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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Common Challenges for Spanish to English Translators - Translation Blog

Common Challenges for Spanish to English Translators - Translation Blog | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Translators have quite an interesting job that is full of challenges. No two tasks are ever alike, which makes for an especially dynamic job, but also ensures that the translator is in a constant state of learning and must constantly adapt to different writing styles, topics and dialects. In addition, just being bilingual isn’t enough to be a good translator. A translator must have mastered both languages and be able to perfectly render one into the other, as discussed in another post, “The Subtle Gap Between Being Bilingual and Being a Translator.” However, each “language pair,” as it’s known in translation lingo, presents its own unique difficulties. The problems faced by someone who translates from French into English are vastly different from those who translate the other way around, from English into French, not to mention into other languages.  In this post however, I will draw from my own experiences and describe some of the common challenges faced by Spanish to English translators.

Grammar

Both English and Spanish utilize the same Subject-Verb-Object (Sally threw the ball) sentence structure. However, Spanish grammar rules are much more lenient and allow for different structures to be used, while English does not. Also, in Spanish, the subject that is to be emphasized is often placed at the end of the sentence. So, for example, in Spanish if we want to emphasize that Sally threw the ball, and not Sam, the literal syntax in Spanish  might look something like “the ball threw it Sally.” A good Spanish to English translator is able to recognize these syntactic differences in a text and rearrange them in a logical way that flows well in English, although, this isn’t always easy to do.

Vocabulary

Quite a large portion of the Spanish language is derived from Latin, just like the other Romance languages. English on the other hand is an Anglo-Saxon language that has been influenced by Latin, but to a lesser extent. As a result, many words that may be common, everyday words in Spanish, have cognates in English that are used only formally. Due to this, the translator must be aware of the level of formality and the context of the document in order to decide whether to keep the more formal cognate, or choose a more appropriate alternative.

Punctuation marks

As simple as it seems, some of the punctuation rules are exactly the opposite  between English and Spanish. For instance, all punctuation marks in Spanish must always be placed outside of quotation marks or parentheses, while in English, within. This is something that often causes much confusion.

As you can see, translators have to take many different things into consideration and pay attention to many details and nuances of both languages while translating a text. We here at Trusted Translations only employ linguistic experts who have proven experience in all of these aspects in their particular language pairs.

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A Marriage of Two Languages: My Journey on Embracing Both English and Spanish

A Marriage of Two Languages: My Journey on Embracing Both English and Spanish | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I vividly remember when I learned how to speak English. I have memories of understanding what people were saying when they were speaking English as early as three years old of age, and understanding that they wouldn't be able to comprehend my words -- Spanish. My assimilation to the English language was quick, and I took off running with its adoption, and have since been involved in a messy love affair. It is because of this, even despite the huge nopal on my forehead, that people are often surprised to discover that Spanish was my first language. More likely, because now when I speak Spanish I can come out sounding like a gringa -- a total "white girl."

In my defense, I had two battles to overcome to retain the Spanish I still know and am able to speak. With the education system as it still was during my elementary years, speaking Spanish in school was discouraged. I remember early on being reprimanded in class as the English-only speakers felt we were talking about them -- which, most of the time, we were.

School quickly became an English-only environment. The second obstacle that I had against me was that I was not raised in a traditional "Mexican home" where Spanish was the primary language -- something that undoubtedly had helped and ensured others to keep their Spanish language. I was raised in a bi-racial home where English was our main language. My step father, my adoptive father, is American -- un gringo. I was four years old when my parents married, and I was put on a fast-track course into American culture.

I struggled a lot with my identity growing up. I was unsure if I identified myself more as an American or Mexican -- it is still sometimes an issue for me. I had relatives who often told me that I did not have the "right" to call myself Mexican, as I was not born in Mexico, but with the nopal en mi frente, how could I also possibly identify with what has been the traditional view of "American"? This question is made even more difficult to answer when we reside in the epicenter where these two cultures crash, creating an area of ambiguity: by the border -- la frontera.

The idea that the region around the border contained its own culture along with its own version of Spanish didn't become a solidified concept to me until I began to feel the backlash for the type of Spanish I spoke when I left our cultural bubble -- this informal, hybridized version of Spanish was not considered "proper." It was almost as if I was being rejected by both the American and Mexican cultures because the version that I exhibited as was not "right."

As I continued my love affair with English and the written word, I couldn't deny the fact that Spanish -- my first language -- was not something that could be ignored or suppressed. There are some words and expressions that cannot be translated into English. They roll off the tongue in Spanish in such an elegant way, that to turn it into English would chop it to bits and take away from its beauty. There is a musical tone and quality that exists in Spanish that is seductive without even trying.

Without realizing it, when not being conscious of having and needing to speak English, these words and expressions would come out of their own accord -- they have a life of their own. It is when I am my most comfortable, when I'm not having to think about what I am saying, that I mix the two languages. More importantly, it feels right when they are mixed.

The mixture of the two languages is indicative of the mixture of my two cultures. It is inherently who I am. I am Mexican, and I am also American. I am a hybrid. It has taken me a long time to accept that this is ok. I do not have to fall under the pressure of having to choose one over the other, nor do I have to fall under the negative stigmatization that to claim both is wrong.

When I first stumbled on Gloria Anzaldúa's book, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, I felt I had found the words of a kindred spirit who knew and understood the struggle of finding your voice when you have each foot standing in two different worlds. What I had found incredible was that her book was first published in 1987, yet still holds as much relevance as it did then -- maybe even more so today. This book spoke to me on such a spiritual level and brought a voice to the shame I had been feeling of not feeling like I was Mexican enough because my Spanish was "broken." But I am not broken; I am evolved, and more importantly, I am not alone. There are more like me who exist. Anzaldúa wrote:
Ethnic identity is twin skin to linguistic identity - I am my language. Until I can take pride in my language, I cannot take pride in myself. Until I can accept as legitimate Chicano Texas Spanish, Tex-Mex and all the other languages I speak, I cannot accept the legitimacy of myself. Until I am free to write bilingually and to switch codes without having always to translate, while I still have to speak English or Spanish when I would rather speak Spanglish, and as long as I have to accommodate the English speakers rather than having them accommodate me, my tongue will be illegitimate.
I wish I had read Anzaldúa's book sooner so that I could have understood myself sooner. I wish that more of us would read this book so that they can come to the same conclusions I have: I am not wrong or uneducated because I mix two languages. I am not less Mexican because I speak English. I am not less American because I speak Spanish. I am not less. I am more. I am me.
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Google has developed a technology to tell whether ‘facts’ on the Internet are true

Google has developed a technology to tell whether ‘facts’ on the Internet are true | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Internet, we know all too well, is a cesspool of rumor and chicanery.

But in a research paper published by Google in February — and reported over the weekend by New Scientist — that could, at least hypothetically, change. A team of computer scientists at Google has proposed a way to rank search results not by how popular Web pages are, but by their factual accuracy.

To be really clear, this is 100 percent theoretical: It’s a research paper, not a product announcement or anything equally exciting. (Google publishes hundreds of research papers a year.) Still, the fact that a search engine could effectively evaluate  truth, and that Google is actively contemplating that technology, should boggle the brain. After all, truth is a slippery, malleable thing — and grappling with it has traditionally been an exclusively human domain.

Per this recent paper, however, it’s not too difficult for computers to determine whether a given statement is true or false. Basically, to evaluate a stated fact, you only need two things: the fact and a reference work to compare it to. Google already has the beginnings of that reference work, in the form of its Knowledge Graph — the thing that displays “August 15, 1990” when you search “Jennifer Lawrence birthday,” or “American” when you search “Obama nationality.”


Answers from the Google Knowledge Graph, which pop up when you search “flu,” “Obama nationality” and “Jennifer Lawrence birthday,” respectively. (Google)
Google culls those details largely from services like Freebase, Wikipedia and the CIA World Factbook; a separate, internal research database, called Knowledge Vault, can also automatically extract facts from the text on Web pages. Whichever database we’re talking about, Google structures these ‘lil factoids as things called “knowledge triples”: subject, relationship, attribute. Like so:

(Jennifer Lawrence, birthday, August 15 1990)
(Barack Obama, nationality, American)
(Somalia, capital, Mogadishu)

… so to check if a fact found in the wild is accurate, all Google has to do is reference it against the knowledge triples in its giant internal database. And to check whether a Web page or a Web site is accurate, Google would just look at all the site’s knowledge triples and see how many don’t agree with its established body of facts.

The distant suggestion, these researchers write, is that Google’s version of the truth would iterate over time. At some point, perhaps even Google’s hotly debated and much-studied ranking algorithm — the creator and destroyer of a million Web sites! — could begin including accuracy among the factors it uses to choose the search results you see.


This chart basically shows the distribution of accurate (toward the right) and non-accurate (toward the left) Web sites, for sites where the research team could extract seven or more facts. The good news: There are a lot more accurate sites! (Google)
That could be huge, frankly: In one trial with a random sampling of pages, researchers found that only 20 of 85 factually correct sites were ranked highly under Google’s current scheme. A switch could, theoretically, put better and more reliable information in the path of the millions of people who use Google every day. And in that regard, it could have implications not only for SEO — but for civil society and media literacy.

It’s worth noting, in fact, that the Barack-Obama-nationality example comes straight from the Google report, which would seem to imply that the technology’s creators envision it as a tool against stubborn misconceptions and conspiracy theories.


“How do you correct people’s misconceptions?” Matt Stempeck, the guy behind LazyTruth, asked New Scientist recently. “People get very defensive. [But] if they’re searching for the answer on Google they might be in a much more receptive state.”

Increasingly, information intermediates like Google have begun to take that suggestion seriously. Just three weeks ago, Google began displaying physician-vetted health information directly in search results, even commissioning diagrams from medical illustrators and consulting with the Mayo Clinic “for accuracy.” Meanwhile, Facebook recently launched a new initiative to append a warning to hoaxes and scams in News Feed, the better to keep them from spreading.

It’s unclear exactly what Google plans to do with this new technology, if anything at all. Still, even the possibility of a search engine that evaluates truth is a pretty incredible breakthrough. And it definitely gives new meaning to the phrase “let me Google that for you.”

Liked that? Try these:

What was fake on the Internet this week
Did Facebook just kill the Web’s burgeoning fake-news industry?
Why people fall for dumb Internet hoaxes

Caitlin Dewey runs The Intersect blog, writing about digital and Internet culture. Before joining the Post, she was an associate online editor at Kiplinger’s Personal Finance.
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Stratus Video Addresses Inadequate Language Interpreting for 2.4 Million U.S. Children

Stratus Video Addresses Inadequate Language Interpreting for 2.4 Million U.S. Children | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
To meet the needs of young patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) and hearing loss, a growing number of healthcare providers are relying on Stratus video remote interpreting (VRI) services to overcome language barriers.




Sean Belanger of Stratus Video Interpreting addresses a growing number of healthcare providers turning to video remote interpreting (VRI) services to overcome language barriers.
“[Patients] feel like they’re being heard, that they’re being understood, and it allows them to express their fears and say when they don’t understand.
Clearwater, FL (PRWEB) March 02, 2015

While many hospitals have implemented medical interpretation services to comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, the unique needs of children with limited English proficiency (LEP) and hearing loss are bringing light to the value of video remote interpreting (VRI) services. U.S. Census Bureau statistics reveal that nearly 1 in 20 U.S. children have LEP—a number that rises to more than 1 in 10 in some major cities.(1) Stratus Video Interpreting enables healthcare providers and patients to communicate via live medical interpreters, who have the ability to display text and graphics on screen to better communicate with children.
A recent article in the Santa Barbara News-Press examined how Stratus’ video remote interpreting has been implemented by Cottage Health System in Southern California.(2) Denise Filotas, interpretive services coordinator for Cottage Health System, explained that Stratus’ services supplement their own staff interpreters, with 45 video interpretation units deployed at Cottage Health System’s hospitals in Santa Barbara, Goleta and Santa Ynez as well as outpatient clinics.
“[Patients] feel like they’re being heard, that they’re being understood, and it allows them to express their fears and say when they don’t understand,” said Filotas. She noted that 15% to 20% of Cottage’s patient base speaks a language other than English, and estimates that 95% of those are Spanish-speaking patients. She added that Stratus’ healthcare interpreters have been sensitive to patients’ needs, and recounted an incident where a male interpreter realized that a young woman was embarrassed to speak about her health problems, so he quickly connected her to a female interpreter to put her at ease.(2)
According to the Census Bureau’s most recent Community Survey (1), 4.5% of children aged 5 to 17—more than 2.4 million children in total—speak English less than very well. The Census Bureau’s findings showed that the population of LEP children rises substantially in certain metropolitan areas, including Dallas (18.1%), El Paso (17.3%), Houston (14.9%), Miami (12.4%), Los Angeles (11.9%), New York (11.2%) and San Francisco (10%). While there are no definitive figures concerning the number of children who are deaf or hard of hearing, data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that between 1 and 5 children per 1,000 have hearing loss.(3)
“A visit to the doctor or hospital can be a scary situation for any child, especially one who is ill or injured. But imagine how much more frightening it must seem for children who cannot communicate with their healthcare providers,” said Sean Belanger, CEO of Stratus Video Interpreting. “Children with limited English proficiency or hearing loss may have difficulty explaining what hurts, understanding their diagnosis or paying attention to medical staff. To overcome these challenges, Stratus’ medical interpretation services take full advantage of the video medium. Our interpreters can display text, images and animation on screen to engage children and aid their understanding.”
Belanger emphasizes that the ability of patients to communicate effectively with their healthcare providers has a significant impact on the quality of care they receive. Research has shown that professional interpretation services resulted in a significantly lower percentage of medical errors than ad-hoc interpreters or no interpreters.(4) For these reasons, Belanger envisions that timely access to certified healthcare interpretation services will one day factor into best hospital rankings such as those published by U.S. News & World Report.
Stratus’ video remote interpreting services are designed to be flexible and adaptable to meet the needs of healthcare organizations of any size and type. As an example, Belanger cites the recent Stratus implementation at Yale-New Haven Hospital, which includes stationary carts with large touch screens for use in specific locations as well as mobile units featuring iPads attached to wheeled poles, or “iPoles.” He also points to video interpreters’ use of text, graphics and animation as another form of customization that healthcare providers can employ to better serve deaf, hard-of-hearing and LEP patients of all ages.
For more information on Stratus and its medical interpretation services, visit http://www.stratusvideo.com.
About Stratus Video Interpreting:
Stratus Video Interpreting provides on-demand interpreter services by using technology to connect clients with interpreters in over 175 spoken and signed languages in less than 30 seconds. Stratus’ cloud-based video solution delivers an array of unique features to virtually any Internet-enabled PC, Mac, smartphone or tablet. Stratus clients use the technology to connect with their own staff interpreters, as well as with Stratus interpreters, who have years of healthcare and courtroom experience and hold multiple certifications. With Stratus, state-of-the-art video remote interpreting is made available with virtually no capital investment. Stratus averages 65,000 video calls a day, up from 40,000 in mid-2013. Stratus Video is the sister company of The Z® (CSDVRS, LLC, dba ZVRS), which was established in 2006 and developed by and for deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals, setting the industry standard as the nation’s premier Video Relay Service Provider and the first VRS Provider to receive a 5-year certification from the FCC. In 2014, Stratus was recognized as one of the fastest-growing privately held companies, ranking #3,827 on Inc. magazine’s Inc. 5000 list. For more information, visit http://www.stratusvideo.com.
1. U.S. Census Bureau. “Age by Language Spoken at Home by Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over”; 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates; report generated via American FactFinder; accessed February 20, 2015. factfinder2.census.gov
2. Mason, Dave. “The Face of Health: Video Translations Help Non-English-Speaking Patients”; Santa Barbara News-Press; December 30, 2014. newspress.com/Top/Article/article.jsp?Section=LIFE&ID=567118456210718744 (full text available at stratusvideo.com/in-the-news/)
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “Hearing Loss in Children: Research and Tracking”; Hearing Loss section on CDC website; page last updated November 17, 2014. cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/research.html
4. Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; et al. “Errors of Medical Interpretation and Their Potential Clinical Consequences: A Comparison of Professional Versus Ad Hoc Versus No Interpreters”; Annals of Emergency Medicine; November 2012. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22424655
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OHT-Mobile Releases Lingui | NoCamels News Flash

March 2, 2015 | One Hour Translation (OHT) Mobile has launched a new platform called Lingui, which works as an instant app localization solution. It allows users and businesses to quickly translate their applications into other languages, without needing to hire extra manpower or to create additional versions of the application. Lingui engages in automatic translation, professional-level translation and “crowdsourced” translation to create a version of the app in the selected language, updating the app in real time as the translations come in. The Lingui platform will be showcased by OHT-Mobile at the Mobile World Conference in Barcelona this week. One Hour Translation was founded in 2008 by Lior Libman, Yaron Kaufman, Oren Yagev and Ofer Shoshan.
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Remembering Dr. Seuss: Four Book-to-Film Adaptations, Ranked

Remembering Dr. Seuss: Four Book-to-Film Adaptations, Ranked | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Children's book author and cartoonist Theodor Seuss Giesel, better known by his pseudonym Dr. Seuss, made his mark in Hollywood when film adaptations of his best-selling books -- The Cat in the Hat and The Lorax among others -- hit the big screen.

The author, born on March 2, 1904, was 87 years old when he passed away on Sept. 24, 1991 of oral cancer. On what would have been Dr. Seuss' 111th birthday, The Hollywood Reporter ranks recent film adaptations of his illustrated works from worst to best, based on box office performance.

4. Dr. Seuss' The Cat in the Hat (2003)



Mike Myers starred in the leading role of the live-action version of The Cat in the Hat, one of the author's best-known stories. In the film, which grossed $133.96 million worldwide, Myers transforms into a talking cat that takes two bored kids on an imaginative adventure. Alec Baldwin and Dakota Fanning also co-star.

3. Horton Hears a Who! (2008)



The animated film featured an all-star cast of voice actors consisting of Steve Carell, Jim Carrey, Carol Burnett, Will Arnett, Seth Rogen and Amy Poehler among others. Horton Hears a Who! grossed a total of $297.14 million worldwide.

2. How the Grinch Stole Christmas (2000)



Jim Carrey starred as the Grinch, a villainous creature set on taking over Whoville's Christmas celebration, in the 2000 live-action adaptation of Dr. Seuss' famed book. Taylor Momsen and Jeffrey Tambor were also featured in the film, which totaled a worldwide gross of $345.14 million and won an Oscar in 2001 for best makeup.

1. The Lorax (2012)



The animated film The Lorax, based on a tiny creature who takes on the big fight to protect his land, featured voice-overs from Danny DeVito, Ed Helms, Zac Efron, Taylor Swift and Betty White. The cartoon grossed $348.84 worldwide, beating all of the other onscreen adaptations at the box office.

In the coming years, another film adaptation of one of the author's books will make its debut. Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas, an animated version of the 2000 live-action film starring Jim Carrey, is set to release in November 2017.
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Chad Ian Lieberman From 6W Teaches Easy Search Engine Optimization Steps to Promote Your Company Website - Press Release - Digital Journal

New York City Internet Marketing Pioneer Chad Lieberman Explains How To Bring Organic Traffic to Your Website.


NEW YORK, NY, March 02, 2015 /24-7PressRelease/ -- There was excitement today as one of New York's best SEO companies, 6WSEO, announced the release of a free, publicly accessible lesson on the search engine optimization (SEO) steps a website owner should take in order to promote a website online effectively.
This lesson is part of the company's numerous free lessons series it releases to the public via its blog http://www.6wseo.com/blog. The company does this to educate its clients and prospects on effective use of SEO for online presence domination and brand recognition.
In a statement to the press, the lead SEO expert at 6WSEO said that this lesson was detailed enough to allow the reader, regardless of existing technical skills level, to effectively plan and execute an SEO campaign that will result in significant increase in rankings on the search engine results pages (SERPs).
"We are teaching the public the exact same steps we take when they hire us to run an SEO campaign for their websites. We believe that transparency builds trust. We do not believe in hoarding information. Instead, we like sharing it so that our clients can trust us more with the more complex aspects of SEO for their websites as well as the minor SEO steps when they do not have time to do it themselves. They can use the information when they just need a professional touch to allow them to concentrate on what they know how to do best - running their business," said an excited Chad Lieberman.
With the current onslaught on websites by the leading search engine, Google, with its regular search algorithm updates, it is important to know how to do SEO right. This helps your website to avoid penalties so that it can get fast indexing and as a result, rise on the SERPs fast too.
About 6WSEO
6WSEO is a leading Search Engine Optimization agency based in New York. It is among the top 100 Search Engine Optimization Agencies in the United States that offers very cost effective SEO services and keyword research. It uses state-of-the-art research and SEO technologies and software. It works with the small, mid-sized and big business entities, which seek to get better online visibility. Its SEO packages are custom-made for each client to match given business needs. Among its services are On-Page SEO, Off-Page SEO, keyword research and free SEO training. Learn more about the company from its website http://www.6wseo.com.
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Press release service and press release distribution provided by http://www.24-7pressrelease.com
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Trying to change English's complex spelling is a waste of time

Trying to change English's complex spelling is a waste of time | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
My 11-year-old student sighs. How can the same letters make so many different sounds? We are looking at the letter combination “ough”, which can be read in seven different ways: “through”, “thorough”, “although”, “plough”, “thought”, “cough” and “rough”.

Certain movements around the English-speaking world think our spelling system is just too difficult. In the UK, the English Spelling Society has renewed calls for spelling reform. They want to change words with extraneous letters and make it easier to spell.

The society proposes spellings like “wensday”, “crum”, “cof”, “distres” and “milenium”. For some, including me, these suggestions produce a visceral reaction; others may see this as progress.

This isn’t the first time groups have sought to artificially alter the spelling of English, and it won’t be the last. But these attempts are counter-productive to improving the literacy skills of struggling students.

Is it really that hard?

As a speech-language pathologist, I help many young people who are yet to grasp expected literacy skills for their age. They are usually amazed that English spelling is this complicated.

English does have a complex spelling system (or orthography). In Australia, we have 44 unique sounds that make up words, but only 26 letters to represent them. To solve this imbalance, English spellers use “graphemes”, which include both single letters and letter combinations to represent these sounds. This helps us spell sounds like the “ch” in “choose”, “ng” in “king”, “ee” in “street” and the “ire” in “fire”.

This system is not perfect, however. Graphemes can be pronounced differently in multiple words, as in the “ough” example. One speech sound can also be spelt with multiple graphemes, like the vowel sound in “horse”, “haunt”, “court”, “caught” and “store”. English also has many irregularly spelt words that have to be learnt by sight, like “debt”, “know” and “yacht”.

Old-fashioned spelling rules further complicate things, rather than solve these problems. “I before e except after c” works for only a handful of words. It has so many exceptions (like the words “science”, “sufficient”, “seize”, “weird” or “vein”) it is a rule we could do without.

You can see why some students find it difficult! English’s spelling complexity does make it harder. The rate of dyslexia in countries like Italy is half of what it is in the US. Research suggests that this is because “decoding” English is much harder than in a language with a more consistent spelling system like Italian.

It is understandable why some people see that English’s spelling system is to blame for literacy difficulties. It is less clear how they think creating a whole new system will solve the problem.

Attempts to ‘fix’ the English spelling system

In the early 20th century, the US Simplified Spelling Board built upon the work of Noel Webster (of the Webster dictionaries) to bring about the now American spellings of words such as “jail”, “honor”, “center”, “analog” and “jewelry”.

The equivalent in the UK, the English Spelling Society, admits it has not achieved much since its founding in 1908, with the last spelling reform bill of 1953 failing to take off. Nevertheless, it is planning an international conference for spelling reformers this year, where they hope to get the ball rolling again.

Why ‘fixing’ the spelling system is a lost cause

Language is alive, in that it constantly evolves as humans use it to communicate. Hence it is highly social. Functionality and popularity are what determine acceptable spellings and additions to English.

Even in the last few years, English has changed dramatically. Today, we share something we just googled, by tweeting it to our friends, while our iPod is syncing. The teenagers of today are experiencing FOMO, so they totes save time by txting “lol thnx” and spend more time Facebook-stalking their besties.

New words and spellings creep into our language, and dictionaries just have to keep up. Change comes from how we use language, not how a group of concerned elders think we should be using it.

Language has the dispositions of a teenager; it always follows the crowd. So attempts to cosmetically alter our language through the spelling system are not only misguided, but also futile.

What about people who struggle?

Although more difficult for some, proficiency in English spelling is attainable. If you can read this sentence you have to agree. The challenge of supporting struggling students is not solved through spelling reform, but through educational reform.

Currently, many students, especially in Australia, do not benefit from evidence-based literacy teaching. Low literacy skills then place young people at significantly higher risk of unemployment, social exclusion, poor health and trouble with the law.

To improve literacy attainment, we should put our energy into ensuring that all students receive synthetic phonics (sound-based) instruction, which teaches the sound-letter patterns of English systematically. Trying to artificially change the spelling system to make it “easier” is simply a waste of time.

So when my students grumble about the problems with English spelling I remind them: spelling doesn’t come naturally; it requires hard work to learn. With appropriate support, the vast majority can learn English spelling – and as we use it, we all play a part in its (gradual) evolution.
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Reading boosts Junction - Vernon Morning Star

Reading boosts Junction - Vernon Morning Star | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
As part of Read Aloud Day, the Junction Literacy  Centre is inviting the public to listen to an array of readers at the Vernon library Wednesday from noon to 1 p.m.

“The event is intended to celebrate the joy of reading,” said Wendy Aasen, Junction Literacy Centre executive director.

Among those who will be reading are Richard Rolke, Morning Star senior reporter, Brian Martin, with Sun FM, storyteller Gabe Newman and authors John Lent and Laisha Rosnau.

The event will also wind-up the centre’s Loonies for Literacy campaign.

Pink piggy banks have been distributed around town and a large piggy bank will be at the library to collect toonies and loonies for literacy. Chocolate loonie cupcakes will also be available by donation.

All proceeds will directly support literacy programs and initiatives in the community.

Many of the Junction Literacy programs are designed to build solid reading skills in youth.

The popular One to One program matches students in Grades 1 to 3 with volunteers who spend 30 minutes reading individually with the child.

“Reading is fundamental to life, and we strive to assist parents and our community partners working to develop young readers, so that no one is left behind,” said Aasen.

If you cannot make it to the library event, the Junction Literacy Centre is encouraging businesses, organizations and clubs to host their own read aloud event and collect loonies for literacy.

Donations can made online, in person or mailed. See www.junctionliteracycentre.ca or call 250-275-3117 for more information.

 
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Irish techwizz teen creates free Irish language app

Irish techwizz teen creates free Irish language app | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A teenage student from Dundalk, Co. Louth, has formally launched his free Irish language app, Focal.ie.



Cormac Kinsella, age 14, unveiled his latest app at an event hosted by his school, Coláiste Lú, last Wednesday evening. Cormac has developed both an iOS & Android version of this App to run on smart phones, iPads and tablets.

The Focal.ie app allows users to search the National Terminology Database for Irish, tearma.ie (previously named focal.ie). In a presentation last Wednesday, Cormac explained how he developed the app which links directly to the tearma.ie database without requiring a web browser and without advertising links. The app makes use of the mobile version of the site reducing the number of keystrokes and delivering fast response times.

Cormac, a student in Irish language school Coláiste Lú, saw a gap in the market for a free Irish language app that would assist in Irish to English and English to Irish translations. The terminology database, tearma.ie, had been recommended to Cormac by Irish teachers but had yet to make an app available. Taking the initiative, Cormac developed Focal.ie, taking you to the mobile version of the site at the touch of a button.



Speaking at the launch on Wednesday night, Oliver Tully, Chairperson (Cathoirleach) of Louth County Council, congratulated Cormac expressing both his delight that Dundalk had such a budding technical entrepreneur and his amazement that someone so young had created such a technically proficient product.

Deirdre Uí Liathain, principal of Colaiste Lú, also congratulated Cormac, forecasting a glittering future for him in IT and told him how useful she finds the app, particularly as it accesses such a comprehensive dictionary resource and she also loves the app’s fast response time.


No more searching through the dictionary. Photo by Getty Images.

Tearma.ie is the National Terminology Database for Irish, developed by Fiontar, DCU in collaboration with The Terminology Committee (An Coiste Téarmaíochta), Foras na Gaeilge. The database contains over 338,000 terms, searchable under both Irish and English versions. Since a general dictionary is now available at www.focloir.ie, the site has recently changed its name from focal.ie (hence to app name) to tearma.ie. The web address for the National Terminology Database for Irish will change from focal.ie to tearma.ie on 1 March 2015.

Cormac has stated that he would donate the App to the owners of the National Terminology Database if they so desired.

The young student is already a fully established app developer in Ireland. A regular attendee at the Drogheda Coder Dojo for the past 3 years, he has now developed and collaborated on several apps. He became the youngest app developer in Ireland in 2014, along with his friend Cian Martin-Bohan, when they launched OpenShare, the app that allows users to post across several social networks at the same time. The pair also worked to develop an app for the Digital Youth Council, the DYC HaveYourSay app, that allowed young Irish people to share their opinions with the council on STEM (science,, technology, engineering and mathematics).

Cormac was invited to be one of the 12 founder members of the Digital Youth Council of Ireland in 2014, part of a Europe-wide initiative whose objective is to encourage coding opportunities for all students and provide a platform for them to influence the National Digital Strategy. Ireland made history by becoming the first country in Europe to launch the Youth Council.

Focal.ie has already been downloaded by 500+ Android phone users as well as a couple of hundred Apple customers.

The Focal.ie app is available at:

Google Play Store https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.releae.Focalgachait&hl=en
Apple App Store https://itunes.apple.com/ie/app/focal.ie/id936341951?mt=8
and at http://mk-software.weebly.com/focalie.html
Have you given the Focal.ie app a try? Leave us a review in the comments section.
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Google Translate: une traduction trop commerciale sur l’outil de traduction ?

Google Translate: une traduction trop commerciale sur l’outil de traduction ? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Google Translate: une traduction trop commerciale sur l’outil de traduction ? 0
PAR ADMIN LE 2 MARS 2015 HIGH TECH



Voir une traduction erronée d’un mot ou d’une expression sur la plateforme de traduction, Google traduction, n’est plus surprenant. En effet, l’aspect participatif du traducteur en ligne du géant américain d’Internet permet aux internautes de détourner l’application à des fins parfois douteuses. Après que Google ait définitivement retiré les insultes homophobes de sa plate-forme de traduction, on découvre maintenant que Google traduction sert d’outil commercial pour certaines marques comme « Moncler ».

Doudoune traduite en anglais en Moncler

Sur la plate-forme de traduction de la marque de Mountain View, le mot français « Doudoune » est traduit dans la langue de Shakespeare en « Moncler ». Il s’agit de cette marque italienne spécialisée dans la confection de doudoune. Jusqu’à preuve du contraire, l’article vestimentaire est pourtant traduit en anglais par des mots comme « down jacket » ou « jacket ».



Une opération commerciale

Selon des analystes, il ne s’agirait pas cette fois d’une propagande ou d’une mauvaise farce d’internautes, mais bel et bien d’une opération commerciale en faveur de la marque italienne. Décidément, Google Traduction peut être décliné en de nombreuses versions. Chacun peut l’utiliser à sa façon.
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Traduire, c'est toujours réinventer

Traduire, c'est toujours réinventer | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Le lecteur est confronté au multilinguisme par le rassemblement, dans cet ouvrage, de préfaces et articles, en langues diverses, de la traduction du «Vocabulaire européen des philosophies».

Philosopher en langues: les intraduisibles en traduction
Collectif
ACHETER CE LIVRE
En 2004, Barbara Cassin présidait, grâce à cent cinquante autres personnes, à la réalisation d’un chef-d’œuvre, devenu indispensable à ceux qui veulent travailler en philosophie: le Dictionnaire des intraduisibles, dont le titre véritable était d’ailleurs Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Quatre mille mots explorés, dans plus de quinze langues européennes (du basque à l’ukrainien, du portugais au suédois, pour suivre les axes géographiques). Plus de dix ans après, il est question d’extraire ce dictionnaire de la seule langue française.
Le grand souci de Barbara Cassin était et est toujours d’insister constamment sur un fait: on philosophe en langues. Et elle ajoute: «Comme on parle, comme on écrit et –c’est là le point– comme on pense». Ce qui aboutit à cette précision non moins essentielle: s’il est un universel, c’est la traduction. Tout ceci peut être justifié de multiples manières. Dans la présentation de ce livre –«L'énergie des intraduisibles»– elle renvoie à Jacques Derrida, qui a fait émerger la notion d'intraduisible dans Le monolinguisme de l'autre: «On ne parle jamais qu'une seule langue»/«On ne parle jamais une seule langue.» Elle cite également Jacques Lacan: «Une langue, entre autres, n'est rien de plus que l'intégrale des équivoques que son histoire y a laissé persister». Bien évidemment, ces propos, ainsi que ceux de Barbara Cassin impliquent de nombreuses autres considérations. Il n'en reste pas moins qu'ils ouvrent magnifiquement une nouvelle aventure.
Cette aventure est la suivante: certains collaborateurs de la première heure du Vocabulaire ont repris cet ouvrage à leur compte, dans leur langue ou dans l'une de leurs langues. Le dictionnaire de départ est traduit ou en cours de traduction, grâce à eux. L'enchaînement est rigoureux. La démarche est très conséquente avec la manière dont on y définit les intraduisibles. Disons-le autrement: les intraduisibles sont les symptômes de la différence des langues. Il ne s'agit pas de ce que l'on ne traduit pas, mais de ce que l'on ne cesse de (ne pas) traduire. Il faut par conséquent constamment ouvrir, déployer les équivoques, expliciter les difficultés. L'échange va même plus loin puisqu'il implique de décider aussi quel statut accorder à la langue française, langue d'accueil de la version princeps. Et Barbara Cassin de conclure: «Chaque traduction est, non pas un calque, mais une adaptation grosse de questions». Disons plus exactement, une réinvention, qui, c'est à souligner, ne passe pas par la traduction du dictionnaire en anglais, ou en globish, cette langue de service qui réduit les langues de culture au rang de dialectes! Rappelons cependant, afin qu'il n'y ait pas d'ambiguïtés, que le dictionnaire a bien bénéficié d'une traduction-réinvention, en anglais cette fois, qui joue, il est vrai, l'english contre le globish.
 
La première partie de l'ouvrage rassemble différentes préfaces, introductions ou avertissements accompagnant chaque transposition dans une «langue et culture singulière». Ces textes sont présentés dans leur ordre chronologique de parution. La seconde partie de l'ouvrage propose un échantillon d'articles nouveaux, souvent encore inédits pour nous, qui existent dans, par et pour une langue seulement (attendant d'être traduits à leur tour, en français). Ces textes-là sont proposés dans leur langue originelle et en traduction.
Mais terminons-en d'abord avec les problèmes généraux posés par ces exercices essentiels pour les échanges internationaux et l’ampleur de la pensée. Justement, Barbara Cassin engage encore une remarque à ce propos: toute l'entreprise ne coïncide-t-elle pas avec le jeu des nationalismes? «Comment dépassons-nous, comment contournons-nous peut-être l'encombrant problème du génie des langues et l'enracinement identitaire?» Non seulement la question se pose, mais elle est redoublée par le problème culturel du choix des entrées «nouvelles» (dans chacune des autres langues): décision des Ukrainiens de traduire le dictionnaire afin de mieux différencier la langue philosophique ukrainienne de la langue russe (encore l'éditent-ils aussi en russe à Kiev); enjeux multiples du travail sur «peuple», «loi», «Etat» à l'heure de la Charia en langue arabe; la traduction en brésilien posant, quant à elle, le problème des langues coloniales et postcoloniales, etc.
Petit intermède pour réfléchir: l’ouvrage, du moins son titre, en cours de traduction, a parfois perdu son adjectif «européen» (en américain, brésilien). Doit-on y voir une critique de l’universalisme occidental?
La préface du dictionnaire en ukrainien situe fort bien le point de départ de tout rapport à lui: non seulement l’édition princeps a montré que la philosophie n'est pas une activité mentale uniquement liée de manière extérieure à la langue, mais aussi qu’elle n’est pas davantage une activité liée à certaines langues élues. Bien évidemment, chaque langue donne à ses locuteurs des ressources pour philosopher. Mais alors, souligne Constantin Sigov, pourquoi ce dictionnaire est-il nommé «européen»? A quoi réfère cette unité philosophique européenne? L'auteur relève ainsi quelques défis majeurs de l'entreprise, parmi lesquels figure celui-ci: est-il possible de simplement traduire cet ouvrage? Rien ne peut s'accomplir si on se trompe sur la signification de «traduction», rien ne peut aboutir si on ne pense pas en termes d'adaptation, rien ne peut se déployer si on ne conçoit pas une réécriture de l'ensemble qui ne consiste évidemment pas en un simple ajustement. Le cas de la traduction des citations du dictionnaire princeps est tout à fait patent: traduira-t-on une citation d'un texte grec (Platon, Aristote, par exemple), présentée en version française, à partir du français, du texte original en grec, ou de la traduction habituelle du même texte dans la langue d'accueil, voire en retraduisant l'original, grec, en gardant à l'esprit les particularité de la version française dans laquelle la citation était avancée pour produire un certain effet?
Ali Benmakhlouf, pour la traduction du dictionnaire en arabe, après s'être félicité de l'ampleur du mouvement de traduction vers le monde arabophone, ces dernières années, rappelle l'importance des échanges philosophiques pour «ne pas se laisser guider par les idées préconçues, les doctrines idéologiques et autres illusions». Et il utilise la métaphore du «voyage» pour parler de la traduction. Mais il n'oublie pas de rappeler que la traduction fut aussi le moyen par lequel la langue et la culture arabes s'ouvrirent à d'autres cultures, sauf, pour un moment (jusqu'à Al Fârâbî, puis Averroès) à la langue et la philosophie grecques avec lesquelles les contacts sont passés indirectement par le syriaque. Il expose ensuite les difficultés de la traduction, mais sur ce plan, tous les participants à ce volume sont en accord. La traduction en anglo-américain donne lieu à un point de vue différent puisque l'auteure (Emily Apter) tente d'abord de relier le dictionnaire à d'autres ouvrages (de l'Encyclopédie de Diderot à Koselleck, en passant par Lalande), puis elle raconte l'aventure éditoriale du dictionnaire, avant de se pencher sur un autre point délicat: l'élaboration des bibliographies. Il fallait en effet revenir sur les traductions anglaises des textes philosophiques canoniques, et aux ouvrages anglophones de référence sur les concepts et les philosophes. A quoi s'ajoute une remarque sur le terme même de «philosophie». Ce qui est intéressant dans les propos tenus ici, c'est qu'ils tentent d'extraire très précisément le dictionnaire de son contexte français. L'examen de deux notions dans la langue allemande (Lust et dolmetschen, plaisir et traduire, ce qui n'est pas tout à fait exact, puisque le premier est plus proche de se soumettre à un penchant irrésistible et le second signifie littéralement germaniser, puisqu'il s'agit du terme employé par Luther pour parler de son travail de traduction de la Bible) conduit ensuite à une difficulté pour la traductrice, puisque le dictionnaire bat en brèche le nationalisme ontologique des théories allemandes du sujet, comme, par ailleurs, il critique la prédominance des traditions philosophiques anglo-analytiques.
Pour synthétiser les autres textes, signalons que la préface roumaine (Anca Vasiliu) s’ouvre sur une série d’attestations de l’ancienneté de la langue roumaine (langue latine, au demeurant). Si l’objectif paraît être de défendre, ou de récupérer l’épaisseur historique du vocabulaire philosophique roumain, l’article ouvre plus largement sur notre méconnaissance de la situation linguistique et scolastique dans le passé de cette région de l’Europe. La position est différente pour le portugais qui, d’emblée, oblige à souligner que les langues d’origine européenne ne sont pas limitées à l’Europe géographique (anglais, espagnol, portugais...). Les rédacteurs (Fernando Santoro et Luisa Buarque) insistent alors sur le fait que l’intraduisible n’est pas ce qui ne peut pas être traduit ou n’a pas été traduit, mais ce qui, en toute traduction, révèle la différence entre les langues et opère une transformation dans le concept philosophique lui-même. Le traducteur en hébreu (Adi Ophir) énonce un paradoxe d’emblée: en tant que forme de pensée et champ d’activité intellectuelle, la philosophie européenne n’a jamais pu s’enraciner dans la langue hébraïque, les échos de débats philosophiques étant absorbés par le discours rabbinique, et depuis l’époque hellénistique, la plupart des philosophes juifs n’ont pas écrit en hébreu (Philon, Spinoza, Mendelssohn, Buber, Levinas). Ce qui ne signifie pas que la pensée et le débat philosophique ne traversent pas le même milieu, et qu’une autre tradition ne soit instaurée à partir du XIIIe siècle autour de Maïmonide. Et l’auteur de poursuivre cette exploration largement, jusqu’à rendre compte de la manière dont l’hébreu israélien a adopté des pans entiers de la philosophie européenne. Mais simultanément, il soulève un autre problème incontournable, celui de la structure des langues et des formes difficilement compatibles: problème par exemple de la copule et des langues qui y renoncent;  problème de la négation… des problèmes qui sont plus importants encore que les seuls problèmes de vocabulaire.
La seconde partie de l’ouvrage, «Un géométral des différences», contribue à un autre exercice, celui de saisir les difficultés de traduction de tel ou tel terme, mais cette fois en retour sur la langue française. Cette partie puise dans les traductions du Vocabulaire des termes problématiques ou nouveau dans la langue d’arrivée, et nous donne à lire le texte original (arabe, hébreu, anglais, portugais, etc.) et sa traduction. Les termes choisis sont évidemment centraux à plus d’un titre: charia, multitude, sexe, intraduction, traduire, nature. Cet échantillon n’est pas extrait uniquement pour éblouir ou pour donner à lire des exercices virtuoses. Il est lié à des enjeux spécifiques.
Relevons uniquement quelques traits pour donner au lecteur le goût de s’emparer de cet ouvrage. Le premier mot proposé vient de la langue arabe. «Charia», y apprend-on, pose plus de problèmes qu’on ne le croit. On ne peut le traduire par «loi», puisqu’il signifie «voie» (montrée par Dieu). Il s’agit d’une parole inspirée et non d’un commandement positif. La mutation du terme en loi est due aux écoles juridiques, mais chacune l’interprète différemment. Cela signifie-t-il qu’il faut distinguer clairement la mission religieuse du prophète et son activité politique ou les confondre? Tel est le débat de la traduction de ce terme. Il rejoint alors celui qui concerne «califat», forme de gouvernement lié à la succession du prophète ou forme de commanderie indépendante? Et quelle relation penser entre les deux termes… où l’on retrouve Ibn Khaldûn, Al Fârâbî et Averroès. Par ailleurs, que signifie la référence à la charia en droit positif moderne? Pas grand-chose, finalement, puisque la charia n’est pas un ensemble de normes connues de tous. Il est donc nécessaire qu’une vision positive du droit musulman émerge, connectée plutôt à l’étatique qu’au religieux.
Autre terme qui nous revient donc en français: «Erev Rav», mélange, ou plus précisément dans la Bible, la populace, une masse non identifiée. L’auteur reconstitue la carrière passionnante de ce terme (Zohar, Kabbale, hébreu rabbinique,...). Le terme finit par signifier: menace, danger par rapport «au camp pur». Le terme est issu de la Bible hébraïque, là où il renvoie au moment originel de la fondation de la communauté au moment de la sortie d’Egypte. Il permet d’identifier qui est inclus, exclu, ou appartient à un supplément menaçant mais indéfinissable. Mélange seulement ou intrusion au sein de la communauté et qui la menace? Ce qui se traduit en termes modernes par la question de l’altérité et de l’étranger prosélyte. On voit bien l’importance de ce concept pour le sionisme religieux, et dans la réflexion contemporaine.
Autres termes donc: le genre, dans sa différence avec le sexe (Judith Butler). Mais signalons que l’auteure ne se borne pas à l’anglais, elle traverse plusieurs langues révélant à chaque fois des univers historiques singuliers. «Intraduction» que nous avons déjà mise en avant, nous jetant dans des questions de poétique portugaise.
Il n’est guère de conclusion à donner, au terme de cette lecture, l’importance de l’ensemble n’ayant pas besoin de preuves ou d’approbation mineure. Sinon à indiquer que l’entreprise gagne désormais le persan et le chinois, c’est-à-dire place cette aventure devant le problème des formes de pensée qui ne se reconnaissent pas nécessairement comme philosophiques. Voilà qui s’annonce passionnant.
Christian Ruby et Nonfiction
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Orange Klif : un smartphone Firefox OS à 35 € pour les pays africains

Orange Klif : un smartphone Firefox OS à 35 € pour les pays africains | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Ce n’est pas cette année que l’on verra Firefox OS monter en gamme. Au contraire, la fondation Mozilla double la mise sur les téléphones à bas coût, qui pourront pourquoi pas posséder des claviers coulissants ou des écrans à clapet. C’est le sens d’un partenariat noué avec KDDI, Telefonica et Verizon en vue du développement de nouveaux formats pour une commercialisation en 2016.


Le Orange/Alcatel Klif. Image Orange.
De nouveaux formats, de nouveaux marchés aussi : Orange s’est associée à Mozilla et Alcatel pour concevoir le Klif, un smartphone à bas coût doté d’une puce 3G et destiné à dix pays africains. Contrairement à iOS et Android, Firefox OS intègre de nombreuses langues africaines, comme le wolof ou le swahili. Voilà qui en fait un système de choix pour un opérateur comme Orange, qui dépense sans compter pour se positionner sur les marchés africains émergents.

L’appareil en lui-même, construit autour d’un processeur MediaTek poussif et doté d’un écran 3,5 pouces 480x320 px, importe peu. Seul son mode de distribution compte : il sera vendu pour moins de 35 € avec six mois de forfait inclus. Le « forfait mobile type » comprendra de trente minutes à une heure d’appels, des SMS sans limite et surtout 500 Mo de données par mois. À l’issue des six mois, le forfait pourra être rechargé ; un deuxième logement SIM permet d’utiliser une autre offre selon le lieu ou le moment de la journée.

Le Klif sera vendu au Botswana, en Égypte, au Sénégal, en Tunisie, au Cameroun, à Madagascar, en Côte d’Ivoire, au Mali, au Niger et au Kenya, ainsi qu’en Jordanie, à l'île Maurice et au Vanuatu. Une demi-douzaine d’autres pays pourrait s’ajouter à la liste d’ici à la fin de l’année.
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PMEs: Ferramenta traduz sites para 30 línguas

PMEs: Ferramenta traduz sites para 30 línguas | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
EBureau Proxy faz atualizações em tempo real e é acessível ao pequeno e médio empreendedor
 
Possuir um portal em mais de um idioma é fundamental para alcançar clientes ao redor do mundo. Mais do que traduzir, a grande dificuldade é mantê-lo atualizado a cada inserção de conteúdo. Para tornar o processo mais dinâmico e acessível ao pequeno e médio empreendedor, a Bureau Translations (http://www.bureautranslations.com/), considerada a maior empresa de tradução da América Latina, lança o Bureau Proxy. 
 
Bureau Translation
 
O serviço inclui a criação de versões de um site em outras línguas e atualizações. “Fazemos o monitoramento em tempo real e, a cada novo conteúdo postado, acionamos um profissional para fazer a tradução e adaptação em até três horas”, explica Gabriel Fairman, CEO da Bureau Translations.
 
Ao contrário das traduções automáticas, o trabalho feito por um especialista é fiel à terminologia original do texto, sem traduzir ao pé da letra e recair em expressões que não existam ou não tenham sentido.  “Temos uma rede com 350 linguistas associados para o serviço ser feito com todas as nuances necessárias em qualquer idioma”, afirma o executivo.
 
O custo médio para a tradução de um endereço na web é de R$ 600, variando conforme o número de palavras, mais uma taxa a partir de R$ 50 mensais para manutenção. “As plataformas de gestão de conteúdo chegam a custar 15 vezes mais para fazer o mesmo serviço que o Bureau Proxy”, diz Fairman.
 
A ferramenta, lançada em fevereiro de 2015, está disponível em 30 línguas, como inglês, espanhol, francês, alemão, italiano, chinês e japonês, mas, segundo o CEO da Bureau Translations, a expectativa é que a procura por idiomas menos comuns aumente com a disponibilização da solução. A meta é encerrar o ano com mil clientes utilizando a nova tecnologia. “Queremos que as empresas de comércio exterior e turismo ganhem acesso a um site multilíngue, imprescindível para o seu trabalho”, completa Fairman.
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Google plans to rank websites based on facts not links

Google plans to rank websites based on facts not links | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Google has planned to rank websites on its search engine based on factual accuracy, a move that will prevent sites full of misinformation from appearing first in search results.

Google currently uses the number of incoming links to a web page as a proxy for quality, determining where it appears in search results. So pages that many other sites link to are ranked higher.

The disadvantage of the system is that websites full of misinformation can rise up the rankings, if enough people link to them, ‘New Scientist’ reported.

The trustworthiness of a web page might help it rise up Google’s rankings if the search giant starts to measure
quality by facts.

A Google research team is adapting that model to measure the trustworthiness of a page, rather than its reputation across the web.

Instead of counting incoming links, the system will count the number of incorrect facts within a page.

The score they compute for each page is its Knowledge-Based Trust score. The software works by tapping into the Knowledge Vault, the vast store of facts that Google has pulled off the internet.

Those facts which the web unanimously agrees on are considered a reasonable proxy for truth. Web pages that contain contradictory information are bumped down the rankings.
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Cultural programme on Int'l Mother Language Day

Uccharan Academy, a leading cultural organisation of Bogra, arranged a cultural programme on International Mother Language Day and Shaheed Dibosh at its office in Wood-burn Municipality Park in Bogra town.

The chief coordinator of Uccharan Academy, Atiqur Rahman Mithu presided over the function.

Among the speakers were noted human rights activist Anwarul Islam Bacchu, president of Sammilito Sangskritik Jote Monowarul Islam, noted social worker Akram Hossain, poet Selim Reza Kajal and director of the academy Adv. Polash Khandakar.

At the event about 40 children gave a group performance, 20 children performed solo songs and 15 children recited poetry from the writings of different poets. Of the performers, three were from a school for the differently-abled, who were awarded crests by the academy for their brilliant performance at the recent international Olympiad.
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Preview: ‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’- Crossing into a fairytale | The Oxford Student

Preview: ‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’- Crossing into a fairytale | The Oxford Student | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Think of all the tales you’re going to discover…”

Arriving on the B-T stage this 7th week is ‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’, a new adaptation of an 11th century Japanese text. This play includes the elements of what student drama does best: it has an original score, a new script and includes ballet sequences. In short they’re doing something, new, interesting and a little experimental.

‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’ follows the life of Lady Sarashina as she travels through Japan. She is passionate about stories and finds refuge in the tales she is told. The stories are such a significant part of her identity that this mystical play obscures the boundaries between dreams and reality.

Impressively director Laura Cull adapted the original text into a play with help from her friend Harriet Rowe who studies Japanese. The original does not give names to many characters but Harriet was able to find appropriate ones; she also gave cultural advice, having read it in Japanese and being familiar with their customs. Working with her own script meant that Cull was able to develop and change moments as they rehearsed; the characters and script could be developed during the rehearsal process with the input of the actors. She also had the liberty to emphasise moments which she found particularly important from the original; it is her interpretation of the ancient Japanese text that we will be watching in the play.

What I heard from the script was skilfully done; the language maintains the ethereal mood of the piece with lines such as “I continued to bathe in the tales…” Cull has managed to sustain an oriental tone when writing this script. It has a complicated structure as the plot flits between the real and the fantasy worlds; the result is a beautiful mix of stories woven together.

The stories are presented in a range of ways too. Cull wanted it to be an “immersive, multimedia project” including live music and ballet. The music was written especially for the play by Marco Galvani who also wrote the score for His Dark Materials which enjoyed a successful run at the O’Reilly last term. It certainly adds atmosphere to pivotal moments of the play.

Ballet adds to the fairy-like qualities of some of the characters and the dance is used to illustrate the stories on stage. The ballet I saw in the preview was of particularly high quality and I loved the idea that they are mixing so many different techniques in one play. The drama scene in Oxford is very strong but I like that this play is giving dance a platform too. It makes the piece much more varied and I like that they are experimenting with the different ways a story can be communicated.

Whether you are interested by avant-garde ethereal music, some expressive dance or a new translation of an ancient text – this play provides different aspects which will appeal to a range of people. I look forward to seeing how it all comes together.

As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams is playing at the Burton-Taylor Studio from 3rd – 7th March.  

IMAGE/Artwork by Shannon Smith, graphic design by Steven Doran
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Survival strategies of an online freelancer

Survival strategies of an online freelancer | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
KYLE CHAYKA COMES OFF as more practical than driven—capable of knowing his goals, reading an environment, and deciding what his next steps should be without a lot of emotion.

A 26-year-old freelancer who makes his living writing online, Chayka’s preternatural calm sets him apart from a crowd balancing the competitive pressure of writing for some of the best-known publications on the internet with the financial uncertainty of piecing together a living in a medium where flat fees often replace word rates. In the chaotic ecosystem of digital journalism, reported material commonly fetches the same price as a lightly researched “take,” and even blue-chip publications pay embarrassingly little for a story. Yet Chayka will tell you that making a living this way is totally possible, that there is not only money but value in this line of work.

“People constantly express shock that I’m a full-time freelance journalist writing on the internet,” he told me when I approached him to ask about his career. “Someone’s got to do a story about how it’s not that bad.”

For Chayka and other winners in this economy, freelancing is both a career in its own right and a calculated risk, a bet wagered in the hopes of winning something better—whether that something is a staff job, a book deal, a larger professional network, a more prestigious beat, or some other means of advancement. The gamble is whether you can make enough money to survive in the near-term while producing work that’s strong enough to significantly improve your professional standing. The task of today’s digital freelancer is to build a business and grow as a writer in an environment where pay rates don’t seem to amount to a living wage.

Chayka has placed his bet. His end game is more about rising in the profession than it is about money. He is hardly the first young journalist to take the popular notion that writers should be a brand and a business seriously. It’s his degree of comfort with the equation that makes him notable.

‘People constantly express shock that I make a living as a freelance journalist writing on the internet. Someone’s got to do a story about how it’s not that bad.’

In a recent Twitter conversation between freelancers bemoaning low rates, Chayka sounded more like an encouraging journalism school professor than a young writer. After listing a few bits of practical advice (“If the hourly rate it’ll take to do a piece doesn’t work out for money or bylines, don’t do it”), he concluded: “Treat writing like a business, because that’s what it is until you have the luxury of pretending it’s not.”

But what kind of business? The internet, with its voracious hunger for content and dubious moneymaking potential, has led to a glut of copy that has kept pay rates low. The fact that there are multiple databases devoted to uncovering which online publications pay writers at all is a good indication of the financial uncertainty facing digital freelancers.

Yet for Chayka and others working primarily or entirely online, the internet has also created a niche that is profitable in more than monetary terms. An example of this complex calculus is Chayka’s work for the tech site Gizmodo. The site isn’t going to make a freelancer rich. Who Pays Writers says it pays $250 for a guest post, though Chayka wouldn’t share his rate. But it has the added appeal of being read widely by tech editors. Chayka wrote a story about online chat rooms for the site in December. Within a half hour, three editors had emailed to ask him for pitches.

The experience highlights the blurry line between exposure and connections. For freelancers, building an audience has fewer immediate benefits than exposure to editors, which is how visibility is truly monetized.

A lot of writers fail to make this calculation, Chayka says. “You can’t really talk about freelancing on the Web without addressing the fact that there’s such a disparity between the high end and the low end. It’s not just in terms of pay. It’s in terms of visibility and promotion and the value you’re getting from the publication itself.”

For Chayka, the payoff for visibility has been becoming a go-to freelancer for larger, better-paying sites such as The Daily Beast when those publications need a post on a trending topic. A freelancer who can give a site something it wants and doesn’t have the time to shop around for is in a good negotiating position. When you’re working at the lower end of the pay scale, a rate increase of $100 or $200 can make freelancing quickly more sustainable over the long haul.

Given that he’s running a business, Chayka won’t reveal his revenues. What he will say is that he makes a good enough living writing an average of 13 stories a month to put him in the salary range of a staff writer at many of the publications he writes for, which amounts to something between $35,000 and $65,000 a year. He pays $900 a month to share an apartment with three roommates in Bushwick, a rapidly gentrifying neighborhood in Brooklyn, where he also rents a co-working space for $175 a month; he has basic health insurance through the New York health exchange. About four of his 13 monthly stories are for Pacific Standard, where he’s on contract to post a weekly technology column throughout 2015. The remaining nine are either stories he’s pitched or one-off assignments brought to him by editors. He can’t predict how many stories will fall into either category in a given month, but he manages a consistent volume overall.

Part of the calculation made by any freelancer needing to earn a livable amount of money from a manageable amount of work is that heavy reporting, if respected, often doesn’t command higher rates—or even reimbursement for expenses. In a survey of freelance investigative reporters released in February by Project Word, an arm of Investigative Reporters and Editors, 38 percent of respondents said that outlets “often” or “regularly” commissioned pieces without covering the expenses of reporting them. Another 31 percent said this happens “occasionally.” Chayka finds feature writing for Web and print publications to be the most satisfying part of what he does, but he has to buy the time to do them by churning out a higher volume of “one-thought 800-word pieces.” His body of work includes, “Why every real man carries a tote bag,” which appeared in The Guardian last September, and “Is FOMO Driving the Bitcoin Boom?” for Pacific Standard in December 2013. The relative effort that goes into these pieces is small enough that he thinks they often pay better, in the end, than labor intensive feature writing at higher rates.

“It’s a funny calculation you have to make as a freelancer between who you’re reaching, how much you can get paid, what you can produce. All of those variables change for every piece you write,” he told me.

There’s no comprehensive data about Web pay rates for professional journalism, but the website Who Pays Writers gives a good sense of the low end of the spectrum. It focuses mostly on online publications that pay between $50 and $250 for a piece, and reveals vast differences between companies commingling at that end of the pay scale. VICE, valued at $2.5 billion, paid $500 for a 2,000- to 4,000-word “investigative” feature in 2014, according to Who Pays Writers. A tiny operation like The Awl typically pays $100 to $200 for a story, which is competitive with the rates offered freelancers by Web giants like The Atlantic. The New Yorker’s website pays most freelancers who cold pitch $250 for a reported piece; the Gawker network of sites pays about the same. The fees are always round numbers, and give you the sense that they were carved out from a budget by editors who didn’t want to bother with any complex accounting.

I spoke to a number of established freelancers for this story. Their answers to the question of whether freelancing for the Web was a viable way to make a living ranged from positive (“I make a pretty good living”) to tentative (“it’s pretty challenging, I must admit”) to despondent (“there is no way you can survive on just writing online”).

What’s clear is that even excellent writers with established reputations on the Web have to work very hard to make a living in this environment. The Gawker writer-turned-freelancer Michelle Dean wrote in 2013 that she worked 10 to 12 hours a day, seven days a week to earn her living writing for the Web. Jacob Silverman, who has written online for Politico Magazine and Slate, jokes with his wife that, “I don’t really make money. I just occasionally win money.” His three-day winning streak as a guest on Jeopardy! earned him most of his income in 2012. His latest win was a book deal, allowing him to escape the high volume demands of writing for the Web for a while.

Some feel that freelancing is a perpetual tryout for a staff job, and that it’s becoming the industry’s new version of the unpaid internship, throwing up a similar barrier to entry for those trying to get into the profession without a parental subsidy. “Someone who’s working two jobs isn’t necessarily going to have the time to pop out a really great piece for $150 to build their career,” Manjula Martin, founder of Who Pays Writers, points out. Chayka has managed to support himself through writing since college, but being his own boss doesn’t mean he can grant himself paid sick leave.

‘There is and probably always will be money in journalism. The question is, where is it?’

Online freelancing has the feel of a young person’s game. But Steve Friess, a 42-year-old freelancer based in Ann Arbor, makes a six-figure income writing reported stories for the Web—often for newer entrants like Al Jazeera America and Take Part, a site recently launched by the film production company Participant Media. “There is and probably always will be money in journalism,” Friess says. “The question is, where is it? And that moves. You sniff out where the money is at the moment, and you go there, and you accept the notion that a year from now they’ll probably run out of money, and you’ll have to find other places. And this process of moving from one grazing field to another has certainly always been my experience as a freelancer.”

He says his own key to financial success as a freelancer comes from his newspaper days. He can write quickly and well on many topics. Although he says he’s generally well above the $250-an-article range, volume is still the key to making an income writing on the Web. He wrote anywhere from 10 to 20 stories a month in 2014, including multiple features.

Chayka became a full-time freelancer in 2012, after leaving his job as associate editor at ARTINFO. It took him about six months to “stop freaking out” about whether he was going to make any money. But it took a full year and a half to gain confidence that he could produce ambitious work while paying the bills. That’s arguably his greatest strength as a freelancer—a talent for indulging his interests while still earning enough to support his larger ambitions.

It certainly helps that his interests often center on the Web itself. In December 2013, he produced a massive viral hit for The Verge by tracking down the owners of the Shiba Inu dogs currently starring in Doge, that season’s hottest internet meme. (People found pictures of Shiba Inus and added captions expressing the dogs’ internal monologues in Comic Sans type.)

Chayka’s skill at covering some of the lighter aspects of technology and culture has bought him time to pursue more ambitious journalism. In April of 2014, he wrote a Newsweek cover story on biometric surveillance.

The benefit of treating writing as a business is that the days you’d rather forget helped finance your proudest achievements. The tradeoff is that efficiency often wins out over craft. When I called Chayka’s longtime editor at Pacific Standard, Nicholas Jackson, to talk about his work, one of the highest compliments Jackson could manage centered on Chayka’s lack of perfectionism. Jackson explained that, on the occasion when a draft Chayka files needs more work than Jackson has time for, he’s able to say, “We’re only going to be able to get it to a place where we both think it’s good enough but maybe not as great as you originally imagined, but I’ve got to move on to the next thing. Hope you’re okay with that.” He is. It’s one of the things “that make you want to just keep working with somebody,” said Jackson, who had 18 drafts waiting in his inbox as we spoke.

As successful as Chayka has been at finding his way in the wilds of freelance digital journalism, his ultimate goal lies elsewhere. He’s better than any writer I’ve spoken to at battling down the anxieties that come with balancing craft and commerce, but that doesn’t mean he’s content to stay in his current niche forever.

“No one wants to be forced to churn out stuff for money,” he says. “I think everyone would be better off if time and space and money allowed more online writers to put more thought into their work.”

The Web has given him a solid niche for his business. But, as in any business, the key metric of success is growth. And Web freelance rates only afford so much opportunity for growth. Long online features are becoming more common and starting to pay better, with outlets like Matter paying rates competitive with high-end magazines. But print remains the place to go if you want to hone your skills as a writer and get paid for it, Chayka believes.

“It definitely feels a little weird to be aspiring towards something that’s arguably less stable than internet media,” he says. “But as a writer and as someone who wants to be a more literary writer, print magazines are still the place that you go to kind of stretch out. I think that transition to Web features being just as respected as print features is happening, but we’re definitely not there yet.”

Talking with Chayka, I was struck by how hard it is, in an industry undergoing constant change, to know how much of our comfort with present circumstances is based solely on our optimism about the future. Nowhere is this truer than among freelancers, who consider their prospects not only in terms of years but also in terms of the assignment that must appear tomorrow. Chayka is an optimist. He believes he’s going to be working tomorrow for better rates than he worked for today. He believes his native medium will continue to grow to meet his ambitions. He believes it’s a good time to do business.
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Dubbing Starts for Mammootty-Nayanthara Starrer 'Bhaskar The Rascal'

Dubbing Starts for Mammootty-Nayanthara Starrer 'Bhaskar The Rascal' | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
t looks like Mammootty and Nayanathara are gearing up for their next release "Bhaskar the Rascal" directed by hit maker Siddhiqque. The latest we hear is that the team has now entered the dubbing session of the movie in Kochi.



Mammootty in "Bhaskar The Rascal"Facebook/ Bhaskar the Rascal
Sources say that the "Bhaskar The Rascal' team has completed the shooting for almost 66 days and has only nine days of shooting left, which means the audience will get a chance to catch a glimpse of the movie soon.

Reports suggest that "Bhaskar The Rascal" will hit screens in April, in which case it might lock horns with Mohanlal-Manju Warrier movie "Ennum Eppozhum".

"Bhaskar the Rascal" is Siddique's third project with Mammootty after a 10-year gap. They had earlier worked together for "Hitler" (1996) and "Chronic Bachelor" (2003), which were big successes at the Kerala box office.

Nayanthara had earlier acted with Mammootty in "Thaskara Veeran" and "Rappakal". As per reports, the actress is yet to join the sets of the film as she is busy with her Tamil project. Nayanthara has previously worked with Siddhque for his movie "Body Guard" starring Dileep. The actress' last Malayalam movie was Shyamaprasad's psychological drama "Elektra".

"Bhaskar The Rascal" is touted as a typical Siddique movie with elements of comedy, dance and music. The director's last movie was "Ladies and Gentleman" (2013), starring Mohanlal and Krish J Sathar, which received poor reviews from audience and critics. 

Mammmootty is currently basking in the success of his latest flick "Fireman", directed by Deepu Karunakaran. The film will also star Nyla Usha and Unni Mukundan.

"Bhaskar the Rascal" is being produced by Anto Joseph. The movie will also have star cast of Isha Talwar, Harishree Ashokan, Kalabhavan Shajon, Janardhanan, Sanusha and Renji Panicker. 
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Yahoo turns 20 with spree of acquisitions - Telegraph

Yahoo turns 20 with spree of acquisitions - Telegraph | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
It is the search engine that showed the web’s first mainstream users where to find what they needed. This month Yahoo! turns 20. Yet so much has changed in those two decades. The current chief executive, Marissa Mayer, made her name at a company – Google – that didn’t even exist when Yahoo was founded.
At its height, Yahoo! – exclamation mark and all – was the single dominant platform on the web, applying the semi-manual Yellow Pages model rather than crawling the internet looking for respected links and automatically building an enormous index. As the web expanded, the approach rapidly became obviously unsustainable: Google stole Yahoo’s crown and the company subsided into being an enormous advertising platform that, even while profitable, limped along on its users’ mixture of inertia and nostalgia. It was hamstrung by its very success, with workers famously paid more than their peers for doing less. As one company insider says: “It was great while it lasted, but we all know it couldn’t. We were the BlackBerry of the web.’
Today, Marissa Mayer is engaged in a turnaround programme that is as controversial as it has been difficult, changing what was previously a search engine into a giant of Silicon Valley acquisitions. More products have been launched in 18 months than in the previous five years. The team working on mobile phones and tablets has grown from a paltry 50 to more than 550.
Mayer famously banned working from home to encourage her staff to come to the office and collaborate in building an exciting, reinvigorated Yahoo. While hardly welcomed at the time, it was accepted as staff realised that a better product was being built, and that it was Mayer’s way or possibly the end of Yahoo altogether.
Now, however, a system of staff appraisals that is seen as divisive, forcing managers to declare that a certain percentage of employees are not up to scratch, has proved far more controversial. Mayer’s fans argue it simply shows her total commitment to turning around a company through a combination of increased focus on mobile phones and tablets, new apps such as the 'News Digest’ and microblogging app tumblr. It remains to be seen whether this will truly achieve the results shareholders have hoped for. In her regular all-hands meetings, Mayer has been besieged by negative questions. The usually dazzling, confident chief executive has been forced on to the defensive.
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Founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo, two Stanford students, in January 1994 as 'Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web’, the company stared life as a manually compiled guide. Changing its name to Yahoo in March of the same year, the plan was simply to provide a decent guide to a growing resource. Although the word “Yahoo” is best known from Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, in fact it was also an acronym for “Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle”, so-called because Yang and Filo hoped office workers would see it as a logically organised guide. By 1998, it was the most popular homepage on the internet. Shares approached $120. However they dropped down to just $8.11 when the dotcom bubble burst.
But the real nadir came in 2008 when Yahoo rejected a $44bn takeover offer from Microsoft, only to find its market cap halving over the next three years. Jerry Yang was replaced as chief executive by Carol Bartz in 2009, then by Scott Thompson in 2012 – his tenure lasted just four months and, in a potent symbol of all that was wrong with Yahoo, he took home more than £5m. Social networking and the rise of mobile phones and apps had apparently been totally missed by a company many now simply wrote off.
That, however, was until the announcement that Yahoo had poached Mayer from Google.

The turnaround in enthusiasm and goodwill was instant; the purchase of Tumblr and British news app Summly seemed to show that this was a company back in business. By mid-2013 its sites were outperforming Google’s.
Under Mayer, Yahoo has persisted where many thought it would simply disappear. But many insiders feel it has yet to fully redefine itself. Is it a news aggregator, a portal, a destination in itself, or simply an advertising platform?
No-one yet knows and that appears to include Mayer. “She’s assembling a new jigsaw that is almost like working at a start-up again,” another insider said. “It’s just that not all start-ups survive.”
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‘Lost volume’ of Anthony Trollope’s The Duke’s Children reinstated for new edition

‘Lost volume’ of Anthony Trollope’s The Duke’s Children reinstated for new edition | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A crime against literature is due to be reversed, with a new edition of Anthony Trollope’s The Duke’s Children set to reinstate 65,000 words cut from the novel on its publication in 1880.

Researchers led by professor Steven Amarnick have worked for a decade on the original manuscript of Trollope’s sixth and final Palliser novel, which is held in Yale University’s Beinecke library. After painstakingly picking out the author’s scrawl from among a forest of crossings-out, they have discovered that Trollope’s excisions from the text amount to almost a quarter of the original, removing a whole volume from what was envisaged as a four-volume novel.

Now a complete, unabridged text is set to be published for the first time by the Folio Society to mark 200 years since the birth of a writer who once thundered, when asked to shorten Barchester Towers, that “no consideration should induce me to cut out a third of my work”. The Duke’s Children sees former prime minister of England and the Duke of Omnium Plantagenet Palliser widowed, and struggling to adapt to life without his wife and to support his three adult children.

“It’s quite extraordinary the different cumulative effect it has, on the richness of the text and the subtlety of the characters,” said Joe Whitlock Blundell at the Folio Society. “When I first read The Duke’s Children 30 years ago, it all seemed to be focused on the Duke’s reactions. But in the restored version, the characters of the children come through far more sympathetically.”

Amarnick writes in a commentary to the new edition that the “thousands of cuts did tremendous damage” to the work. Although Trollope did not delete any of his 80 chapters, he removed consecutive paragraphs in some places; in others, he cut sentences, phrases and words, even replacing a word with one which was slightly shorter on some occasions.

“The restored version has many more humorous touches and also has a darker edge,” writes Amarnick, adding that “the cuts diminish all his characters – often softening some of their harder edges”.

“I hadn’t realised until looking in both versions how much ironic commentary Trollope often reserved for the ends of his chapters,” said Whitlock Blundell. “He found that one of the easiest places to make cuts because it didn’t interrupt the flow, but it means lots of ironic commentary was missing – and he’s all about the irony.”

Whitlock Blundell speculates that Trollope “would have been incandescent” over being asked to make the cuts; the precise reason for them is “lost to posterity”, says the Folio Society, but “is likely to have been a demand from his publishers on the grounds of economy”.

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“There is no concrete evidence for who exactly forced him to make the cuts, though it seems probable that it was Charles Dickens Jr who requested a shorter book for serial publication,” said Whitlock Blundell. “As for his reluctance, there can be no doubt about it. He was very sensitive to any requests to cut his work, and wrote in his autobiography, ‘I am at a loss to know how such a task could be performed. I could burn the MS, no doubt, and write another book on the same story; but how two words out of every six are to be withdrawn from a written novel, I cannot conceive’.”

Trollope expert Dr Margaret Markwick, of Exeter University, believes Trollope would have been delighted to see his original work restored. “The major issue is clearly the speculation on what Trollope thought of being asked to cut his novel by a quarter, when he had spoken so unequivocally about the impossibility of cutting Barchester Towers,” she said. “And yet, here he is, doing an almost seamless job on The Duke’s Children.”

Markwick said that at the time Trollope had been “stung” by the “very poor reviews” of his preceding Palliser novel, The Prime Minister, was in “poor health” and in a “much different frame of mind when he was asked this time round to reduce his text”.

“Ever-sensitive to the criticisms of The Prime Minister, and ever the pragmatist, he set about cutting his text with considerable thought and skill, working on it for two months in 1878. That he took such care over the cuts makes me think he did it with good grace. That it should now come out in its original form I think would delight him,” she said.

The unabridged version of The Duke’s Children is being published this month in a limited edition, priced at £195, by the Folio Society, with an introduction by the novelist Joanna Trollope, a fifth generation niece to the author. The publisher hopes eventually that a mass-market version of the restored text will be released, which it expects will become the standard version of the novel.
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Langues nationales: le Conseil fédéral n'entrera pas en action avant le mois de juin

Langues nationales: le Conseil fédéral n'entrera pas en action avant le mois de juin | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Le Conseil fédéral ne prendra aucune décision avant le mois de juin dans l'épineux dossier de l'enseignement des langues.
Le Conseil fédéral ne bougera pas avant le mois de juin dans le dossier de l'enseignement des langues. Il attend le bilan qui sera alors présenté lors de la séance des directeurs cantonaux de l'instruction publique, a répété lundi le conseiller fédéral Alain Berset devant le Conseil des Etats.
La votation de dimanche prochain dans le canton de Nidwald, qui pourrait repousser à l'apprentissage du français à l'école secondaire, ne change rien au plan de route du gouvernement. Celui-ci ne souhaite pas agir de manière précipitée et il doit se garder de se substituer aux compétences des cantons, a insisté le ministre de la culture.
Le Conseil fédéral soutient les cantons dans leurs efforts d'harmonisation, en se basant sur le mandat constitutionnel et sur la stratégie d'enseignement des langues de 2004, a relevé Alain Berset. Celle-ci prévoit l'enseignement d'une deuxième langue nationale au niveau primaire.
Si les citoyens de Nidwald acceptent dimanche de retarder l'apprentissage d'une deuxième langue nationale, ils remettraient en question les efforts d'harmonisation. "Si on constate que l'harmonisation a partiellement échoué, il faudrait approfondir la discussion", a dit M. Berset.

 
Source: ATS
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China to compile polylingual dictionary on Buddhist manuscripts - Xinhua | English.news.cn

China to compile polylingual dictionary on Buddhist manuscripts - Xinhua | English.news.cn | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
China to compile polylingual dictionary on Buddhist manuscripts
English.news.cn   2015-03-02 15:31:10
BEIJING, March 2 (Xinhua) -- Chinese scholars will start to compile a four-language dictionary this year on palm-leaf manuscripts of Buddhist sutras and valuable ancient records, a Tibetan scholar and national political advisor told Xinhua Monday.

To push forward research and study on palm-leaf manuscripts, a Sanskrit-Tibetan-Chinese-English dictionary was needed, said Drongbu Tseringdorje, a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Palm-leaf manuscripts are mostly written in Sanskrit, and they feature ancient records of culture, philosophy, history and the sciences in South and Central Asia.

Tibet has numerous, important palm-leaf manuscripts. A central government survey on palm-leaf manuscripts in the region began in 2006, confirming nearly 60,000 pages dating back over 1,000 years.

Researchers are preparing for the second round of the survey, according to Drongbu Tseringdorje, who is also head of China's first and only research institute specializing in palm-leaf manuscripts.

As for the dictionary, Drongbu Tseringdorje said research institutes and universities in Beijing will be contacted after this year's national legislative session.
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As implicações jurídicas dos contratos assinados no Brasil em língua estrangeira

As implicações jurídicas dos contratos assinados no Brasil em língua estrangeira | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
As implicações jurídicas dos contratos assinados no Brasil em língua estrangeira
Gabriela Meinert Vitniski*
+A-AImprimir
PUBLICIDADE


Com a expansão das relações internacionais e a crescente instalação de empresas multinacionais em território brasileiro, a materialização das relações firmadas entre estas e pessoa físicas ou jurídicas nacionais podem implicar questões controversas.

Não é incomum que a empresa estrangeira padronize contratos de aquisição de bens e prestação de serviços na linguagem da origem da matriz internacional, ou ainda na língua inglesa que é a linguagem universal.

Alguns aspectos devem ser levados em consideração pela empresa nacional antes de firmar o negócio jurídico. Analisa-se que, de fato, dificilmente para estabelecer atividade em território brasileiro a empresa internacional prescinda de registro formal em órgãos brasileiros. Portanto, grande parte das empresas multinacionais atuantes no Brasil possuem contrato social, registro de CNPJ, além dos demais registros requisitados para desenvolvimento de suas atividades.

Dessa forma, em contrato firmado entre empresas, a legislação aplicada será a nacional, vejamos o que diz a Lei de Introdução às Normas do Direito Brasileiro (Redação dada pela Lei nº 12.376, de 2010): “Art. 9º. Para qualificar e reger as obrigações, aplicar-se-á a lei do país em que se constituírem”.

Então, independentemente do idioma do instrumento contratual, a legislação aplicada será necessariamente a brasileira.

Sobre o tema preceitua o Código Civil (Lei no 10.406, de 10 de janeiro de 2002): “Art. 224. Os documentos redigidos em língua estrangeira serão traduzidos para o português para ter efeitos legais no País. ”

Ainda, a Lei que dispõe sobre os Registros Públicos (Lei nº 6.015, de 31 de dezembro de 1973), assim prevê: “Art. 149. Os títulos, documentos e papéis escritos em língua estrangeira, uma vez adotados os caracteres comuns, poderão ser registrados no original, para o efeito da sua conservação ou perpetuidade. Para produzirem efeitos legais no País e para valerem contra terceiros, deverão, entretanto, ser vertidos em vernáculo e registrada a tradução, o que, também, se observará em relação às procurações lavradas em língua estrangeira.

Parágrafo único. Para o registro resumido, os títulos, documentos ou papéis em língua estrangeira, deverão ser sempre traduzidos”.       

 Vejamos que um dos requisitos da produção de efeitos pelo instrumento é a tradução. Importa frisar que tal tradução deve ser necessariamente efetuada por tradutor juramentado, com reconhecimento oficial de sua habilitação, conforme o Art. 157 do Código de Processo Civil (Lei no 5.869, de 11 de janeiro de 1973), vejamos: “Art. 157. Só poderá ser junto aos autos documento redigido em língua estrangeira, quando acompanhado de versão em vernáculo, firmada por tradutor juramentado”.

Salienta que a tradução juramentada, de acordo com entendimento mais recente do Superior Tribunal de Justiça, no julgamento do Recurso Especial nº 1.227.053, deve ser completa a fim de instruir a ação.

Concluímos que, não há justificativa plausível para a concordância com a assinatura de instrumento contratual em linguagem estrangeira, uma vez que a relação jurídica dar-se-á em território brasileiro, a legislação que regerá os termos do negócio será a brasileira, e para análise do instrumento pelo poder judiciário brasileiro é imprescindível a tradução juramentada para a língua portuguesa.

Recomenda-se, portanto, que todos os contratos firmados entre empresas multinacionais e nacionais, para execução em território brasileiro, sejam firmados em português. Alternativamente propõe-se que o instrumento seja minuciosamente redigido no padrão bicolunado, de compreensão ampla, e assinado por ambas as partes.

 

* Gabriela Meinert Vitniski é advogada graduada no curso de Direito pela Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), pós-graduanda em Direito Civil e Empresarial pela Damásio Educacional e da área de Direito Empresarialdo escritório Giovani Duarte Oliveira Advogados Associados.
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L'Oiseau vert : le merveilleux fait main

L'Oiseau vert : le merveilleux fait main | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
L'Oiseau vert : le merveilleux fait main
Par Armelle Héliot le 2 mars 2015 12h34 | Réactions (0)

Laurent Pelly met en scène la pièce de Carlo Gozzi. Il est moins joué que Goldoni qui fut son rival à Venise. Le monde de Gozzi est féérique et ironique. Très difficile à représenter.

Dans la nuit bleutée du théâtre, des oranges tournoient autour d’un homme qui occupe l’exact centre d’un vaste plan que l’on ne distingue pas complètement. Laurent ­Pelly installe immédiatement la magie dans la représentation de L’Oiseau vert de Carlo Gozzi et souligne que la pièce, créée en janvier 1765, est une suite de L’Amour des trois oranges qui la précède de quatre années. On connaît mieux cette dernière par l’opéra que composa Prokofiev d’après des souvenirs de ­Gozzi. Pelly a d’ailleurs monté l’ouvrage. Mais en découvrant L’Oiseau vert, on pense aussi au Roi nu d’Andersen dans l’adaptation de Schwartz que mit en scène le codirecteur du Théâtre national de Toulouse.
Ci-dessus Marilu Marini et Emmanuel Daumas : mère féroce et fils mélancolique !
Polo Garat Odessa

Comment faire avec cette « fable philosophique » dans laquelle, comme le dit Pantalon, « Tout peut arriver, tout peut arriver ». Et en effet : des pommes chantent, de l’eau danse, des jumeaux pauvres sont métamorphosés en un instant, un palais apparaît parce qu’ils ont jeté une pierre magique, des statues parlent et deviennent humaines, une femme croupit sous un évier, etc.

À l’heure de la sophistication de la vidéo, tout cela pourrait être simple. Mais Laurent Pelly a préféré des moyens plus anciens et c’est l’un des charmes du spectacle, tout y est « fait main », si l’on peut dire, par la grâce d’une dizaine de techniciens vêtus de noir que l’on aperçoit sur les côtés, manipulant les poulies pour que le sol bouge et que surgissent lumières et cadres, statues, espaces. L’essentiel de la scénographie imaginée, comme les costumes, par Laurent Pelly lui-même, est une grande nappe qui dégringole de haut, bordée d’ampoules et qui ne cesse de se métamorphoser.

Si la pièce est une féerie, elle ne cesse de se moquer de ce genre même et charrie une critique de la philosophie. L’autre difficulté tient au texte qui passe d’un style à un autre. De ce point de vue, la nouvelle traduction d’Agathe Mélinand est très importante.
Photographie Polo Garat Odessa

Reste le jeu. La troupe est unie et de haute qualité avec, au centre, l’extraordinaire méchante reine incarnée par Marilu Marini, femme araignée digne de Louise Bourgeois à la terrible voix grinçante. Elle a ourdi la mort des jumeaux (Jeanne Piponnier et Thomas Condemine) et la déchéance de leur mère (Fabienne Rocaboy). Mais ils ont été sauvés par Pantalon (Eddy Letexier) et recueillis par le charcutier Truffaldin (Georges Bigot) et sa femme (Nanou Garcia). Leur père, Tartaglia (Emmanuel Daumas) se désespère tandis que vont apparaître les statues philosophes (Régis Lux, Alexandra Castellon) qui savent bien que Brighella (Pierre Aussedat) est un imposteur. L’Oiseau vert (Mounir Margoum) sauvera tout le monde…

Il y a plusieurs strates de lecture, plusieurs strates de jeu. La traduction et la mise en scène les font bien sentir. il est évidemment beaucoup plus difficile, dans l'interprétation, de jouer sur plusieurs tableaux. La fantaisie farcesque domine, ainsi que l'a sans doute principalement souhaité le metteur en scène : il faut y aller !

On n'en est qu'au tout début des représentations : les interprètes, tous si personnels et doués, ne doivent pas craindre (on pense notamment aux jumeaux) la sincérité. Il ne faut pas prendre de distance avec le personnage. Même si on doit le jouer un peu comme une "figure", sinon un pantin ! Il faut de la sincérité et ainsi on sera plus ému qu'on ne l'est pour le moment. On regarde, on admire, on rit, on est époustouflé. Manque le supplément qui est comme l'huile dans les rouages d'une machinerie sophistiquée, l'émotion simple ! Mais on sait que tout est en place pour cela ! 

Théâtre national de Toulouse, jusqu’au 21 mars. Tél. : 05 34 45 05 05. Puis en tournée à Albi, Grenoble, Rennes, Montpellier, Caen. La traduction et un dossier documentaire sont publiés par L’Avant-scène théâtre (12 €).
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