. AKR changes the intention of the original version by adding an ethical overtone; he imputes to Chandri the need to feel redeemed by a holy man. URA says, ‘Well, not everyone would agree but that was the problem with Ramanujam. He tried to write English like an Englishman.’ (ibid) Did AKR have a Victorian code of morality in mind? Does a translator translate for his readership? I wonder.
And learning to add
Although I had quibbled about the intrusion of an expression in Samskara that had altered the author’s intention in creating Chandri, I found the technique of elaboration useful in bringing out the contextual meaning of a word while translating Na D’Souza’s Dweepa. The novella is full of eloquent silences; the silence of the voiceless and the silence of the stifled. What can one say about a despicable situation in which the families of the bonded labourers, Brya and Hala of the Hasalara community find themselves when they are bundled out of their environment like commodity in a story where a landlord, Ganapayya, becomes a victim of displacement in the name of progress and development?
In Kannada, one word suffices to describe Byra and Hala: Huttalugalu. The expression connotes with their social and cultural predicament. But translating that expression literally as labourers bonded from birth would puzzle a reader unaware of a specific social system in India. The contextual value of the original expression, huttalugalu, requires an extended explanation in English: They were bonded labourers, bonded from birth to their masters as repayment of debt owed by their father or grandfather.
I found that the translation of the intention in a piece of literary writing is achieved through multiple levels of reading that lead to multiple levels of writing. The spontaneity of retelling a story is stalled by the meta-reader in the translator as she sees gaps in meaning, significance and flavor and closes them by choosing from both languages to make the third language of the specific translated text. And this third language keeps changing to meet the peculiar demands of each text.
The most difficult part of this exercise was in transferring the flavour of the original in Vasudeva’s Family where Vaidehi uses a local variety of Kundapura Kannada which is a mix of Kannada and Tulu expressions. And then there were the cultural nuances of Sanskrit in URA’s Bharathipura and of Tamil in Diwakar’s Kraurya.
As you can see, I could have not worked isolation. Translation is a collaborative effort. My interactions with the authors taught me more than I could have asked for. Mini, my editor, honed my skills by advising me to work the meanings of expressions into the context wherever possible to keep the footnotes to a minimum. She also suggested chapter headings as sign-posts.
Translation is a means to an end. Let us hope that the connections we make through translations will equip us to see more similarities than differences in our multicultural milieu. That would serve to make translation a powerful tool for a cultural confluence. To be worthy of its mission, translation has to fulfill that deeper necessity.
Susheela Punitha has translated Vaidehi's Kruancha Pakshigalu and Other Stories for the Sahitya Akademi and the other stories mentioned in the article for Oxford University Press. Her translation of U R Ananthamurthy's Bharathipura (2011) was shortlisted for both The Hindu Literary Prize and the DSC Prize for South Asian Literature in 2011.
We welcome your comments at firstname.lastname@example.org.
5 IT Terms All Small Business Owners Should Know
By Monique Valeris For America's Backbone Weekly
Running a successful small business is about more than just resolving employee issues, fostering collaboration among team members and meeting sales goals. An understanding of technology is key to remaining competitive, boosting productivity, and expanding your operations in an effective manner. Here are five IT terms small business owners need to grasp if growth and efficiency are part of your plan.
A content management system (CMS) is a tool designed to manage content on a website. It includes features that enable you to create, publish and manage Web content, including text, images and video, even if you have very little technical expertise. Many systems accommodate third-party plug-ins that allow you to offer advertising features, conduct polls or launch chat rooms. It can also enable you to alter the visual look of your site. A comprehensive content management system is key to planning and managing Web site content.
Search engine optimization (SEO) is crucial to marketing any business online. It's a strategy to improve your website's ranking in search engine results. SEO is a very involved process that involves the positioning of keywords within content, among other tactics. With SEO, it's important to think about the ways people search online when producing content. The goal is for users to find your website easily when browsing through search engine results relevant to your business or industry.
This is when you host your Web site data on virtual servers at a remote location from your physical business. The term "cloud" means the server is accessible via the Internet.
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Software as a Service refers to accessing an application online without the need for a physical copy of the program on your device. A SaaS vendor hosts the application and provides support, which means you don't need to use your own hardware space or rely on in-house IT to maintain the software.
Invoices can be delivered to customers and other business partners electronically. In lieu of paper, electronic invoices can create significant time and cost savings for businesses.
These terms are just a few of the basics all small business owners need to be familiar with if they want to be competitive in today's hyper-competitive, networked economy.
More on http://www.uscellular.com/business/index.html?utm_source=americasbackbone.com&utm_medium=referral&utm_content=logo&utm_campaign=abb from our sponsor
Copyright (c) 2015 Studio One Networks. All rights reserved.
Technology is changing at an incredible pace. Keeping up with tech terms can be confusing and intimidating.
You run across them all the time -- reading online, listening to the news and watching TV. Instead of understanding the story, you're left scratching your head and missing the point.
Well, those days are over! Below, you'll discover the true meaning behind five confusing tech terms.
1. Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a new category of technology that includes smart thermostats, smart locks, smart cars and many other things. At its very basic level, IoT refers to connecting everyday objects to the Internet with built-in wireless technology so they can be controlled and monitored via an app on your smartphone.
In February, the Consumer Electronics Show was dominated innovations in "smart" household items. Tea kettles with Wi-Fi controlled temperature, toothbrushes that tell you when to stop brushing and wall sockets that allow you to control any appliance with a voice command. It's kind of like the excitement we all felt when we got our first TV remote.
But just because you can control something with your smartphone, does that mean you should? It will be interesting to watch what really has an impact on our day-to-day lives.
Do you wonder who came up with the "Internet of Things" term? It was coined by Kevin Ashton, executive director of the Auto-ID Labs:
"I could be wrong, but I'm fairly sure the phrase 'Internet of Things' started life as the title of a presentation I made at Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999." - Full article
2. Net Neutrality
Net neutrality is a concept that ensures that everyone gets equal access to the Internet, wherever and whoever you are.
It's in the news because on February 26, 2015, the Federal Communications Commission FCC approved new rules that safeguard the neutrality of the net. This ruling included reclassifying broadband access as a telecommunication service, which makes it subject to heavier regulation and prevents providers from creating "fast lanes" for payment.
This means that big companies like Amazon, Netflix and Google can't pay to have a faster pipeline to deliver their services. Everyone has the same access to Internet speeds, so the little guy can compete equally with the big guys when it comes to Internet access.
The new net neutrality rules also prevent companies from throttling, which means they can't restrict or slow down Internet service for some customers.
Blocking is also now prohibited, as seen in this recent news story, where Comcast was trying to block access of HBO Go on Sony consoles.
3. Jail Broken
You may have seen used phones for sale that are marked as "jailbroken" or "unlocked".
Even though it appears these two terms are used interchangeably, they have very different meanings when it comes to technology.
When a phone is unlocked, it means that it can work on any mobile network. For example, if you buy your phone from Verizon, you can only use it on the Verizon network unless the phone is unlocked.
A jail-broken phone, on the other hand, allows you to install apps not approved by Apple and not in the App Store. This makes the warranty invalid, since you've compromised the device by installing apps not approved by the manufacturer of your phone.
Unlocking and jail breaking are in the news because of a legal ruling that went into effect on February 11, 2015, that requires U.S. carriers to unlock out-of-contract phones so they can be used by any carrier.
AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, U.S. Cellular and Verizon are now required to notify customers whose devices are eligible for unlocking.
A meme (rhymes with "team") is a modern-day fable or parable that spreads rapidly on the Internet. It can also be a joke, mesmerizing story or an expression of speech.
Evolutionary biologist, Richard Dawkins, first introduced the term "meme" in 1976. It comes from the Greek word "mimema", meaning "something imitated" according to the American Heritage Dictionary).
I recently heard the term used on "The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon." His meme is associated with his teenage-girl character, whose favorite word is "'ew."
If you want to get in on the action, you can adapt a meme to apply to many situations. There are meme generators that let you add your own clever twist and share with your friends and family.
Wearables-- also known as wearable technology, wearable sensors, and wearable devices-- are a category of technology that you wear on your body to enhance your experience with technology.
Wearables have been around for a while. You may have had one of the original wearables-- the 1980s calculator watch.
This category of technology has been in the news because tremendous advancements in wearable technology are under way. The long-awaited Apple iWatch is set to be released on April 24th.
With wearable technology, you can easily listen to music, track daily fitness results and set goals, and capture amazing video footage practically anywhere. Popular products include headphones, activity trackers, smart watches and action cameras.
Are there any tech terms you've heard lately that baffle you? Leave a comment and I'll do my best to explain them.
Sign up for our weekly update to stay current with technology.
Two Doctoral Student Positions in Translation Studies are now available for application at our department. The Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies is part of the Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
This year’s announcement will focus on applications in the field of interpreter-mediated interaction/interpreting as a linguistic and social practice, but applications in the area of translation will also be considered. The availability of adequate supervision is essential when admitting a doctoral student. Read more about our research areas.
Please note that the PhD programme in Translation Studies takes place in a Swedish language education and research environment. Non-Swedish speaking doctoral students are expected to acquire a working knowledge of Swedish as soon as possible, but this is not part of the PhD programme.
Information regarding Swedish language courses at Stockholm University can be found at:
Swedish language course for international employees at Stockholm University
In the Admission regulations you will find more information about how to apply for the position.
Ref. No. SU FV-0637-15
Deadline for applications: 15 April 2015
The University site: Doctoral Student Positions in Translation Studies
PhD Programme in Translation Studies
Global businesses understand the importance of using style guides for the creation of content, but many are unaware that similar guides can be designed specifically for their translation projects. A typical style guide contains a company’s standards and expectations for materials that must be followed when writing and designing documents, websites, or graphics. Guides like this are created to ensure that brand image is accurately portrayed and it remains consistent across the variety of content an organization produces. This same concept can be applied to the translation of content, and it is equally important to define the styles and conventions that should be used in international markets.
What Is a Translator Style Guide?
A translator style guide outlines the grammar, syntax, and tone that translators should use to represent a company’s product to the target audience. When starting a translation project, it is crucial for businesses to implement these style guidelines. Creating a document for the translator to follow that explicitly defines the expected style for translated materials allows translators to know which methods they should use upfront. It removes the inefficient decision-making process for translators concerning issues such as personal or formal tone, writing in active or passive voice, using sentence fragments, and using technical versus simplified terms. In addition, these style guides contain information about the target audience, such as level of education and technology skills. This valuable insight can be used by the translator to cater content for a specific audience’s needs and capabilities.
In the guide, a translator may also find the key terms that an organization is using for a particular campaign, as well as the desired translations for them. For example, McDonald’s “I’m lovin’ it” campaign had its slogan translated in a few markets, such as Germany, while keeping the original US English in the majority of world markets, including Japan.
How Do I Create a Translation Style Guide?
Organizations with employees based in the target markets should utilize their style and wealth of local knowledge by involving them in the creation of the style guide. This can be especially helpful if these personnel are reviewing translated content prior to its publishing because they will eventually be using the guide for editing purposes. To simplify the process for the busy reviewers, consider using a checklist where your in-country reviewers indicate their personal style preferences. An organization can either use the completed checklists to create a formal guide or have their language service provider craft it.
An alternative approach is to create a style guide for one market, have reviewers from other markets comment on it, adding their own input, and then base the guides for other markets on the feedback received. Once the style guide has been created, it should be handed off to the language service provider, who can then distribute the guides to the translators. Since translation style guides are created for a specific market, companies should have a separate style guide for each market in which they do business. The actual guides can either be written in English with examples in the target language, or entirely in the target language.
Why Should My Business Use One?
Typically, translated content is checked by a business’s localization testing once the translation has been completed. The problem with this method of review is that mistakes in the translation go unnoticed until the very last minute. This makes it more challenging and costly to correct them. By using translator style guides, businesses can save time and money by decreasing the number of corrections that must be made during the review process, thereby avoiding delays in publishing.
Another issue with these translation assessments is that many of the reviewers tend to make changes based on personal preference, causing inconsistencies in translated content and overall brand image. The style guides remove the discrepancies in personal taste because they give reviewers specific quality and style guidelines to follow. The average translation style guide only takes between 8 and 10 hours to create, but saves countless hours of correcting errors in tone, style, and grammar in the long run.
To learn more about translator style guides and why all global businesses should use them for translation projects, check out this FAQ from Lionbridge: What Are Translator Style Guides?
In the previous three chapters on Language & Style we looks at structures, words and grammar. In this, the final chapter in this section, we look at these issues in the context of reporting and writing across different languages, some of the challenges of translation and some of the main dangers to look out for.
If you are a journalist working in a multilingual society, you may have to work in more than one language. Whether you gather the information in one language and write the story in another, or whether you write a story first in one language and then rewrite in another language, you face the task of translation. However, if you have a good command of both languages and follow a few simple rules, translation should not be difficult.
The previous three chapters on language and style have looked at structure, words and grammar. In this, the final chapter in this section, we provide some general guidance when working in more than one language. This is written only in English, but the processes we describe always involves two or more languages. It is possible that English will not be one of the languages you work in when translating. To avoid confusion, we will call the language which you are translating from (or conducting interviews in) the source language; and we will call the language you are translating into (or writing the final story in) the target language.
The principles of translation
The first thing to remember is that translation is the transfer of meaning from one language to another. It is not the transfer of words from language to language. You must translate the meaning of what is being said, rather than do it word-for-word. This is because languages are not just different words. Different languages also have different grammar, different word orders, sometimes even words for which other languages do not have any equivalents. The English spoken by a scientist may have words which a simple farmer cannot even start to imagine. And the farmer is likely to have words for things the technologist never dreamed of.
Simple steps in translation
We will start by talking about the simplest form of translation - the one where you already have a story written down in one language (the source) and you want to translate it into another language (the target). The steps to follow are:
Read the whole of the original source story through from beginning to end, to make sure that you can understand it. If you cannot understand everything that is said, you cannot translate it. If there are any words or phrases that you do not understand, you must clarify these first. You may decide that the ideas they express are too difficult to translate or not worth translating, but you need to know what they are before you can judge.
Do a first draft translation, trying to translate all the source material. But do not translate word-for-word. Remember that you are translating the meaning. When you have finished the first translation, you will now have a draft story in the target language.
Go back over the whole of your draft translation and polish it without looking at the source original. (You might even like to turn the source story face down on your desk so you cannot cheat.) Make sure that your translation reads well in the target language.
Compare the final version of your translation with the source original to make sure that you have translated it accurately. This is when you can make any detailed adjustments in individual words or phrases.
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Beware of words or phrases we call "false friends". These are words in the original source language which you retain in your translation, often because you cannot think of the correct translation. If you cannot think of the right word, how can you expect your reader or listener to? Of course, languages borrow from each other all the time. If a society comes across a new idea, it may simply use the foreign word without inventing a word of its own. Remember, however, that you are translating meaning, not words. If you come across a word in your original language which has no equivalent in the target language, perhaps you can use a phrase (i.e. several words) instead. For example, many languages do not have a word for "computer". Instead of retaining the English word "computer", can you translate it as "a machine which does brain work" or something similar? Be careful, though, that you do not try to re-invent the community's language to suit your own way of thinking. If you have problems with translating words, consult experts or ask your colleagues to see if you can reach agreement on the correct translation. If you are a journalist working in a small language community, the words you decide upon could become the standard usage.
Of course, some foreign words will inevitably creep into other languages. Words like "computer" are becoming widely accepted by speakers of non-English languages and may eventually be understood by everyone. The problem arises in the time between the foreign word being first introduced and it being understood by everyone. During such transition periods, use the word untranslated, but follow it immediately with a translation or explanation. For example, you might write in your target language the equivalent of:
The provincial government is to buy computers for each of its local offices. The computers are machines which will help office staff to keep accounts, write letters and do other jobs.
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You cannot translate words in isolation. Words get their meaning from how they are used in each situation - what we call their context. You must do a contextual translation. You should use a bilingual dictionary where one is available, but be careful when looking up translations for individual words. Dictionaries are useful, but there is very often more than one translation for individual words. The best dictionary is one which defines the word in its various contexts. For example, a simple English word like "skip" has several quite different meanings. It can mean any of the following, depending on the context: to move lightly, especially by jumping from one foot to another; to omit or leave something out; to deal with something quickly and without much thought; a large container for transporting building materials, especially waste. It can even be short for "skipper", the captain of a ship or sports team. You can see that using the wrong translation of "skip" could have some unfortunate results.
Listen to the little voice in your head if it tells you that a translation seems strange. It is better to ask advice than to write something silly. You may not know all the uses for each word, especially slang words which you cannot find in dictionaries. For example, mechanics often refer to an adjustable spanner as a "monkey wrench", when it has nothing to do with monkeys.
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You do not have to be an expert in linguistics to make good translations. If you know your target language well, you can usually hear in your head whether the sentence sounds correct in your translation.
Your translation should not try to duplicate the word order or grammatical construction used in the source language unless it is also correct in your target language. For example, some languages put the verb (the "doing word") at the beginning of a sentence, some in the middle and some at the very end.
You do not have to use all the words from your source material for translation if your target language can cope without them. For example, we may say in English "The ship sank lower in the water", whereas in another language the words "in the water" may be unnecessary because the words for "sink" in relation to "ship" already includes the idea of "water".
Also, do not be afraid of using more words in your translation than in the original. Although in journalism you should aim to keep your sentences short and crisp, this must not be allowed to interfere with the clarity of the ideas you are trying to communicate.
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Some other problem areas
Translation is a very big and complicated field which we cannot discuss in great detail here. However, the following are some other problem areas you might want to keep in mind:
Understatements and euphemisms
Be aware of the cultural differences in languages. Some languages like to hide unpleasant facts beneath understatements or euphemism. Euphemisms are mild or inoffensive words which are used in the place of harsh or hurtful words.
Some speakers might use humour in one situation which another language would not permit. Again, you must understand the meaning in context.
Words such as "although", "but", "from", "even" and a host of others are usually very important in English, as they are used to show the relationships between the words in your sentences. Getting these small words wrong can alter entirely the sense of the sentence.
These can sometimes cause problems in their different forms. There are, for example, quite distinct meanings for the words "can", "may", "must" and "should". If you are not sure, it is best to avoid the construction altogether and say it a different way.
Some languages are more accurate than others in certain areas. For example, many language groups in Papua New Guinea have more than 10 different words for varieties of sweet potato. The Inuit Indians of Canada have different words for 20 separate things which in English we just call "snow".
English is not a precise language in many areas. Be aware that a vagueness in English may not be acceptable in another language. For example, we can say "Doctor Smith" in English, whereas in Chinese we have to know the gender of the doctor to translate the word "doctor".
Sometimes the exact meaning in the source language is left unclear (ambiguous) on purpose, in which case you should try to keep it that way. This is especially so when reporting claims, accusations and hearsay evidence in such things as police stories. For example, a person might be charged in English with "unlawful carnal knowledge", which usually means a sexual offence against a person under the age of consent. You should not translate that as "rape of a child" or "sodomy of a little boy" or any other specific sexual act unless that is part of the charge. It is better in this case to use a phrase similar to "a sexual offence against a young person".
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Names and titles
There is still a debate about the need or otherwise of translating names from one language into another. For example, would you retain the English title "Education Department" or translate it into something like "office for schools"? Of course, a lot depends on how the rest of your community use the term, especially those people who are most closely involved, such as the Education Department itself. Your newspaper, radio or television station may have a policy on this. If not, perhaps you should get together to decide on a policy, taking into account how the community in general deals with names and titles. Get a large, hard-bound exercise book for the newsdesk, thumb-indexed A to Z down the side. You can call this your Translation Style Guide. Once you have agreed on the correct translation for any problem word, enter the word with its translation on to the correct page in the book. Revise the book every so often to make sure that all the entries are still relevant. If your newsroom computers are networked, create a common file which everyone can access.
There are two ways people use names (or titles). The first is to identify the place or person, the second is to describe their function. It is usual to leave untranslated names which act as signposts for people, but translate those names which describe a function. For example, you would not translate the word "Baker" in the name "Baker Street", because it acts as a signpost, but you would probably translate the name "Police Station".
If a language used by your community is also used elsewhere in the world, you should remain aware of how it is spoken in other countries. For example, French may be commonly used in your society, so you need to keep up-to-date with how French is used in other French-speaking countries. Remember that all languages change, especially in their motherland. Constantly refresh your understanding of the way the language is developing both in your own society and elsewhere.
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Translation during news gathering
So far, we have talked mainly about rewriting a story in one language into a story in another language. But your work may involve interviewing in one language and writing the story itself in another language. For example, your newspaper may be printed in English, but you have to interview a villager in his mother tongue which is not English.
The best way of doing this is to conduct the interview in the villager's language and make your notes in that language too. You can then translate your quotes into English as you write your story. This method means that, while you are conducting the interview, you can ask questions in the villager's language to clarify any doubtful points. You can also check your story back with him in his language to make sure you have the facts correct.
However, some languages may have been written down only recently and so may not have a clear and easy written form in which to make your notes. If this is so, and if you are fluent in both languages, you may be able to listen in the villager's language while making your notes in English. You are translating as you listen and write. This may work perfectly well, but a word of warning: Trying to translate while also concentrating on what the villager is saying may introduce errors into your notes. Ask the villager to slow down a little so that you can make your notes, then check your notes at the end of the interview by translating them back into the villager's language for him. Radio and television journalists can overcome this problem by using their tape recorders, but newspaper reporters might also find a tape recorder useful in such situations. You should still make notes, but have a tape recorder running at the same time so that you can check later to make sure that you made the correct translation during the interview. (See Chapter 16: Interviewing basics.)
There is one final complication of which you must be aware. This comes when you are interviewing in a source language, writing your story in a target language and then having to translate the same story back into the source language. This might occur if you have to produce a special language bulletin or an edition of your newspaper in the source language. The danger is that you might not get an exact translation back into the source language, and so you might misquote someone. When writing a story which has to be translated twice, always refer back to your original notes when writing your second story, so that you can get the quotes exactly right.
As this is the last of the four chapters on Language & Style, lets look back at the main lessons we've learned in this section:
You must keep your language clear and simple so that your readers or listeners can understand.
Sentences should be short - no longer than 20 words or three concepts (ideas). Sentence structure should be simple; it is best to write in the active voice.
Explain any new words whenever you use them.
Avoid jargon, unnecessary words and clichés.
Check all your work to make sure that everything you write obeys the rules of grammar and punctuation.
When translating, translate the meaning of sentences, not the individual words.
Always keep your readers or listeners in mind whatever you write.
Vann’s boundless curiosity led him to study Old English with David Johnson at FSU and begin a translation of the epic poem “Beowulf.” He’s currently revising that translation.
“He’s an international best-seller, with books translated into 20 languages,” Roberts said. “The new one, ‘Aquarium,’ has been optioned for a movie. He’s a superstar in Europe and is becoming one here. I used to write recommendation letters for him — now I’m going to ask him to write them for me.”
A satirist, columnist, feminist, literary critic, translator and media presenter, Mrunalini has 15 published books to her credit. Also a professor of Comparative Literature in Telugu University, Hyderabad, she is well known for her Telugu translations of R K Narayan’s Malgudi Days and Gulzar’s Dhuan. Excerpts from an interview:
You wear many hats — that of a short-story writer, translator, critic, feminist and a radio and television host. Which of these roles do you enjoy most?
Obviously, I enjoy all of the above. But, if I have to make a choice, I would say radio is my first love. I have loved every moment behind the microphone. I feel I communicated best on radio, where I saw no one and no one saw me. Having said that, I also enjoy all the other roles. In fact, some of them overlap with the others. I am a feminist in the sense that I have lived life on my terms, enjoying freedom with all its responsibilities.
Regarding television, I do love the recognition I receive as a television host. Some of my shows on women have, I believe, changed the perspective of women, and on women, too. I have become a counsellor for women mainly as a result of what I say on television.
Your translations of ‘Malgudi Days’ and ‘Dhuan’ have been critically acclaimed. What is your criteria for choosing books for translation?
Frankly speaking, I have not chosen those books; they chose me. I mean, Sahitya Akademi asked me if I can translate Gulzar and I jumped at the idea, having loved his work both as a lyricist and a director all these years. Again, I have always been a fan of R K Narayan, and when a Bengaluru-based publication, after having read my translation of Robin Sharma’s The Monk Who Sold His Ferrari, asked me to translate Malgudi Days, I was happy. Some renowned short fiction writers in Telugu have told me how much they enjoyed Malgudi Days in Telugu and I was glad I could do justice to it. But, it’s true that I do take up translations only if I like the book. I love fiction and would be happy translating it; right now, I have some offers from NBT, hopefully, I will chose some good ones.
What are the challenges you face during translation? Does the reputation of the writer of the original work overwhelm you?
Translation, as most people would tell you, is more difficult than original writing. Here, you have to get into the mind of the original writer and recreate it in another language. I love writers who understate; I love writers who are ironical, and irony, as we all know, is not easily translatable. But I do enjoy getting the feel in between the lines that only a fiction writer can offer. I am very particular about getting the ‘tone’ of the writer, not just the words. My main worry, always, is whether the translation is natural or contrived. I try to make it natural. As for being overwhelmed by the original writers, I can’s say I am. But I would like to bring their peculiarities to my readers; hence, though I myself am a writer, I take care that my style does not intrude into my translation. I prefer retaining the original writers’ style in my translation.
What kind of writing are you focusing on now?
At present, I’m concentrating on literary criticism. My latest collection of essays has just come out. I have two more books of literary criticism lined up. I am also attempting a novel.
You are also a short story writer. How is the short story scene in India today?
Short story is one genre which has not had ups and downs or seasons in all Indian languages. Poetry and novel have had their good and bad phases, but short story has been uniformly good. The best thing about today’s short story scene is that there are many new writers from different backgrounds. Their unique sensibilities and life experiences are showing both in their subjects and language. The richness that comes out of this obviously adds to the value of this genre. My only concern is that sordidness and tragedy are dominating the short story scene at the expense of humour and satire.
You were a part of this year’s Jaipur Lit Fest? Do you think lit fests promote reading?
I am not sure. However, I do think that literary festivals do help people, especially today’s youth, realise that a good book is worth more than 10 sessions in a Personality Development class.
Tradition and electronic bibles at the Public Bible Reading at the Utah State Capitol with many community and religious leaders reading favorite passages from the Bible for National Bible Week. Salt Lake City has been selected by the National Bible Association as the National Bible City of 2013 and with this honor, the National Bible Association will host several interfaith Bible-themed events in the city, Monday, Nov. 25, 2013, in Salt Lake City.
Tom Smart , Deseret News
The New Testament features gospel accounts by four different writers with four different perspectives. The story of the mortal Jesus and the risen Christ is far too large for any single account to adequately cover.
I stood by watching with amazement when my daughter was born. I only wrote down a few thoughts at the time, certain I’d never forget any detail.
More than two years have passed and now I realize my journal entry is utterly inadequate to the gravity of that moment. My wife’s record of it is locked in her memory and written on her heart. When we combine our accounts, we get a little closer to the day that changed our lives.
But we also get a little farther away. Neither of our stories suffices in isolation because we experienced the birth so differently. While we remain true to our individual witnesses, we also respect the differences in perspective.
Similar things can be said about the birth of Christianity — Jesus’ ministry, death and resurrection followed by the spread of the gospel. The earliest witnesses of Jesus shared the gospel by word of mouth. Letters by the apostle Paul began appearing around the A.D. 50s, and it took even longer for the written Gospel accounts to appear.
About 50 years after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, one particular writer traditionally identified as Luke decided to present yet another “orderly account.” Luke was aware that many others had already written gospel records and scholars show he likely borrowed from a few of them. Four particular accounts eventually made it into our New Testament canon of scripture.
The birth of Christianity involved more than any one writer could hope to capture.
Because of their similarities, Mark, Matthew and Luke are called the “Synoptic gospels,” meaning they “see the whole together.” They follow the same basic chronology but they don’t always include the same information or agree on every detail. Mark doesn’t depict a Nativity scene, for instance, but begins his account at Jesus’ baptism. Most scholars see Matthew and Luke drawing on Mark for information, while supplementing their accounts with stories of Jesus’ birth. The gospel writers emphasize different aspects of Jesus’ nature and ministry — John differing most of all. “Each (account) is unique,” as the LDS Bible Dictionary explains, “and has much detail that is not shared by the others.”
Christians haven’t always appreciated the fact that a careful reading of the New Testament reveals different points of emphasis — not to mention contradictions. From Tatian the Assyrian’s "Diatessaron," written during the second century, to Elder James E. Talmage’s "Jesus the Christ," written in the early 20th, many writers have created gospel “harmonies.” Such harmonizations combine information from all four Gospels into a singular account of the story of all stories.
Harmonizations provide much food for thought, but they also risk overlooking important differences that might otherwise help us draw closer to Christ. For example, Luke’s repeated emphasis on women, the poor, widows and the marginal may be more relevant to some readers than Matthew’s focus on the fulfillment of Old Testament scriptures.
As Joseph Smith’s inspired revision of the Bible suggests, we’re dealing with “The Testimony of” individual gospel writers — testimonies. (The first footnote in the LDS edition of the New Testament cites the Joseph Smith Translation's change from “The Gospel According to St Matthew” to “The Testimony of St Matthew.”) Each wrote from a unique vantage point for a particular audience. As with any witness account — whether it be the birth of your own child, the birth of the Messiah or the birth of Christianity — we can expect variation.
This knowledge raises two questions that can prompt hours of fruitful New Testament study. First, in addition to their similarities, what differences exist among the four Gospels? Second, what do these variations suggest in particular cases (why do Matthew and Luke offer divergent genealogies of Jesus?) and in general (what do different perspectives suggest about the process of revelation?).
Differences don’t necessarily signal lack of reliability; they can tell us something about what particular witnesses were ready to receive, or what their life experiences helped them notice or filter out.
The New Testament features gospel accounts by four different writers with four different perspectives. The story of the mortal Jesus and the risen Christ is far too large for any single account to adequately cover.
Just as our own individual testimonies of Jesus Christ differ from each other based on our personal experiences, so also do the scriptural accounts. The Gospels challenge us with the paradox of unity in diversity.
The fact that our sacred scriptures include a diversity of witnesses suggests that God values diverse perspectives. And so should we.
Blair Dee Hodges is the public communications specialist for the Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship at Brigham Young University and host of the Maxwell Institute Podcast. His views are his own. Contact him at email@example.com.
Before Umberto Eco gained an international following for his novels, at a time when graduate students cataloged their research findings on index cards, he authored the highly readable manual “How to Write a Thesis.” It has been translated into 17 languages and it remains in print in Italy, 38 years after the original publication. Now MIT Press has come out with an English translation by Caterina Mongiat Farina and Geoff Farina. Eco is a first-rate storyteller and unpretentious instructor who thrives on describing the twists and turns of research projects as well as how to avoid accusations of plagiarism. JAN GARDNER
In order to have bioproducts such as medical devices approved by health authorities outside of the United States, companies need to be not only aware of their products’ safety and effectiveness, but also sure that they include accurate documentation. There are several documents that need to be carefully filed and submitted, many of which require translation into foreign languages. While the language translation process for medical devices and other bioproducts can be time consuming and difficult to manage, there are some best practices that can be followed in order to minimize costs and time.
When applying for approval in the European Union (EU), biotechnology companies begin the process by filing original documentation that includes Instructions for Use (IFU), Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), operation manuals, installation guides, labels, and decals for medical devices. The IFU is particularly important for a medical device since it contains information provided by medical device manufacturers about the device, its proper use, and safety precautions.
In Europe in particular, all products are required to have a CE Mark, guaranteeing that their safety and authenticity are verified and properly translated, enabling manufacturers and traders to commercialize them in the European Economic Area (EEA). The CE Mark, as well as all other documentation for medical devices, such as IFUs, need to be translated into all 24 official languages of the European countries.
This means that in order to get a medical product approved in the EU, companies need to translate the documentation, requirements and labels for their product into Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish in addition to providing native English documentation.
When beginning the management of a translation project for IFUs or other key documentation for CE Mark approval, there are some recommendations that are generally useful. One best practice is to compile a set of glossaries and styles for technical terminology, abbreviations, and acronyms, which may be reused on multiple applications and projects for different medical products and devices. This is particularly helpful if submitting products or devices to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) or other governing bodies in the EU is to be an ongoing process.
In addition, during the translation process, it is best to avoid the use of abbreviations and acronyms in the source documentation, which may cause confusion in other languages. Multiple synonyms, colloquialisms and metaphors are also to be avoided; these are unnecessary and difficult to translate, and reduce universal understanding. Maintaining a simple, clear and consistent text that explains the purpose of the product and other required information is considered the best approach.
Despite the fact that some companies are already accustomed to the application and approval process with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), there are major procedural differences in the EU — particularly as they pertain to translation into multiple languages — that may complicate the approval of a medical device or product and its entry into the EU market. Bioproducts are highly regulated throughout the EU, and selling a product without having the proper authorization and CE Marking is punishable. If a company is caught commercializing a CE-Marked product without proper translated information, usually after a complaint from a competitor or customer or due to a random check, it may trigger an investigation from the regulatory body, requesting the company to further clarify the information and justify why certain information is not translated.
Large medical device firms that have to deal with translating IFUs and other documentation on a regular basis sometimes opt for building their own in-house translation team. However, for the majority of medical device companies, hiring translation firms with proven knowledge and experience in translating IFUs for medical devices for the CE Mark is often the most cost-effective and safe approach to ensuring proper submission and approval. EU officials not only expect translated IFUs to be clear, concise, and explanatory for the country that they are being marketed in, but also look to ensure that the translations are accurate and consistent compared to one another across the 24 languages in the EU. In order to ensure this, working with one central translation firm that can manage the project as a whole ensures that the translations will be consistent with one another, as opposed to hiring multiple freelance translators who are not centrally managed as a team and do not communicate with one another.
When choosing a translation firm for medical device IFU projects, be sure to ask for the company’s previous experience in similar projects. While no two translation projects are the same, finding a company that has done similar work in the past successfully is essential to making sure that the translations for your company’s products are in compliance with EU regulations.
Roger Moore said comments he made in an interview with a French magazine, appearing to suggest Idris Elba could not play James Bond because he wasn't British enough, were "lost in translation."
The 87-year-old actor, who portrayed the superspy in seven films, was interviewed by Paris Match about the role. According to Express.co.uk, when Moore was asked if Idris Elba would make a good Bond, he reportedly said:
"A few years ago, I said that Cuba Gooding Jr. would make an excellent Bond, but it was a joke! Although James may have been played by a Scot, a Welshman and an Irishman, I think he should be 'English-English'...Nevertheless, it's an interesting idea, but unrealistic."
Some publications interpreted Moore's comment to mean he didn't think the London-born Elba was English enough for the role.
After reports of the interview appeared on British sites, such as The Daily Mail, Moore responded on Twitter that he was misquoted:
"An interview I gave to Paris Match implies I said something racist about Idris Elba. That is simply untrue. #Lost in translation."
In response to someone on Twitter, he followed up with:
"(W)hen a journalist asks if 'Bond should be English' and you agree, then quotes you saying it about Idris Elba its out of context."
With a later tweet, Moore added as clarification:
"We've had Bond as Scots-English, Welsh-English, Australian-English, Irish-English and English-English. That's what I was saying."
Elba, known for his roles on The Wire and Luther, has been rumoured to take over the reins of 007 when Daniel Craig steps down from the role, ever since a leaked e-mail from then-Sony Pictures Entertainment co-chairman Amy Pascal suggested as much. But nothing official has been announced.
With fine costumes, brilliant background score that has a mix of Oriental and Arabic music, good cinematography and razor-fine edits, "Dragon Blade" glitters in its high quality production values -- but unfortunately fails to lure the audience owing to its poor narrative and dubbing.
This Chinese film, "inspired by true events" that occurred circa 48 BC, is an action-packed epic drama that showcases the heroic deeds of a Chinese General in rebuilding and destroying the lost city of Regvm on the Silk Route.
Film: "Dragon Blade"
Cast: Jackie Chan, John Cusack, Adrian Brody, Joey Jozef, Lin Peng, Mika Wang, Choi Si-won, Xiao Yang, Wang Taili, Sammy Hung, Steve Yoo, Vanness Wu, Karena Lam, William Feng Shaofeng, Lorie Pester and Sharni Vinson
Director: Daniel Lee
The film bookends with present day narration of two researchers discovering the lost city, and soon we are transported to the long lost era, when China was under the reign of Emperor Yuan of the Han Dynasty, where the strategic location of the city on the Silk Route had 36 tribal nations vying for dominance.
By weaving a few historical characters and unrelated events, the tale soon recounts the adventures of Huo An (Jackie Chan), the Chinese General of the Silk Route Protection Squad and his bromance with Lucius (John Cusack), the Roman general who is fleeing eastwards to protect his young ward, the blinded heir Publius (Jozef Waite), from his brother, the evil Consul Tiberius (Adrien Brody), who is now tracking them with his vast army.
Huo An offers help, rounding up support from the surrounding tribes and setting up a climactic stand-off between Tiberius' mighty army and a united force of Silk Route residents.
The narration is packed with frequent high-pitched, well-choreographed action sequences which include a mix of Kungfu style Chinese martial arts and battle manoeuvres of the various ethnic tribes.
While the tale is of an epic stature, about the lost city -- how it was reconstructed in 15 days only to be soon destroyed again -- the screenplay has invested much time in the personal relationship of the characters and the finale is more of a simulation of the event.
Also, with a mix of Chinese martial arts and battle manoeuvres of the various ethnic tribes layered like an over-buttered sandwich, the narration gets soggy.
Chan's Huo An is a nice, likeable buddy character, one with an edge over his comrades.
With ample footage in action and emotional scenes, it is one of the best characters Chan has portrayed in recent years. He shares an amiable rapport with John Cusack and their onscreen chemistry is palpable. This is evident during the second act, just after their initial clash when they exchange life philosophies, fighting techniques and even architectural suggestions.
Cusack as the loyal Lucius, and Lin Peng as the wild Uyghur warrior Cold Moon, who considers herself betrothed to Huo An according to folk laws, are pleasantly appealing and their performances stand out among the other A-listers.
In contrast, Jozef Waite's immature Publius and Adrien Brody's villainous portrayal of Tiberius seem contrived.
Dubbed in several languages, the English version is like the tedious journey of the Romans. Sitting through it is Chinese torture. The essence of the film seems to have got lost in translation.
Idris Elba can't be Bond because he isn't 'English English' says Roger Moore: Star claims comments about London-born Luther actor were 'lost in translation' after becoming embroiled in race row
Twitter condemns Roger Moore over his 'racist' comments on Idris Elba
Elba is the strong favourite to replace Daniel Craig as James Bond
Daniel Craig has said that Elba is the only actor available to play 007
Sir Roger took to Twitter to deny that he had said 'something racist'
By DARREN BOYLE FOR MAILONLINE
PUBLISHED: 11:09 GMT, 28 March 2015 | UPDATED: 15:39 GMT, 28 March 2015
Veteran actor Roger Moore has blamed a French magazine for embroiling him in a racism row after it reported his comments that Idris Elba cannot play James Bond because he was not 'English-English' enough.
Sir Roger made the comments in an interview with French magazine Paris Match, although the former Bond star claimed his words had been 'lost in translation'.
The actor, who left Britain in 1978 and splits his time between Switzerland and Monaco said: 'An interview I gave to Paris Match implies I said something racist about Idris Elba. That is simply untrue.'
Scroll down for video
Roger Moore, pictured, claimed that he was misquoted when it was reported Idris Elba could not play 007
Sir Roger Moore took to Twitter this morning to clarify the comments he had made to Paris Match magazine
Idris Elba, pictured, is the bookies favourite to play James Bond once Daniel Craig finishes with the role
Idris Elba posts FUNNY selfie in response to Bond rumours
Following the revelations, Sir Roger has faced strong criticism on Twitter over the suggestions. Sir Roger made the 'English-English' comments, even though former Bonds Sean Connery, Timothy Dalton and Pierce Brosnan were Scottish, Welsh and Irish.
The 87-year-old actor, who is an ambassador for Unicef, starred in seven Bond movies between 1973 and 1985.
Filming on Idris Elba's hit show Luther is brought to a...
SEBASTIAN SHAKESPEARE: Idris Elba can't be Bond because he...
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Sir Roger told Paris Match: 'A few years ago, I said that [black actor] Cuba Gooding Jnr would make an excellent Bond, but it was a joke!' replies Sir Roger, 87, who starred in seven Bond movies between 1973 and 1985.
'Although James may have been played by a Scot, a Welshman and an Irishman, I think he should be "English-English",' he continues.
'Nevertheless, it's an interesting idea, but unrealistic.'
Reaction on social media has been overwhelmingly negative with Twitter users accusing Sir Roger of 'racism'.
Many commentators highlighted the fact that Elba was born and raised in the East End of London.
Twitter users expressed their anger and disbelief over Sir Roger's comments on Idris Elba
One person thought the ro
One user said Roger Moore 'is a bit racist' over his controversial comments,
Elba is seen as the leading contender to play Bond once Daniel Craig holsters his Walther PPK for the last time.
Bookmaker Paddy Power has Elba as the 7/4 favourite to be granted his Licence to Kill.
Leaked Sony emails suggested that Elba was being considered for the role, while current Bond Daniel Craig as also said the Hackney-born actor is the only possible choice to replace him.
Sean Connery, pictured, who was replaced as Bond by Roger Moore, played 007 with a Scottish accent
Timothy Dalton, left, who played James Bond during the 1980s after Moore was born in Wales
While Pierce Brosnan, right, pictured with Desmond Llewelyn, left, was born in the Irish Republic
How English is "English enough" to play 007?
According to Sir Roger Moore, English born and bred actor Idris Elba isn't sufficiently "English-English" to be James Bond.
In an interview with Paris Match magazine, a French news outlet, Moore -- who played Bond in seven movies between 1973 and 1985 -- said it was "unrealistic" for The Wire and Luther star Idris Elba to take over the role.
The Daily Mail translated some of his remarks:
"A few years ago, I said that Cuba Gooding Jr. would make an excellent Bond, but it was a joke! … Although James may have been played by a Scot, a Welshman and an Irishman, I think he should be 'English-English,"" Moore was reported as saying in response to a question about Elba becoming Bond.
The Scot, Welshman, and Irishman he's referring to are Sean Connery, Timothy Dalton, and Pierce Brosnan, respectively.
English actor Daniel Craig has played the iconic spy in the most recent films. The new trailer for the next movie, Spectre, was released this week.
PICS: 7 of the Coolest Moments from the New Spectre Trailer
Moore -- like Elba -- was born in London.
After the Daily Mail reported on the interview, Moore took to Twitter to claim his remarks were mischaracterized.
"An interview I gave to Paris Match implies I said something racist about Idris Elba. That is simply untrue. #Lost in translation," he wrote.
An interview I gave to Paris Match implies I said something racist about Idris Elba. That is simply untrue. #Lost in translation.
— Sir Roger Moore (@sirrogermoore) March 28, 2015
Then, in the grand tradition of Twitter self-defense, he retweeted a bunch of things his followers said about how not-racist he is.
"*Ahem* Sir. Roger starred in Live And Let Die. Almost the whole cast are black. Lying journos!" read one message Moore retweeted.
Idris Elba has been coming up in conversations about the next Bond for the past few years. Pierce Brosnan said in an interview with Radio Times that Elba would be a great replacement once Craig decides to end his 007 career. When the hacked Sony emails were revealed, one from now-former studio head Amy Pascal said, "Idris should be the next Bond."
Conversely, Rush Limbaugh said Elba was a bad choice because Bond should be "white and Scottish."
NEWS: Idris Elba Responds to James Bond Casting Rumors
For his part, 42-year-old Elba has said he would "absolutely" take the role of Bond if it was offered to him. He jokingly tweeted a photo of himself and said, "Isn't 007 supposed to be handsome? Glad you think I've got a shot!" in December 2014.
Isn't 007 supposed to handsome? Glad you think I've got a shot! Happy New year people. pic.twitter.com/3g9lAl2Uo3
— Idris Elba (@idriselba) December 27, 2014
It's not Elba's first time poking fun at himself -- check out what he said about the mysterious "bulge" photo from his last movie set.
ISLAMABAD: Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOUI) on Friday held a seminar on ‘Promotion of mother language, as tool to safeguard national identity’. Eminent scholar, author of many book on languages Dr Tariq Rahim highlighted the importance of mother language, especially its impact in power politics. He explained how various nations progressed and dominated the power of politics through language. Langue, he said always serve as an identity symbol. School of Education at Lahore Beaconhouse National University’s Dean, Dr Tariq Rahman, said the language also contributes a lot in ethics politics, and it is also closely connected with nationalism. In country like Pakistan, he said mother language is the best medium of instruction. He also spoke about the impact of language in gaining power. Various rulers and foreign occupants used language tool to control the life of the people, he said. Dr Tariq highlighted the rationality in learning language for seeking due place in the society. In his welcome remarks, Vice Chancellor Prof Dr Shahid Siddiqui appreciated the scholarly contribution of Dr Tariq in promoting mother language in Pakistan. The language, he said has a vital role in promoting ideas, belief and thoughts. It has great impact in power politics. Various foreign powers promoted their hegemony by exploiting language tools, he added. University’s English Department’s Chairman Dr Abdul Hafeez, also praised the intellectual work of the guest speaker in the field of language.
El Nobel de Literatura, fallecido este jueves, escribió un poema sobre la censura y la vigilancia en los régimenes totalitarios.
I- Les escribí lleno de precauciones. Pero todo cuanto no podía decirles creció como un globo y voló, flota afuera, en el cielo nocturno.
II- Mi carta pasa a manos del censor. Él enciende su lámpara. Bajo su mirada, las palabras saltan como monos contra las mallas, traquetean y, cuando se detienen, le enseñan los colmillos.
III- Es preciso que lean entre líneas. Volveremos a juntarnos dentro de doscientos años, cuando los micrófonos de las paredes del hotel se encuentren olvidados —cuando duerman al fin, convertidos en fósiles.
Tomas Tranströmer (Estocolmo, 1931-Estocolmo, 2015) trabajó como psicólogo en centros penitenciarios y hospitales, donde atendía a minusválidos y jóvenes delincuentes. Autor de una obra breve, hecha de media docena de poemas anuales, desde antes de recibir el Premio Nobel de Literatura en 2011 gozaba de las ventajas que acarrea el premio: había sido traducido a más de 50 lenguas y sus libros entraban en la lista de los más vendidos en Suecia. Este poema, perteneciente a su libro Senderos (1973), ha sido traducido utilizando la traducción al inglés del poeta escocés Robin Robertson.
Keywords, phrases and topics are at the heart of search engine marketing. In a sense, words are the backbone of the Internet because without them, websites wouldn’t likely exist. Every website is built on “keywords” and topics.
Hence, the need for keyword tools for research.
Picking key phrases and topics for your website and even social media profiles is therefore of utmost importance. However, you have to understand how this is all changing with the advent of semantic and conversational search.
Before the Internet, we relied heavily on libraries, books, newspapers, TV news, and the Yellow Pages for information about companies. The search engines changed all of that by indexing a large portion of human knowledge and they are getting smarter at understanding the meaning of what users are searching for.
Let’s look back at the various keyword tools that were developed to help us select the right words and topics for our websites, in order to make our content stand out amongst the vast online ocean.
The First Popular Keyword Research Tool
I spoke with some of the most successful marketers online, who have been utilizing various keyword tools way before they were cool.
John McDougall, who was a former client and founder of authoritymarketing.com and McDougall Interactive, who has been doing search engine marketing since the 1990s, walked me through some of the early keyword research tools:
The first popular keyword tool that I can remember is Wordtracker. Back in the day, we gave it a real workout and put it to daily use. Then we switched to Keyword Discovery and my first employee John Maher loved it because he could save folders for each client when doing keyword research.
Eventually clients started to complain that they felt the numbers were inaccurate and we looked into the way they were compiling data. It turned out that Wordtracker relied on metacrawler.com and dogpile.com to get their data and then did some math to estimate search volumes. It wasn’t until we started doing Yahoo! paid search and later picking keywords with the Google keyword tool that we realized we preferred data directly from the search engines. I do still have a soft spot in my heart for Wordtracker for being a pioneer.
Wordtracker Website Snippet, Circa 2000
The first keyword tools weren’t all that accurate during the early days, but they gave marketers a way to select keywords that people were actually searching on, rather than just using any miscellaneous words about their company, products, and services.
I then asked John to illustrate some of the additional keyword tools that have been developed over the years and here’s what he provided:
It’s always interesting to see what Google provides themselves beyond the Adwords Keyword Tool. Google Trends can tell you whether a keyword is gaining in popularity or falling out of favor over time. The Google Contextual Targeting Tool inside AdWords, via the drop down menu on the Reporting and Tools tab, finds related terms and groups them into ad groups. This helps eliminate irrelevant terms. And anyone with a Google Webmaster Tools verified site can view how often their site has shown up for a limited amount of keywords.
Bing has their own keyword tool as well. But if you want to find related terms which help with semantic search, try tools that play on Google Autocomplete keywords. UberSuggest uses Google Autocomplete keywords to generate ideas and KeywordTool.io is a recent favorite that uses Google’s autocomplete to show over 750 long-tail keywords for any query.
Je ne veux pas rester sans rien dire du massacre évité (?) du grec et du latin, ni du massacre perpétré contre les sculptures monumentales assyriennes. Evidemment, vouloir supprimer l'enseignement du grec et du latin c'est plus grave que de détruire des monuments de pierre, quels qu'ils soient. Tuer les "Humanités" c'est produire de l'obscurantisme, c'est tuer la vie par la racine. Que seraient les monuments de pierre, les statues, les icones sans la parole qui les irigue, sans la langue, support de toute évolution possible. L'évolution ne supporte pas le mépris d'elle-même.
Il n'y a pas de langue morte* — seulement des langues anciennes —, quand personne ne l'utilise elle devient langue inconnue. La langue doit en permanence être traduite, trahie, transformée dans le trajet d'un être à l'autre. Faute de quoi elle devient lettre morte. La lettre n'est qu'un morceau de chose, un bâton, un témoin que l'on se passe.
Il n'y a pas que les fondamentalistes du Coran ou de la Bible qui idolâtrent les langues de bois, ou de fer car ces choses sont des armes très efficaces. Dernièrement encore, des armes de fer et de feu s'en sont pris aux armes de pierre des rois antiques. Les jeunes incultes qui abattent ainsi les fossiles géants de l'Assyrie croient détruire avec la pierre le message qui est à l'intérieur. Ils visent le symbole. Et, de juste, ils n'atteignent que le symbole — la représentation. Ils ne détruisent rien que de la matière. Ils sont strictement matérialistes, contrairement à ce qu'ils pensent d'eux-mêmes. Parce qu'ils n'ont pas étudié les langues du passé, les langues dans leur évolution, ni le monde dans son évolution, ils en restent à la chose morte, à la lettre, à l'immobile. Ainsi éduqués (si l'on peut dire) ils se sont privés de vie. La vie se rebelle en eux, la vie fait violence. Mais il n'ont mis que la mort au-devant d'eux.
* sauf la langue de bœuf, que j'adorais, mais qui est morte pour moi ! je suis passé au vert.
The questions of whether or not to run multiple Twitter accounts tugs at most business owners’ minds at one time or another. Should we have one for customer service and another for product news? A personal account and a business account?
And while the obvious answer to the question is dependent on whether that business has the time and resources to manage multiple Twitter accounts effectively, there are some common scenarios that could warrant a second handle.
1. Customer service.
One of the most common reasons that businesses create multiple business accounts is to have a separate, dedicated customer service handle.
This eliminates the headache of having to monitor a single Twitter account for both customer service related tweets and other tweets (like incoming requests for interviews), and it helps customers identify where they should send their comments and complaints.
A dedicated customer service account also ensures that all of the branding activity you do on your main account – such as tweeting promotions, crowdsourced images of your product or running a contest – is not watered down by tweets to customers about product returns or what stores your product is available in.
Of course, if you do manage a separate customer service account, you need to make sure that it is actively being monitored. Many businesses choose to include the hours of operation in the customer service account bio, so that customers know how quickly they can expect a response.
2. A personal touch.
Depending on your brand strategy, it might be a good idea to have a separate Twitter account for you and one for your business.
The CEO of a large company, for instance, will often have his or her own Twitter handle. This allows the CEO to post personal thoughts, opinions and content, and it keeps the main Twitter handle well branded and on message.
Smaller businesses, however, sometime integrate the business brand with the personal brand of the owner. In this case, it might be best to keep the two personas tied together, since the brand is built on the owner’s personality.
3. Multiple products or brands.
Larger companies will often break out their various business units, products or brands into distinct Twitter accounts.
This works especially well when they are connecting to different audience segments. If one company owns a laundry detergent brand and a men’s bodywash brand, for instance, it doesn’t make much sense to tweet the same content to those two distinct audiences.
4. Regional tweeting.
Similar to reason #3, businesses may also want to have multiple Twitter accounts if they operate in different areas of the world.
If tweeting to audiences that speak different languages, multiple Twitter accounts makes sense – it can be distracting to see two or three languages coming from an account. And if there are cultural difference or if a company offers different versions of their product to different reasons, breaking out their Twitter presence by region or area is also a good idea.
5. Niche tweeting.
Lastly, if you find your Twitter account sending out tweets on vastly different topics, you might want to consider creating a second account.
It can be difficult to build a following if you’re tweeting about recipes, motorcycles, video games and cupcakes. Although these might all be your interests, they probably are not shared by the majority of Twitter users out there. By creating a separate account and tweeting more focused topics on each, you will find it easier to build connections.
(Multiple screen image via Shutterstock)
Draperstown native and bestselling author Christina McKenna has just published her third novel in the Tailorstown trilogy.
“The Godforsaken Daughter” is being talked about on both sides of the Atlantic and seems certain to match the huge success of her first, “The Misremembered Man”, and its follow-up, “The Disenchanted Widow.”
Christina’s story is one of triumph after much rejection. “If at first you don’t succeed,” she says, “just keep going. Never give up!”
That attitude is certainly borne out in the story of her steady climb to the top of Amazon’s literary charts both in the USA and UK, with sales heading towards the one-million mark.
Her novels have been translated into seven languages to date, and garnered over 5,000 customer reviews on Amazon — more than any other living Irish writer.
In America she is frequently credited with writing “literary page-turners” and compared to the like of Pulitzer Prize-winning authors Anne Tyler and Joyce Carol Oates.
Her inspiration is rooted in the soil of her childhood. She grew up on a farm near the village of Draperstown, “peopled by a troupe of weird, wonderful and often eccentric characters.”
Composites of those characters are what drive the narrative of her novels.
“When I sit down at the keyboard I see those people from my childhood who used to visit the family home.
“My dear mother was always in attendance with the tea and I hear their voices ringing down the years: the banter, the gossip, the laughs; that great sense of community and caring that existed back then, the hardships they suffered and the tremendous resilience of spirit they showed, that’s what I write about.”
Christina will be launching the novel on Thursday, 2 April, at the Bridewell Library, Magherafelt, 7.30pm.
“The Godforsaken Daughter”, published by Lake Union Publishing, U.S.A, is now available in bookshops and at Amazon.co.uk. Price £9.99. Sheehy’s of Cookstown stock all Christina’s books.
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Seeing as my last post on foreign language films was surprisingly well-received, I thought I'd write another one. This time the focus is on the romance genre, which is undoubtedly a favorite of mine. It's a genre that translates well into other languages, as it is, after all, a universal language. I have seen countless romantic foreign language films over the years but these are the ones that, for whatever reason, stuck with me the most. Once again, subtitles are EVERYTHING. Watch these films in their original language and you might just pick up a romantic foreign word or two to impress your significant other with.
1. Germany: What a Man
The name Matthias Schweighöfer has, over the past few years, become almost synonymous with the German romantic comedy genre. I'm always down for a good German rom-com, so if you're looking for a cute, light and hilarious film to watch this weekend, I recommend you give this one a go. What a Man (2011) is about Alex, a 30-year-old man, who is cheated on by his girlfriend. In search for answers as to why his relationship failed, he moves in with his friend Nele. Now, name one film where this kind of situation do not lead to love and other disasters. Call it predictable, call it cliché, call it whatever you want to call it but don't tell me this film won't put a smile on you face, because it will. As a person who generally is not the biggest fan of German humor I can promise you, What a Man will make you laugh. Out loud. Bonus points for the great soundtrack.
2. South Korea: A Millionaire's First Love
I first discovered all that East Asia had to offer in 2005 and I've been hooked ever since. South Korean films are definitely sadder, more dramatic, and, here and there, over the top, but all the more addictive. That said, these films also often revolve around sickness, as does A Millionaire's First Love (2006). I chose this one because it's one of the first Korean movies I saw. It's romantic, it's a little cheesy and it'll have you trying to hold back the tears. Hyun Bin stars as the stereotypical rich kid, who transfers to a new school in a small town, and it is here that he meets Choi Eun-hwan. They don't hit it off but ultimately start to bond, to then fall in love. Eun-hwan's illness puts the 'drama' in 'romantic drama' and soon both are fighting for a life together. This definitely won't be the best Korean movie you will ever watch but it is a cute and uplifting film.
3. The Netherlands: Alles Is Liefde
Here is one thing you need to know about Dutch cinema: there is big love for ensemble films. In fact, most commercially successful Dutch films are just that. Alles Is Liefde (2007) is my favorite Dutch movie of all time. Foreigners might find the film a little strange at first because it centers around Sinterklaas, a traditional Dutch phenomenon you could compare to Santa Claus. Hence, the comparison to Love Actually is often made. The film's plot is difficult to describe, and so a mere sentence or two won't do it justice. Set around Sinterklaas, it follows the lives of a handful of people; families, couples and individuals, during the eventful days leading up to the big occasion they're trying to save. Starring household name Carice van Houten (Game of Thrones), this feel good film is utterly heartwarming, fun and the perfect introduction to Dutch humor!
4. Taiwan: Hear Me
This is a special one because there is hardly any talking in this film. Hear Me (2009) is about Tian-Kuo, a delivery boy, who falls for Yang Yang, a young girl taking care of her hearing-impaired older sister. Tian-Kuo and Yang Yang communicate using sign language throughout most of the movie, resulting in an interesting relationship between the two and an ending you do not see coming. Some might dislike the slow pace of the film, I loved it for that exact reason. Hear Me is more than a stereotypical love story, as it beautifully portrays a slice of Taiwanese life through sign language. Both heartwarming and heartbreaking, Tian-Kuo's parents luckily also provide a healthy dose of hilarity. I have to admit, I am not the biggest fan of the plot twist towards the end but it does not make this touching movie any less worthwhile to watch.
5. Japan: I Just Wanna Hug You
I know, I know - this title does absolutely nothing for the film. In fact, it might even discourage you to watch it, and so I urge you not to judge this film by its name. I have included this one because it's the most recent Japanese film I've seen and I liked it. I Just Wanna Hug You (2014) is about Masaki, a taxi driver, who falls in love with Tsukasa, a young wheelchair-bound girl. I told you, Asia produces some killer romantic dramas. I have been a fan of Nishikido Ryo ever since Ichi Rittoru No Namida (2005) because he is always so convincing as the caring good guy. Similar to Hear Me, I Just Wanna Hug You follows a simple storyline and shines in its simplicity. Masaki and Tsukasa are adorable together and manage to deal with the challenges life throws at them. Make sure you've got some Kleenex nearby because there is a chance you might need some
WINNIPEG, March 27, 2015 /CNW/ – Today, the Honourable Shelly Glover, Minister of Canadian Heritage and Official Languages, on behalf of the Honourable Rona Ambrose, Minister of Health, announced a new investment of $2.3 million to expand and improve access to quality health services in both English and French across Canada. This includes $100,000 to the Féderation des parents du Manitoba to support the vitality of French linguistic minority communities in the province.
The new funding of $2.3 million will support six community-based health initiatives that will be carried out in partnership with local and regional health authorities to increase access to health services in English and French across Canada. It will also expand the supply of bilingual health service providers and increase the availability and points of services for patients to receive care in the official language of their choice. Removing language barriers will ensure safer, higher quality care for people living in official language minority communities.
The Féderation des parents du Manitoba project will increase access to health programs and services in French for francophone children aged 0 to 6 years and their families. The project will contribute to healthy early-childhood development among Francophone children in the province, and enhance the vitality of French linguistic minority communities of Manitoba.
Today’s investment follows the $112.9 million for 14 initiatives across the country previously announced by the federal government to improve patient access to essential health services in French and English minority communities. Investing in official languages is part of the Government of Canada’s $1.1 billion Roadmap for Canada’s Official Languages 2013–2018: Education, Immigration, Communities aimed at enhancing the vitality of English and French linguistic minority communities.
Through Health Canada’s Official Languages Health Contribution Program, the Government of Canada funds innovative approaches to improving access to health services for official language minority communities and increasing the use of both official languages when providing health services across Canada.
Since 2008, Health Canada’s investments through the Roadmap have created over 100 educational programs in universities and colleges across the country, and led to the addition of over 9,000 bilingual health professionals practicing in communities of greatest need.
There are over one million English-speaking residents of Quebec, and over a million French-speaking Canadians outside of Quebec, which represents 6% of the Canadian population combined.
New Brunswick has the highest concentration of official language minorities in Canada (31.9%), followed by Quebec (13.5%) and Ontario (4.3%).
“Our Government has a vision and an ambitious plan to ensure that all Canadians benefit from our two official languages, especially through the Roadmap for Canada’s Official Languages. English and French are an integral part of our history and our identity, and official-language minority communities contribute to the vitality of Canadian society. Our Government is adopting the means to take concrete action in areas that Canadians consider important, as we are doing today when it comes to the subject of access to health services.”
The Honourable Shelly Glover
Minister of Canadian Heritage and Official Languages
“Access to necessary health services is a concern for every Canadian. That is why our Government is acting to remove the barriers certain communities may face to accessing quality care in the official language of their choice. Today’s investment further strengthens Canada’s healthcare system by increasing the number of bilingual providers and giving patients easier and better access to the care they need, in their local communities. Together with key partners and stakeholders, we are working so that Canadians, no matter where they live, can use our two official languages when accessing health services across the country.”
The Honourable Rona Ambrose
Minister of Health
“The Fédération des parents du Manitoba is happy to sponsor the project of the Coalition francophone de la petite enfance du Manitoba. This project will improve the active offer of French-language health services, contributing to healthy early childhood development for French speakers in Manitoba. Thanks to the funds granted by Health Canada, we are collaborating with the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority and Southern Health-Santé Sud to identify and implement durable strategies for ensuring active offer. Family doctors, midwives, public health nurses and nurse practitioners play an important role by identifying French speakers during pregnancy and childbirth and directing them toward the programs and services available in French – particularly those offered through the Centres de la petite enfance et de la famille.”
Josée Chabot, Executive Director
Fédération des parents du Manitoba
Considering traditions, language and ceremony have been passed down for many generations in many tribes, there is a lot to learn in the way of culture. To young people today, there may be a bit of a disconnect in terms of learning about the traditions of our ancestors—or maybe they don’t have a clear idea of how to go about learning traditional ways.
In an attempt to help bridge this gap, here are 10 ways young people (or anyone wanting to learn more about their own tribe) can go about learning, connecting and practicing the ways of their own Indian culture.
Start Learning Your language
The first step to bridging the gap between young people and their ancestors is by speaking the language that was spoken by their tribe before the arrival of settlers. English is considered to be one of the least expressive languages and native languages have a depth of meaning that can serve as a true connection to your heritage.
Start a Native Group or Club at School
This is not as hard as it seems, but going to your school’s office and asking if you can have permission to meet once a week after school or during lunch is the first step to meeting other Native students. In such a group, you can invite elders to speak, share stories and even learn about other tribes. Use your imagination.
Speak to a Tribal Official
By meeting with a tribal chief, chairman, president or tribal council member, you can learn about how your tribe deals with day-to-day business. You can learn about the importance of politics, or how your tribe deals with handling of the issues, needs, problems and assets of your people. Perhaps you can learn ways to contribute or volunteer.
Visit With an Elder
Never underestimate the incredible power of a conversation with an elder. Ask questions and take the time to listen with an open heart. Ask them to tell you stories and/or ask them about the traditions of your tribe. By showing interest you are stepping up as a young warrior.
Cherokee Elder Joe Fourkiller shares some stories from his childhood. (Cherokee Nation)
RELATED: Video: Cherokee Elder Joe Fourkiller Recalls His Childhood
Share Your Culture
Even if you are not fully informed about your own culture and traditions, offering to share your culture with another group or school will influence you to ask questions and learn more about yourself. You would be creating a win-win situation for everyone involved.
Meet With the Tribal Historian
Some tribes have a tribal historian on staff whose job it is to ensure that tribal history, culture and traditions will continue to be shared with the generations to come. Meet with them, ask them questions—and if you start a club or group at school—ask them to visit with the group. If you don’t have a historian, ask around and find a knowledgeable elder, they often enjoy sharing stories.
Join a Social Media Group
There are a number of groups on social media focused on Native culture. You could even create a group focused on learning about your tribe’s culture. Invite elders to join and swap knowledge. While you show an elder how to use Facebook, Google+, Twitter or other forms of social media, the elders can teach you about your culture—another win-win for bridging the generation gap.
Make a YouTube Video
Much like when you are preparing to talk to a class—when preparing to put something on YouTube—you have to learn in order to share a message. Here is another way to learn and create at the same time while sharing the message with others. Use lessons taught by your elders to create the video.
Learn About Shared History
A lot can be learned from not just your tribe’s history, but how your tribe and ancestors were seen by other tribes. Again, ask questions and take time to listen and learn.
Ask to Take Part In Ceremony
If it is appropriate ask an elder, or the right person in your tribe, if you can take part in an upcoming ceremony. Every tribe is a bit different in the approach, so this is a great opportunity to learn about practicing the traditions and ceremonies of your ancestors.
Do have additional ideas? Reach out to ICTMN correspondent Vincent Schilling on Twitter.