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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
A defesa do almirante Othon Luiz Pinheiro da Silva, presidente licenciado da Eletronuclear e preso na 16ª fase da Operação Lava Jato, afirmou à Justiça Federal que os repasses feitos por empreiteiras para a Aratec Engenharia, criada por ele, estão relacionados a serviços de tradução prestados por sua filha.
Dans le cadre du programme du président Evo Morales de «décolonisation» culturelle, les fonctionnaires hispanophones ont désormais l’obligation de parler un «deuxième idiome national»
Aski alwakipana jilata! Kunas sutixama? Kawkitatasa jumaxa? Pour qui parle une langue latine, il est particulièrement difficile d’apprendre à dire ainsi «bonjour frère! Quel est votre nom? D’où venez-vous?» Et pourtant, les très nombreux hispanophones que compte la fonction publique bolivienne doivent désormais s’y résoudre. Depuis cette semaine, ils ont pour obligation de parler au moins une langue indienne afin de contribuer à ce que le président Evo Morales appelle la «décolonisation» de son pays. Un pays toujours dominé par l’espagnol, alors qu’il est l’un des deux Etats du continent américain (avec le Guatemala) à compter une majorité d’Indiens (plus de 60%).
La révolution est en marche. C’est en ce début août que la loi générale des droits politiques et linguistiques, publiée il y a trois ans, a prévu d’imposer la nouvelle règle. Pour souligner l’importance du moment, le chef de l’Etat, le ministre de l’Education, Roberto Aguilar, et le vice-ministre de la Décolonisation, Félix Cardenas, ont distribué dimanche à La Paz quelque 2520 certificats aux fonctionnaires méritants parvenus au terme de leurs cours d’aymara. Les premiers contrôles sont prévus ce jeudi dans les administrations. Et alors gare au personnel qui ne sera pas capable de baragouiner la moindre langue indigène! La sanction prévue est le licenciement.
Le retournement est spectaculaire. Les langues indigènes ont été purement et simplement ignorées par l’Etat bolivien jusqu’au milieu du XXe siècle. Et si leur enseignement a été autorisé par la suite à l’école, il n’a eu longtemps qu’un seul but: mieux amener les Indiens de l’Altiplano et des basses terres à l’espagnol (au castellano), le seul idiome national considéré comme digne d’un pays moderne. Mais l’arrivée au pouvoir d’Evo Morales, en 2006, a bouleversé la donne.
Premier président bolivien à revendiquer ses racines autochtones, Evo Morales a inclus parmi ses priorités la «décolonisation» culturelle de son pays, soit la fin de la domination des langues, des religions et des mœurs occidentales. Ce qui a pour conséquence, dans le domaine stratégique des langues, de placer au même niveau que l’espagnol (maîtrisé par 75% de la population) les langues indigènes (parlées par un peu plus de 40% des Boliviens).
La volonté présidentielle a été rapidement inscrite dans le droit. Une nouvelle Constitution, entrée en vigueur en 2009, qualifie pour la première fois la Bolivie d’«Etat plurinational». Puis elle stipule dans son article 5 que les langues officielles du pays «sont l’espagnol et tous les idiomes des nations et peuples indigènes» présents sur le territoire. Le texte en cite 36, parmi lesquelles trois possèdent plus de 100 000 locuteurs – le quechua (2,7 millions), l’aymara (2,2 millions) et le guarani (116 000) –, les autres se révélant sensiblement moins courantes, voire au bord de la disparition.
Droit à l’écoute
La loi générale des droits politiques et linguistiques, publiée trois ans plus tard, déduit de la Constitution une longue liste de règles concrètes. Elle indique notamment dans son article 19 que «toute personne a le droit de recevoir de l’écoute dans sa langue, dans toutes les circonstances, dans n’importe quelle administration du service public». Ce qui suppose d’étendre la pratique des idiomes indigènes parmi les fonctionnaires, notamment ceux de langue maternelle espagnole. Une obligation en vigueur désormais. L’Ecole de gestion publique plurinationale assure avoir formé dans ce but quelque 23 593 personnes.
L’initiative est l’objet de nombreuses critiques cependant, y compris dans les milieux de défense des Indiens. Elle est dénoncée notamment comme de la poudre aux yeux en raison de son manque d’exigences concrètes. Un fonctionnaire a par exemple droit à un certificat après avoir suivi vingt-cinq heures de cours d’aymara dit «initial». Juste de quoi s’initier à quelques formules de politesse et, dans le meilleur des cas, apprendre à compter jusqu’à 100. Le président Morales lui-même peine à donner l’exemple en la matière. A l’exception d’une phrase au début et d’une autre à la fin, il a prononcé la totalité de son discours de dimanche en espagnol.
Et puis, nombre d’Indiens jugent cette politique folklorique. Il leur importe peu que leurs compatriotes hispanophones parlent leurs idiomes. Dans le domaine linguistique, ils n’ont qu’une aspiration: apprendre l’espagnol, qui permet de communiquer partout dans le pays et même, bien souvent, de se faire comprendre à l’étranger. Bref, leur donne les moyens d’un avenir meilleur.
Translation Project Manager- Madrid
City of London, London
£26,000 - £30,000 per annum
Job type: Permanent, full-time
More jobs from Devonshire Appointments
I have a number of Translation Project Manager roles for my client based in Madrid.
The Translation Project Manager serves as the regular contact person between our clients (internal and external) and our global network of linguists.
The Translation Project Manager is responsible for communicating specific detailed instructions to linguists, and managing workflows and processes. The Translation Project Manager is accountable for the final quality assurance of translation and real-time, accurate recording of activities.
Review the jobs assigned and assess needs for additional information, e.g. compilation of glossaries, previously translated similar documents, list of acronyms, technical terminology, and translation memories.
Manage translation teams and linguistic assets to ensure compliance with client productions workflows and that quality and turn-arounds standards are met.
Select and assign translation teams, negotiate rates and deadlines and coordinate production with translators, proofreaders, in-country clients reviewers, typesetters and Customer Service Reps.
Keep salesperson/Customer Service Rep up to date at all times.
Keep project admin up-to-date at all times and maintain accurate records of all costs.
Check projects costs for accuracy and match to purchase order.
Exercise sound judgment in keeping supervisor informed of potential difficulties.
Inform supervisor of all issues affecting cost, quality and turn-around.
Check accuracy of translation prior to sending it to client or to typesetting if needed.
QUALIFICATIONS AND KEY ATTRIBUTES:
Minimum 2- 3 year previous project management experience in translation services.
College degree (BA, BS) and degree in Translation and/or interpretation or equivalent experience
Fluent in English plus one, ideally two additional languages to mother tongue standard
Strong computer skills (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Acrobat, html, xml).
Familiarity with desktop publishing software (Indesign, QuarkXPress, Framemaker).
Linguistic skills to include ability to create glossaries, assess quality and completeness of translations
Advanced translation memory experience including TRADOS, Multiterm IX, Context, glossary and file management.
At the launch of his book, In Other Words in the Capital recently, Javed Akhtar not only left the audience in splits but also provided ample food for thought.
“Once upon a time, I was very worried as to the future of the language. Now, I don’t have that worry. Now, the worry is about any Indian language. Even the national language seems to be in trouble. This is because if you speak Hindi clearly, it seems like there is something amiss in your upbringing. Be it Hindi, Urdu, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu, Gujarati, Marathi or others, it is important for us that these languages continue to flourish.
Language is not only a vehicle for communication, language carries culture,
language carries tradition, a sense of continuity and ultimately a sense of identity. The moment you kill a language, you make a person rootless. That is what is happening with all our indigenous languages,” he said.
Akhtar who started writing Urdu poetry in 1980, and had his first collection of nazms and ghazals titled, Tarkash way back in 1995, said of the Urdu language, “Languages belong to regions. Where does Urdu belong to? Is Urdu a North West Frontier’s or Bangladesh’s language or language of the Pashtun? This language was imposed there. This language is in fact of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab. Punjabis have been bilingual traditionally.”
The writer, poet, lyricist blamed Partition for the demise of the language. “Urdu was sent to the place where it did not belong to and it was taken away from where it belonged to.
Despite the mistreatment, it is people’s language. Even without state patronage, it is still alive. Urdu has been mistreated, there is no doubt but the fact now is, every tongue is being badly treated. It is very ironical that a language which was secular, liberal, progressive, was killed at the altar of the two-nation theory.”
Launching the book, a collection of selected poems written over a period of 15-16 years, Akhtar said, “I meet a lot of Pakistanis in America and England. They compliment me that we ‘make good Urdu films in India.’ So, they think of Hindi films as Urdu.”
He went on to talk about Hindustani as a language. “There is no other language combination like Hindi and Urdu in the world. One language that we all have forgotten is Hindustani. For instance Punjabi is written in Gurmukhi, in Devanagari, in Persian but it remains Punjabi. Scripts don’t make languages. Vocabularies also don’t make up languages. Language is known because of its grammar. Vocabulary can be taken from anywhere. The grammar is of Hindustani which is used by both Hindi and Urdu. What we speak is Hindustani.”
He mentioned the need to know one’s language to stay connected to one’s
roots and that the interest to learn is still there.
In a conversation with Metrolife, he said, “Urdu is a tough language because it has the production of the common man so it is ironical that the number of people who can read Urdu is reducing because it is not available in schools and colleges, but the number of people who are interested in Urdu and Urdu literature is increasing. That is why Urdu poetry, Urdu literature is selling like proverbial hot cakes in Devanagari including Urdu pronunciation books to Urdu short stories to novels.”
Akhtar who also dons the hat of a lyricist and scriptwriter said, “Literature to a great extent is the history of common man. Writers deal with human beings. They look at certain people and incidences to look at what is below the surface.”
He added, “The first thing should not be to write. You cannot write without reading. Don’t be selective, read all kinds of material. Becoming too much academic is bad and one should not lose the child-like quality as well.”
A group of Catalan historians claim that prominent figures in Spanish history like Christopher Columbus and Miguel de Cervantes were actually Catalan.
Catalonia calls early poll for independence vote (04 Aug 15)
Catalonia independence movement loses support (03 Jul 15)
Historians with the separatist-leaning Institute Nova Història say that for centuries, Castilian Spanish leaders have ignored or downplayed the role of Catalonia in the country’s history, including that some of the country’s more famous figures came from the northwestern region.
"Basically, we are studying the censorship of the state," Jordi Bilbeny, director of investigations at the institute told The Local at the start of conference on historical censorship.
Bilbeny said that Castilian leaders have for hundreds of years tried to take credit for the accomplishments of Catalan people.
"It’s an historical theme that has become political. No one is writing about this. No one knows about the true history," he said.
A portrait of Miguel de Cervantes by Juan de Jauregui y Aguilar / Wikimedia Commons.
The institute is holding seminars this week in Montblanc, Tarragona where presentations include questioning whether Miguel de Cervantes’ famous Don Quixote - widely considered the first modern novel - was in fact actually originally written in Catalan.
One historian will argue that linguistic errors in the text point to the possibility that Don Quixote was translated into Castilian from Catalan.
The Catalan region has won autonomy rights from the Spanish state since the death of dictator Francisco Franco, whose policies were often repressive toward the Catalonian people’s culture, politics and language in the name of a unified Spanish identity.
But the independence movement has strengthened in recent years, with regional Catalan president Artur Mas calling early elections in September to serve as a proxy vote on independence.
Another topic discussed at the institute's seminar is the origins of the so-called discoverer of the New World, Christopher Columbus.
Bilbeny, who studied the development of languages and has a PhD in modern history, has presented early documents that, for example, he says show Columbus’ original name was Colom - like Colombia - which has Catalan origin.
"There is still fear that exists today," Bilbeny said. "There are documents that academics have not seen, or do not want to see."
But Joaquim Coll, vice-president of pro-Spanish unity association Societat Civil Catalana, told Spanish daily El Mundo that considering the arguments of the Institute Nova Història to be scientific would be "too generous".
"It is a history by enthusiasts with clear political intentions," Coll said. "At the least it reveals shocking results that make it possible to denounce a global conspiracy orchestrated by Spain and that the INH is then exposing it."
"It is so absurd that it becomes hilarious," he added.
Still, the Institute Nova Història is not alone in their assertion about Columbus. A professor at Georgetown University in Washington, DC published his own conclusions in 2009 that said based on the explorer’s writings, he must have been a non-native speaker with Catalan roots.
"Very few people know about this," Bilbeny told The Local. "We have the right to think for ourselves… We are simply showing these documents to the public."
On July 31, Carlos Steven Baez was enjoying a meal with his mother at a Southern California IHOP when an older white woman dining nearby overheard them conversing in Spanish.
“We speak English here,” she scolded as a stunned Baez filmed. “Go back to Spain.”
“You can’t be doing that,” Baez replied. “That’s racist.”
The woman then launched into a nonsensical yet seemingly well-rehearsed denunciation of bilingualism—linking it to Nazism and Stalinism while name-dropping every autocrat from Hitler to Castro. “We want English in the United States,” she said. “We have freedom of speech … we want that freedom.”
Though clearly not representative of most Americans, this woman is hardly the first to conflate American patriotic identity (as symbolized by a superficial understanding of “freedom” and “liberty”) with policies mandating English-only communication. Geopolitical history demonstrates the authoritarian bent of one-language policies, as well as their inability to produce greater nationalistic cohesion, as is so often their stated purpose.
Geopolitical history demonstrates the authoritarian bent of one-language policies, as well as their inability to produce greater nationalistic cohesion.
Though the United States has no official language at the federal level, bills are continually introduced in both houses of Congress calling for the establishment of English as the nation’s sole official language. (One such bill, proposed this March by Oklahoma senator Jim Inhofe, is predictably titled the “English Language Unity Act of 2015.”) Advocacy groups like ProEnglish—an influential Virginia-based nonprofit—are a major force behind this kind of legislation.
The Southern Poverty Law Center classified ProEnglish—founded by notorious xenophobe John Tanton—an active anti-immigrant hate group in 2009. In 2013, ProEnglish provided legal support to an Arizona community-college student suspended for a number of reasons including complaining about students “speaking Spanish in and out of class,” according to the Tucson Sentinel.
The student in question, Terri Bennett, became something of a folk hero in the conservative press that year—a courageous figure standing resolute against the tides of forced multiculturalism, reverse racism, and a deterioration of American culture and values.
But what proponents of the English-only movement probably don’t realize is that their closest ideological comrades are also some of their most despised: zealots of the Chinese communist party. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is home to nearly 300 individual living languages. And it is also home to one of the strictest monolingual language policies in the world.
“From its inception, the central tenet of PRC language planning was to promulgate Mandarin Chinese, no matter the ethnicity of the speaker,” writes Arienne M. Dwyer, a Chinese and Altaic linguistic anthropologist at the University of Kansas, in a May 2014 article for World Politics Review. Though the PRC “emphasizes that fluency and literacy in Mandarin are key for individual economic advancement,” as English is in the United States, Dwyer believes these individual-empowerment arguments are “intentionally simplistic.”
In Chinese schools, Mandarin is “a primary means of socialization of minority and non-Mandarin Han students,” Dwyer claims. “So, in the mid-1980s, Beijing began transferring minority pupils to schools in Han-dominated China under the neidi ban, or inland class policy.” Eventually a full third of secondary-school graduates from Tibet were transferred, and by 2011, more than 23,000 of Tibetan primary-school graduates had been forced to change schools as well. In Xinjiang, home to the Uighurs, China’s largest Muslim minority, the ministry of education announced in 2014 that “qualified high-school graduates” were to be sent to inland China for four years to participate in “Xinjiang classes.” These special courses were engineered to teach Uighur youth to “love the socialist motherland [and] safeguard national unity.”
These policies bear troubling similarities to those used by US and Canadian residential boarding schools in the the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Designed to forcibly assimilate Native American/First Nations youth, the institutions did little to ameliorate the overall conditions of indigenous communities in either country. “Little wonder that Tibetans and Uighurs consider these policies to be at best linguicide,” Dwyer adds.
The 1976 Soweto Uprising—a bloody protest led by black South African high-school students against the white-supremacist government—is another example of the problems endemic to one-langauge policies. Students from area schools flooded the streets of Soweto Township to protest the imposition of the Afrikaans language in schools, only to be brutally dispersed by police. The uprising is widely viewed as the beginning of the end of apartheid in South Africa, although the policy wouldn’t be fully demolished until 1994. But it also stands as substantial proof of the divisiveness and ineffectiveness of forced monolingualism policies. Clearly, already disadvantaged groups aren’t likely to develop any
Good, old-fashioned, anti-immigrant nativism is alive and well.
further affinity for a state that dictates how they communicate.
From a communication perspective, these types of one-language policies aren’t even necessary in the United States. Immigrant groups tend to linguistically assimilate within a single generation, as was the case with Germans, Italians, Poles, and Greeks in the early 20th century. The same can be said for Hispanic Americans: a 2007 Pew study found that English fluency jumps 65% between first and second generations.
Which brings us back to the unfortunate incident at IHOP. While the woman in question is an extreme example, the kernel of her anti-immigrant sentiment is nevertheless identifiable in conservative elements across the US political landscape. As recent comments by GOP presidential hopeful Donald Trump indicate, good, old-fashioned, anti-immigrant nativism is alive and well—the same kind of rhetoric used by turn-of-the-century xenophobes to discriminate against immigrants from Southern, Central, and Eastern Europe.
The American “way of life” isn’t under attack, because the American way of life cannot be distilled to a single cultural condition or experience. As it always has, the story of America is a story that is ever-expanding, growing richer and more textured—which is kind of the point of this country to begin with, isn’t it?
In its organizational mission, ProEnglish claims “in a pluralistic nation such as ours, the function of government should be to foster and support the similarities that unite us, rather than institutionalize the differences that divide us.” Which is to say that the function of government should be to foster monism—a theory that denies the existence of distinctions or multiplicity in society. Federally enforced linguistic (and by extension cultural) homogeneity? That’s about as un-American as one can get.
Mexico, Aug 4 (Prensa Latina) After several years of work, the Constitution of the United Mexican States in the Spanish-Mayan bilingual edition will be presented today in the Senate, said Fidencio Briceño, the translation coordinator.
He will attend a performance of the LXII Legislature of the Chamber of Deputies, and Javier López, director of the National Indigenous Languages Institute (Inali, in Spanish), and Nicolás Ávila, head of the Institute for the Development of Maya Culture.
The update covers the reforms made until May 31, 2015, so 'is a document of great value to integration and national identity",Briceño said.
This translation of the Constitution is the initial reflection of the mandatory spreading of legal services to indigenous communities in their native dialects systems, he added.
According to the Inali, the use of indigenous languages in everyday contexts beyond the scope of their traditional culture gives recognition and a value equivalent to that of Spanish, which allows the functionality of indigenous languages.
Briceño said that the use of national languages, as a means of expression, in this case regarding the legal or judicial area, also allows the development and expansion of the repertoire of specialized terms.
The translation team was composed of Geronimo Ricardo Cano,Tec Jose Concepción Cano Sosaya, Samuel Canul Yah, Felipe de Jesús Castillo Tzec and José Alfredo Hau Caamal.
In Mexico, it is recognized that more than 60 language variants out of 364 are at high risk, while those with the largest number of speakers are Nahuatl and Maya.
Recent data provided by Inali adds that more than one million people in this country speak only their native indigenous language that about 800 000 of them are women.
During the XXI Meeting of the Sao Paulo Forum, held in Beijing from July 29 to August 1, the Mexican deputy Carlos de Jesús Alejandro said that '15 million represent indigenous people from the north to the south '.
Modificado el ( martes, 04 de agosto de 2015 )
Our Mother Tongues as Living Languages
Online registration for Mother Tongue Languages (MTL) Symposium 2015 sharing sessions and workshops is now open!
1Keen in nurturing a love for Mother Tongue Languages in children? The Mother Tongue Languages (MTL) Symposium is back again this year to help you do that! Be inspired by our speakers and pick up useful advice from local and international experts on how we can help children enjoy learning and using their MTL!
2The 4th MTL Symposium will be held on Saturday, 29 August 2015, from 11 am to 8pm, at the Suntec Singapore Exhibition and Convention Centre. Themed "Our Mother Tongues as Living Languages", this year's MTL Symposium emphasises the importance of building a firm MTL foundation from young and how the family can help the child acquire the MTL confidently.
3Into its fourth year, the MTL Symposium aims to bring together Singapore schools and the community to share their collective efforts in developing our children as active learners and proficient users of MTL. As in previous years, the focus of the Symposium will be on children from pre-school to lower primary levels. The emphasis will be on the importance of creating a home environment that is supportive of MTL acquisition.
4The Symposium will feature a total of 20 sharing sessions and workshops, and 40 exhibition booths.
Sharing sessions and workshops: Participants can learn from local and international experts, and invited parent speakers, on fun and engaging ways to involve children in the learning of MTL. An informative session on the revised 2015 Primary School MTL Curriculum will be conducted by curriculum developers from MOE. Registration for the sharing sessions and workshops is now open to the public at www.mtls.com.sg.
Exhibition booths: Set up by pre-school centres, schools and community partners, parents and educators can explore fun and innovative ways of igniting a child's love for MTL learning.
5A new feature in the symposium this year is the sale of a wide range of selected MTL learning resources. Children can also participate in "The MTL Challenge" activities at various booths, win attractive prizes, and be treated to an all-day programme of storytelling and performances at the MTL Wonderland.
6Admission to the Symposium is free. The first 5,000 visitors will receive a goody bag. Registration is on a first-come-first-served basis. Members of the public may visit the website www.mtls.com.sg for a list of activities and exhibitions at the MTL Symposium and to register their interest.
BURBANK, Calif. -- It’s hard to believe that when Colorado coach Mike MacIntyre pointed out that right tackle Stephane Nembot spoke 13 languages that he was selling him short.
"It’s actually 14," Nembot said.
And 15 if you decide to count football as a language, which MacIntyre said he does.
Other than football, Nembot -- a native of Cameroon -- speaks English, French and Spanish as well as 11 dialects from different tribes in Africa. His mother speaks Bafoussam and his father speaks Bangoua. Some of his best friends speak one dialect and his cousins speak another. His dad worked with one tribe, so he learned that dialect as well, and the list goes on ...
"They all start with a B," Nembot notes, "but they’re not similar at all. They’re very different."
And in all 11 African dialects there’s not a single word for American football.
"We didn’t even know that it exists," Nembot said of the sport he now plays. "Even now, my parents don’t know what it is. When I tell them I play American football, they’re thinking of rugby."
Which has left it pretty difficult to explain what exactly he’s doing with the Buffs. Especially since he came here to play basketball, which is a sport everyone back home knows, he says.
Nembot came to the U.S. in 2008 without speaking any English and without knowing that the sport of football even existed. When he first heard people talk about football he thought everyone was talking about futbol (soccer).
His plans were to play basketball and earn a scholarship like his cousin Luc Richard Mbah a Moute, who was playing at UCLA.
He remembers his first few years of school being very tough (he started as a sophomore in high school). Homework was his least favorite. First, he’d have to translate the homework from English to French to comprehend it. Then he would do the homework, which he’d complete in French. Then he’d translate it back into English for the actual assignment.
"That was bad," Nembot said. "It would be midnight and I’d be like, 'Man, I’m trying to get this thing down.'"
Nembot didn’t even touch a football field until his junior year of high school, once he realized his chances at a college scholarship were far higher in football than basketball. Within weeks of beginning the sport he was garnering attention from colleges based on his size alone (he was 6-foot-7, 270 pounds by his senior year).
He eventually chose Colorado after a tumultuous recruiting process that saw him commit to three different schools within the Pac-12.
But he liked the Buffs because they were the only program that called his parents in Cameroon. He also liked the work they did in the community, which mattered greatly to him since his post-football goal was (and still is) to return to Cameroon and open an orphanage.
Until then he’s going to keep playing football and keep sending DVD’s of the games to Cameroon so people can try to understand which sport he’s playing (even he thinks it’s a little ridiculous to imagine someone of his size -- 6-foot-7, 343 pounds -- playing futbol).
When he does return, he can finally teach his family and friends how to play American football. At that point he could pick whatever word he wants to describe the sport, and translate the positions, schemes and calls in whatever manner he wants.
For a player who speaks 15 languages, that might be his toughest language challenge yet.
Richness of any culture can been seen and appreciated but when it comes to language and literature it is to be read and heard. We have to appreciate and take pride in this particular aspect of our culture. We must make it a point to read as many books writen during those times as it will help us to understand so many things that happened in those times.
It will help us to read more books and become familiar with so many things that our happening around us today. In this lesson we will learn about the development of modern Indian languages and their literature. We will also read about the role played by the Christian missionaries in producing the earliest dictionaries and grammar of modern Indian languages and the manner in which these have helped in the growth of modern Indian literature.
Besides these, we shall also get to know the role of the Bhakti movement and nationalism in the development of modern Indian literature. North Indian Languages and literature We have already seen how languages evolved in India right upto the early medieval period. The old apabhramsha had taken new forms in some areas or was in the process of evolving into other forms.
These languages were evolving at two levels: the spoken and the written language. The old Brahmi script of the Ashoka days had undergone a great change. The alphabets during Ashoka’s period were uneven in size but by the time of Harsha, the letters had become of the same size and were regular, presenting the picture of a cultivated hand.
The studies have indicated that all the scripts of present northern Indian languages, except that of Urdu, have had their origin in old Brahmi. A long and slow process had given them this shape. If we compare the scripts of Gujarati, Hindi and Punjabi, we can easily understand this change. As for the spoken word, there are over 200 languages or dialects spoken in India at present.
Some are widely used while others are limited to a particular area. Out of all these, only twenty-two have found their way into our Constitution. A large number of people speak Hindi in its different forms that include Braj Bhasha, and Avadhi (spoken in Oudh region), Bhojpuri, Magadhi, and Maithili (spoken around Mithila), and Rajasthani and Khadi Boli (spoken around Delhi).
Rajasthani is another variant or dialect of Hindi. This classification has been made on the basis of literature produced by great poets over a length of time. Thus, the language used by Surdas and Bihari has been given the name of Braj Bhasha; that used by Tulsidas in the Ramacharitamanasa is called Avadhi and the one used by Vidyapati has been termed as Maithili.
But Hindi, as we know it today is the one called Khadi Boli. Though Khusrau has used Khadi Boli in his compositions in the thirteenth century its extensive use in literature began only in the nineteenth century. It even shows some influence of Urdu.
Persian and Urdu
Urdu emerged as an independent langauge towards the end of the 4th century AD. Arabic and Persian were introduced in India with the coming of the Turks and the Mongols. Persian remained the court langage for many centuries. Urdu as a language was born out of the interaction between Hindi and Persian. After the conquest of Delhi (1192), the Turkish people settled in this region.
Urdu was born out of the interaction of these settlers and soldiers in the barracks with the common people. Originally it was a dialect but slowly it acquired all the features of a formal language when the authors started using Persian script. It was further given an impetus by its use in Bahamani states of Ahmadnagar, Golkunda, Bijapur and Berar. Here it was even called dakshini or daccani (southern). As time passed, it became popular with the masses of Delhi.
Urdu became more popular in the early eighteenth century. People even wrote accounts of later Mughals in Urdu. Gradually it achieved a status where literature-both poetry and prose-started being composed in it. The last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar wrote poetry in it. Some of his couplets have become quite well known in the Hindi and Urdu speaking areas. Urdu was given its pride of place by a large number of poets who have left inimitable poetry for posterity.
The earliest Urdu poet is supposed to be Khusrau (1253-1325). He started writing as a poet in the reign of Sultan Balban and was a follower of Nizam ud-din Auliya. He is said to have composed ninty-nine works on separate themes and numerous verses of poetry. Among the important works composed by him are Laila Majnun and Ayina-I-Sikandari dedicated to Alau-din-Khalji. Among other well-known poets are Ghalib, Zauq, and Iqbal. Iqbal’s Urdu poetry is available in his collection called Bang- i - dara.
His Sarejahan se achcha Hindostan hamara is sung and played at many of the national celebrations in India. No army parade is considered complete without the army band playing this tune. In big Indian cities like Delhi these are many programmes in which famous singers are invited to sing nazams or Ghazals written by famous poets like Ghalib, Maum, Bulley Shah, Waris Shah besides many others. So you can imagine how rich our language and literary culture must have been to continue till today.
It has enriched our lives and is central to people meeting and intermingling with each other. Among the best prose writers were people like Pandit Ratan Nath Sarshar, who wrote the famous Fasanah- i-Azad. Even in the early days, Munshi Prem Chand, who is supposed to be a doyen of Hindi literature, wrote in Urdu. Urdu has given us a new form of poem that is called a nazm.
Urdu was patronised by the Nawabs of Lucknow, who held symposiums in this language. Slowly it became quite popular. Pakistan has adopted Urdu as the state language. As Persian was the language of the court, much of the literature produced in this period was written in Persian. Amir Khusrau and Amir Hasan Dehelvi wrote superb poetry in Persian.
Historians like Minhas-us-Siraj and Zia Barani and Ibn Batuta who came to India during those days wrote accounts of rulers, important political events and incidents in this language. In the medieval period, Persian was adopted as the court language.Several historical accounts, administrative manuals and allied literature in this language have come down to us. The mughal rulers were great patrons of leaning and literature.
Babar wrote his tuzuk (autobiography) in Turkish language, but his grandson Akbar got it translated into Persian. Akbar patronized many scholars. He got Mahabharata translated into Persian. Jahangir’s autobiography (Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri) is in Persian and is a unique piece of literature. It is said that Noorjahan was an accomplished Persian poetess. Quite a fair amount of Persian literature has been produced by the courtiers of the Mughals.
Abul Fazl’s Akbarnamah and Ain-e-Akbari is a fine piece of literature. From there we get a good deal of information about Akbar and his times. Faizi wrote beautiful Persian poetry. Several collections of letters of the Mughal period (insha) have come down to us. Besides shedding light on Mughal history, they indicate different styles of letter writing. Another name in prose and history writing is that of Chandra Bhan, a writer of Shahjahan’s days.
Similarly, we have a work named Tabqat-i-Alamgïri, shedding light on Aurangzeb. Badauni was another writer who belonged during Akbar’s time. In the twentieth century, Iqbal wrote good Persian poetry. All this has now become a part of Indian heritage and culture
By Judd Marcello, Vice President of Marketing, Smartling — August 04, 2015
A new report from Accenture and AliResearch, Alibaba Group's research arm, projects that the global B2C cross-border e-commerce market will expand to $1 trillion by 2020. Report researchers also forecast that cross-border online shopping will see compound annual growth of 27.4 percent over the next five years, and by 2020, more than 900 million people around the world will be international online shoppers.
Since the advent of the Internet and smartphones, businesses have been global by nature. But this report further reinforces the tremendous opportunity online retailers have to attract new retain consumers around the world as cross-border e-commerce heats up.
However, with so much global competition, how do you get international consumers to choose your brand? The answer is surprisingly simple: speak their language. Technology may be breaking down geographic borders, but if you aren't translating and localizing your websites, mobile apps, e-commerce apps and other digital content, your international sales are most likely still hampered by language barriers.
Delivering high-quality native-language content that fully reflects the way your target customers live, act and speak is the most effective way to engage multilingual consumers and drive global growth. And with cross-border e-commerce bringing immense international opportunities, it has never been more important for online retailers to dive into the world of translation.
Three tips for localizing the retail experience for international customers
To create meaningful, emotional connections that prompt consumers to interact with and invest in your company, you need to make them feel at home with multilingual content and a culturally relevant shopping experience. Following are three best practices for turning international traffic into loyal repeat buyers through the power of translation and localization.
1. Develop a strategy for going global
The first step for any retailer is to identify which languages should be prioritized for translation. This decision should be based on the location and spoken languages of your current customers rather than on the languages spoken in the countries you wish to break into. Translation and localization will enable you to expand into new countries, but you first must provide high-quality multilingual content and a localized customer experience for existing shoppers.
Once you've identified your target languages, you then need to determine which content to translate and localize. And contrary to what you might think, you don't have to translate everything to see a return on your investment. Many companies are taking a phased approach to translation, focusing first on content that has the most significant impact on business operations and company growth. "Partial" translation was not always possible, but with today's modern translation technologies, picking and choosing which content to translate has become commonplace.
Last but certainly not least, when developing your content strategy, it's important to go beyond translating text from one language to another. Localization and transcreation should also be part of your global content process. Localization entails adding cultural nuance to translated text, and transcreation involves adapting and creating entirely new content for the right cultural fit. Together, translation, localization and transcreation will help you deliver the best customer experience possible for your international shoppers.
2. Select the right translation resources for your business
Employing professional human translators is the best way to generate accurate, high-quality multilingual content. Why? Because, as we just discussed, effectively engaging multicultural customers entails going beyond translation and delivering a culturally relevant experience – something that machine translation tools just can't provide. While machine-generated translations may give someone a general idea of what the content means, the results are often inaccurate and out of context.
It's important to note the distinct difference between machine translation tools (e.g., Google Translate) and translation management technology. The latter enables companies to reap the benefits of human translation while removing complexity, cost and time from translation by automating the non-linguistic parts of the process. The powerful combination of human translation and translation management platforms enables retailers to deliver high-quality multilingual websites, Web apps, mobile apps and other digital content faster, more efficiently and more cost-effectively than ever before.
3. Master the checkout process
The most influential factor in dictating online success versus failure is often the checkout process. So if you've made the investment in multilingual websites and mobile apps, it's also important to master checkout page localization so global customers aren't abandoning their shopping carts at the last moment.
Many times, companies neglect to translate the checkout page into local languages. As a result, when customers land on the page, there's a gap in the user experience that prompts shoppers to hesitate, stall or abandon the purchase altogether. And again, similar to the rest of your site, mere translation will not be enough to secure buyers. Content localization and transcreation is perhaps most important on the checkout page because visitors need to see a familiar currency, along with culturally relevant address and date formats, courtesy titles, and so on. You don't want to lose shoppers' trust because you made the mistake of using the term "zip code" rather than "postal code" or "pin code."
Additional tips to keep in mind when localizing your checkout page include:
Locate the checkout page on the local site – Locate your checkout page on the same country/regional website. Otherwise, if you move customers to the .com site, you risk leaving them wondering whether an error has occurred, or worse, if they'll be catered to appropriately.
Support your customers' currency, payment platforms and preferred technologies – To reassure potential customers, let them know as early as possible that you support their preferred payment methods. Credit cards are not a widely used payment method in all parts of the world. For example, in India e-commerce wouldn't have taken off if not for the cash-on-delivery option. And if you're selling in China, Alipay should definitely appear on the checkout page. For Africa, you'll need customized apps since consumers there rely almost exclusively on their smartphones.
Tailor customer support by region – In addition to providing customer support information in your shoppers' local languages, prioritize the appropriate form of support in each region. You might find that phone support is the ideal solution in one country, but email support works better in another.
Go global now
With the cross-border e-commerce market booming, now is the time to get in the global game. Localized websites, mobile apps, e-commerce apps and other digital content have a tremendous impact on consumer attraction and retention, and overall global growth. And thanks to today's technology, delivering high-quality native-language content to shoppers around the world has never been easier.
Judd Marcello is the vice president of marketing at Smartling, a New York-based translation management platform company.
At eTail: Mobile, Social and Personalization, Flexible Fulfillment and Fixing the Basics Holiday Web Trends That Will Last Through the New Year News from NRF: Top 20 Takeaways IBM Launches Self Checkout App for Smartphone-equipped Shoppers
4 AGO 2015 16h38
México, 4 Ago (Notimex).- El vicepresidente de la Mesa Directiva del Senado de la República, Luis Sánchez Jiménez, subrayó la importancia de dotar a los pueblos indígenas de herramientas para que conozcan las leyes para su defensa y puedan ejercer sus derechos. Durante la presentación en el Senado de una edición bilingüe español-maya de la Constitución Política mexicana, destacó la importancia de esa herramienta para promover las garantías y los derechos de los pueblos y las comunidades que hablan esa lengua. El legislador informó que la lengua originaria que más se usa en el país es el náhuatl, con un millón 544 mil 968 hablantes; seguida por la maya, con 786 mil 113; la mixteca, con 471 mil 710; la tzeltal, con 445 mil 856, y la zapoteca, con 425 mil. Por ello remarcó la necesidad de contar con traducciones en lenguas indígenas, pues la Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos (CNDH) reportó en 2014 que ocho mil 334 indígenas presos no hablan español y a 80 por ciento de ese total se le violó su debido proceso al carecer de un traductor para que conociera los cargos que se le imputaron. Por su parte Fidencio Briceño, coordinador de la traducción de la Carta Magna a maya, expresó que con ese trabajo se abre un mundo de posibilidades a las lenguas indígenas, pues se reconoce su importancia y validez. Además acerca a los pueblos originarios al campo de la justicia, pues quien no conoce las leyes no conoce sus derechos. Insistió en la necesidad de poner en marcha políticas lingüísticas claras y efectivas para salvaguardar esos idiomas, que son minimizados frecuentemente. Es necesario traducir leyes, decretos, reglamentos y demás documentos que atañen al aspecto legal a fin de dar a las comunidades herramientas jurídicas para la defensa, protección y difusión de sus derechos, externó. Agregó que la lengua maya es una de las variantes lingüísticas con más número de hablantes en México, por lo que debe ser un orgullo y un compromiso luchar para su permanencia y uso en más contextos comunicativos. En su oportunidad el presidente de la Cámara de Diputados, el perredista Julio César Moreno Rivera, refirió que en 2010 cerca de siete por ciento de la población mexicana era hablante de una lengua indígena y de ese porcentaje 16 por ciento no sabía español. “Hasta hace poco tiempo aproximadamente uno por ciento de la población se regía por una Constitución que no podía comprender”, dijo al resaltar que, la edición bilingüe que hoy se presenta, es un material básico para la integración de la identidad nacional. Explicó que esta versión en maya de la Constitución contiene las recientes reformas en materia educativa, competitividad y político-electoral, energética y en telecomunicaciones. Se trata, dijo, de un valioso esfuerzo de distintas instituciones para difundir los ordenamientos jurídicos en las lenguas maternas de las comunidades indígenas. A su vez la también perredista Graciela Saldaña Freire dijo que la cantidad de “maya-hablantes” abarca una Población Económicamente Activa que demanda educación y fuentes de empleo. Destacó que la Constitución representa una herramienta para la educación y reconocimiento de los derechos humanos en Campeche, Yucatán y Quintana Roo, estados donde el maya es de uso común. En tanto que el coordinador de los diputados del PRD, Agustín Miguel Alonso Raya, señaló que la presentación de la Carta Magna en maya busca cumplir con el respeto, el reconocimiento de la composición pluricultural de la nación y con los preceptos de la Ley General de los Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas. Consideró que es obligación del Estado mexicano garantizar el desarrollo integral de todos los pueblos y comunidades y reconocer el pleno respeto a sus derechos políticos, culturales, económicos y sociales, además de los establecidos en normas y convenios internacionales. Finalmente Fabricio Gaxiola, director general adjunto del Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas, manifestó que esa traducción representa un trabajo importante para fortalecer la identidad y el prestigio de las lenguas indígenas, pues acerca a una parte de la población maya a la Carta Magna. “Traducir documentos legales a lenguas indígenas presenta enormes complejidades técnicas, lingüísticas y de significado, porque no necesariamente existen los mismos conceptos en ambos idiomas”, por lo que es necesario reconocer y destacar este trabajo, asentó. NTX/ERM-ASV/IAM
'Lettre d’amour à personne inconnue', de 2014. 18 cartas manuscritas, papel, tinta, cristal, madera.
La acción de traducir se presume en una continua negociación de entendimiento, ajustando lo particular a lo universal y la diferencia a la coincidencia. El proyecto de Martin Waldmeier —que ha obtenido el premio para jóvenes comisarios del Marco— dibuja el contorno argumental de una serie de problemas que el lenguaje tiene que encarar inagotablemente como parte de un proceso condicionado. Es un arduo propósito que acierta a plantear a través de preguntas sobre los conflictos artísticos, sociales, políticos y económicos. Aunque convenidos bajo el paraguas del pluralismo cultural, estos conflictos muchas veces se fracturan y así componen el guion de la exposición: el derecho de autoría, la exactitud de la lengua en la traducción, el interés por una lengua según las políticas aperturistas, el inglés como comunicación dominante, la pérdida de información, el idioma como medio para legitimar políticas de exclusión o la pérdida de identidad, entre otras.
Se trata de un ensayo visual y lingüístico articulado por las obras de 16 artistas que imprimen al recorrido una atmósfera más de incertidumbres que de seguridades, profesadas en textos murales, documentos y manuscritos traducidos junto a fotografías y audiovisuales doblados o subtitulados en diferentes idiomas. El recorrido está plagado de imágenes y frases que se fijan en la subjetividad del espectador: “Todos los que no saben leer en español son estúpidos”, de Luis Camnitzer, o “An Artist who Cannot Speak English is No Artist”, de Mladen Stilinovic.
En su mayoría son ejercicios muy visuales y esenciales en la presentación, pero con una fuerte carga reivindicativa y emocional sobre lo propio. Inciden principalmente en cuestiones relativas al condicionante del idioma en la práctica artística, que pone en el punto de mira al inglés como lengua vehicular para la cultura global. Esta cuestión queda bien resuelta desde distintas ópticas en los trabajos de Dora García, Mladen Stilinovic, Jakup Ferri y Nicoline van Harskamp. Pero también hay silencios, incomunicación y pérdida en este recorrido por lo comunitario, que pespunta integración y descomposición. Una adecuada invitación a leer entre líneas para descubrirnos, inventarnos y (re)construirnos.
La voz del traductor. MARCO, Vigo. Hasta el 30 de agosto de 2015.
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August 4, 2015 4:23 PM
It might seem that the need for a Braille proofreader is becoming obsolete, especially with today’s digital technology. But there’s still a enormous stack of printed Braille materials being added to libraries for the blind and visually impaired. In the last few years, National Braille Press proofreader Amber Pearcy has checked Braille translations for iPhone instruction guides; an airline safety card for Southwest airlines; children’s picture book; college admission tests; cookbooks; bestselling novels, and much more. As proofreader, she examines page after page of Braille to find errors, often comparing a transcribed Braille document to an audio version of the original print document. And because Braille has its own rules and formats, she and the other six proofreaders at the non-profit Boston-based publisher spend a lot of time discussing the correct way to format a document. They sit in the proofreading room above the noisy presses and embossing machines in the basement, with Perkins Braillers – a kind of typewriter – on their desk. Pearcy, 29, has been blind since she was born 3 1/2 months premature and learned Braille at the age of three. Pearcy spoke with Globe correspondent Cindy Atoji Keene about the art of proofreading Braille.
“ i kind of fell into Braille proofreading by coincidence. I had finished college and was between jobs and turned to volunteering at the Perkins School for the Blind. They needed someone to help with in their Braille production department and showed me the ropes. I discovered I was good at proofreading and looked into getting certified. This requires a series of lessons through the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; it’s a correspondence course through snail mail. I needed to show I was proficient at each of the tasks they ask us to do. At the end of the course, to demonstrate proficiency, I needed to proofread a 35-page book of short stories; one print of text equals about two Braille pages. Then this job opened up three years ago and since then I’ve had a series of interesting assignments, including a 45-volume Bible that took all hands on deck. I also like proofreading standardized tests like ACTs, because they go into the hands of blind and visually impaired students who need them to advance their education. We also check the accompanying tactile graphics to make sure that the graphs and data points are precise. I write up all of my error reports – any mistakes that I find – on a device called a Braille Sense, which is a notetaker that includes a Braille typewriter. I don’t subscribe to the ‘Braille is dead’ theory at all – I think Braille is evolving in the way we access it and is produced. If you walked into my office, you would see shelves of Braille in the room, mostly old publications that we refer to from time to time, and a 72-volume Webster’s Dictionary. And of course, there is Faith, my seeing eye dog, curled up on a rug at my feet. She’s a black lab and is quite content to sleep at my feet while I work.”
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Data scientists are trained to make more efficient algorithms, but the simple way to make an algorithm work better is to collect more data
Computerworld | Aug 4, 2015 12:05 PM PT Like this article? thumbsup 0 thumbsdown
Data Analytics Big Data
If you look at a data science job posting, chances are it will ask for experience with machine-learning techniques, statistical programming languages, nosql databases and maybe some visualization tools. If you look at the curriculum of the new data scientist “boot camps,” the material will be the same. But if you look at what a data scientist actually does, it’s cleaning and collecting data. This isn’t because data scientists are misguided. Quite the opposite, in fact. It’s because they know that cleaning and collecting data is actually the most important thing for successful data applications.
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One great example is Google Translate. Nowadays, Google has some of the best scientists who study natural language translation. But when Google Translate launched, it was immediately as good or better than many translation products that had been created over decades. And it wasn’t due to state-of-the-art algorithms. Rather, it was because Google had a corpus of data that was bigger than anyone else had access to — the entire Web that it crawled in order to make Google search. While Google hires the best data scientists and talks a lot about its amazing algorithms, if you ask the researchers who work there, they will tell you that a lot of their success is due to a massive brute-force effort to make high-quality data available everywhere.
When I worked on a translation system at the Stanford A.I. lab, we usually trained our models on the biggest corpus we could find: the European Parliament Proceedings. The reason is because these meetings are conveniently hand-translated into every language in the EU. I worked hard to make my algorithm handle words with multiple meanings, but it always translated “cabinet” as though it was the political group rather than the piece of furniture. No matter how sophisticated my algorithm, it had no chance of discovering that “cabinet” could mean furniture, because in the data it was trained on, “cabinet” was almost always political.
Google didn’t have this problem. It had millions of websites hand-translated into various languages, and with some smart cleanup, its model beat out millions of person-years of research.
Here’s a typical graph from an academic paper titled “Active Semi-Supervised Learning for Improving Word Alignment.” It’s plotting the error rate of several different training techniques for “word alignment” and, ostensibly, the paper is showing that the fancier algorithm, in this case “Posterior,” outperforms the more basic technique, “Random.” And indeed, the better algorithms did outperform the simpler algorithm enough to get this paper published. But the dominant effect that is not even mentioned is that as training data is added, all the algorithms get much, much better. You can use fancier algorithms and you’ll be a little more efficient, but if you want to be sure that your machine learning will work well in the real world, the best thing you can do is give it lots of training data.
Why don’t we talk more about this? I'st not the sexiest idea, but it really, really matters in the real world. Researchers often don’t feel empowered to collect their own large-scale data sets, but if you want your researchers to be successful you should empower them!
This is also why I believe so strongly in open data. As machine learning becomes an integral part of every business, the companies with the most data are going to have a massive and unfair advantage. If we can create open datasets that are as widespread as open-source software, we can give smaller upstarts the chance to compete. But in the meantime, if you are a data scientist or work with data scientists, there’s a simple thing you can do to get that advantage: collect more data.
Carmarthenshire County Council said Commissioner Meri Hughes' proposed standards were unworkable
Concerns over Plaid-controlled Carmarthenshire County Council's new "anti English" proposals for running the authority
A Plaid Cymru-led council is challenging the Welsh Language Commissioner over proposals that would force it to conduct all its internal business in Welsh.
Carmarthenshire County Council’s executive board says 21 out of 166 “standards” put forward by Commissioner Meri Huws would be unworkable - in some cases because they assume that all the council’s managers should be Welsh speakers.
One of the proposed standards reads: “If you organise a meeting with a member of staff regarding a disciplinary matter that relates to his or to her conduct you must - (a) offer to conduct the meeting in Welsh; and (b) if the member of staff wishes for the meeting to be conducted in Welsh, conduct the meeting in Welsh, without the assistance of a simultaneous or consecutive translation service.”
'This standard is unreasonable'
In a formal response, the council says: “It will not be possible to conduct all disciplinary or grievance meetings and appeal meetings through the medium of Welsh without any simultaneous translation available due to the language skills of people managers and other staff and representatives that support that process.
“In addition, trade union representatives and witnesses may be called to participate in the meeting which may require the use of translation services to facilitate the meeting.”
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Another proposed standard states: “When you correspond with an individual (A) for the first time, you must ask A whether A wishes to receive correspondence from you in Welsh, and if A responds to say that A wishes to receive correspondence in Welsh you must (a) keep a record of A’s wish, (b) correspond with A in Welsh when corresponding with A from then onwards, and (c) send any forms you send to A from then onwards in Welsh.”
The council has responded: “We feel that this standard is unreasonable. In Carmarthenshire we have more than 78,000 bilingual speakers and given that number we do not feel it is feasible to hold one central register of the language choice of individuals.
“The language choice may also vary from service to service and from written to verbal communication; a person in contact with the education service may choose to communicate in Welsh however when that same person is communicating with the planning department, they may choose to do so in English.”
Eight more translators
If all the standards required by the Commissioner were complied with, the council would have to employ up to eight more translators at a cost of around £220,000 per year. Adopting the standards already accepted by the council will cost about half that.
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Mark Evans, Unison branch secretary at the council, said: “We support the use of the Welsh language, but money is very tight with services being cut. Cutting social housing provision to employ more translators could result in Welsh speakers being forced to leave the area, which wouldn’t help the language.”
Sioned Elin, chair of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, the Welsh Language Society, in Carmarthenshire, said: “As a major employer and provider of services within the county, the council needs to set an example by working in Welsh, like Gwynedd does already.
“It’s vital if the language is to strengthen in the county. The response of the council to the new rights to the Welsh language suggest that the council doesn’t intend to keep its commitment to do that.
“We don’t expect the council to make the switch to working completely in Welsh overnight, but they need to make it clear that the intention is to work towards that, and for it to happen progressively, over time.”
Older communication tools are being replaced by newer technology, but not everywhere. This phone at the library converts text to voice, but many people who are hearing impaired prefer to use a translator through a video phone.
Credit Lisa Ryan, WBOI News
As part of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act, WBOI has been looking at how accessible Fort Wayne is for people with disabilities.
About one in five people have disabilities in the U.S. That number includes people who are hearing impaired, but not everyone in the deaf community sees it as a disability.
Technology can break down communication barriers for people who are hearing impaired and help provide more equality for everyone.
WBOI’s Lisa Ryan called Karen Penn of DeafLink to find out more about communication options for people who are hearing impaired.
An American Sign Language translator moderated the call. Penn, who is deaf, explained how the call works through the voice of the operator.
“The interpreter and the caller see each other, so I sign what I want to say to the interpreter. The interpreter voices it to the hearing caller,” Penn said. “When the hearing caller is ready for a response, they tell the video interpreter, who then signs it back to me.”
DeafLink's Garth Sponseller and Karen Penn demonstrate how to use a video phone.
Credit Lisa Ryan, WBOI News
Penn says this is helpful because sign language is not a direct translation of English. Older technology requires people who are hearing impaired to type what they want to say, and an operator voices it. It’s difficult for people who have a better understanding of sign language than spoken and written English.
The translator sees the caller on a video phone. Think Skype, but with an operator moderating the call. The technology has helped communication a lot. But if a person is out and needs to make a call, there aren’t many options … unless a business or organization has installed a video phone.
This sign at the library alerts patrons that the video phone should only be used by people who are hearing impaired.
Credit Lisa Ryan, WBOI News
Fort Wayne has three video phones—one in the main library, one at the airport and one at Easter Seals Arc. DeafLink’s Angelica Lehman is working to have more of the phones installed in the city.
“I do hope that other businesses will see just the access that it has. Just, you know, the ability to open up your business or, you know, whatever kind of place it is to other groups of people, if you really don’t get a monetary value out of it, you know, it really does have an impact for the greater community,” Lehman said.
The phones are free for a business to install.
Garth Sponseller, the director of DeafLink, says video phones help provide accessibility and equality for a group with its own culture and community.
“Some other disability groups, they say, ‘This is me, I have this disability,’ but in the deaf community, they say, ‘I’m not disabled. I’m just deaf,’” Sponseller said. “The deaf community has its own culture, its own linguistics. ASL has its own grammar and syntax, its own history.”
Sponseller’s parents are both deaf. He says growing up, he didn’t realize the modifications in his home were different than anyone else’s house.
“We used a lot of assistive technology in the home. You know, so if someone rang the doorbell, it wasn’t an audible doorbell that we heard, but rather a flashing light,” he said. “So for us hearing kids and our parents, who are deaf, we were alerted by the flashing light. That seemed normal to me.”
But Sponseller says some people can’t afford the technology to make life more accessible.
The more video phones are in the community, the easier it is for a person who is deaf or hearing impaired to call a cab, make appointments or just call a friend or family member.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints released new documents related to the translation of the Book of Mormon Tuesday. It’s the latest volume of the Joseph Smith Papers project, an effort to make original documents produced by the Church’s founder available to the public.
Pictures of sacred instruments believed to be used by Joseph Smith for the translation of the Book of Mormon
CREDIT ANDREA SMARDON / KUER
This new volume includes pictures of a smooth, brown, oval rock known as a seer stone. Church historians believe it was one of the instruments used by Smith to translate The Book of Mormon. Assistant Church historian Richard Turley says most members of the church may have heard about the stone, but for the first time, they can see it for themselves.
“People connect to the past better when they can stand on the ground where things happen, and when they can see objects that visually connect them to the past,” Turley says.
Also included in this publication, is the printer’s manuscript of the Book of Mormon, which church historians say provides the most complete view of that early text. The manuscript had been archived by the Community of Christ, a group based in Independence Missouri which split from the LDS Church after Joseph Smith was killed. Once rivals, LDS Church historian Steven Snow says they are now cooperating in this historic endeavor.
“I think this is one of the best and most recent examples of cooperation between the two churches in helping us preserve and present our common restoration past,” Snow says.
The publication is now on sale in a 2-book set including color photos and the entire printer’s manuscript of the Book of Mormon. Church officials say it will also be made available online.
If you love literary fiction in translation, travelling to different times and other worlds, three must reads for late summer include One Night, Markovitch by Ayelet Gundar-Goshen, The End of Days by Jenny Erpenbeck and The Meursault Investigation by Kamel Daoud. All three embrace big themes - existentialism, identity, love, loss and grief - cover huge swathes of 20th century history and interweave the personal and political to great effect.
In Jenny Erpenbeck's The End of Days (deftly translated by Susan Bernofsky) we follow the fortunes of a Jewish family, in particular one woman who manages to keep escaping death. We travel with Erpenbeck's character from her birth in a small Galician town in the early 1900s, through Vienna and Moscow to East Berlin and finally a reunified Germany. As a baby she is rescued from a cot death by a handful of snow; as a young woman she is saved from suicide by taking a different route home; later she is spared Stalin's gulags by a propitious act of fate. She survives various horrors of the last century and becomes a successful writer. Her numerous possible deaths reflect the transitory nature of life and the fragility of the human condition. At the end of the novel, her weeping son wonders 'whether these strange sounds and spasms are really all that humankind has been given to mourn with.' This slim novel, winner of this year's Independent's Foreign Fiction Prize, packs a mighty punch and richly deserves its numerous accolades.
Another prizewinner, Kamel Daoud's debut The Meursault Investigation (in a limber translation by John Cullen) re-examines Albert Camus's The Outsider from an Arab perspective. Harun resides in Oran and drinks every night in his local bar. He regales a literature student with his version of Meursault's murder of a nameless Arab on a hot summer's day in Algiers in 1942. The victim was Harun's older brother, who he names Musa. Harun describes the impact Musa's death had on his family and just as Meursault struggles with feelings of indifference after his random act of violence, Harun confronts his own lack of faith: 'As far as I am concerned, religion is public transportation I never use.' During his trial, Meursault is effectively condemned for not mourning his mother's death. By contrast, Harun's murder of a Frenchman, twenty years later, is deplored by the Algerian authorities because it happens after Independence and had not been a deliberate act of resistance. Daoud has created his own memorable fiction in which he brilliantly exposes the rise of Islamism in Algeria and his nation's failures post-independence. At the end of the novel Harun describes an overwhelming desire to climb up his local 'prayer tower' in order 'to cry out that I'm free, and that God is a question, not an answer and that I wanted to meet him alone, at my death as at my birth.' Chillingly, Daoud's indictment of religious authoritarianism has led one cleric to call for his death.
Ayelet Gundar-Goshen's accomplished debut, One Night, Markovitch, opens in the British mandate of Palestine on the eve of the Second World War, and spans many years in the lives of two friends Yaacov Markovitch and Zeev Feinberg. They could not be more dissimilar. Zeev is a fearless fighter and womaniser whose mustache 'was famous in the entire area and, some said in the entire country'. Yaacov is immediately forgettable - the sort of man who is 'gloriously average', his face 'remarkably free of distinguishing features.' They forge an unlikely alliance after Yaacov saves Zeev's life. The pair join a group of men en route to Europe to rescue Jewish women. They marry them so that they will be allowed into Palestine, on the understanding that once there they will divorce. But Yaacov's partner is Bella, the most beautiful woman he has ever seen and he refuses to give her up on their return. Their loveless marriage, Yaacov's obsession, Bella's cold distain, is in sharp contrast to the devotion and passion enjoyed by Zeev and his one love, Sonya, a lioness of a women who smells of oranges. Yaacov and Zeev's friendship endures through war and peacetime. They bring up children, suffer pain and loss, and grow old together. Expertly translated from the Hebrew by Sondra Silverston this is an unforgettable tale of love, hope, desire and friendship.
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Ahlul Bayt News Agency - A book titled “Imam of Kindness” on the life of Imam Reza (A') will be published in Persian, English, Arabic and Urdu languages.
According to the website of the Islamic Culture and Relations Organization, Al-Huda International Publications will release the book on the occasion of the 13th edition of Imam Reza (AS) International Festival.
Mirsafi, head of the institute, said that the book, written by Hamidreza Shahabadi in three chapters titled “How He Was”, “What He Said” and “How He Lived”, features various aspects of the life and characters of the 8th infallible Imam.
The 13th International Cultural Artistic Festival of Imam Reza (AS) will be held in 31 Iranian provinces and 77 countries.
It is scheduled to be held from August 16 to 27.
This article is not about speaking English, Spanish, French, Italian, etc. This article is about a different language, a language that is learned over a period of time and not necessarily expressed through words. I am referring to the love language. A long time ago, I read a book by Gary Chapman called “The Five Love Languages.” I never really considered this until I read the book and then it clicked and it all made sense.
We all have an idea of how we think love should be expressed. The only problem is we do not all have the same idea of how love should be expressed. I do not want to ruin the book for anyone because I believe it would be beneficial for anybody to read. What I will tell you is what I have learned not only from reading about the different love languages, but from seeing how misinterpreting expressions of love can affect a relationship. Let me explain this a little bit so you will get an idea of what I’m talking about. Here is a hypothetical situation. There is a couple named Sally and Billy. They have been married for almost three years. They know each other pretty well but every once in a while, they hit a bump in the road. Billy likes to do things for Sally like help her clean up every once in a while, wash her car, make sure all of the things on her car are working properly, pay for her to get her nails done, fill her car up with gas, fix dinner every once in a while, do the grocery shopping, etc. He does these things because this is how he expresses his love for Sally and he enjoys doing them. Sally, on the other hand, likes to spend quality time with Billy and gives him her undivided attention. She does not allow her cellphone or anything else to distract her from giving him all of her attention. She makes time for him, even when she has a lot to do because she wants him to feel how important he is to her.
Sally and Billy love each other and they both express their love for one another. It just happens to be in different ways. So, what is the problem with this couple? The problem is, their love languages are different. Sally’s love language is quality time and for her to feel loved by Billy, he has to do the things she feels shows his love for her (taking a walk together, having a meal together without him looking down at his phone, etc.) Billy’s love language is acts of service so Sally has to be willing to do things for him that make him feel loved (run errands for him, iron clothes, cook meals, wash his car/truck). Remember, earlier I said we all have an idea of how we think love should be expressed? Billy and Sally have two different ideas of how people should express their love, but what if neither of them found out or ever knew the other’s love language? What if Sally never did anything for Billy and Billy never made time to spend with Sally, or spent the whole time they spent together on his phone? This could lead to a lot of misunderstandings and a lot of problems because neither Sally nor Billy are being spoken to in their language. So, learn your spouse’s language and speak it. You might be surprised at the results.
Take care and God bless.
JoAnn Rey is a Licensed Professional Counselor with West Texas Family Medicine.
NEW DELHI: India's internet penetration will get a huge boost with the proliferation of local language content in the country, as much of the rural areas are yet to experience the web, according to a report by IAMAI (Internet and Mobile Association of India).
In a report published in conjunction with IMRB (Indian Market Research Bureau), IAMAI said that 127 million of India's 269 million internet users consume content in local (non-English) languages. Of these 127 million, 81 million are based in rural parts of the country. With local language content, internet user base will rise 39%, according to estimates, of which 75% growth will come from rural areas and 16% from urban regions.
IAMAI has called for an increase in websites and apps in all content in local languages for better access to the masses, since 88% of India's 1.32 billion citizens do not speak English. It also recommended that corporates should rollout holistic local language solutions, including website, digital media, call centers, analytics, logistics and outbound communications, aimed at local language users.
Companies like Samsung, Micromax etc already have smartphones that offer content and apps in local languages, and some even translate English content to local languages.
READ ALSO: Google to focus on local-language content
You can now update Facebook in your local language
Wikipedia to increase local language content
Android users can text away in local tongue with ease
The industry body predicts that the "next couple of years will see higher spend on creating local language content and local language advertisements; which shall result in opening up of new consumer market segments." It also says online ad spending on local language content will rise from the 5% in June 2015 to 30% in 2020.
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According to British Council research, improving one’s employment prospects is the main driver for people overseas learning English, but many UK pupils are still experiencing a ‘minimal or fragmented’ second language learning because the UK still fails to recognise the many benefits of bilingualism.
In the day nursery sector, more and more providers are realising the need to focus on a bilingual upbringing, for the long-term advantages that learning a second language can have on intellect and life prospects, even though foreign language learning remains non-compulsory during the early years and most UK children will have no exposure to it until later education.
Shona Baker, the deputy chief administrator of the ISEB (Independent Schools Examination Board) comments, “One of the issues which the UK faces is that our first language is English, a language coveted by many other countries because it gives access to the most powerful economy in the world: the USA. As a result, pupils in the UK may not see the need to learn a foreign language when English remains such a powerful entry ticket to the job market. However, knowledge of other languages undoubtedly enhances job prospects when competing in the modern European market place.”
Crucial early years
Kiddi Caru Day Nurseries is one day nursery provider that feels strongly its children should benefit from learning a second language, regardless that early years curriculum does not demand it of them.
Nursery manager of Kiddi Caru Plympton, Tracey Callan, says, “Kiddi Caru introduced a second language option as babies are born ready and willing to communicate with the world around them. Language learning develops a number of skills and the earlier a second language is learnt the better.
“Research has shown that pre-school is the best time to learn as young children are more relaxed and better at imitating sounds and pronunciation.”
On the learning process, she says, “Children repeat sounds and, when rewarded by attention from an adult, this stimulates them to continue or increase vocalisation. When a child learns a second language, the same principle applies. The more they enjoy learning a language when they are young, the more likely they are going to find it a positive experience when they are older.
“Language learning also develops a child’s ability to listen attentively. Performance also builds self-confidence in a child’s aptitude to express themselves. However, we do encourage parents to get involved as is very important to remember that if a child is to embrace languages, the language experience should be an enjoyable part of their life and in turn will become a skill for life.”
Kiddi Caru, who currently operate 19 facilities located in the South of England and the Midlands, have largely focused their second language resources on French, although have been increasingly compelled to consider other languages instead, particularly due to the multi-cultural nature of many English communities.
Ms Callan continues, “French does continue to predominate as the first ‘second’ language taught in most schools and as France is our closest continental neighbour it made sense for us to choose French. However, that is not to say that we are limited to French and can extend to German or Spanish or other languages if there is a preference at nursery level.
“We have children from very diverse backgrounds here at Plympton including Spanish, French, Romanian, German and Hungarian to name but a few.”
An experience of teaching second-languages has also helped the provider to approach early years education for those learning English as a second language.
“So when, for example, a Spanish baby starts with us we sit down with the parents to create the child’s own language book. This will contain the first basic words – for example mummy, daddy, drink, nappy, cuddle, along with the word in both English and Spanish. It will also have the correct pronunciation spelt out in English so the nursery team know how to say the Spanish word correctly. Alongside the words will be a picture of mummy – which is the child’s own mummy, a picture of their own bottle and so on. These books grow as the child grows and will then go on to include, for example, the word shoes along with a picture of the child’s own shoes, coat with a picture of the child’s own coat and so forth.
“We also label up objects such as tables, chairs, windows, etc., around the nursery with the English word and then perhaps the French, Spanish or German word. This encourages children to learn whilst in the day-to-day surroundings regardless of what activity they are participating in.
“During circle time we also celebrate the different languages of our nursery by taking turns to hold circle time using different languages. This helps our children understand the wider society and the wider world that they are part of.
“Another fabulous tool that we use to help our children learn second and even third languages is Penpal. These pens are brilliant at encouraging our children’s language development – you simply touch the language you want, touch word such as book and then the pen speaks the word back in the appropriate language.”
On the advantages of learning a second language, Shona Baker of the ISEB continues, “We believe that the learning of languages offers far more than the ability to communicate with those from other countries and the chance of increased job prospects. A multilingual education can make young people better learners across the curriculum as well as providing personal and cultural benefits. We believe that learning a language should have as its main driving force an increased awareness of other cultures, which can lead to greater tolerance and a broader acceptance of others’ beliefs and customs. Xenophobia and racism still give cause for concern in this country. Learning a foreign language, any foreign language, from a well thought-through philosophy is something to be welcomed.
“ISEB offers syllabuses and examinations in French, Spanish, German and Mandarin Chinese. Pupils are assessed in speaking, listening and reading and writing, with assessments at levels which cater for the needs of candidates of differing abilities. Mandarin Chinese can be taken on line at any age.”
For further information, visit the ISEB website at www.iseb.co.uk
04 Aug 2015 11:57 AM
Children (and their parents!) can benefit from learning Esperanto. Not many people know that Esperanto has native speakers too. See: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzDS2WyemBI It was never planned that way, but it happened, and I have met about a dozen native speakers over the years.