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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
Until the 20th century, there was a great deal of linguistic diversity in France. In the north were the langues d’oïl, and in the south the langues d’oc, so-named for the difference in the word for yes between the two groups in medieval times. (Modern standard French's oui comes from oïl.) Within those two groups there were a number of dialects, sometimes with so little in common they could not be mutually understood.The key lists the 22 main dialects of French. ￼Closeup, "Sprachkarte von Frankreich,"David Rumsey Map CollectionThere were also languages that were from different language families entirely: There were Celtic languages (Breton), Germanic languages (Alsatian), languages with no known relatives (Basque), and a language closer to Italian (Corsican). They also had subdialects, as shown in this key. ￼Closeup, "Sprachkarte von Frankreich,"David Rumsey Map CollectionSome of these are still spoken in France today, but by very few people. After compulsory education began in the late 19th century, the Parisian dialect of the langue d’oïl became widespread. It already had special status, but because most people had no need to converse in legal or official contexts, they didn’t bother to learn it. A 1790 study found that only 10 percent of the population of France spoke standard French. This map was made in 1847, before French had truly become the language of the whole of France. The oïl languages are outlined in pink, the oc languages in blue. The rust brown in the northeast is Celtic, the green, Germanic, and the yellow, Basque.- See more at: http://m.mentalfloss.com/article.php?id=68761#sthash.Sk84bayf.dpuf
First, it was parent-teacher communication by texting. Now, ClassDojo and Remind seem to be in a race to share information with parents in whatever native language they speak.As if the CEOs had planned it, ClassDojoand Remind both announced new translation features within several days of one another. On October 3, theClassDojo blog announced that families could translate all classroom announcements, or “Class Stories,” into their preferred language--a feature that had been soft launched early in September. Days before, on September 29, Remind announced that it would soon be releasing “Remind Translate,” a feature which allows teachers to translate text messages into six different languages on the mobile app.Deja vu?“What we’re learning is that the emotional connection of the text is more important that the exact correctness of the translation."HeeJae Lim, TalkingPoints CEOWhether teachers prefer to use ClassDojo or Remind, both companies may soon be getting a run for their money when it comes to translation features. Now, a new tool hopes to enter the parent-teacher communication space--and it’s packing a bit of a different punch from ClassDojo and Remind. For starters, it’s a nonprofit, it’s only two months old and it’s the only edtech--or tech, for that matter--company that got a coveted Top 10 spot in the Google Impact Challenge: Bay Area.It’s called TalkingPoints, and it enables teachers, families and students to talk to each other via SMS, translating the English texts to the family's native language.Founded by Stanford grad HeeJae Lim, a Korean immigrant student brought up in the UK, TalkingPoints translates into messages for parents into more than 200 different languages. How? At the moment, it’s hooked into Google Translate, offering teachers an extremely wide variety of languages to choose from. And each time a teacher sends a message, the text comes both in English and the new language.This may cause one to pause, given than Google Translate doesn’t always get the nuances of phrasing correct. However, TalkingPoints Lim told EdSurge in an interview that this actually doesn’t seem to matter to parents. “What we’re learning is that the emotional connection of the text is more important that the exact correctness of the translation,” she says. “The parents feel engaged that they can participate in the student’s education, and that the teacher has gone through the extra step for them.”This is quite powerful when you consider that the the children of immigrants represent a growing share of the nation's total child population; in fact, that number rose from 13.5 percent of the population to 25 percent between 1990 and 2009. Lim reports that in the Bay Area alone, 112 languages are spoken by different communities.The app is currently browser-based and free, and Lim’s big focus currently is looking for schools and teachers to partner with. Lim reports that she and her team plan to eventually release an app and provide parent engagement analytics for schools for a small fee. But according to Lim, TalkingPoints will always be a nonprofit, unlike ClassDojo and Remind.“Our mission is to empower [parents] to be partners and have a voice,” Lim says. “This is a tool for meaningful connection.”With Google’s support--both technically and financially, if TalkingPoints wins the Google Impact Challenge--one has to wonder how ClassDojo and Remind can compete with a translator tool that translates English into hundreds of languages. But Lim doesn’t care as much about that as she does about what these movements says about the ESL and ELL markets.“There’s an increasing number of ESL families in this country. They’re going from a minority to much more common. The whole talk around immigration, the number of languages speak in the U.S.--it’s now becoming more mainstream,” she says. “It used to be a niche sector, but I don’t think it is anymore.”
There have been some disturbing things in the news lately.When reading a story about the three Americans and the Briton who subdued the gunman on a French train, Karen was dismayed to come upon this sentence: “The assault was described as a terrorist attack by the Belgian prime minister.”Her question: “Will the PM go to jail?”Bob was incredulous when he read about a mystery chuck of ice that crashed into a California home: “A loud crash startled a California family at home Wednesday morning when a chunk of ice the size of a basketball hurdled from the sky and smashed through the roof, likely the result of frozen moisture breaking loose from an airplane flying high overhead.”“Can you imagine?” Bob wrote. “Not sure what the ice chunk jumped over; instead, maybe it hurtled from the sky.”“Curiouser and curiouser!” cried Alice. Actually, that one makes sense. Alice has just said goodbye to her feet after eating a cake that has made her telescope to 9 feet tall in “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland,” but in this case the 19th-century author Lewis Carroll offered an apology and an explanation by way of an aside: “She was so much surprised, that for the moment she quite forgot how to speak good English.”Forgetting how to speak good English — it seems to be going around these days.In Karen’s example above, the unintended meaning comes from a misplaced modifying phrase: “The assault was described as a terrorist attack by the Belgian prime minister.” Moving the prepositional phrase to its proper location, adjacent to the verb it modifies, eliminates the ambiguity: “The assault was described by the Belgian prime minister as a terrorist attack.”Bob’s example, hurdled for hurtled, illustrates our tendency to misuse homonyms, or words that sound alike, an understandable error in this case. After all, unlike the Brits, long ago we Americans began pronouncing many of our t’s as d’s, as in wahder for water and lader for later. (Do you pronounce those t’s?) More recently, I’ve noticed even well-educated speakers saying tah for to, as in “Tah tell the truth,” and gotta for got to, as in “I’ve gotta go” rather than “I’ve got to go,” or heaven forbid, “I must go.”I’m not saying the sky is falling. Language changes, sometimes for the better, but let’s resist change that degrades our rich, vibrant, quirky, wonderful English language. Here are some exercises to keep you on your toes.Which one of the following sentences contains an error?1. It’s good to be back to my old stamping grounds.2. After Saddam Hussein flaunted the no-fly zones, we invaded Iraq in 2003.3. She worked quickly to stanch the flow of blood.Did you identify the misuse of flaunt, which means “to show off,” for flout, which means “to show contempt for,” in sentence 2? (Yes, stamping, not stomping, and stanch, not staunch, are correct.)Finally, do you see anything wrong with this sentence? “Meals are prepared under supervision of a dietitian packaged in disposable Styrofoam containers.”Just saying.Stephen Wilbers offers training seminars in effective business writing. E-mail him at firstname.lastname@example.org. His website is www.wilbers.com.
Ex-pat Teresa Tarry, 49, is suing A Coruna's Abente y Lago, in Spain, for €600,000 after she had a 'needless' double mastectomy that has blighted her life since.
ft.com > reports >Emerging VoicesSubscribe Sign inHomeVideoNewslettersBlogsNews feedAlphavilleEmerging MarketsPortfolioSpecial ReportsIn depthToday’s NewspaperToolsWorldCompaniesMarketsGlobal EconomyLexCommentManagementLife & ArtsOctober 6, 2015 5:03 amTranslators: Publishing’s unsung heroes at workAndrew Jack Share Author alerts PrintClip Comments￼©CorbisFilling the shelves at the Tunis book fairFor John Cullen, his first few paragraphs are the most important and the most difficult. Just like the writers whose work he translates, he agonises over finding the right words. “I sit in my little office reading aloud to myself,” he says. “The first page has about 20 drafts. You have to see the spirit of the original author and to reproduce it. Particularly with a first-person narrative, it becomes very important to find the right voice. Once I hear that, or delude myself into thinking I have, I can go forward.”Cullen translated into English from French the Algerian writer Kamel Daoud’s The Meursault Investigation , one of the African novels on the longlist of the FT/OppenheimerFunds Emerging Voices fiction award. His creative efforts illustrate a growing debate about the importance of translation and whether its practitioners deserve more recognition for bringing fiction from a broader range of cultures to a wider international readership.MoreON THIS STORYChigozie Obioma — Emerging Voices 2015 fiction winnerYuhang Ho — Emerging Voices 2015 film winnerCristina Planas — Emerging Voices 2015 art winnerGlobal art requires a shift in our perceptionsForeword: Emerging Voices 2015IN EMERGING VOICESMexico City’s alternative galleries are challenging stereotypesBuenos Aires struggles to support its artistic talentVoodoo visions in New YorkMeeting Brazil’s power collectorsOne long-standing frustration by his peers is the limited demand for foreign writing in English. Christopher MacLehose, the veteran head of MacLehose Press, the publishing house that has given a platform to many writers from other languages, says the situation deteriorated in the latter third of the last century.“When I first came into publishing, there was André Deutsch, Fredric Warburg, Ernest Hecht, Manya Harari, George Weidenfeld — a generation of multilingual people who came to England bringing the assumption that books that had to be translated were no different,” he says. “You simply published the best you could find and if you had to translate them, you just got on with it.”By the 1970s, those visionaries had mostly retired, while the commercial pressures of large publishers had intensified. “In a big group, decisions are easily influenced by people in the accounts department who say translations are expensive.”Alexandra Büchler, the founder of Literature Across Frontiers, a network designed to encourage cultural exchange, says the fact that the UK does not keep official statistics on translations is telling. Her research shows between 1990 and 2012, just 4 per cent of literary works published in the UK were translations, compared with 12 per cent in Germany, 16 per cent in France, 20 per cent in Italy and a third in Poland.￼Alexandra Büchler“The paradox is that Britain is a multicultural and multilingual society but it is also insular,” she says. “There is a view that there is excellent writing and variety in English and translation is expensive.”Yet many claim the supply of, appetite for and value placed on translations is resurgent.“Even in the past five years, there has been a noticeable difference,” says Daniel Hahn, who translates from Spanish, French and Portuguese. “One thing that helped was Scandinavian crime novels, which sold in colossal numbers. They demonstrated that translations are not off-putting. Foreign writers are much more visible today and there are lots of events on translation at book festivals now.”More widespread travel and Britain’s openness to global trends may have played a role. Büchler points to interest in regions in the headlines, such as with the Arabic-speaking world and specialist publishers such as Alma Books and And Other Stories have emerged.A shift in the style of translation towards fluency and accessibility may also have helped. Specialists talk of a “domestication” of translations into an English that provides a smooth read rather than reproducing the quirks of the original. “There is a noticeable trend to try sounding like the living language as spoken,” says Cullen.Grigory Chkhartishvili — who writes under the pen name Boris Akunin — author of the best-selling Fandorin historical detective series, stresses the importance of good translation. He says his first career, as a translator from Japanese into Russian, was partly inspired by reading different versions of Jerome K Jerome’s Three Men in a Boat. “The first time I read it as a kid, I couldn’t understand why it was supposed to be so funny. I didn’t even smile,” he recalls. “Then I read another version and I laughed like crazy.“Good translation is all about the right words, the right paradoxes inside the phrase,” he says. “You are like a magician: you see something others don’t see. If you do everything right, it’s like replanting a flower. Fiction is not about ideas, thoughts and plot. It’s about the music, the style, humour. All sorts of literary, cultural and historical allusions get lost because of a different cultural background. A really excellent translator knows how to compensate. He has to produce the same effect on the reader as in the original language.”￼©Dmitry Kostyukov/NY Times/Redux/eyevineGrigory ChkhartishviliRobin Moger, who translated Women of Karantina, by Egyptian writer Nael Eltoukhy, argues that there has been a particularly distinguishable shift in translations from Arabic, which was long dominated by a small group of university specialists.“It was very academic, carried out by people on the mature side of middle age, who came from a place where literature is not read but consumed in academic circles as teaching aids,” he says. “I got a review from one who didn’t like the fact that the book reads fluently. But you are translating many other things apart from the work or the syntax. You are trying to relate enjoyment, tone and voice.”￼An English translation of 'Women of Karantina'Certainly Eltoukhy, who himself translates from Hebrew into Arabic, is delighted with Moger’s version. “It’s excellent. It keeps the random Egyptian spirit, the irrational way of thinking. He found an equivalent for every term including the jokes I thought would be impossible to translate.”That raises a question: if translators are increasingly recognised for their contribution in the success of a novel, should they receive a greater proportion of credit? Some prizes, such as the Man Booker International Prize, explicitly judge translation skills and are splitting the reward between author and translator.“I like the idea of an equal split,” says Hahn. “I can’t pretend I have put in as much time as the author, but my job is to do exactly the same as the original except for all the words. You have to create this entirely different language with the effect of the original.”Own Words: Melanie MauthnerFour years ago, Melanie Mauthner stumbled across the writings of Scholastique Mukasonga, (shortlisted for the Emerging Voices fiction award), in a library, where a collection of short stories in the original French was tucked away in the “community languages” section. Mauthner became an advocate for the author, seeking an independent British publisher willing to translate her work in English.Her efforts were in vain, but Jill Schoolman, head of Archipelago Books in New York, which specialises in foreign fiction, independently acquired Mukasonga’s Our Lady of the Nile after discussions with Gallimard, the original French publisher. Mauthner was picked to prepare the English translation, which came out two years later.“I have always read a lot translated from other languages,” says Mauthner, who studied French and Spanish at university and became a sociology lecturer before turning to translation. “People don’t realise that apart from grappling with the grammar, you are stepping into a whole different culture. The reader shouldn’t feel it’s a translation, just that they are being taken somewhere else.”She says her preparations include reading other writers she finds inspiring, including Hilary Mantel. “She is someone who transgresses a lot. That makes her an exciting writer and makes you think you could do this too.“Often it’s not the original language that makes translation difficult, but trying to work out what it will sound like in English,” she says. “It’s primarily about music — trying to make the music of English echo the music of the origi
Yesterday, I published the post “From Translator to Terminologist: Terminology as a Professional Career”. Today, I want to talk about Terminology as science because some people could wrongly believe that Terminology has yet to prove that it is indeed “real” profession.Although a relatively “new” field, the truth is that the systematic ordering of specialized terminologies to communicate expert knowledge has been carried out for many decades, as evidenced by the early technical dictionaries produced by subject experts such as Carolus Linnaeus with his Species Plantarum (1753) and Systema Naturae (1759); Heinrich Paasch with his maritime dictionary of 1885, and Alfred Schlomannwith his 21 illustrated technical dictionaries that took him 35 years to complete from 1906 to 1940.Interestingly enough, these and other experts were not translators, they were subject experts who developed methodologies to do terminology work that became the foundation of more active research in the field. Thanks to their efforts, people like Helmut Felber, Ernest K. Dresen, and Eugen Wüster not only developed the methodology even further but helped bring Terminology to the forefront of the scientific world. Wüster gave Terminology its own scientific theory, the General Theory of Terminology, which clearly defined its object of study, concepts (in contrast with words which are the object of study of Linguistics). His Theory differentiates Terminology completely from Linguistics on different fronts.Other theories have built on Wüster’s Theory, such as M. Teresa Cabré’sCommunicative Theory of Terminology, that consolidated it as an autonomous scientific discipline. Mind you, there are individuals who consider it just a practice because it owes the theoretical bases to other disciplines, such as linguistics, but thanks to terminologists such as Wüster and Cabré, the activities performed to study terms can be communicated, described and justified according to their theories which are based on accepted principles. Some others argue that it is not fully autonomous because it relies on other disciplines, but what discipline is entirely pure? Most of them feed on each other. Economics, a profession of long-standing, is still considered by some as a pseudoscience. According to Orlando Patterson, “the American public is decidedly more mixed toward economics, ranking it well below established scientific fields such as physics or biology, and even below sociology.”1If you are a translator, you know the initial struggle with the Translation career. The same question as to whether Translation was a scientific discipline was raised in the 1970s and 1980s and American Scholar, James Holmes, in his paper “The name and nature of translation studies” claimed that a prerequisite to call it so was the existence of communication channels such as conferences and scientific publications”. So this is yet another rationale behind the fact that Terminology is indeed a scientific discipline. You only need to take a look atTermCoord’s webpage to find all the evidence.Terminology has gained great reputation thanks to the work of these and other experts and linguists and it is likely to become a sought-after career among linguists and nonlinguists in the next few years. For a summary on terminology theories, read my post “Terminology Theory in Easy-to-Swallow Pills”.References:Patterson, Orlando. Overreliance on the Pseudo-Science of Economics in The New York Times, February 9, 2015.Image source
A new info about the release date of "Winds of Winter," the much-awaited sixth volume of "A Song of Ice and Fire," was unearthed from a Polish website, which reported that a translator named Michal Jakuszewski was tapped to convert the book from English to Polish by the end of the year.Translated to English (via the Independent), the report from the publication said that even Jakuszewski was "skeptical" about the news when he was asked by Zysk publishing to translate the manuscript. Nonetheless, the source added that this is definitely "a glimmer of hope" for the horde of fans waiting.Independent says that if publishers are preparing for the rendering of "Winds of Winter" in different languages, author George RR Martin should have already finished writing the highly anticipated tome. If this is accurate, an early 2016 release is very likely.However, as fan site Winter Is Coming pointed out, Martin himself promised that the minute he writes the last sentence in his bestselling saga's latest installment, he will immediately inform fans about it via his blog. The lack of that contradicts the notion that the book is already complete.It is also important to note that although Martin has said a thousand times that he worships no deadline in writing "Winds of Winter," he previously revealed that he was targeting a 2016 release, possibly before the premiere of "Game of Thrones" season 6, which should be based on the said book.Martin has skipped conferences, appearances and guestings just to complete the book because he himself wishes that the book is now flying from the shelves of bookstores. He also said he has tied himself to his desk just to get it done.For now, without Martin's announcement, it is best to take the report, however enticing and thrilling, with a pinch of salt.
Em junho, a Microsoft lançou o tradutor de mensagens para Skype. A proposta era oferecer uma ferramenta que pudesse traduzir simultâneamente t...
Inúmeros conflitos mudaram o curso da História mundial nos últimos cem anos. O jornalista Emmanuel Hecht e o historiador Pierre Servent, especialistas na temática de guerras, expõem em “O Século de Sangue (1914-2014): As vinte guerras que mudaram o mundo”, as causas e consequências desses embates. A publicação chega ao Brasil pela Editora Contexto.São 20 capítulos no total e cada um deles trata de uma guerra, com narrativa sobre os conflitos, além das relações econômicas e sociais, trazendo análises atuais sobre os desdobramentos que essas guerras tiveram nos dias de hoje. Há guerras globais e embates localizados, todos eles fundamentais para desenhar o mapa do mundo da forma que ele é hoje.O livro começa com a Primeira Guerra Mundial (1914-1918), passando pela Guerra do Vietnã e pela Guerra das Malvinas até conflitos recentes, como a Guerra do Mali (2013-2014). Todas impressionam pelo derramamento de sangue que o homem ainda é capaz de infligir a seu semelhante. A publicação ainda é enriquecida por 26 mapas, que mostram um pouco mais dessas guerras, com planos, movimentos, contraofensivas e linhas de frente das tropas envolvidas.ServiçoLivro: O Século de Sangue (1914-2014): As vinte guerras que mudaram o mundoOrganizadores: Emmanuel Hecht e Pierre ServentTradução: Angela M. S. CorrêaPáginas: 288 páginasPreço: R$ 49,90Editora Contexto
Language interpreters, who are crucial to the basic functioning of America’s beleaguered immigration courts, say a new federal contractor...
Montreal author Heather O’Neill is one of five finalists for the Scotiabank Giller Prize, becoming the first writer shortlisted for Canada’s most prestigious literary prize in consecutive years.The nominees for the $100,000 prize – a welcome mix of short fiction, work-in-translation and books from the country’s small-press community – were announced at the Bau-Xi Gallery in Toronto on Monday.The jury praised O’Neill’s short story collection, Daydreams of Angels, as “a work of acute charm and radically deft imagination.” In addition to her novel The Girl Who Was Saturday Night, which was a finalist for the prize last year, she is the author of Lullabies for Little Criminals, which won CBC’s Canada Reads competition in 2007.Toronto’s André Alexis, whose debut novel Childhood was a finalist for the prize in 1998, returns to the shortlist withFifteen Dogs, in which a pack of dogs are gifted human consciousness by a pair of meddlesome Greek gods. The novel, said the jury, is “a wonderful and original piece of writing that challenges the reader to examine their own existence and recall the age-old question, what’s the meaning of life?” The novel is published by Coach House Books, the historic Toronto indie press celebrating its 50th anniversary this year. This marks their first-ever spot on the shortlist.Another small press, Windsor-based Biblioasis, landed two books on the shortlist for the first time in its 11-year history: Vancouver’s Anakana Schofield, who won the Amazon.ca First Novel Award for her debut, Malarky, was recognized for her “stylish and provocative” second novel, Martin John, about a mentally disturbed man living in London, while Montreal writer Samuel Archibald is nominated for his short-story collection Arvida (translated from the French by Donald Winkler), which the jury praised as “wise and funny and impeccably crafted.” Arvida, which was published in Quebec in 2011, where it won several awards, is the first book in translation on the shortlist since Kim Thúy’s Ru in 2012.Finally, Rachel Cusk – a writer many people didn’t realize was Canadian until the long-list was announced last month (she lives in England) – is nominated for her novel Outline, which the jury called “compulsively readable and dazzlingly intelligent” and “a novel of breathtaking skill and originality.”The shortlist was chosen by a jury composed of Canadian writers Alison Pick, Cecil Foster and Alexander MacLeod, as well as the British author Helen Oyeyemi and Ireland’s John Boyne, who is serving as jury chair.“We just loved these [books] and we thought each of these could be a potential winner,” said Boyne, who along with the rest of the jury read 168 books submitted by 63 different publishers from across the country. “I came into the process wondering what Canadian contemporary literature was going to be, and thinking I was going to come out of it saying, ‘Well, it’s about this or it’s about this.’ And it’s not. Canadian literature is the same as international literature. It embraces all subject matter, it embraces all themes – any of these books could be written by a Norwegian writer or an Irish writer or a Dutch writer. It’s a universal language, and I just feel really pleased with the five that we have.”The announcement was scheduled to take place at the Art Gallery of Ontario, but a reported gas leak in the neighbourhood prompted the last-minute change of venue; publishers, editors, literary agents, authors and members of the media headed to a small gallery across the street to learn the finalists, leading founder Jack Rabinovitch to joke that “it’s an explosive list.”The winner will be announced on Nov. 10 at a gala ceremony in Toronto hosted by Rick Mercer, who quipped “the gas leak was called in by the Man Booker Prize.”
Syria must not become our SS St Louis
From Translator to Terminologist: Terminology as a Professional Career￼There are those translators who manage terminology and also those who become full-time terminologists. More and more translators and other professionals are becoming terminologists or have dived headfirst into terminology research and work.Last week, Proz.com held its Annual Virtual Conference 2015 “Managing glossaries and terminology” in the context of the International Translation Day, with the participation of renowned guests panelists who have been in the translation business for a long time and who have eventually become involved in terminology work and research, some of them even working as full-time terminologists. Jeff Allen was the Moderator; and guest panelists were Barbara Inge Karsch, Michael Beijer, Jim Wardell, and Mirko Plitt. (Click on the link at the end of this post to read their full bios).Terminologist Barbara Inge Karsch (whom I interviewed for this blog last year), said she started out as a translator and later became a terminologist for big companies such as Microsoft. Then she started her own terminology consultancy services company. She loves terminology because, in her words, she can “help people solve problems” and she´s an “advocate for the difficult task that freelance translators have to accomplish.”Jim Wardell, a German-to-English translator for almost 40 years, indicated that the longer he is in the translation business, the more he realizes that “Terminology is excruciatingly important, getting it right, being fanatical about Terminology, because this is what sets you, as a translator, apart from all the others who don’t do their homework, and that’s what makes your translations shine. My passion is to make sure that I do my homework and to sermonize to others to be good and do it.” Some translators don´t spend enough time doing their homework, that is, searching for the right terminology, and rush through their translation work just to have it done on time. He gave special advice to the newbie translators in the sense that they should start early doing their terminology homework by recording every term in their termbase so that these don´t come back to them to haunt them.Mirko Plitt, a German linguist, has worked as a translation reviser and has been involved in localization for a long time. To him, “Terminology was not a question of technology but about how people work together. What I find interesting about Terminology is not only a very genuine, integral, and essential aspect of what translation is about but an important tool to bring together the different stakeholders into the translation process, to make the people understand what something is about and how to say it in a different language. It´s non-trivial. It´s a combat that is never won; you have to keep fighting it. It´s pretty representative of what translation is about. It´s complex and you can be passionate about it.”Michael Beijer, a full-time professional translator and terminologist has been a translator for nearly 20 years and he soon realized that he had an obsession to collect dictionaries and glossaries, and it made him mad to see source texts that were “messy” (which was about 80% of the time) in which authors would use six different terms for the same thing (misspelled, hyphenated, nonhyphenated) and that made him think that he had to do something about it, as it was driving him crazy. “Translation and Terminology are inextricably intertwined”, he said. “Translating is the easy part as it comes naturally to you, but it is the terminology that trips you off. Sixty percent of my work is translation and the rest is terminology work.” He is a “terminology private investigator”, as Jeff Allen put it.Jeff Allen is known for his work in controlled language writing for translation, Machine Translation dictionary building and post-editing, translation memory, among others. As of late, he has been getting more and more involved in terminology and he underlined the increased interest in Terminology among translators by pointing out that in a recent event he attended, the Q&A session at the end included mostly questions on terminology.Jeff Allen mentioned at the beginning that it seemed that people were too busy to sign up for the conference. Indeed, people are busy at this time of year, but (in my opinion) it´s also partly because translators, in general, don´t seem to be paying enough attention to the potential of terminology to boost their professional careers. Panelists agreed that we need to raise awareness on Terminology. Some translators rush to have their translations ready but they need to educate the client on the importance of doing a thorough terminology work from the beginning.As it was often said during the virtual conference, those of us who are involved in terminology have found a new religion and have become Terminology fanatics. In my effort to raise awareness about the importance of terminology, I invite you to watch the recording of this interesting and valuable conference to learn about their experience in becoming translators-terminologists. Click here to read their bios and watch the video.Also, check out my Training section if you want to get serious about Terminology and read tomorrow my post called “The Science of Terminology”, that complements this post.
A couple of weeks ago, two of my New York Times colleagues chronicled digital culture trends that are so newish and niche-y that conventional English dictionaries don’t yet include words for either of them.In an article on Sept. 20, Stephanie Rosenbloom, a travel columnist, reviewed flight apps that try to perfect “farecasting” — that is, she explained, the art of “predicting the best date to buy a ticket” to obtain the lowest fares.That same day Jenna Wortham, a columnist for The Times Magazine, described a phenomenon she called “technomysticism,” in which Internet users embrace medieval beliefs, spells and charms.These word coinages may be too fresh — and too little used for now — to be of immediate interest to major English dictionaries. But Erin McKean, a lexicographer with an egalitarian approach to language, thinks “madeupical” words such as these deserve to be documented.￼Erin McKean, a former editor of the New Oxford American Dictionary, started a Kickstarter campaign last month on to unearth one million “missing” English words — words that are not currently found in traditional dictionaries.TIMOTHY O'CONNELL FOR THE NEW YORK TIMESMs. McKean started a campaign last month on Kickstarter, the crowdfunding site, to unearth one million “missing” English words — words that are not currently found in traditional dictionaries. To locate the underdocumented expressions, she has engaged a pair of data scientists to scrape and analyze language used in online publications. Ms. McKean said she planned to incorporate the found words in Wordnik.com, an online dictionary of which she is a co-founder.“We really believe that every word should be lookupable,” Ms. McKean told me recently. “That doesn’t mean that every word should be used in every situation. But we think that people by and large are entirely capable of making that decision for themselves.”Before her analytics project gets underway next month, Ms. McKean is crowdsourcing a list of missing words for possible inclusion in Wordnik. Candidates so far include: procrastatweeting, dronevertising and roomnesia, a condition in which people forget why they walked into a room.Ms. McKean, who is a former editor of the New Oxford American Dictionary, and two colleagues introduced the Wordnik site in 2009 with the aim of addressing some limitations they had encountered while working for dictionary publishers.￼Inside Ms. McKean’s home in California. She is using data analytics to comb the web for cutting-edge neologisms.TIMOTHY O'CONNELL FOR THE NEW YORK TIMESTraditional print dictionaries employ lexicographers to track and assess words, selecting the worthiest candidates to be included in published editions. But printed lexicons naturally have limited space. And with only periodic updates, they are not intended to keep pace with contemporary spoken language.In a recent quarterly online update, the Oxford English Dictionary added the word “hoverboard” — 26 years after the floating skateboards were first mentioned in the movie “Back to the Future II.” An editor’s note explained that the O.E.D. had decided to add “hoverboard” now because the dictionary’s word-monitoring system had recently detected an increased use of the term, most likely, the note says, related to a 2015 date that is an important plot element in the film.(It doesn’t always take decades to document a new word. The O.E.D. added “podcast” in 2008 just four years after it says the word emerged.)With no space limitations or publication deadlines, Wordnik is able to incorporate a vast number of new words on a continuing basis. In addition to human contributors, the site uses automated online searches to locate sentences that contain certain words on blogs, social media, news and other sites.When a person looks up a term on Wordnik, the site displays full-sentence examples of its usage, taken from sources like The Huffington Post and Boing Boing. If the word already has an entry in certain more traditional dictionaries, the site also provides that definition.Ms. McKean said Wordnik had accumulated some information on eight million words, both old and new. Its inclusive approach makes the site more of a word welcomer than a winnower.“The question is no longer, ‘Is this a good word?’ ” Ms. McKean said. “The question is: ‘What is this word good for? Is this word good for what I need?’ ”She now plans to expand Wordnik’s word-acquisition system by turning to data analytics to pinpoint emerging terms, like farecasting, that writers explained in passing when they mentioned them. Ms. McKean refers to these readily available explanations as “free-range definitions.” They are easy to locate, she said, because writers often use stock phrases, like “also known as” or “scientists term this” to signal to their readers that they’re about to introduce a new or unfamiliar term.To cast a wider net for her project, Ms. McKean has enlisted Summer.ai, a data analytics firm. The company plans to use computational techniques to analyze online publications for language structure and patterns — like quotation marks and dashes — that are likely to indicate new words accompanied by self-contained definitions.Some lexicographers already track whether words are nearing the end of their useful life spans. But Manuel Ebert, a former neuroscientist who is the co-founder of Summer.ai, said the Wordnik research might help track the speed of new-word adoption.“We can actually measure when words get adopted in mainstream lingo,” he said, by looking at when writers stop explaining neologisms like “infotainment” and start using them as if their meanings were commonly understood. “It will be interesting to see which words will very quickly get adopted and which words remain outsiders.”Researchers like Paul Cook, an assistant professor of computer science at the University of New Brunswick in Canada, are using similar techniques to find other kinds of novel words.Mr. Cook developed a program several years ago to analyze posts on Twitter that included new lexical blends — like “jeggings,” a combination of jeans and leggings — and their definitions. Among other portmanteau words, his Twitter research turned up “awksome” (awkward plus awesome) and “hilazing” (hilarious plus amazing). He hopes eventually to use his program to generate a blended-word lexicon.“We could have some sort of automatically generated blend dictionary,” Mr. Cook said. “If you had information like this, some dictionaries might be interested in providing this kind of information, as opposed to none.”This more-words-the-merrier approach is one that lexicographers like Ms. McKean favor.“Every new word added to the expressiveness of English adds to the things that it’s possible to say,” she says. “English already has one of the world’s largest installed user bases. So why wouldn’t we want to add to it?”
Watch T.I. deliver a powerful spoken word performance at the 2015 Triumph Awards.
hile translation of different languages is one of the most commonly known forms of interpretation, there are other unique types of interpretation that serve to protect the people or connect societies that otherwise remain poles apart.They range from sign language translators who act as the gateway to the outside world for the deaf, to soldiers missioned with a crucial role to deliver military information in the world’s last-remaining divided country.In Korea, there are about 1,200 sign language translators. Their job goes beyond translating words into signs to also providing necessary administrative information and help outdoor activities of the deaf whose population here has reached 270,000 last year.￼Air Force interpreter officers salute at a ceremony in March at the Air Force’s Operations Command in Osan Air Base, Gyeonggi Province, marking their completion of training. (Air Force)Of them, around 500 interpreters hold expertise in translating the gestures of the deaf into proper sign language for those who could not learn the cheirology at an early age.Once certified as sign language translators, they are dispatched to various workplaces ranging from hospitals, courts and broadcasting stations to banks. In the case of courts, the interpreters are assigned per case instead of an individual involved in a lawsuit for privacy reasons. The job of a sign language interpreter requires state-authorized certificates which takes about three to four years to achieve on average.The most important factor of sign language interpretation is not the hands but the facial expression. “The sign language cannot be delivered without facial expression. In vocal languages, people without hearing problems can express the degree of pain or different nuances with the tone of voice. That is what the facial expression does in sign language,” said sign language translator Kwon Na-yeon at Seoul Korean Sign Language Professional Institute. She added that the different grammar order of Korean vocal language and the sign language remains a challenge despite her seven years of experience that calls for continuous training.Woo Jee-hee, 36, who works at a public sign language interpretation center in Seoul, said sign language translation inevitably takes more time.“This is about visualizing the vocal language. It takes usually 1.2 times longer to interpret simultaneously.”Meanwhile, interpretation in the military is also one of the rare fields that requires specialized skills with their work dealing with some of the most security-sensitive and confidential information.In the divided peninsula still technically at war, military cooperation with the U.S. and other countries remains crucial, and interpreter officers are dispatched to joint military drills and high-level talks. Interpreter officers are picked through a set of exams that include written and verbal tests. Once enrolled, they go through military training and translation education before being designated to posts. There are those assigned to the fields of combined operations with the U.S. troops such as the Combined Forces Command, to those dispatched to the Defense Ministry, Joint Chiefs of Staff and other affiliated organizations that also deal with military cooperation with other countries.The unusual position entails professional terms and concepts that require quick learning and nonstop research. For smooth and accurate interpretation, interpreter officers stress that strong mentality is essential.“I think the most important traits are mental agility and guts. It’s a highly technical job for which there are little to no scripted events. You need to be able to learn quickly and control yourself not to get intimidated or frozen, even when you’re interpreting matters of great sensitivity with some of the most important decision makers in the world,” said ex-Air Force interpreter officer Cho Koon-ho. He was once in charge of interpreting the live news conference over the probe result of the torpedo attack on the corvette Cheonan in March 2010. He was directed to interpret the conference just hours before the event, and with little familiarity of the naval and nautical jargons, he crammed the hefty amount of professional information.“The good thing about this job is that you are able to deploy a valued skill-set that makes a meaningful, visible positive impact. I was grateful to contribute in some small way to the resolution of that terrible tragedy,” he added. While translation of different languages is one of the most commonly known forms of interpretation, there are other unique types of interpretation that serve to protect the people or connect societies that otherwise remain poles apart.They range from sign language translators who act as the gateway to the outside world for the deaf, to soldiers missioned with a crucial role to deliver military information in the world’s last-remaining divided country.In Korea, there are about 1,200 sign language translators. Their job goes beyond translating words into signs to also providing necessary administrative information and help outdoor activities of the deaf whose population here has reached 270,000 last year.Of them, around 500 interpreters hold expertise in translating the gestures of the deaf into proper sign language for those who could not learn the cheirology at an early age.Once certified as sign language translators, they are dispatched to various workplaces ranging from hospitals, courts and broadcasting stations to banks. In the case of courts, the interpreters are assigned per case instead of an individual involved in a lawsuit for privacy reasons. The job of a sign language interpreter requires state-authorized certificates which takes about three to four years to achieve on average.The most important factor of sign language interpretation is not the hands but the facial expression. “The sign language cannot be delivered without facial expression. In vocal languages, people without hearing problems can express the degree of pain or different nuances with the tone of voice. That is what the facial expression does in sign language,” said sign language translator Kwon Na-yeon at Seoul Korean Sign Language Professional Institute. She added that the different grammar order of Korean vocal language and the sign language remains a challenge despite her seven years of experience that calls for continuous training.Woo Jee-hee, 36, who works at a public sign language interpretation center in Seoul, said sign language translation inevitably takes more time.“This is about visualizing the vocal language. It takes usually 1.2 times longer to interpret simultaneously.”Meanwhile, interpretation in the military is also one of the rare fields that requires specialized skills with their work dealing with some of the most security-sensitive and confidential information.In the divided peninsula still technically at war, military cooperation with the U.S. and other countries remains crucial, and interpreter officers are dispatched to joint military drills and high-level talks. Interpreter officers are picked through a set of exams that include written and verbal tests. Once enrolled, they go through military training and translation education before being designated to posts. There are those assigned to the fields of combined operations with the U.S. troops such as the Combined Forces Command, to those dispatched to the Defense Ministry, Joint Chiefs of Staff and other affiliated organizations that also deal with military cooperation with other countries.The unusual position entails professional terms and concepts that require quick learning and nonstop research. For smooth and accurate interpretation, interpreter officers stress that strong mentality is essential.“I think the most important traits are mental agility and guts. It’s a highly technical job for which there are little to no scripted events. You need to be able to learn quickly and control yourself not to get intimidated or frozen, even when you’re interpreting matters of great sensitivity with some of the most important decision makers in the world,” said ex-Air Force interpreter officer Cho Koon-ho. He was once in charge of interpreting the live news conference over the probe result of the torpedo attack on the corvette Cheonan in March 2010. He was directed to interpret the conference just hours before the event, and with little familiarity of the naval and nautical jargons, he crammed the hefty amount of professional information.“The good thing about this job is that you are able to deploy a valued skill-set that makes a meaningful, visible positive impact. I was grateful to contribute in some small way to the resolution of that terrible tragedy,” he added. By Lee Hyun-jeong (email@example.com)
￼Show TabsHOME￼ NEWSMOBILETABLETREVIEWSSLIDESHOWSGADGETSSOCIAL MEDIAAPPS/SOFTWAREGADGET FINDERGALLERY￼ GET / STOP ALERTSHome » NewsAction video games improve brain function: StudySat, Oct 3, 2015, 14:09 [IST]Action video games -- which feature quickly moving targets, include large amounts of clutter, and that require the user to make rapid, accurate decisions - have particularly positive cognitive impacts, says a new study.The study claimed that such video games are even better in their impact than "brain games", which are created specifically to improve cognitive function."Action video games have been linked to improving attention skills, brain processing, and cognitive functions, including low-level vision through high-level cognitive abilities," said lead researcher C. Shawn Green from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.￼"Many other types of games do not produce an equivalent impact on perception and cognition," he added.Brain games typically embody few of the qualities of the commercial video games linked with cognitive improvement, the researchers noted.Furthermore, video games are known to impact not only cognitive function, but many other aspects of behaviour - including social functions - and this impact can be either positive or negative depending on the content of the games."Modern video games have evolved into sophisticated experiences that instantiate many principles known by psychologists, neuroscientists, and educators to be fundamental to altering behaviour, producing learning, and promoting brain plasticity," said co-lead researcher Aaron R. Seitz from the University of California-Riverside.See Also: Top 5 High-Profile Android Games To Play This October"Video games, by their very nature, involve predominately active forms of learning (that is, making responses and receiving immediate informative feedback), which is typically more effective than passive learning," Seitz noted.The study was published in the journal Policy Insights from the Behavioural and Brain Sciences, published by SAGE.
Action video games lauded for improving cognition skills
nu pour sa marque de fabrique, les promesses spectaculaires sans lendemain, comme celles dans l’affaire Icc-services et bien d’autres, le chef de l’Etat, Boni Yayi, a fait parler de lui dans la sous-région ouest-africaine. Un verbe illustratif vient ainsi de faire son entrée dans le lexique.Il aura marqué son temps. Et même les esprits. Le nom du président béninois, Dr Thomas Boni Yayi vient de faire son entrée dans le vocabulaire africain. Après sa bourde lors de la médiation dans la dernière crise burkinabè au lendemain du coup d’Etat du 16 septembre, le verbe «yayiboniser» est l’un des termes qui circulent à Ouagadougou et dans quelques villes de la sous-région. Dans la gestion de la crise burkinabè, le président Boni Yayi, comme à son habitude, a fait son show. En effet, Boni Yayi avait promis au Burkinabè qu’il leur annoncerait «une bonne nouvelle» dans le cadre de la médiation. Les propositions de la Cédéao seront balayées d’un revers de mains par la population. C’est la cause de l’introduction de ce verbe dans le vocabulaire. Par définition donc, «yayiboniser» signifie «faire une grosse promesse que l’on n’est pas capable de tenir», explique le blogueur burkinabè Judicaël Gaël Lompo. Obnubilé et toujours prêt à jouer les premiers rôles, Boni Yayi a montré ses limites en matière de diplomatie à la face du monde. Les Burkinabè en rigolent. Cet état de choses n’est pas nouveau pour le peuple béninois.Yayi, coutumier des effets d’annonceQu’il vous souvienne qu’à l’avènement de la nébuleuse affaire Icc-services qui a ébranlée son gouvernement, le président Boni Yayi a promis tout faire pour clarifier cette affaire et situer les responsabilités des acteurs impliqués. Mieux, il est allé plus loin en promettant le remboursement des frais aux spoliés. Cinq ans après, statu quo. Rien n’a bougé. Cette promesse s’est révélée comme un coup de bluff de la part de Boni Yayi. Récemment, le chef du gouvernement béninois a annoncé lors d’un Conseil des ministres, la dotation énergétique d’une capacité de 120 Mégawatt d’ici la fin de l’année. Près de trois mois après le communiqué, silence radio. L’on s’est finalement rendu compte que c’était une ambition irréalisable et irréaliste vu la complexité des travaux et le temps imparti. Plusieurs autres annonces viennent confirmer les moqueries des burkinabè. Finalement, il nous aura «yayibonisés»
A quick test may be all it takes to identify children who have learning disabilities or literary challenges long before they actually learn to read.According to a new study at Northwestern University, a child’s ability to decipher sounds — more specifically, consonants — in a noisy environment may be an indicator of future language and reading difficulties. The preliterate children whose brains more inefficiently process speech against a chaotic background are more likely to develop these difficulties than their peers, researchers found.Noisy environments, such as homes with television or radios blaring along with the loud voices of children, noisy city landscapes, and loud classrooms all have the ability to disrupt brain mechanisms necessary for literary development in schoolchildren. Speech often occurs in these environments, however disruptive they are. In the chaos, consonants are particularly at risk of being lost to the ear, as they are quicker and more acoustically complicated than vowels.The study involved outfitting the scalps of 112 kids between the ages of 3 and 14 with EEG wires. Researchers were able to assess the way the brain reacted to consonants played amid noise into the children’s headphones. After capturing various aspects of how the brain responded to the sounds, scientists were able to create a statistical model to predict the children’s performance on early literacy tests.They found that their model very accurately predicted the performance of 3-year-old children on several pre-literacy tests, and how, a year later at age 4, the child will perform on multiple language skills necessary for reading. The model also accurately predicted the reading abilities of school-aged children, and if they had been diagnosed with a learning disorder."Sound is a powerful, invisible force that is central to human communication," said study senior author Nina Kraus, director of Northwestern's Auditory Neuroscience Laboratory in a press release. "Every day listening experiences bootstrap language development by cluing children in on which sounds are meaningful. If a child can't make meaning of these sounds through the background noise, he or she won't develop the linguistic resources needed when reading instruction begins."This new link between the way a child’s brain processes spoken information amid background noise and reading skill in preliterate children provides a glimpse into a child’s future, allowing early action to combat literary troubles."There are excellent interventions we can give to struggling readers during crucial pre-school years, but the earlier the better," said Kraus, a professor of communication sciences, neurobiology and physiology in the School of Communication in a statement. "The challenge has been to identify which children are candidates for these interventions, and now we have discovered a way."Source: Kraus N, et al. PLOS Biology. 2015.
The country’s first sitcom, which has been devised and performed entirely in sign language by deaf actors, is currently being shot in Manchester.Small World is about a group of deaf flatmates and was created by deaf actors, Brian Duffy and Ace Mahbaz, who both also appear in the programme.It was commissioned by the British Sign Language Broadcasting Trust, following a successful pilot last Christmas. It is produced by Mutt & Jeff Pictures and directed by Louis Neethling.Read more￼Record filming year at The Pie FactoryThe comedy is not just through BSL (British Sign Language), but reflects deaf culture, with facial expressions, visual humour and in-jokes.However, with such visual indicators, Duffy and Mahbaz had to adopt an innovative “writing” style. In fact only the outline of each episode was written down, the rest was recorded on video. While director Neethling developed the script further through extensive rehearsals and improvisation sessions.￼“Lines” were learnt through a sign language video of the script.A specially-built set was erected at The Pie Factory, so that cameras can film the action from different angles at the same time. Instructions weren’t able to be shouted, instead interpreters had to be used to help deaf and hearing members of the crew to communicate.
Map: China’s Stereotypes of Africa, from ‘Chaotic’ Somalia to ‘Awesome’ Gambia « | Foreign Policy | the Global Magazine of News and Ideas