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El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial

El error de traducción que casi desata la tercera Guerra Mundial | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Durante los años de la Guerra Fría, desde el final de la II Guerra Mundial hasta la caída del Muro de Berlín, cualquier hecho puntual era susceptible de malinterpretarse y generar un nuevo conflicto bélico a nivel mundial. Uno de esos hechos fue un error de traducción de las palabras del dirigente soviético Nikita Khrushchev.

En junio de 1956, y tras un golpe de estado, Nasser era elegido presidente de Egipto. Sus primeras medidas cambiaban el rumbo de Egipto: reemplazó las políticas pro-occidentales de la monarquía por una nueva política panarabista cercana al socialismo y nacionalizó el Canal de Suez. Las consecuencias fueron inmediatas… la Guerra del Sinaí que implicó militarmente a Reino Unido, Francia e Israel contra Egipto....

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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It's Over: The Rise & Fall Of Google Authorship For Search Results

It's Over: The Rise & Fall Of Google Authorship For Search Results | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Anyone who follows Google knows that nothing it creates is immune from elimination. Like so many efforts before it, Authorship is fading into the sunset.
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The cessation of the Authorship program comes after two major reductions of Authorship rich snippets over the past eight months. In December 2013 Google reduced the amount of author photo snippets shown per query, as Google’s webspam head Matt Cutts hadpromised would happen in his keynote at Pubcon that October. Starting in December, only some Authorship results were accompanied by an author photo, while all others had just a byline.

Then at the end of June 2014 Google removed all author photos from global search, leaving just bylines for any qualified authorship results.

At that time, John Mueller in a Google+ post stated that the photos were removed because Google was moving toward unifying the user experience between desktop and mobile search, and author photos did not work well with the limited screen space and bandwidth of mobile. He also remarked that Google was seeing no significant difference in “click behavior” between search pages with or without author photos.

A Brief History of Google Authorship

The roots of the Authorship project go back to Google’s Agent Rank patent of 2007. As explained by Bill Slawski, an expert on Google’s patents, the Agent Rank patentdescribed a system for connecting multiple pieces of content with a digital signature representing one or more “agents” (authors).

Such identification could then be used to score the agent based on various trust and authority signals pointing at the agent’s content, and that score could be used to influence search rankings.

Agent Rank remained a theoretical idea without a practical means of application, until the adoption by Google of the schema.org standards for structured markup. In a blog post in June 2011, Google announced that it would begin to support authorship markup. The company encouraged webmasters to begin marking up content on their sites with the rel=”author” and rel=”me” tags, connecting each piece of content to an author profile.

The final puzzle piece for Authorship to be truly useful to Google fell into place with the unveiling of Google+ at the end of June 2011. Google+ profiles could now serve as Google’s universal identity platform for connecting authors with their content.

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Tips on how to maintain focus when writing

Tips on how to maintain focus when writing | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Sometimes the motivation to write is lacking. You have a deadline to beat but you just can’t seem to be able to concentrate and come up with anything. Some people will call it writer’s block others...
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Sometimes the motivation to write is lacking. You have a deadline to beat but you just can’t seem to be able to concentrate and come up with anything. Some people will call it writer’s block others will call it being lazy. Giving it a name only matters if you can get out of that mind funk and write.

Here a few tips on how to write when it seems impossible.

Listen to music

Music can help you block out conversation around you and concentrate on your work. Plug in your headphones, put on some music that relaxes yiu and let it inspire you to travel into your writing zone. You will be surprised to find yourself writing a lot when you listen to music. Try noise-canceling headphones to eliminate even more outside interference.

Turn off your phone

Yes, you need to shut down your phone. I know it seems hard and like a harsh thing to do for mmost people who happen to be phone addicts but it’s worth it. You need to concentrate and all those texts, whatsapp messages and phonecalls will not help you do it. If you must produce an article, shut off your phone for a while.

Close all doors and windows

It doesn’t matter if you work at home or the office, shutting doors and windows can be helpful. It will help you keep out distractions and keep them out of your head. You get to ignore movement outside and concentrate on what’s in front of you. Most people will also avoid coming into the room if there’s a locked door meaning you can work uninterrupted.

Turn off the internet

In this day and age where most people are addicted to social media, social media can be a distraction from working. The only solution to this is turning off the internet. Ignore the funny conversations and memes and work on your writing. The only thing that should be on when you’re working on your computer is Microsoft Word (or any software you use to write). Once the article is done, you can reward yourself with a long internet session for working so hard.

Work at your desk

It’s always a good idea to make yourself work at a desk when writing. Getting your computer and working from the couch or bed can make you too relaxed to work through everything. Being at a desk will force you to maintain good posture (if you have the right chair that is) and in most cases you only have walls around you and won’t get distracted. Being at a desk also motivates you to work faster so you can get away and go relax much faster.

Work in chunks of time

Writing for long periods of time can be hard and part of the problem. Time out your writing sessions into small chunks of time. It will help you keep track of time and tackle the most important part of your writing as you go along. The chunks of time could be a way to beat deadlines and you concentrate on one article at a time. You can set aside 1hour for each work that needs to be done.

Hopefully these tips will make writing so much easier for you. Try them out and see yourself produce more content even when you feel a little uninspired.

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Feedback on academic writing - Part One

Feedback on academic writing - Part One | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
This is the first article of a three-part series on giving EAP students effective feedback. Julie Moore, an ELT writer and researcher, shares her thoughts on how to give your students constructive ...
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This is the first article of a three-part series on giving EAP students effective feedback. Julie Moore, an ELT writer and researcher, shares her thoughts on how to give your students constructive feedback on their writing.

Although I’ve been working in ELT publishing for some 15 years, co-authoring Oxford EAP Advanced was the first time I’ve been involved in writing a whole coursebook. It was a very steep learning curve in all kinds of ways, but perhaps one of the most challenging parts of the whole experience was the process of having my writing edited. I’d spend long hours at my desk writing a unit, then I’d email my completed draft off to my editor and wait with trepidation for her feedback. When I opened up her reply, my heart would often sink at the sight of those tightly-packed comments squeezed down the margin of every page and the prospect of ploughing my way through them!

So when I finally got away from my desk and back into the classroom again last summer to teach on a pre-sessional EAP course, I approached giving feedback on my students’ own writing with a fresh perspective. But what lessons had I learnt?

Less is more

In an EAP context, writing is a key skill and as teachers, we have a tendency to want to give as much feedback on written work as possible. Our intentions are good – we want to help our students improve – but the effect can sometimes be the opposite. Students are so overwhelmed by all the feedback that they either get demotivated and lose confidence, or they skim through to find the grade or the final comment and then file away all our careful feedback, largely unread.

Having experienced how daunting masses of feedback can be for a writer, I was determined to make the process less scary and more productive for my students. I turned to publishing again for a way of breaking it down into more manageable steps:

  • content editing – focus on what is written, rather than how
  • copyediting – focus on style, voice, flow, etc.
  • proofreading – tidying up surface errors

In this article, I’m going to talk about the first stage of the editing/feedback process:

Focus on content

For many students new to EAP, their experience of writing in English has been mostly of short, functional letters and emails, and if they have written essays, they’ll have been of the rather simple, formulaic kind which are designed essentially to practise or test the student’s language abilities. In an ELT context, the focus is often not really on what you write so much as the language you manage to display. A student can produce a fairly inane piece of writing, saying really very little of any substance, but if they show a range of vocabulary, reasonably accurate grammar and throw in a few nice discourse markers, they can get a good mark. This simply won’t cut it in an academic context where: “After all, we teach college students to write not because we expect them to become writers, but because writing is the evidence that they are mastering intellectual concepts.” (McBride, 2012).

So in the first few writing activities I did with my EAP students, I focused very much on content: on what they were expected to write. In my feedback, I ignored the surface language issues and commented only on how well they’d tackled the task. Had they answered the question? Had they put forward a clear argument and supporting evidence? Had they offered analysis and evaluation as well as simple description?

As we worked on some of these key principles of academic writing, I encouraged students to evaluate the content of their own writing, establishing routines and checklists they could use to edit their writing in the future. For example, the following criteria to check a main body paragraph of an essay:

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Recruiters put premium on communication skills

Recruiters put premium on communication skills | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
As companies flatten corporate hierarchies, even young leaders must be able to convey their ideas clearly and concisely
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When hiring young managers, employers appear to value one skill above the rest: the ability to communicate clearly. The trouble is, communication skills these days seem to be in short supply.

Corporate recruiters ranked communication skills ahead of teamwork, technical knowledge and leadership when assessing MBA graduates for mid-level jobs, according to a survey last spring of 565 global employers by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC), which administers a widely used business school entrance test. Respondents rated communication skills ahead of managerial ability by a two-to-one margin.

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Similar conclusions about the value of communication skills came in a national management education survey published in July by Leger Marketing in association with the Schulich School of Business at York University and other Canadian business schools. The online survey of 845 business executives identified leadership and effective communication as the two most important management competencies – and the two most in need of improvement.

“I take out CEOs once a month and they all tell me the same thing,” said Alan Middleton, marketing professor and executive director of Schulich’s executive education centre. “‘Whatever happened to the ability of someone, in less than two minutes, to state what they want me to do, state the rationale and how to do it?’”

Several factors explain why employers put a premium on the ability to convey ideas when speaking, writing or presenting, he said.

Today’s companies have moved from a command-and-control decision-making style to a flatter corporate hierarchy, with team leaders at every level expected to share information with peers across the organization. Moreover, an increasingly diverse work force requires clear language to convey key ideas with accuracy and nuance.

Not only that, Prof. Middleton added, the competitive job market gives prospective employees little time to make a positive impression. “You may have as little as five seconds, and maybe up to 30 seconds, to make that initial impression so someone engages with you,” he warned.

Based on the Leger survey, he said his executive education centre will further emphasize communication skills in the leadership training of mid-level managers and executives. “In modern business, it is becoming all about the relationship,” he said.

However, he and others acknowledge that e-mail, text, video and social media have encouraged more online, and fewer face-to-face interactions among those raised in the Internet era.

“What we are seeing with this generation is that [communication] is much more transactional,” said Sharon Irwin-Foulon, director of career management at the Richard Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario.

She argues that successful managers must develop an aptitude for listening and reading body language when seeking to influence a co-worker or boss. “This is a relationship, this isn’t a transaction,” she said.

“Students who have grown up with texting and Facebook are forgetting to look someone in the eye and watch for the emotional intelligence cues,” she added. “These are the real differentiators that make them promotable.”

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Dr. Dipple on Translating 16th-Century German | Augustana College

Dr. Dipple on Translating 16th-Century German | Augustana College | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dipple has chipped away at a sixteenth-century pro-Reformation German manuscript
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Dr. Geoffrey Dipple was shocked.

An essential read for those who study the Reformation had not yet been translated from the original sixteenth-century German into English.

“The Fifteen Confederates,” first anonymously published in 1521 and later attributed to author Johann Eberling von Günzburg is a popular pro-Reformation writing that was published after Martin Luther’s hearing at the Diet of Worms.

“It’s an interesting insight into what people who didn’t actually know Luther thought he was saying,” said Dipple, professor of history at Augustana. “It was also quite influential at the time judging by how many copies were printed.”

“The Fifteen Confederates” had a big impact on Dipple’s dissertation and what became his first book, “Antifraternalism and Anticlericalism in the German Reformation: Johann Eberlin von Günzburg and the Campaign Against the Friars” and, of course, he had to read it in German.

“I probably read as much German as I do English,” Dipple said.

“In the back of my mind I thought ‘someday somebody should translate this into English so we can use it in classes without expecting students to read 16th-century German,” Dipple said.

He decided to be that person.

Over the past four years, Dipple has chipped away at the German manuscript, translating, interpreting and creating footnotes and references for his students to use. He hoped to do a good job and do it cheaply. Instead of the typical $80 textbook, Dipple says this text is around $20.

He plans to use it in his own classroom the next time he teaches on the Reformation – possibly Fall 2015.

“My hope is that people at other colleges and universities will use it for their Reformation classes too,” Dipple said.

The book is intended for students to use, so Dipple wanted to accompany the translation with plenty of footnotes to give them some context.

“I didn’t want to give them all the details, but I wanted to give students a head start so if something wasn’t completely clear, I could suggest a reference work for them to follow up with,” Dipple said.

Keeping his students in mind is a big reason why this book became a four-year project. Translating the 16th-century German was a challenge because many of the passages didn’t follow standard rules for grammar and spelling or the meaning was not easily ascertained.

“There are some very bizarre turns of phrase,” Dipple said. “It’s kind of like reading Shakespeare in that you sometimes have to sit for a while and think about the meaning.”

The book was published in July by Pickwick Publications and Dipple is excited to promote the book and is already on to his next projects.

He is writing a chapter to contribute to a book titled “The Cambridge History of Reformation Theology” and has portions of two books started.

Just like any writer, Dipple struggles with parts of writing too.

“Some things are a lot of fun, like conceptualizing a bigger project when you start to think about how things fit together,” Dipple said. But “sometimes when you get down to where you’re trying to get things on paper and get the first draft prepared, I find that to be a real grind.”

“The start of the process is a lot of fun and the end of the process I really enjoy. Somewhere in the middle it just gets to be too much like work,” he joked.

Dipple says his colleagues in all departments are active scholars.

“People are very involved in research,” he said.

“I tell a lot of prospective students, ‘check in on what the faculty are doing. Are they doing what they expect you to do?’ I think it’s a sign of a healthy college that the faculty are getting up early on Saturday mornings to do their own work. It means they’re still enthused about it.”

Dr. Geoffrey Dipple received his Ph.D. in early modern European history from Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. Before joining the faculty at Augustana, he taught at the University of Ottawa, Queen’s University and the University of Toronto. In addition to regularly teaching introductory classes on the history of "Western Civilization," he also offers courses on the history of the Middle Ages, "The Reformation," "Hitler and the Holocaust," and on genocide in the 20th century. His other publications include "Radical Reformation Studies: Essays Presented to James M. Stayer", co-edited with Werner O. Packull (1999), and “'Just as in the Time of the Apostles': Uses of History in the Radical Reformation" (2005).

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Medical Transcriptionist LIMITED

Medical Transcriptionist LIMITED | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
About the JobJob Information

The Medical Transcriptionist is responsible for the transcription of medical reports, consultation notes, letters and other medical documentation for the Specialist Programs at Stanton Territorial Health Authority ("STHA").  The Medical Transcriptionist performs services in accordance with the standards and guidelines of the Ambulatory Care and Medical Affairs Division of STHA.

Located in Yellowknife and reporting directly to the Manager of Medical Affairs and Clinics, the Medical Transcriptionist is responsible for transcription services for the nine permanent physician specialties, ten visiting physician specialties and other personnel associated with the Specialist Programs.  This position deals with confidential medical information.

The incumbent must have the ability to interpret, understand and transcribe reports, and must have good word processing skills with a minimum of 50 WPM with accuracy. The ability to proofread all transcription with regard to accuracy and medical terminology, together with an excellent comprehension of written and spoken English is also required.  The incumbent is required to understand and adhere to confidentiality protocols.

Typically the qualifications for this position would be attained by the successful completion of a medical transcriptionist program, plus two (2) years' related experience in a healthcare setting.

Limited Competition

This job opening is limited to residents livi

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About the JobJob Information

The Medical Transcriptionist is responsible for the transcription of medical reports, consultation notes, letters and other medical documentation for the Specialist Programs at Stanton Territorial Health Authority ("STHA").  The Medical Transcriptionist performs services in accordance with the standards and guidelines of the Ambulatory Care and Medical Affairs Division of STHA.

Located in Yellowknife and reporting directly to the Manager of Medical Affairs and Clinics, the Medical Transcriptionist is responsible for transcription services for the nine permanent physician specialties, ten visiting physician specialties and other personnel associated with the Specialist Programs.  This position deals with confidential medical information.

The incumbent must have the ability to interpret, understand and transcribe reports, and must have good word processing skills with a minimum of 50 WPM with accuracy. The ability to proofread all transcription with regard to accuracy and medical terminology, together with an excellent comprehension of written and spoken English is also required.  The incumbent is required to understand and adhere to confidentiality protocols.

Typically the qualifications for this position would be attained by the successful completion of a medical transcriptionist program, plus two (2) years' related experience in a healthcare setting.

Limited Competition

This job opening is limited to residents livi

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What do we learn from the Founding-era translations of the Constitution?

What do we learn from the Founding-era translations of the Constitution? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Earlier this week I posted about an interesting new article, Founding-Era Translations of the United States Constitution. In it, I noted quickly that I had learned a lot from the article, but didn’t have time to actually say what I’d learned, and several of you have asked for more.

The article itself contains findings about specific words — of particular interest might be the German translation of the word “commerce.” The authors explain:

The German translation seems to aim at a compromise …. When translating “Commerce” the translator had a number of choices: ‘Commercium,’ ‘Kaufmannschaft,’ ‘Handel,’ ‘Handlung,’ and ‘Handelschaft.’ He chose the last, ‘Handelschaft,’ a term that at the time already had become outmoded. Both Kruenitz, an 18th century encyclopedia edited between 1773 and 1858 and Adelung, an 18th century German critical dictionary edited between 1793 and 1810, define ‘Handelschaft’ as the business of exchanging goods with the purpose of profit.
The root word of ‘Handelschaft’ is ‘Handel,’ which in its general meaning was very close to the English ‘handling.’ However, when used in the context of commerce, ‘Handel’ was understood “to broadly comprise any activity which creates a noteworthy change in an object” so long as the activity was directed to profit. In its common use, however, the term was usually limited “to (ex-)change of property.” Used as a collectivum, when the exchange of goods is someone’s business, ‘Handel’ and ‘Handelschaft,’ the term the German print uses, become synonymous.
From this evidence, we can draw the contours of the term’s meaning. ‘Handelschaft’ denotes the full field of the merchants’ trade, comprising exchanging goods for goods or bills, and possibly including the shipment and transportation of goods. This meaning also opens up the possibility that ‘commerce’ comprises the larger scope of actions and interactions of persons involved in business.
The German translator could have made a different choice here: ‘Kaufmannschaft,’ the German cognate to the term the Dutch translation uses (‘Koopmanschap’). This term would have had a more narrow meaning, particularly according to S.J.E. Stosch, an 18th century clergyman who is known for his meditations on word-use. Stosch limits ‘Kaumfannschaft’ solely to the exchange of goods for money, whereas ‘Handelschaft’ or ‘Handlung’ is said to be the adequate terms for the broader scope of a merchant’s action. Stosch also suggests that “Handelschaft” presupposes a business of a certain size, territorial scope and professionalism. Nonetheless, often, the terms ‘Handelschaft’ and ‘Kaufmannschaft’ would be used synonymously.
It is notable that an even more broad term could have been used for ‘commerce’ — its German cognate “Commerz” or “Kommerz” (derived from the Latin “commercium” and in this form, “das Commercium,” also found in German language). During the time of the translation, however, ‘Commerz’ and ‘Kommerz’ were not much in use. In an English-German dictionary from 1800, Ebers defines ‘commerce’ as “the concurse/interaction of one with another,” expressing a view similar to Balkin’s. However, the German translator did not choose this locution in his translation of the Constitution.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Earlier this week I posted about an interesting new article, Founding-Era Translations of the United States Constitution. In it, I noted quickly that I had learned a lot from the article, but didn’t have time to actually say what I’d learned, and several of you have asked for more.

The article itself contains findings about specific words — of particular interest might be the German translation of the word “commerce.” The authors explain:

The German translation seems to aim at a compromise …. When translating “Commerce” the translator had a number of choices: ‘Commercium,’ ‘Kaufmannschaft,’ ‘Handel,’ ‘Handlung,’ and ‘Handelschaft.’ He chose the last, ‘Handelschaft,’ a term that at the time already had become outmoded. Both Kruenitz, an 18th century encyclopedia edited between 1773 and 1858 and Adelung, an 18th century German critical dictionary edited between 1793 and 1810, define ‘Handelschaft’ as the business of exchanging goods with the purpose of profit.
The root word of ‘Handelschaft’ is ‘Handel,’ which in its general meaning was very close to the English ‘handling.’ However, when used in the context of commerce, ‘Handel’ was understood “to broadly comprise any activity which creates a noteworthy change in an object” so long as the activity was directed to profit. In its common use, however, the term was usually limited “to (ex-)change of property.” Used as a collectivum, when the exchange of goods is someone’s business, ‘Handel’ and ‘Handelschaft,’ the term the German print uses, become synonymous.
From this evidence, we can draw the contours of the term’s meaning. ‘Handelschaft’ denotes the full field of the merchants’ trade, comprising exchanging goods for goods or bills, and possibly including the shipment and transportation of goods. This meaning also opens up the possibility that ‘commerce’ comprises the larger scope of actions and interactions of persons involved in business.
The German translator could have made a different choice here: ‘Kaufmannschaft,’ the German cognate to the term the Dutch translation uses (‘Koopmanschap’). This term would have had a more narrow meaning, particularly according to S.J.E. Stosch, an 18th century clergyman who is known for his meditations on word-use. Stosch limits ‘Kaumfannschaft’ solely to the exchange of goods for money, whereas ‘Handelschaft’ or ‘Handlung’ is said to be the adequate terms for the broader scope of a merchant’s action. Stosch also suggests that “Handelschaft” presupposes a business of a certain size, territorial scope and professionalism. Nonetheless, often, the terms ‘Handelschaft’ and ‘Kaufmannschaft’ would be used synonymously.
It is notable that an even more broad term could have been used for ‘commerce’ — its German cognate “Commerz” or “Kommerz” (derived from the Latin “commercium” and in this form, “das Commercium,” also found in German language). During the time of the translation, however, ‘Commerz’ and ‘Kommerz’ were not much in use. In an English-German dictionary from 1800, Ebers defines ‘commerce’ as “the concurse/interaction of one with another,” expressing a view similar to Balkin’s. However, the German translator did not choose this locution in his translation of the Constitution.

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Goddard College faculty member Wendy Call receives NEA Literature Translation Fellowship - VTDigger

Goddard College faculty member Wendy Call receives NEA Literature Translation Fellowship - VTDigger | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Goddard College is pleased to announce The National Endowment for the Arts has recommended BFA in Creative Writing faculty member Wendy Call for an NEA Literature Translation Fellowship of $12,500.
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Goddard College is pleased to announce The National Endowment for the Arts has recommended BFA in Creative Writing faculty member Wendy Call for an NEA Literature Translation Fellowship of $12,500. Call is one of 20 recommended fellows for 2015.

With this grant, Call will translate Mexican-Zapotec poet Irma Pineda’s third collection of poetry, Xilase qui rié di’ sicasi rié nisa guiigu’ / La Nostalgia no se marcha como el agua de los ríos (Nostalgia Doesn’t Flow Away Like Riverwater), into English. Xilase… was published in 2007, the third of six bilingual Zapotec-Spanish collections that Pineda has published in Mexico. The collection is comprised of 36 poems told in two fictional voices from Pineda’s hometown: a person who has immigrated to the United States as an undocumented worker and that person’s partner, who has stayed behind.

“We are thrilled our faculty member Wendy Call has been given this award from the NEA to support her work in translation,” said Bob Kenny, Interim President at Goddard College. “Wendy’s work will not only bridge a cultural divide in the literary world,” he said, “but will ultimately add to the rich interdisciplinary curriculum and cross-cultural commitment at Goddard.”

Call has been on the faculty of Goddard College’s BFA in Writing program since April 2013, working with students on all aspects of creative writing and advising the student-edited literary journal, Duende. Call has collaborated with poet Irma Pineda since 2010, publishing her translations of Pineda’s work in eight U.S. literary journals. Call learned of the literature of Zapotec—the earliest New World language to have a written form—while working on her award-winning 2011 nonfiction book, No Word for Welcome: The Mexican Village Faces the Global Economy.

Since 1981, the NEA has supported literary translators through fellowships. Including the most current recipients, the NEA has awarded 364 translators 412 fellowships to translate literature from 66 languages originating in 86 countries. For the complete list of FY 2015 NEA Literature Translation Fellows, visit the NEA’s website at www.arts.gov.

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National Museum of Language in its final days

National Museum of Language in its final days | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Already reduced in size, the museum is converting its considerable knowledge base for the Internet.
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Time is running out to see one of the smallest and unusual museums in a region jammed with them. The National Museum of Language, in an otherwise nondescript office building along Route 1 in College Park, is set to close Sept. 30, trustees say. Already reduced in size from three rooms to two, the museum will convert its considerable knowledge base on the beauty and mystery of language digitally to the Internet. At The Gate, however, numbers are our currency:

6

Number of years the museum has been open to the public since May 2008.

10

Number of years in planning done before the museum was opened.

8

Examples given in current exhibit of words textbook pioneer Noah Webster successfully changed from their English spelling: analyze, center, jail, honor, humor, mask, mold and public.

9

Examples given of new spelling of words Webster wanted to change from their English spellings but didn’t catch on: ake, sley, soop, spunge, tung, tuf, cloke, determin, wimmen.

33

Number of countries where French is the official language, according to another current exhibit at the museum.

2 million

Estimated number in U.S. of francophones, defined as those who speak French at home or otherwise strongly identify with the language and culture, according to the exhibit “Glimpses of French in the Americas.”

2

Distinct ways in which written languages have been formed: alphabetic, based on sounds; and logographic, based on pictures or symbols.

3

Categories of languages depicted on the museum’s International Flag of Language, representing dead languages, living languages and emerging ones.

2

Examples given by docents of emerging languages: Klingon, Vulcan.

0

Cost to visit the National Museum of Language.

61
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Mass Exam Failure: Reading Culture May Be The Solution - Nigerian News from Leadership Newspapers

Mass Exam Failure: Reading Culture May Be The Solution - Nigerian News from Leadership Newspapers | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
“It’s never too early to read to your children even if they can’t understand a single syllable.”-Anonymous There have been many stories about why students fail, why they cannot provide correct answers to questions given even in exams, and why they can also not understand the questions given. Researchers have been able to understand and...
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Kuni Tyessi

— Aug 28, 2014 | 2 Comments


“It’s never too early to read to your children even if they can’t understand a single syllable.”-Anonymous

There have been many stories about why students fail, why they cannot provide correct answers to questions given even in exams, and why they can also not understand the questions given.

Researchers have been able to understand and unveil the fact that the problem is not far from the fact that many of our pupils and students do not know how to read and so it becomes a case of no reading, no understanding. Research made available by USAID is of the opinion that reading must be made functional between classes 1-3.

They also state that one can develop speech naturally but cannot read and write naturally until the individual has been taught, and it is often expected that 45 words per minute should be the minimum for minimal understanding of what has been read.

Nigerian children can hardly read up to 10 words per minute. Apart from this, the reading culture is unarguably low and as such, students do not read and cannot understand and as such, the possibility of passing is lamentably low.

It also records that the best persons to teach a child how to read remains the parents at home as the teachers can hardly have sufficient time for each pupil even though, thankfully enough, it is in the Nigerian educational curriculum.

Listening to a parent’s voice and looking at pictures helps children with bonding and development as well as aiding children’s literacy and brain development, imagination and stimulated curiosity as research is saying the earlier the better.

Reading to children creates lovely bonding moments when children sit outside in the moonlight or in the comfort of their sitting rooms as the case may be while listening to the voice of the adult and or looking at pictures as this is said and believed to make them successful later in life, especially when they are learning to read as this will help with their language and sounds development, learning colours, animals, letters and words.

Teaching children listening skills by reading to them will improve their listening skills and train them in the art of active listening.

In fact, teaching children listening skills is one of the most important traits. As adult human beings, we can help them develop for many different reasons, ranging from academic and real world success to becoming a friend and experiencing true friendship.

Think about if we aren’t talking or reading, we most likely are listening. We listen to the radio, television, friends, family, and our co-workers. But listening is something we have to do actively because “listening to” something and “hearing” something are two very different concepts. This is why teaching children listening skills is so important.

Sounds of refrigerator, microwave, barking of dogs, cries of babies, and sounds of cars are fortunate enough to break out of the rat race so that we can even enjoy the sounds of nature like birds chirping, a brook babbling, the wind blowing, or leaves rustling. But just because we have heard these sounds doesn’t mean they have registered in our brains.

The passive nature of hearing is very different from the active nature of listening. Take, for example, watching the evening news on NTA or AIT or even the international news.

Listening skills are developed, and the more we practice the more skilled we become at teaching children listening skills. Reading to children is not only a way of teaching children listening skills, it forces them to practice listening skills and it is a well known fact that children are engaging their active listening skills because of how many times older children and adults have corrected them.

We hear, “You skipped a page.” Or sometimes if I play word games with my nephews and nieces and say, “Beep! Beep! Elephants in a jeep . . . “ while reading Sheep in a Jeep. I immediately hear, “It’s not elephants, aunty. It’s sheep.” So again, I know they are actively listening to the story being read to them. So, it stands to reason that the more time we spend teaching children listening skills by reading to them, the more they practice their active listening skills and the better they become at it. In a nutshell, teaching children listening skills by reading aloud to our little ones improves their listening skills, and more importantly, their active listening skills.

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September 8th Is International Literacy Day -- Here Are Related Resources

September 8th Is International Literacy Day -- Here Are Related Resources | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
UNESCO has declared September 8th to be "International Literacy Day" for the past forty years. You might find The Best Resources For International Literacy Day useful. By the way, the International...
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CPUT allegedly changes exam language - Western Cape | IOL News | IOL.co.za

CPUT allegedly changes exam language - Western Cape | IOL News | IOL.co.za | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
South Africa's Premier Online News Source. Discover the world of IOL, News South Africa, Sport, Business, Financial, World News, Entertainment, Technology, Motoring, Travel, Property, Calssifieds & more.
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Cape Town - Students at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology’s (CPUT) agricultural campus in Wellington are allegedly being told that they must write their final exams in English after three years of writing in Afrikaans.

Civils rights organisation AfriForum said in a statement on Tuesday it was considering legal action against the institution after repeatedly trying to get answers from vice-chancellor Prins Nevhutalu, but to no avail.

CPUT said it would respond in detail to the allegations on Wednesday.

The AfriForum statement was issued on behalf of a group of parents and students who wish to remain anonymous, but feel that CPUT’s decision to change the language of the exams should have been communicated to them sooner than just a few weeks ago.

AfriForum’s statement said if it did not get a response from CPUT, it would be forced to take legal action.

Head of education campaigns for AfriForum Carien Bloem said it was waiting for a response from CPUT as it would like the problem to be resolved.

Bloem said AfriForum wanted reasons why the question papers could not be bilingual, as well as why students could begin their courses in Afrikaans but not then finish them in Afrikaans.

Bloem said students had asked if they could answer in Afrikaans even if the questions were in English, but they had been told that was not allowed.

She said parents had phoned the campus, but with no success. Afri-Forum had also repeatedly written to the campus, but no response had been forthcoming.

“Studies have definitely been affected by this,” said Bloem.

“Some students are already having to redo subjects because they aren’t able to write their exams in a way that is comfortable.”

In the past students had been taught in Afrikaans and had submitted homework in Afrikaans. Many of them felt they could not express themselves properly in English.

Having to retake exams not only cost valuable time, but was also a financial burden.

CPUT spokesman Thami Nkwanyane said on Tuesday the institution would not be able to respond to the allegations.

He, however, committed to responding on Wednesday, saying that the individuals responsible for answering the questions had been “locked in meetings”.

Bloem said: “We just want CPUT to state the situation.”

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English Writing Center provides help to students

English Writing Center provides help to students | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Mr. Frazier helps student on an essay in room D101

English teachers are on deck to help run Pattonville’s English Writing Center which is located in D101.

They
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English teachers are on deck to help run Pattonville’s English Writing Center which is located in D101.

They are there to help students with all of their English needs. English teachers are in the help center every hour of the day to help tutor students as well as provide a location for students to make up tests and write essays.

“The English Writing Center is known for always being wild and crazy,” Ms. Sarah Gulifoyle said.

However, realistically the environment for the students who work in the English Writing Center can best be described in two words: “Calm and academic.”

Writing tips and opportunities for learning can also be found inside the Writing Center.

Two teachers help run the Writing Center every hour and strive to have both a helpful and productive session for students.

Most English teachers, at some point during the day, run the center. The teacher on duty rotates responsibilities with another teacher at the end of each hour.

The only time the center is not open is during second lunch; however, there is a lot of availability and students are encouraged to take advantage of the time.

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Official language policy needed to unite Washington residents | GUEST OP - Kent Reporter

Official language policy needed to unite Washington residents | GUEST OP - Kent Reporter | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
When it comes to cultivating a welcoming environment for immigrants, policymakers in Washington are lacking.
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When it comes to cultivating a welcoming environment for immigrants, policymakers in Washington are lacking.

Yes, the Evergreen State is home to a diverse group of residents. Washingtonians speak 167 different languages, according to the United States Census Bureau, and nearly 60 languages are spoken by more than 1,000 residents. But as one of just 19 states without an official language policy, Washington's immigrants are met with little assistance to help them assimilate.

More than 8 percent of Washington residents are considered limited English proficient, meaning they would struggle to carry on more than a basic conversation in English.

Currently, in an effort to include these residents, the state offers driver's license examinations in six languages other than English. Countless state documents and services are offered in foreign languages for the same reason. Unfortunately, as well intentioned as these translations may seem, they are misguided when it comes to creating a unified environment for all residents.

As an immigrant myself, I know that to succeed in the United States, English proficiency is key. As someone who came to the United States before the government provided the crutch of native language translations, I also know that delaying English acquisition does immigrants no favors.

Without an official language policy, immigrants receive the message that English is optional, not essential. Without English proficiency, immigrants are often held back from better, higher paying jobs, health insurance and more. They are likely to encounter language barriers on a daily basis at the grocery store, the doctor's office or a child's school.

Conversely, if Washington's state government agencies offered services in English, rather than an abundance of foreign languages, immigrants would face an added incentive to learn English sooner. With the money saved on translations, the state government could even designate funding to create additional English language learning classes or invest in education, infrastructure or other areas in need.

In other words, declaring English the official language of Washington is a win-win situation for all parties involved. With an Official English policy, residents are still free to speak the language of their choosing, but will also benefit from an added incentive to learn English. That English proficiency can lead to a 30 percent increase in income, contributing to a better life for the immigrant population and an improved economic outlook for the state.

Best of all, declaring English the official language is a measure that is widely supported by citizens of all backgrounds. A Rasmussen Reports poll conducted on Aug. 9-10 found that 83 percent of Americans support the policy, and an even more overwhelming 94 percent believe English proficiency is important to succeed in the United States.

While policymakers may believe they are benefiting Washington's immigrant population by providing native language translations, reality could not be farther from the truth. Diversity is an asset, and we should respect the linguistic and cultural differences among residents of the United States. But without a common factor to unite us in our diversity, we remain divided.

I encourage the Washington State Legislature to take action this year and send a message to all residents that we are united through a common, shared language, English.

Mauro E. Mujica is the chairman of U.S. English, Inc., one of the nation's oldest and largest nonpartisan citizens' action groups dedicated to preserving the unifying role of the English language in the United States. Founded in 1983 by the late Sen. S.I. Hayakawa of California, U.S. English, Inc. (www.usenglish.org) has more than 1.8 million members.

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6 Secrets to Writing a Concise Resume Recruiters Will Read | The Savvy Intern by YouTern

6 Secrets to Writing a Concise Resume Recruiters Will Read | The Savvy Intern by YouTern | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
According to a CareerBuilder survey, one in six hiring managers spend 30 seconds or less reviewing resumes. So when we write our resumes, there is...
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According to a CareerBuilder survey, one in six hiring managers spend 30 seconds or less reviewing resumes. So when we write our resumes, there is intense pressure to “sound good.”

We use big or fancy words that will make their resume sound professional and well-written. We fill the resume with buzzwords and cliches. And we use way too many words to say what only a few will do. Unfortunately, this approach can alienate the recruiter we are trying so hard to impress!

As employers sift through resumes, they don’t have time for wordy and fluffy applications. The want to get down to the core of your qualifications so they can determine whether or not they should call you for an interview.

A recruiter wants one thing: they want you to be concise.

To help you write a clear and concise resume that will get read by recruiters, here are some helpful tips to follow:

Include Relevant Experience Only

When you apply for a job, employers want to know why you are qualified for the position. Hiring managers want to read about your experience and skills that are relevant to the position you’re applying for and how those qualifications make you the best fit for the organization.

To make sure your resume is up to par for your job application, spend some time customizing your resume to the job description. Even if you have a variety of experience with different jobs and employers, only include the best experience you have that relates to the job you’re applying for. By tailoring your resume to each job application, you will catch the employer’s attention.

Use the Best Words for a Resume

When writing a stellar resume, there are certain words and phrases hiring managers like to read. If you want to stand out to employers as they quickly scan your resume, consider using some of the following terms:

  • Achieved
  • Improved
  • Trained
  • Managed
  • Volunteered
  • Ideas
  • Launched
  • Under budget
Avoid the Worst Words for a Resume

There are also some words you should definitely avoid at all cost when writing your resume. The last thing hiring managers want to read is a resume filled with fluff and cliches. To make sure you’re heading down the right track with your resume, here are some resume buzzwords to avoid:

  • Go-getter
  • Think outside of the box
  • Team player
  • Go-to person
  • Bottom-line
  • Hard worker
  • Dynamic
  • Self-motivated
Remove Redundancy

It can be challenging to think of creative ways to write boring job descriptions for your past experience. Many job seekers often fall into the trap of using redundant phrases and words when writing their resume because they are focused on spicing up their boring jobs rather than illustrating their accomplishments.

To remove redundancy from your resume, be aware of the phrases, adjectives, and verbs you use. For example, don’t say “I’m seeking job” in your resume because the employer already knows you’re looking for a job, hence your job application.

Remove Articles and Helping Verbs

To tighten up your resume, watch for helping verbs such as “have,” “had,” “may,” and “to be” and articles such as “a,” “an,” and “the.” Believe it or not, these words can add a great amount of fluff to your resume and slow down the reader.

For example, the use of helping verbs makes this phrase too wordy: “Managed a team of sales associates in order to help them achieve quarterly goals.” Instead, you can tighten up the phrase like this: “Managed sales team to help accomplish quarterly goals.” (If you can include the specific goal numbers, even better!)

Watch for Vagueness

Although it’s difficult to write about your experience, you must be very precise when explaining what your accomplished during each job or internship.

For example, if you’re writing a description for a clerical position and said something like “I assisted with paperwork,” this doesn’t tell the hiring manager anything about what you did or accomplished at that job. Instead, you could write “Assisted with clerical duties including database entry, paperwork filing, and answering phones.” This gives the hiring manager a more detailed description of what you performed during your last job.

Read Your Resume Out Loud

The best way to ensure your resume is clear and concise? Proofread it aloud.

This will help you catch and grammar or spelling errors, as well as pay attention to phrasing. Your resume should flow together and be easily read. If you find yourself stumbling over a part of your resume, go back and figure out how you can reword it to make it more concise.

Writing a concise resume takes a lot of practice and patience. However, if you master these tips and you’re diligent during the editing process, you’ll write a resume that will definitely get read!

 

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Tech Tips: To Build Close Reading Skills, Teach Annotation

Tech Tips: To Build Close Reading Skills, Teach Annotation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
By Dana Huff In order to help students develop close reading skills, we teach them how to annotate. Annotation has traditionally been thought of as a pencil-and-paper activity, but e-readers, such ...
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In order to help students develop close reading skills, we teach them how to annotate.

Annotation has traditionally been thought of as a pencil-and-paper activity, but e-readers, such as Kindle and iBooks, have great annotation tools. However, website annotation has been more of a challenge for students since browsers don’t typically include the same kinds of annotation tools as e-readers do.


In a time when many schools are encouraging students to bring their own devices or have laptops available for students, it is increasingly convenient to ask students to use online resources rather than purchase expensive anthologies.

My school is a 1:1 laptop school, which means all students and faculty are issued a laptop. Many of our English courses have dropped their chunky anthologies in favor of online resources that belong in the public domain or pay royalties to writers, such as Poetry Foundation and The Academy of American Poets’ site Poets.org. Teachers often print literature from websites so that students can annotate, but printing becomes problematic in a time when we must conserve paper either for budgetary or sustainability purposes.

When I worked with teachers at the Teaching Shakespeare Institute this summer, I introduced them to an online annotation tool called Scrible. Scrible allows you to annotate any website and even share those annotations with others, making it much easier for teachers who in the past have collected students’ books to check for annotations.

In order to use it, you and your students create accounts and install the toolbar. Instructions are provided at sign-up. It’s easy to toggle on the toolbar and use Scrible to take notes on any page. In the screenshot below, you can see an example of Scrible annotations using the Folger Digital Text of Hamlet.

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How dictionary-makers decide which words to include

How dictionary-makers decide which words to include | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
EARLIER this month the Oxford Dictionaries added a number of new words to its online collection. (This is not to be confused with the flagship Oxford English...
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EARLIER this month the Oxford Dictionaries added a number of new words to its online collection. (This is not to be confused with the flagship Oxford English Dictionary.) As usual, Oxford included buzzy internet- and youth-inflected coinages such as "neckbeard", "side boob" and "mansplaining". And as usual, internet commenters seemed nonplussed by what seemed to be a venerable institution (ie, Oxford) validating teenage slang. How do lexicographers decide what goes into the dictionary?

In short, dictionary-makers act more like a fisherman, gathering words with a wide net, than a policeman, keeping out "bad words", as Erin McKean, a lexicographer, formerly of Oxford and now of Wordnik, an online dictionary, put it. Nearly all modern dictionaries are descriptive, in that they seek to find the words people actually use and record them. They are no longer primarily prescriptive in the sense of granting "good" words official status while keeping slang and neologisms out.

But this does not mean that dictionaries include everything. Print dictionaries must trade off size and cost against including enough words for the dictionary to be useful. Such dictionaries naturally omit many extremely rare or scientific words. But lexicographers also wait until a word seems to have wide and enduring uptake before including it. Include a neologism too soon, and the word may have fallen out of fashion before the ink on the first print run is dry. But if words are used for a long enough period by a wide enough swathe of English-speakers, the lexicographers make the judgment call to include the word. This is not the same as approval. Indeed serious dictionaries include foul language and racial slurs.

The internet is radically changing lexicography. So many dictionaries—from both traditional and new publishers—are free online that lexicographers compete to offer features such as audio pronunciations, access to their database of historical citations and so on. Perhaps inevitably, online lexicographers include new words more quickly than their print counterparts do. There is no real space consideration, for one thing. And for some kinds of searches, an online dictionary that does not keep up with new language will be out-competed by other dictionaries that do. For example, Urban Dictionary, an online resource full of scurrilous definitions, included "side boob" in 2005. Pressure from internet dictionaries may have led Collins, an traditional dictionary, to allow Twitter users to vote for a new word to be included—the winner was "adorkable". So it is hardly surprising that even Oxford includes a few "cray cray" (in other words, crazy) new words each year. A final advantage of online lexicography is that over-hasty entries can easily be removed.

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‘Whoever’ vs. ‘Whomever’

‘Whoever’ vs. ‘Whomever’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Who(m)ever you're writing for will appreciate the effort.
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Bryan Garner is probably the foremost authority on American English usage and certainly the foremost authority on legal usage. Everyone who cares about language should have his magnificent Dictionary of Modern American Usage, and every lawyer and law student should also own hisDictionary of Legal Usage.

But, yesterday, I think Garner made an error. Over at LawProse, he has a typically informative and precise post on “whoever” vs. “whomever.” Here, though, is the last paragraph:

It’s worth it to master using these terms. Whoever you’re writing for will appreciate the effort, and your grammatical precision will reflect well on you. (The preceding sentence is a tricky one: Whoever is the subject of will appreciate.)

I think Garner has this wrong. “Whoever” is not the subject of “will appreciate”; the entire clause “Whoever you’re writing for” is the subject of “will appreciate.” The important thing for these purposes is the function of “who(m)ever” within that clause: “(Who(m)ever you’re writing for)will appreciate the effort….” In that clause, “you” is the subject, and “who(m)ever” is the object of the preposition “for.” “You’re writing forwhom? You’re writing for him.”

Here is GrammarBook, stating the rule:

When the entire whoever/whomever clause is the subject of the verb that follows the clause, look inside the clause to determine whether to use whoever or whomever.

Examples:
Whoever is elected will serve a four-year term.
Whoever is the subject of is elected. The clause whoever is elected is the subject of will serve.

Whomever you elect will serve a four-year term.
Whomever is the object of electWhomever you elect is the subject of will serve.

Therefore, in Garner’s sentence, the correct choice is “whomever”:

Whomever you’re writing for will appreciate the effort, and your grammatical precision will reflect well on you.

I post this with some trepidation, as I have never known Bryan Garner to make an error of this (or any) sort.  So, who’s right?

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Institute on Legal Interpreting: Backstage Access for Sign Language Interpreters | Street Leverage

Institute on Legal Interpreting: Backstage Access for Sign Language Interpreters | Street Leverage | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
StreetLeverage takes sign language interpreters backstage at the 2014 Institute on Legal Interpreting conference in Denver, Colorado August 21st - 23rd.
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Behind the Scenes

StreetLeverage is excited to have partnered with Anna Witter-Merithew and the good folks at the MARIE Center to extend backstage access to the 2014 ILI. What follows is a summary of the StreetLeverage coverage.

How ILI Got Started

Anna Witter-Merithew sat down and shared how the Institute on Legal Interpreting got started, the important role of Deaf interpreters at ILI, and the significant contribution made by Diane Fowler in the promotion of advanced legal training for sign language interpreters.

- See more at: http://www.streetleverage.com/2014/08/institute-on-legal-interpreting-backstage-access-for-sign-language-interpreters/#sthash.micvtylK.dpuf

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Reverso Context | Translation in context - French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, English

Reverso Context | Translation in context - French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, English | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Translate words and phrases in context. Millions of examples in French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and English.
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Translation Goes Back to School for Champs Sports - AgencySpy

Translation Goes Back to School for Champs Sports - AgencySpy | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Translation Goes Back to School for Champs Sports
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Translation has a new back-to-school campaign for Champ Sports, entitled “Game Loves An Audience.”

That phrase appears on screen, leading in to the brand’s “We Know Game” tagline following short vignettes in several 30-second spots. For the most part, Translation keeps things pretty simple. “Practice,” for example, is a montage of players training for the upcoming season at football practice, ending with the coach riling the team up with a chant. “Joy Ride” and “First Period” (which we’ve included after the jump) are similarly straightforward (and self-explanatory) eschewing any dialogue for a focus on Champs Sports’ products. You have to wonder if maybe they could have benefited from a little more substance, though. 

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Tradução vanguarda - parte 3

Tradução vanguarda - parte 3 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dácio Galvão [ daciogalvao@globo.com ]Bálsamo para uns ou uma boa apimentada na consciência sensível do coletivo foi verter Walt Whitman para o
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Bálsamo para uns ou uma boa apimentada na consciência sensível do coletivo foi verter Walt Whitman para o português numa época belicosa. O município de Parnamirim e Natal, capital do Rio Grande do Norte, polarizavam a presença americana no ambiente da segunda grande guerra. As antenas cascudianas estavam sintonizadas sincronicamente com o que havia de positividade de uma cultura simbólica e cidadã afora os ingredientes metalinguísticos. Na mesma década, Câmara Cascudo traduziu e anotou também Montaigne e o Índio Brasileiro (capítulo “Des caniballes” do Essais, de Montaigne - São Paulo: Cadernos da Hora Presente, 1940). Segundo o ensaísta Ivo Barroso, o poema “The Base Off All Metaphysics” foi traduzido também por Manuel Ferreira Santos e incluído em O Livro de Ouro da Poesia dos Estados Unidos publicado pela Ediouro, sem data.  

As operações poéticas e tradutoras em torno da textualidade  whitmaniana espocaram em outros interessados. O ensaísta citado acrescenta informação demonstrando e frisando o quanto da importância da tradução cascudiana transbordou transversalmente: “Seguindo-lhe os passos, Gilberto Freyre, em uma conferência na Sociedade dos Amigos da América, em maio de 1947, referia-se à originalidade e ao pioneirismo daquele “anglo-americano que primeiro exaltou em poema a figura de uma negra” e, analisando a atuação poético-política do vate, dizia que, “não obstante sua confiança no homem comum, Whitman enxergou sempre a necessidade, nos postos de comando – de puro comando, nunca de domínio – do homem incomum.” Toda a digressão de Freyre é focada na conceituação de Democracia e nas interpretações políticas de Whitman, para quem o “barco democrático não devia ser feito só para os ventos bons”, mas para enfrentar igualmente as tempestades (Ship of the hope of the world – Ship of Promise / Welcome the storm – welcome the trial)”.

As traduções publicadas em 1945 estão situadas numa conjuntura conturbada. A base norte-americana se reflete no conjunto urbano. A esse respeito, o próprio Câmara Cascudo depõe sobre o movimento de “Parnamirim Field”, a base aérea sob administração norte-americana: “Parnamirim, índice do tempo, tinha todas as manifestações da vida norte-americana. O correspondente de guerra Ernie Pyle, que morreria desembarcando em Okinawa, dirigiu um programa, direto para Nova Iorque, para a Columbia Broadcasting System. Estrelas de todos os tamanhos cantaram, dançaram, beberam e assobiaram para os soldados, marinheiros, aviadores e as meninas glamorosas da WAAC (Womem American Auxiliary Corp), que aprenderam o samba em Parnamirim e o nado em Ponta Negra. (CASCUDO, 1999, p. 423). História da Cidade do Natal. 3. ed. Natal: IHG/RN; RN Econômico, 1999.

O seguinte depoimento é significativo como reescrita da imagem que o poeta tem do povo idealizado e celebrado por Whitman, em um nova situação. A leitura se dava á luz da teoria de Bronislaw Malinowski (Theory of Needs). Para contextualizar, Câmara Cascudo cita o poeta El Macrizi em tradução não referida e inicia a reflexão com a assertiva “A vida faz-se apagar nos seus aparentes favores. Compensações melancólicas”, com o objetivo de compreender o que visualizou durante a ocupação americana e contrapor a uma espécie de normalidade brasileira. Em tom memorialístico discorreu asseverando o que os olhos observaram: “ Durante a guerra (1942-45), trabalhando na Defesa Civil de Natal, freqüentei Parnamirim Field (...). Atores e atrizes de primeira grandeza vinham dar shows animadores. Os mais estridentemente famosos e as mais visceralmente temperamentais. Não houve “glória” cinematográfica que eu não encontrasse em Parnamirim. Uma característica era a mobilidade, inquieta, incessante, ansiosa, numa expectativa dolorosa de má notícia e desgraça.  Estavam sempre andando, falando, a fisionomia cheia de perguntas, os olhos sem pouso. (...). Nenhum me daria a imagem fugitiva da felicidade relativa, do bem-estar físico, a tranqüila posse de notoriedade. Para que tanta batalha? Much A do About Nothing. O riso era uma representação perfeita. Não percebiam, realmente, o que recebiam ou compravam. O cabo, chauffeur da polícia, que me levara, resumiu a impressão surpreendida: – Que gente agoniada.” (CASCUDO, 1997, p. 193. O tempo e eu: confidências e proposições. Natal: EDUFRN, 1997.

  Ainda no ano de 1945, Câmara Cascudo publicou as suas pioneiras traduções em “Pensamento da América”, suplemento literário pan-americano do jornal oficial do Estado Novo, A Manhã. “Pensamento da América”, foi publicado de 1941 a 1948, sendo dirigido pelo escritor diplomata Ribeiro Couto entre 1941 e 1943) e por Renato Almeida (musicólogo, Chefe do Serviço de Informação do Ministério das Relações Exteriores) entre 1943 e 1945. A direção de Renato Almeida deu uma grande visibilidade aos estudos do folclore, motivo pelo qual a colaboração cascudiana se fez relevante, segundo Ana Luíza Beraba (2008, p. 82-84) em América aracnídea: teias culturais. 

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Always packing a punch

Always packing a punch | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Atul Kulkarni, who will next be seen in Nellikka in Malayalam, talks about his performances in different languages.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

The call came from Chennai. Kamal Haasan himself wanted to audition him for a role! “Kamal had heard about my performance in the play ‘Gandhi Virudha Gandhi’. He was then casting for Hey Ram,” recalls Atul Kulkarni. The actor was in Kozhikode shooting for Nellikka, editor Bijith Bala’s directorial debut.

That rendezvous with Kamal, some 14 years ago, proved to be the turning point in Atul’s career. “I was offered the role [of a religious hardliner who wanted to assassinate Mahatma Gandhi] on that day itself. It was an unforgettable experience working with Kamal. He taught me cinema,” he says. Atul’s powerful performance did not go unnoticed. He won the National Award for the best supporting actor. He would win the same award two years later for Chandni Bar. He had arrived on screen, truly.

“The success of Chandni Bar at the box office was a huge boost at that time of my career. Ever since I had decided to study at the National School of Drama, New Delhi, I had wanted to take up acting as my profession,” he says.

Atul is not doing much theatre these days, though. “I am not really missing theatre as I get to act in films, that too in different languages, such as Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Marathi, my mother tongue. I love working in multiple languages, and these days good films are being made across the country,” he says.

He has high expectations about Nellikka. “I have been able to get some good roles in Malayalam, beginning with Thalappavu. In Nellikka, I play a banker who chooses to stay in with his in-laws and becomes very much part of the family. I decided to do this film because I liked the plot,” he says.

Looking back at his own career, Atul says: “I have been able to do a variety of roles, in films such asRang De BasantiEdegarike (Kannada), Veeram and Natarang (Marathi). I had to put in a lot of effort for Natarang, as I was playing a wrestler who is forced to become an effeminate dancer,” he says.

He is now looking forward to his next Bollywood release, Dirty Politics, directed by K.C. Bokadia.

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How To Change Keyboard Language On Your Galaxy Note, Note 2, or Note 3

How To Change Keyboard Language On Your Galaxy Note, Note 2, or Note 3 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Related posts: 3 Quick Ways on How To Take Screenshots on the Samsung Galaxy Note, Note 2, and Note 3 Samsung Gear 2 ++: SIM Enabled Standalone Watchphone In The Works How To Hide Your Phone Number When Sending A Text Message on Your Phone Top 5 Best Tablet Styli For Getting Your Work Done
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For Ukrainian voters, key is policy preferences, not native language or ethnicity, of candidates

For Ukrainian voters, key is policy preferences, not native language or ethnicity, of candidates | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Ukrainians' vote preferences are more affected by candidates' policy positions towards cooperation with Russia vs. Europe than their native language or ethnicity.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

President Petro Poroshenko recently announced that Ukraine will elect a new Parliament on Oct. 26.  One would expect voters to place a high priority on a candidate’s ethnicity and language. Both have been enduring themes in Ukrainian politics, and the tragic military conflict in the east of the country highlights these cleavages.

In a recent paper, however, I found that while a voter’s ethnicity and language influenced a hypothetical vote choice, a candidate’s language and ethnicity were far less relevant. Russian and Ukrainian voters were not much moved by learning that a candidate was Russian or Ukrainian or was a native speaker of Russian or Ukrainian. Far more important was whether a candidate favored an economic policy orientation toward Russia or Europe.

These findings are based on a national survey (see the paper for details) conducted in late June in which I created eight fictional candidates for a seat in the Ukrainian parliament who varied along three features: 1) ethnicity as revealed by either a distinctly Russian or Ukrainian name 2) native language of Russian or Ukrainian and 3) whether they supported closer economic ties with Russia or with Europe.More specifically, interviewers asked:

Let’s say that there were elections to the Supreme Rada. A candidate with the following features took part in the race.  About how willing would you be to vote for this candidate?  [Ivan Egorovich Filinov/Boris Bogdanovich Tkachenko] is a 40 year-old businessman who speaks [Russian/Ukrainian] as his native language. He is promising to reduce corruption, increase spending on education, and build tighter economic ties with [Russia/Europe.]

One of the eight versions of the question was then randomly assigned to each respondent. Caveats up front. This vignette does not capture the nuances of language use, ethnicity, or policy orientation.  Economic policy orientation toward Russia and Europe is freighted with deep cultural and political connotations; ethnicity is more subtle than a name; and native language does not include the possibility of being bilingual. Yet comparing how small changes in a candidate’s profile shape vote preferences can help identify the independent impact of these factors that are often highly correlated.

Despite the candidates’ distinctive ethnicities, native languages, and an ongoing conflict laden with ethnic and linguistic overtones, there is little difference in the average level support for each of these candidates. The differences in the average support for 7 of the 8 candidates are statistically indistinguishable from zero. Surprisingly, the “average” respondent does not appear to be strongly swayed by candidate language, ethnicity, or policy orientation.

These “average” levels of support mask, however, vast differences in the preferences of voters of different ethnicities and native languages. Breaking down the responses according to the language and ethnicity of the respondents reveals a far different pattern. Table 1 reports the hypothetical vote preferences of three groups of respondents: ethnic Russians whose native language is Ukrainian (23 percent of the sample), ethnic Ukrainians whose native language is Ukrainian (59 percent), and ethnic Russians whose native language is Russian (16 percent).

For example, consider Candidate 3. Filinov is an ethnic Russian who speaks Ukrainian and favors closer ties with Russia. Among native Russophone-Ukrainians, this hypothetical candidate is quite popular and receives a score of 3.90; among native Ukrainophone-Ukrainians, however, the score is just 2.28. Among the relatively smaller number of native Russophone-Russians the score is 3.29.  Looking across all candidates, we find significant differences in the responses of Ukrainian speakers who are ethnic Russian and who are ethnic Ukrainian in five of the eight candidates.

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