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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
David Cameron's comments about a "swarm" of refugees make a big insinuation.
No ano em que comemora duas décadas de existência, a Editora da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (Eduel) é destaque no cenário nacional. Desde 2005, já são mais de 600 títulos publicados e lançados com a proposta de disseminação da pesquisa acadêmica. Uma média de 30 títulos por ano. Hoje, a Eduel investe na oferta de livros pela internet.
Somente a aposta no selo infantojuvenil, que começou em 2009, já rendeu a publicação de 220 livros, valorizando o conteúdo educativo de cunho pedagógico direcionado às crianças. Outra novidade é o lançamento, em setembro, de títulos no formato e-book, que também serão disponibilizados em plataforma de alta tecnologia.
"Trabalhamos em projetos que vão posicionar a Eduel um patamar à frente de editoras universitárias de outras instituições", afirma o diretor da Eduel, Luiz Carlos Migliozzi, professor do Departamento de Letras Vernáculas e Clássicas, do Centro de Ciências Humanas (CCH).
Ele aponta que o mercado de livros acadêmicos é o setor que mais cresce dentro do segmento e-book. "É uma ferramenta útil para o professor pesquisador, um recurso que facilita a busca por citações, informações e dados", justifica Luiz Carlos.
Com foco na difusão do conhecimento gerado pela produção científica, tecnológica, artística e cultural das comunidades universitária e externa, a editora encara o desafio de manter o ritmo de lançamentos, sem abrir mão da qualidade editorial.
"O papel da Eduel é fundamental para o fomento e desenvolvimento da pesquisa acadêmica. Por isso, com uma parceria com a Gráfica da UEL, que vai contar com um parque totalmente digitalizado, pretendemos tornar mais rápida a impressão de títulos já lançados, suprindo as demandas por mais exemplares", informa o diretor.
There is a controversy as to whether the Indian national anthem ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was written by Rabindranath Tagore in praise of the Indian motherland or God, or as a form of sycophancy in praise of the British King George V.
The evidence is strongly in favour of the second view. To explain, it is imperative to go through the English translation of the anthem:
‘Victory to thee, O ruler of the minds of the people,
O Dispenser of India’s destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh,
Gujarat and Maratha,
Of the Dravida, Odisha and Bengal;
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
We get up with your blessed name on our lips
We pray for your auspicious blessings
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.
Victory, victory, victory to thee‘.
Now a few things must be noted about this song :
1. The song was composed at precisely the time of the visit of the British King George V and Queen Mary in December, 1911
2. The poem does not indicate any love for the Motherland.
3. The ‘Adhinayak’ (Lord or Ruler) is being hailed. Who was the ruler of India in 1911? It was the British, headed by their King-Emperor.
4. Who was the ‘Bharat Bhagya Vidhata’ (dispenser of India’s destiny) at that time? It was none other but the British, since they were the ruling power in India in 1911.
5. The song was sung for the first time in India on the second day of the Calcutta Conference of the Congress Party in December 1911. This conference was held specially to give a loyal welcome to George V, and to thank him for annulling the Partition of Bengal in 1905.
6. The agenda of the second day of the Calcutta Conference, in which the song was sung, was specially reserved for giving a loyal welcome to the King, and a resolution was adopted unanimously that day welcoming and expressing loyalty to the Emperor and Empress.
7. It was only as late as 1937, when he wanted to show himself as a patriot, that Tagore denied that he had written the song to honour the British King.
The above facts almost conclusively prove that ‘Jana Gana Mana’ was composed and sung as an act of sycophancy to the British monarch.
All Indians proudly adopted this song as their national anthem and even after six decades of independence they continue to sing this anthem proudly.
Special Arrangement Kusumabale by Devanoora Mahadeva. Trs. Susan Daniel.
arts, culture and entertainment
books and literature
books and literature
Susan Daniel’s translation of this Kannada classic carries the reader as close to Mahadeva as anyone possibly can through English
When Devanoora Mahadeva’s Kusumabale — now considered a classic of modern Kannada literature — was published in 1988, some writers joked about the need to translate it into Kannada. Written in a dialect spoken in parts of Chamarajanagar district, the novel can prove elusive to those unwilling to see beyond the ‘standard’ Mysurian Kannada taught in schools and used in official communication.
Kusumabale — reprinted at least 10 times since then — defies straight-jacketing in more ways than one. It moves back and forward in time and space, between prose and poetry, and between realistic and mythical narratives.
The exotic tales woven by guardian lamp spirits (Jotammas) merge seamlessly into narratives about Dalit Sangha meetings. The novel is markedly different from other Dalit works of the 1980s, which tended to focus on conventional storytelling and documentation of a caste-divided society.
In fact, one of the early responses was that the novel’s “poetic indulgence” fails to capture the ground realities of caste discrimination. “If mainstream Dalits engaged with realism and straightforward storytelling and documentation in an aesthetic manner, Mahadeva complicates that creative project by re-imagining realism itself,” said critic Prithvi Datta Chandra Shobhi, in an article “The Elusive Peacock: Devanuru Mahadeva and Dalit Imagination.”
In his foreword to a recent translation of Kusumabale into Marathi, Bhalchandra Nemade says the nature of rebellion in Mahadeva’s lyrical novel is different from the models prevalent in Marathi, inspired by a strong Ambekarite-Marxist tradition. Mahadeva’s novel, he says, is more desivaadi (rooted in the folk traditions) and influenced by the egalitarian Vachana movement of 12th century Karnataka. He wonders if the Kolhapuri dialect used in the Marathi translation as a parallel to the Chamarajanagar dialect would convey all nuances.
The very idea of translating such a novel into English must have understandably been intimidating. In the translator’s note, Susan Daniel confesses that “Don’t venture” was the first advice friends and colleagues gave her. Fortunately for English readers, she defied this sane counsel. Her translation, brought out by Oxford University Press, arguably carries the reader as close to Mahadeva as anyone possibly can through English.
Typically, Mahadeva stretches the standard Kannada syntax to an extreme, as he jumps from prose to poetry. His style banks on extreme brevity of description, chant-like rhythms, and long evocative sentences densely packed with phrases.
Translating this demands something more than “fidelity” in the conventional sense. It is precisely by going beyond fidelity that Daniel achieves proximity to Mahadeva’s style. Reading the translation against the original and expecting an exact reflection of each sentence is futile, but her choice to “stay with the tone and travel with cadences” pays off. As she says in the introduction, she embellishes hidden connectives, indulges in alliterations, bold-ing or emphasising parody and irony to “familiarise the readers with the unfamiliar”. Much like Mahadeva, she stays with ‘proper’ structure, but stretches its possibilities.
The translation is particularly remarkable in dealing with lyrical prose passages, poetry and irony. It is humour that occasionally seems to trip the flow. This is most evident in the narration of the encounter between Chenna (the protagonist) and his Brahmin teacher Madhvacharya. Mahadeva emphasises the difference in their spoken language, with the teacher attaching an “aha” at the end of every sentence, in a parody of his Sanskritised Kannada, while Chenna struggles not to get his “sha” and “sa” mixed up. This does not travel to English, just as occasional use of formal Kannada or English words for dramatic contrast does not. There are also rare occasions when one wonders why images are altered in translation. For instance, in the same passage, Mahadeva describes Sanskrit as a “nayakasani” (whore), but it becomes “overlord” in translation.
Such minor niggles aside, Susan Daniel’s translation sets an example for how a lyrical text in a hyper-local dialect can be coaxed to travel to English, without becoming too English or incomprehensibly non-English.
Kusumabale; Devanoora Mahadeva, trs. Susan Daniel, OUP, Rs.250
Keywords: Bageshree S., Susan Daniel, Kusumabele, Devanoora Mahadeva, translation
For many foreigners the Latinised spellings for Belarusian places and names continue to present real difficulties or just appear unpronounceable.
Belarusians themselves feel annoyed about the ways their names are transliterated from Cyrillic into Latin script. It has become even more complicated with Belarus having two official languages - Belarusian and Russian.
Some people transliterate proper names in accordance with the International Civil Aviation Organisation’s or the Belarusian Academy of Sciences' standards, which was recently adopted by the United Nations. Most people and the media, however, are inconsistent when switching from one version to another. Despite the various approaches, one thing is clear - if one respects Belarusian identity, it is important to transliterate Belarusian names from the Belarusian language.
How should one write the name of Alexander Lukashenka, then? Is it Aleksandr Lukashenko, Aliaksandr Lukashenka or even Aliaksandr Lukašenka? This is a point of confusion for many foreign journalists and researchers writing about Belarus. For instance, the respected British publication The Economist calls Belarusian leader Lukashenka and, alternatively, Lukashenko, while other Western major outlets use only Lukashenko.
Belarusians have their fair share of problems with transliteration, and sometimes use a different spelling of their names at different points. For example, Alexander Hleb, a former football player for Arsenal and Barcelona, switches between Hleb and Gleb.
Similar problems arise in writing out geographical place names. For foreigners it is difficult to grasp that Oktiabrskaja ploshad and Kashtrychnickaja polshcha refer to the same place. These are transliterated from two different languages - Oktiabrskaja from Russian and Kastrychnickaja from Belarusian.
The same is true with Hrodna (in Belarusian) and Grodno (in Russian) or Mahiliou (in Belarusian) and Mogilev (in Russian). Google Maps, for example, uses a bizarre mixture of various systems of transliteration in naming Belarusian geographical areas. Sometimes the names appear in Belarusian Cyrillic, sometimes in Lacinka, sometimes in Russian and whatever language is employed, they are not always used correctly.
Four Ways To Transliterate
Currently people use four different spellings of Belarusian names or cities: a transliteration from Russian, the spelling used by Belarusian Ministry of Interior, a random transliteration and the standard adopted by the United Nations. The first three fail to aptly convey the Belarusian language's designations and the fourth spelling is the single standard that Belarusian and foreign linguists recognise.
Transliteration from Russian is commonplace as Belarusians primarily use Russian in their daily lives. Also, many foreigners often perceive Belarusian culture and identity to be part and parcel of Russian culture. Moreover, many Belarusian leaders consciously use the Russian version of their names. For example, the Foreign Minister of Belarus Uladzimir Makej refers to himself as Vladimir Makei.
But Alena Kupchyna, Makei’s Deputy, transliterated her name from the Belarusian language in accordance with the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Belarus' standards. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) also follows the same standards. ICAO, a UN specialised agency, only permits the usage of the English alphabet. These spellings often causes complaints as some people struggle to recognise their own surnames in their passport when they are written with this system.
In Belarus one can even transliterate their name from Russian and keep their surname's Belarusian spelling
Those without prior knowledge would not know that the letter “h” stands for a “g” sound in Belarusian. For instance, the author’s name is prounounced something more akin to Rygor than Ryhor. This explains why many people eventually choose to use other transliterations. George Plaschinsky, a Belarusian who changed the transliteration of his name, told Belarus Digest that he had previously written his surname as Plachtchinski, but few could remember it.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs uses the ICAO’s transliteration by default in Belarusian passports, although everyone has the opportunity to specify how to their name should be transliterated when applying for a passport. This opens the door for people from other nationalities to write their names in accordance with their languages. For example, Belarusian citizens of Polish nationality can write their names in passport in Polish. This is one thing that differentiates Belarus from Lithuania, where Poles cannot use the Polish variant of their name on any official documents. In Belarus one can even transliterate their name from Russian and keep their surname's Belarusian spelling.
Despite the fact that the Ministry of Internal Affairs makes it possible to transliterate one's name as you wish, this limits people to only English letters and excludes letters like š (sh) or č (ch). This makes it impossible to use the most appropriate spelling, one which was developed by the Academy of Sciences of Belarus and the United Nations, who adopted these Belarusian toponyms.
Historically the Belarusian language has used three modified alphabets - Cyrillic, Latin and Arabic - and with Latin being used in a very broad manner. For example, using this spelling Lukashenka would be transliterated as Lukašenka. Belarus Profile, a sister project of Belarus Digest, uses this version when writing out the names. The titles of Minsk streets and metro stations are written according to this standard as well. Even Google Translate can transliterate Belarusian language according to this system.
Is There A Good Solution?
For Belarusians, the question of how to write out one's own name continues to be a pestering problem. The author of this article once thought about changing his surname from Astapenia to Astapienia, which would bring it more in line with its proper pronunciation. Since many of his official documents were already issued to Astapenia, changing his surname could lead to mounds of bureaucratic hassle and problems down the road. That is why many Belarusians, not satisfied with the transliteration on their passports, continue to be reluctant to change it.
there is only one standard preferred by scholars with the Belarusian Latin alphabet
Despite all these problems, there is only one standard preferred by scholars with the Belarusian Latin alphabet. In 2000, the Institute of Language of the National Academy of Sciences established it as the foundation for the transliteration of Belarusian proper names in foreign languages.
However, this standard needs the support of the authorities' to allow it to be used in passports. It is already more or less the standard with Belarusian place names. According to this method of transliteration, Baranavichy will be Baranavičy and Statkievich will be Statkievič. The Journal of Belarusian Studies, the oldest English language double blind peer-reviewed periodical on Belarusian studies, follows this transliteration method.
Foreigners can use several styles to write Belarusian names, and they all depend on the situation in which they are employed. When it comes to official documentation, a passport helps them to skirt what could quickly become a bureaucratic hassle.
As for academic publications, it makes sense to use the transliteration of the Academy of Sciences as it is the most suitable system available. One can also ask how one should call a particular person - transliterating name from Russian by default can be even offensive to some Belarusians.
While it seems rather farfetched to develop a single unified system right now, it makes sense at least to exclude mostly blatantly incorrect versions - ones that use Russian transliterations. While few people inside Belarus use it, this is clearly not the best practise. Transliterating Belarusian names and places from Belarusian is a sign of respect towards Belarusians and their national identity.
See UN's document on the Roman alphabet transliteration of Belarusian geographical names
Ryhor Astapenia is an analyst of the Ostrogorski Centre, an editor-in-chief of Belarusian internet magazine Idea and a coordinator of BelarusProfile.com.
Geotext Translations, a leading language-services firm, seeks an experienced project manager to work in our New York office. This is a mid-level position with significant growth opportunities for the successful candidate.
The Geotext project manager will be responsible for end-to-end project management in a deadline-driven environment. S/he will assess, coordinate, assign, monitor, and deliver translation projects within a defined timeline and budget, working closely with translators, account managers, in-house quality-control professionals, and clients. Key responsibilities include:
• Collaborating with sales team to assess and manage complex translation assignments
• Overseeing multiple projects on daily and long-term bases
• Assessing client requirements and clearly communicating these requirements to colleagues and translators
• Negotiating rates and deadlines with translators
• Meeting all client-specified deadlines
The successful candidate will have a minimum of 2--5 years of professional experience and be available to work on-site in our New York office, from Thursday through Monday.
• A proven track record of success in project management and/or the translation industry
• Excellent negotiation and relationship-building skills
• Superior time management, organization, and communication skills
• Ability to work efficiently and calmly in high-stress situations
• Ability to work independently and as a team
• Attention to detail
• Bachelor's degree
• Fluency or proficiency in a second language
• Proficiency with CAT tools (Trados, Wordfast, etc) and Microsoft Office suite
We offer an attractive compensation and benefits package, and an exciting, team-oriented work environment. Please submit your resume and cover letter at
https://home2.eease.adp.com/recruit/?id=12622342. Resumes without cover letters will not be considered.
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Last week’s vote on the Navajo Nation to change the rules regarding language fluency for presidential candidates is yet another sign of cultural and political shifts on the Rez.
The first sign came in March, when a relative political newcomer, Russell Begaye, defeated a former two-term president, Joe Shirley, even though he was outspent 10-to-1. The turnout was light and the winning margin was not an overwhelming mandate, but Begaye won consistently across the reservation by a total of 10,000 votes. The so-called “Old Guard” might not be out, but the election showed they no longer can count on automatically rotating one of their own through the president’s office.
Then came the language vote, which again saw light turnout but a consistent margin in all Agencies except Chinle for loosening the rule. Instead of a judge deciding whether a candidate is fluent, it will now be left to the voters in the presidential election to choose someone who is fluent enough.
That might sound like a cop-out – what if no candidate is truly fluent in Navajo, leaving voters with no real choice? The answer is that the democratic process has shown the majority aren’t worried about that possibility. The “yes” campaign centered on opening up the political pipeline to younger Navajos who may been raised or educated off the Rez but still want to participate, even without full fluency in Navajo.
Ironically, both Begaye and his vice president, Jonathan Nez, opposed the measure, but not with active campaigning. Instead, they were busy building bridges to the legislative and judicial branches, issuing a joint “One Nation, One Voice” agreement that listed nine priorities that were heavy on water rights and projects, economic development and infrastructure, according to the Navajo Times.
That’s important to Flagstaff and other northern Arizona communities, as it was the Navajo Nation Council that torpedoed the Little Colorado River allocation agreement at the last minute. Since it takes two parties to negotiate, it is encouraging to learn that Navajo leaders are willing to return to the table. Begaye emphasized four of the priorities – veterans, elders and youth, infrastructure and job creation – in his first State of the Nation address, so it appears that most of the leadership is on the same page for the next three years.
By then, the group of younger Navajos who had rallied behind the presidential candidacy of Chris Deschene before his disqualification for lack of fluency will have had time to groom candidates at the chapter and council levels. But Begaye has moved quickly to fill his cabinet with Navajos educated and employed off the Reservation and willing to come back in a new administration. It’s an open door policy that, if nothing else, will pump new administrative ideas and energy into tribal government.
As for the language vote, it does not mean the end of Navajo culture or even a major diminishment. It does, however, send a signal that politics on the Rez can no longer be as deeply entwined with tradition and folk ways to the exclusion of nontraditional tribal members. Fluency in the native tongue will still find support in the schools and homes. But the vote shows that when such fluency stands in the way of progress as seen by young voters, it will have to yield – at least when voting for highest office in the nation.
It's a big enough pain to search the house for a dusty old dictionary to find a word's meaning, never mind tracking down that thesaurus you used once or twice in the past couple of decades to find a synonym. Of course, there are all sorts of online dictionaries and thesauruses, but even those don't come close to the ease of using an offline, growing database of words with their definitions, synonyms and a whole lot more.
That's where Artha Portable comes in. It's a thesaurus that downloads in minutes and is then instantly accessible by touching a few hotkeys (more on that in a minute).
We're not talking about some bare-bones thesaurus with just a few synonyms for the most popular words in the English language. Artha Portable is an open-source database, meaning users are continually updating it with words and their meanings, synonyms, antonyms and much more.
It's based on WordNet, which boasts multiple meanings for countless words by interlinking similar words together. WordNet also includes some cool, albeit hit or miss, information about how common or uncommon a word is.
Simple way to change language in footnotes and reference list
2 weeks ago
I am writing my doctoral thesis in Swedish and just spent some hours figuring out how to create a Swedish language version of the Chicago 16th footnote output style. It works, but it's complicated and time-consuming t manually replace every English "and" with a Swedish "och", every English "in" with a Swedish "i", every English "ed." with a Swedish "red." etc. It's also very easy to erase some tiny letter or blank space by mistake while you're at it and less easy to know what you erased and where to put it back.
In coming versions of EndNote, I would really appreciate a function where you could change language in an easier way. What is needed is a way to have the equivalents to the words "and", "in", "ed." and other little language-dependent particles inserted in their correct places in whatever style you choose.
What I propose is for EndNote to include some kind of simple function for changing these small words without having to manually erase them and type in their equivalents in a new output style, based on an earlier one in English. This could be done, I imagine, in a number of ways. Either there is a dialogue box that lets you fill in the equivalents of these small words in the language of your choice and save them separately from the output styles and then EndNote could replace them at request in any output style, when you use a command of some sort to ask for it. Or, EndNote could ask for these equivalents when you create a new output style using "save as" and put them in the right place. Maybe there could be a "save as language" option for this. I am sure the developers can find a good solution for this.
/Maria Klasson Sundin, Uppsala, Sweden
The U.S. Federal Reserve will not need to see balanced risks to the economy to proceed with an interest rate hike in September, according to former Fed officials and a review of central bank statements through recent turns in policy.
In its latest statement, released Wednesday, the Fed said it continued to judge the risks to the U.S. economy as "nearly balanced," meaning it still sees a greater threat of a new downturn than it does of accelerating inflation and excessive growth.
Wall Street closely watched the language as a possible tip-off to a September rate hike. Removal of the word "nearly" would have been seen as a sign that liftoff was almost certain, ending more than six years of near zero rates.
But a review of Fed statements over the past 10 years indicates the risk language used by the Fed is a poor predictor of "regime change." (Graphic: link.reuters.com/zyn35w)
A major change in Fed policy in June 2004 was with language about risks that is similar to that of the current statement. Prior to its decision to begin raising rates at that meeting, the Fed had for several months judged the risks to the economy as "roughly equal." It kept that characterization at the June meeting, and for nearly a year after that.
Today's situation may be similar. Potential risks from overseas are unlikely to disappear between now and the Fed's next meeting in September, for example. But that will not necessarily hold the Fed back.
"Risks seem a little tilted to the downside. China, oil, Europe," said Cornerstone Macro economist Roberto Perli, a former Fed board staffer. But the current risk language "doesn't represent a major constraint... Policy is so accommodative, to say risks are 'nearly balanced' could justify a 25 basis point increase."
The Fed will have nearly a two-month dose of data to pore over at its Sept. 16-17 meeting to either confirm the economy's strength or decide on a continued pause. That includes Thursday's report showing that U.S. growth rebounded over the last three months to a 2.3 percent annualized rate, a positive surprise.
Two employment reports, in August and September, could all but cement a rate hike if both show job growth holding steady at this year's average pace of around 208,000 per month, or could complicate the Fed's plans if they dip appreciably below that.
"To be honest, the risks are never perfectly balanced," said David Stockton, the Fed's former research director and now a fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.
But "unless we get some seriously disappointing news on the labor market it looks like a Fed that is ready to move and more likely than not in September."
The Fed's annual conference in Jackson Hole will offer the central bank a chance to fine-tune, if needed, its message on the economy. Fed chair Janet Yellen, though, has said she does not plan to attend the Aug. 27-29 meeting and has no major policy speeches on the calendar at this point.
Fed officials would like to see the country's steady job growth lead to higher wages and rising prices. Yet generating more inflation may prove difficult given the drag on global demand from the downturn in China and the collapse in oil and other commodity prices. All that will make it harder for the Fed to conclude that risks are in balance.
But that does not preclude a policy move. In the past, changes in economic conditions have even caused the Fed to see risks tilted in one direction at one meeting, but then move in the other at the next.
With the housing and financial crisis in its early stages in 2007, the Fed at an August meeting that year left rates intact and said that rising inflation - not the looming economic meltdown - remained its "predominant policy concern."
A month later it cut rates by a half a percentage point, and kept doing so until it reached bottom. Rates have stayed near zero since December 2008.
More than five years later, in July 2013, the Fed for the first time since the crisis noted that the downside risks to the economy were beginning to recede.
In December 2013 the central bank upgraded the outlook with the conclusion that the Fed saw risks "as having become more nearly balanced." In March 2014, it switched to the "nearly balanced" phrase that remains today.
That phrasing may not have to change until inflation becomes a real concern. But that does not mean the Fed will delay the start of a rate increase cycle that is expected to proceed slowly over the next few years, said Jon Faust, a former adviser to Yellen and an economics professor at Johns Hopkins University.
"It is going to be hard to call the risks balanced until we are comfortably away from zero (interest rate) and closer to normal."
(Reporting by Howard Schneider; Editing by Tomasz Janowski)
Of all the inspirational quotes that infest the Internet — self-help bromides and things Confucius never said — the one I hate most is attributed to the 13th-century Persian poet Rumi:
Out beyond ideas of wrongdoing and rightdoing,
there is a field. I'll meet you there.
I prefer Hafez to Rumi — I prefer just about anyone to Rumi — but I'm sure he never sounded like Robert Bly, as he does here. This is translator Coleman Barks' very loose riff on the following lines, as more accurately translated by Ibrahim Gamard:
Beyond Islam and unbelief there is a desert plain.
For us, there is a passion in the midst of that expanse.
Barks nixes the specific revelation and adds an American text message.
Review: 'Flood of Fire' by Amitav Ghosh
Excluded from most of the world's literatures, like most people, I often read through the glass of translation, darkly. This requires the consultation of learned authorities, who can recommend, say, John E. Woods' "The Magic Mountain" over H.T. Lowe-Porter's, or Sverre Lyngstad's version of Knut Hamsun's "Hunger" over Bly's (which Lyngstad calls "extremely faulty and inaccurate"). But it also requires comparison and aesthetic judgment — I favor William Arrowsmith's Montale over Jonathan Galassi's, despite the latter's acclaim, and Edward Snow's Rilke over Stephen Mitchell's, and Burton Watson's translations of anything Chinese over David Hinton's.
The Biblioracle: Mourning the death of E.L.Doctorow
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As most translators' prefaces attest, every translation, unless it's a crib, negotiates in its own way the problem of how to achieve two contradictory desiderata: to be faithful to the original, and to create a work of art in the new language. You want something more than a bland literalism and less than a distorted reflection. Poetry, it's often noted, is particularly resistant to this balance — too faithful to the meaning, you lose the music; try to recreate the music too closely and you end up with stuff like this:
It is so bitter, it goes nigh to death;
Yet there I gained such good, that, to convey
The tale, I'll write what else I found therewith.
That's from Dorothy L. Sayers' translation of Dante's "Inferno," which faithfully replicates the poem's terza rima in every respect except for the part where Dante's verse sounds like something someone might actually say.
Some poets I can barely read in translation at all: The wisps of greatness that blow through the various versions of Anna Akhmatova and Osip Mandelstam I've read just make me feel how much I'm missing. But much in prose fiction can be lost too — imagine trying to get the voices and tones of Flannery O'Connor or Eudora Welty into another language.
My favorite translation is the greatest translation ever made, the King James or Authorized Version of the Hebrew Bible and the Greek New Testament, published in 1611. There is of course no overstating the influence and grandeur of this book, of which George Saintsbury accurately, though rather breathlessly, wrote:
So long as a single copy of the version of 1611 survives, so long will there be accessible the best words of the best time of English, in the best order, on the best subjects — so long will the fount be open from which a dozen generations of great English writers, in the most varying times and fashions, of the most diverse temperaments — libertines and virtuous persons, freethinkers and devout, poets and prosemen, laymen and divines — have drawn inspiration and pattern; by which three centuries (four, now) of readers and hearers have kept before them the prowess and the powers of the English tongue.
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A sense of the KJB's importance to English literature might be gleaned from a few of its phrases: "the house of mirth," "the wings of the dove," "the golden bowl," "let us now praise famous men," "stranger in a strange land," "go, set a watchman." When I attend church, I can hardly bear to listen to the Revised Substandard Version (that's a bad joke, but it's a bad translation), which renders the line from Exodus 2:22, for instance, as "I have been a sojourner in a foreign land." The New Revised Standard Version is even worse: "I have been an alien residing in a foreign land."
Often, when reading some acclaimed contemporary novel or essay collection, I find myself marveling at the incompetent prose rhythms, and I wonder if ignorance of the KJB is to blame. That's a curmudgeonly thought, supported only by my own untrustworthy intuition. Still, my best advice for young writers remains: Read the King James Bible, regardless of what you believe about its religious truth.
Review: 'Let Me Tell You' by Shirley Jackson
But to read the KJB is also to read its great predecessors, the pioneering English versions of William Tyndale, credited as being the first version ever to translate directly from Hebrew and Greek into English, and the Geneva Bible, the bible used by Shakespeare and the Puritans. Tyndale made Geneva and the King James Bible possible — roughly 85 percent of the King James New Testament is taken directly from his edition of 1534. (Some sources I've consulted say that 90 percent of the entire KJB is Tyndale, which would be quite a feat, considering that he translated only the first 14 books of the Old Testament — about half.) For his pains, Tyndale was strangled then burned at the stake in 1536. Before he died, John Foxe reports, he cried out, "Lord! Open the King of England's eyes."
To follow Tyndale to Geneva to King James yields wonders. In Genesis 3:4, the Authorized Version has "And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die." Tyndale delightfully gives: "Then said the serpent unto the woman: tush ye shall not die." This makes the serpent a much more seductive used-car salesman.
And the Geneva Bible is a marvel in its own right, far more than a draft of King James, with extensive marginal notes (generally Calvinist in tenor). I keep the title page of Ecclesiastes, cut from a Geneva printed in the 16th century, in a frame above my desk. Sometimes I gaze upon it and wonder how many eyes have traced its famous words. I prefer the circularity of Geneva's 1:5 to its familiar King James version: "The sun riseth, and the sun goeth down, and draweth to his place where he riseth." Marilynne Robinson writes, "Now even highly educated people have never seen a Geneva Bible, and, interestingly, it does not occur to them that they have not seen one." A fine facsimile of the 1560 edition is available from Hendrickson Publishers for a reasonable price.
Well, I see I have used up most of my word count raving about the Bible. I suppose this sort of enthusiasm is what the best translations spark: Tyndale, echoing Erasmus, said that "if God spared him life, ere many years he would cause a boy that driveth the plough to know more of the Scripture than he did."
I could go on about the Quran too. I made it through only 100 pages of M.A.S. Abdel Haleem's recent translation before heading back to A.J. Arberry's version of 1955, which still strikes me as the most felicitous in English. (Did you know that the first printed edition of the first translation of the Quran into a Western language carried a preface by Martin Luther?) All this reminds me that waiting in my to-read pile is Michel Houellebecq's latest novel, "Submission" — in translation, of course.
The Biblioracle: Mourning the death of E.L.Doctorow
SEE ALL RELATED
Michael Robbins is the author of the poetry collections "Alien vs. Predator" and "The Second Sex."
Copyright © 2015, Chicago Tribune
About this story
This piece first ran in Printers Row Journal, the Chicago Tribune’s premium Sunday book section. Learn more about subscribing to Printers Row Journal, which is available for home or digital delivery.
Has the thought of facing an audience left you numb in the past?
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IDEAL OPPORTUNITY: Muswellbrook Toastmasters president Helen Simpson with Area Governor Stephen Thatcher at the group’s recent changeover dinner.
If you answered yes to any of those questions, Muswellbrook Toastmasters can help you overcome your nerves.
The group will conduct an Introduction to Public Speaking course in the Ron Adams Room of the Muswellbrook and District Workers Club, starting from August 3.
It will take place over five Mondays, ending on September 21.
“This is the ideal opportunity for residents to improve their public speaking skills, learn to listen effectively, express thoughts clearly and present inspirational speeches,” Muswellbrook Toastmasters vice-president public relations Jenny Webster said.
“Interviews for positions can be daunting for some people.
“However, the course is designed to allay fears of the unknown question being thrown at you.
“We hope that people will see these five Mondays as an ideal occasion to attend and calm the nerves enough to dispel any unpleasant thoughts of speaking in public, or attending that job interview.”
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Good management and leadership will help companies thrive amid changes in the way business is conducted in the 21st century, according to William Buist.
The chief executive of business consultancy firm Abelard and founder of xTEN Club programme said that the structure of business has changed over the years. There is now a greater focus on globalisation, speed and efficiency, while personalised services are harder to come by.
Mr Buist listed four essential skills to run a successful business in the modern era.
The first was to inspire engagement, which requires business bosses to display to their employees, customers and shareholders such qualities as honesty, integrity, insight and courage.
He said: “They need to respond to and effect change within the company, and within the business world in general.”
Furthermore: “Employees need to be presented with opportunities to be creative and have their thoughts and opinions truly heard.
“They need to network more, engage in social media, and be prepared to respond to feedback, both positive and negative. Developing and communicating simple and responsible policies, such as recycling, can all help present a positive company image to the world.”
Mr Buist added that social media needed to be monitored and responded to quickly.
The next skill required company heads to make prompt operational decisions more decisively, prioritising what is most important both for the immediate needs of the business and society, Mr Buist said.
The third necessitated the need for bosses to be present in some capacity nearly all the time – although, with virtual options, being ‘chained’ to the desk was not only unnecessary but also not cost-effective for most businesses.
The last step was to help employees be more effective. Mr Buist deemed public speaking skills essential, while the ability for workers to be able to manage difficult situations by themselves was also vital.
He said: “Employees need to present a positive image of the company, internally and externally.
“Employees are presented with opportunities to help one another do their best by exercising good teamwork skills. Having a sense of when to talk and when to listen is an invaluable skill.
“They need to have humility and be willing to do work they are ‘over-qualified’ for. There are learning opportunities in every situation, if they are able to set the right priorities within their own role and exercise good time management skills. Beyond their workday, it is important to remain informed about the industry overall.”
Commenting on the increased focus on globalisation, speed and efficiency, Paul Lindfield, director of wealth management at Manchester-based Sedulo Wealth Management, said: “I completely agree. We have implemented a live chat service on our website to make it easier for people to interact with us. We have converted quite a few clients this way.”
William Knight grew up playing sports, but he was an introverted athlete, he said.
“Public speaking isn't something that came easy or naturally to me,” said the McCandless native, who now lives in Mexico City.
More than a decade since graduating from North Allegheny Senior High School, Knight is being recognized for public speaking — internationally.
Knight, 27, who won the Toastmasters International Speech Competition in Mexico in May, will represent the Latin American country in the semifinals, and possibly the finals, at the World Championship of Public Speaking in August in Las Vegas.
Headquartered in Rancho Santa Margarita, Calif., Toastmasters International is a 90-year-old nonprofit that teaches public speaking and leadership skills. There are more than 313,000 members in 14,650 clubs in 126 countries, the organization said.
More than 30,000 people internationally compete in the Toastmasters International Speech Contest annually, starting in their local clubs and then attempting to advance to the area, division and district levels.
“Well, I think Toastmasters is a great organization to develop your public speaking. It's essentially a forum where you can present speeches and give them to an audience to get feedback on what you can do to improve,” Knight said.
He played football and ran track and field at North Allegheny High School, from which he graduated in 2006. He graduated from the University of Pittsburgh with a bachelor's degree in finance in 2010.
Knight's move to Mexico was surprising, said one of his former finance professors, Jay W. Sukits, a clinical assistant professor of business administration at Pitt.
“The fact that he set up his own business and is doing well and won the Toastmasters, that doesn't surprise me,” Sukits said.
Knight was a good student, and he is a genuine person, Sukits said.
“I have a very high opinion of him,” Sukits said.
While attending Pitt, Knight worked as a finance intern at McCandless-based Legend Financial Advisors Inc., he said.
After graduating, he was hired as an assistant wealth manager at the firm.
In November 2013, Knight left the firm and moved with his girlfriend to her native country, Mexico, because he wanted to start his own company, he said.
In 2014, he and his best friend founded MasterYour24 LLC, which helps business professionals improve their communication and English skills, Knight said.
“The competition has really enabled me to work on those skills because it's not as though I'm presenting one speech and then moving on to the next speech. I present one speech during the entire process (club, area and district competitions), so you're able to receive feedback on that speech and then keep improving the whole time,” Knight said.
Knight's winning speech is titled “Who's in Your Script?” It “encourages people to act selflessly by thinking about ‘we' instead of ‘me,'” he said.
Knight competed against 12 people in the 2015 Toastmasters International Speech Contest in District 34, which is Mexico, and he is the first American to win in the district, said Violetta Rios, program quality director for Toastmasters International's District 34. That district has hosted the annual competition for more than 20 years, she said.
The Toastmasters International Speech Competition's semifinals and finals will take place during the Toastmasters 2015 International Convention in Las Vegas.
Knight will be among 96 people from about 25 countries competing in the semifinals on Aug. 13. From there, nine winners in each semifinal will compete in the finals at Caesar's Palace on Aug. 15.
Tory N. Parrish is a staff writer for Trib Total Media. Reach her at 412-380-5662 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tom Keighley speaks to Amber Collective's Graeme Rigby about a major make more of the group's unique images and film available to online audiences
Amber CollectiveDunston, from the Lambton Visual Aids slide set, Coal Staiths of North East England in early 1970
More than 45 years of unique social documentary making has fed Amber Collective’s historical window on the North East, and now its magic is being translated for the digital age.
On the back of £1.1m Heritage Lottery Fund grant, Amber is working with digital agency We Are AD to build a new website which promises access to its vast archive like never before.
The task is unlike any run-of-the-mill website re-vamp – raising questions of ethics and presentation, as Amber member Graeme Rigby explained.
“There is no substitute for looking at the real photographs and there’s no substitute for seeing a film in a cinema. There are qualities in those experiences you just can’t replicate,” he said. “We’ve had our current website since about 2006 and in that time the audience has grown in the gallery. That’s probably not entirely down to the website but I think it’s been important. This territory of ours – film and imagery – is becoming more and more central to people’s lives. This is down to work where people have struggled to create powerful imagery that reflects lives.
“It’s not an “either/or” situation. I don’t think anyone has found that total solution to the physical.”
Blackpool Illuminations in 1975 from The Lambton Visual Aids Slide Collection
Journal readers will know Amber’s home – the Side Gallery – is undergoing major redevelopment, and the digital counterpart to this work is equally crucial to the organisation’s future. Articulating through a computer screen the interconnected stories and social issues that lie between Amber works is tricky.
Graeme added: “Typically, when people browse an online archive they use one of two tools: the search box or the drop-down menu. The problem with this is that some elements don’t fit neatly under dropdowns and the search might take you to a certain destination but the experience doesn’t grow from there.
“One of the extraordinary things about our collection is that it’s a network of works. There are often community and historical links between, for example, a documentary film, and a set of photographs taken years later which depict the same characters and community.”
Amber hope the new website will take users on an engrossing journey through Tyneside’s past and present. It will help piece together some of the estimated 20,000 photographs, 12,000 transparencies and 100 historic regional film in Amber’s cache.
A shop window in the 1970s from the Lambton Visual Aids Slide Collection
Finnish photographer Sirkka-Liisa Kontitinen’s images of Byker in the 1970s form one body of work that is inextricably linked to others in the Amber archive.
Graeme explained how joining the dots is important to audiences’ understanding of Amber work. He said: “Take Sirkka’s work on the Byker Terraces. There are masses of routes you can take into that work from other Amber collections. For instance Amber began its engagement with T. Dan in the late 70s and early 80s. We’ve done exhibitions exploring the architectural legacy from that era and there are probably about 60 bodies of work which link directly to the photographers Sirkka took in Byker at that time.”
Amber is fiercely protective of the communities it has documented since its inception in 1968. Part of the Heritage Lottery Fund money will used to create projects with schools and community groups in those areas where photographers and filmmakers have worked.
“We feel a responsibility because not only does this work belong to a photographer or filmmaker but it involves people who have offered access to their lives in an intimate way, and we’ve got a duty to protect that. Without that protection people might find their lives are misrepresented or used to present arguments that are a direct contradiction to what the original work is supposed to mean,” said Graeme.
“There probably hasn’t been enough work on ethical consideration in relation to the web, but it’s an extremely important area.”
Some of the works presented online will have high-resolution counterparts available to buy. The move is not only part of Amber’s strategy to sustain itself financially but also a method to combat the misuse Graeme talks about.
Ultimately the project is about discovery, and the web is well suited to this end.
Modern Urban Housing in Killingworth in 1978, from The Lambton Visual Aids Slide Collection
Graeme said: “Our current website was built in 2006 and since then we’ve come to know a lot more about what is possible online. We want to make exploration on the website more valuable for people and let them gather as much information as they can. Others have experimented with more automated ways of facilitating that exploration – through the use of tag words and so on – but that can often be meaningless. We want this work to tell a real story.”
Amber chose We are AD on the back of the agency’s experience in arts and culture work, particularly with the likes of The Courtauld Institute, the London Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester.
The firm’s commercial director David Johnstone said: “We are excited to be working with the Amber team to transform their online presence and allow communities to easily engage with the fantastic work Amber Collective does. Moving forward, we are keen to create a user-friendly system that will preserve the collection for future generations to treasure.”
In line with the digital work, Amber is currently exploring work with commercial image libraries. The collective has plans to make available The Lambton Visual Aids Slide Collection – a huge array of images brought together by Amber in the early 1970s as a business venture. Described as a “treasure house” of 19th century and 20th century visual culture – the collection is not Amber or the Side Gallery’s own documentary work but provide a rich resource. Around half of the 10,000 strong collection are to be made available.
The new Amber Collective website is due to launch in the Spring or early summer of 2016 to coincide with the re-opening of the Side Gallery.
O diretor-presidente licenciado da Eletronuclear, o vice-almirante Othon Luiz Pinheiro da Silva, 76, atribuiu a serviços de "tradução" de sua filha ou de "engenharia" do seu genro os R$ 6 milhões que empreiteiras e fornecedoras da estatal depositaram nas contas de sua empresa, a Aratec Engenharia.
Ex-diretor, Renato Duque começa a negociar delação premiada Juiz prorroga prisão temporária de presidente da Eletronuclear Mais
A versão foi apresentada em depoimento prestado à Polícia Federal nesta quinta-feira (30). Othon foi preso na terça (28) na 16ª fase da Operação Lava Jato, denominada "Radioatividade".
Documentos da Receita Federal demonstram que a Aratec quadruplicou a sua receita a partir de 2009, depois que Othon assinou um aditivo com a empreiteira Andrade Gutierrez no valor de R$ 1,24 bilhão.
Segundo a PF, a empreiteira depositou pelo menos R$ 3,8 milhões à empresa de Othon por meio de duas empresas de fachada.
Ao longo do depoimento, Othon apresentou a versão de que desconhecia detalhes das atividades da Aratec, embora tenha permanecido nos quadros da empresa por 15 anos, até o primeiro trimestre deste ano, quando surgiram as primeiras denúncias de irregularidades na Eletronuclear.
Othon disse que a Aratec trabalhava, até 2005, em serviços de consultoria em áreas diversas como infraestrutura, meio ambiente, geofísica e prospecção de jazidas. Ele também possuía outra empresa, a Área Geofísica, que, disse, foi contratada para obras de um oleoduto da Petrobras em Cabiúnas.
O almirante afirmou que "compunha equipes específicas para cada tipo de trabalho, não mantendo um staff fixo".
Othon, que tornou-se presidente da Eletronuclear em 2005, revelou que o convite partiu do então ministro de Minas e Energia, Silas Rondeau -amigo e aliado político do ex-presidente José Sarney (PMDB-MA)- e que, na ocasião, decidiu manter aberta a Aratec para sua filha Ana Cristina.
"Ana Cristina na época tinha interesse em constituir uma empresa na área de traduções, por ter residido no exterior, e a esposa do declarante [Othon] também tinha passado em concurso de tradutor juramentado", diz o termo de depoimento do almirante.
Ele afirmou que os ganhos da Aratec estão relacionados a trabalhos prestados por sua filha na área de traduções, ou de engenharia por parte de seu genro.
Questionado por que a empresa estava vazia durante cumprimento do mandado de busca e apreensão da Operação Radioatividade, o almirante disse acreditar que seja porque sua família estava viajando.
Disse ainda que a Aratec mantém a mesma dinâmica de "constituir um staff para cada projeto".
Localizado pela reportagem, Rondeau disse que escolheu Othon porque se tratava "do melhor currículo" que lhe chegou às mãos, que "respeita muito" o almirante, para ele "um grande profissional", e afirmou esperar "que tudo seja esclarecido".
Othon afirmou que, à frente da Eletronuclear, nunca privilegiou "quem quer que seja, principalmente as empreiteiras envolvidas na construção de Angra 3".
Ele minimizou os valores pagos à Aratec e disse ter conhecimento que lhe permitiria "ganhar muito mais" do que lhe acusam de ter recebido.
A PF indagou sobre os motivos que levaram Othon a deixar a empresa quando as investigações da Lava Jato se aproximaram dele e da Eletronuclear. Ele argumentou que estava desenvolvendo um projeto de uma nova turbina (hidrogerador integrado), sem relação com a área nuclear, que pretendia patentear em breve, e que para isso "constituiria uma outra empresa".
La cérémonie du lancement de la 3ème édition du dictionnaire Indonésien-Malagasy s’est tenue le mercredi 28 Juillet 2015 à la salle Rado de la Bibliothèque Nationale Anosy. Cette cérémonie a été honorée par la présence du Chargé d’Affaires de l’ambassade d’Indonésie à Madagascar et de la ministre de la Culture et de l’Artisanat Malagasy. Ce dictionnaire promeut la valorisation de la culture des deux pays, notamment à travers leurs langues. La première édition de ce dictionnaire est parue en 2008.
Diverses activités ont marqué l’évènement pour exprimer la rencontre des deux cultures, comme la démonstration d’instrument de musique traditionnelle par le Centre national d’enseignement de la musique et de la danse. À part cela, il y a eu l’intervention en langue indonésienne et malagasy de l’écrivain poète Vanga. Les danses traditionnelles indonésiennes ont aussi animé la cérémonie.
Reliés étroitement par l’Histoire
Ce travail est issu du partenariat entre l’ambassade indonésienne et le ministère de la Culture et de l’Artisanat Malagasy. Notons que l’ambassade d’Indonésie à Madagascar a été ouverte en juin 1975, donc cette publication marque également le 40è anniversaire des relations diplomatiques entre Madagascar et l’Indonésie.
Madagascar et l’Indonésie entretiennent une relation étroite étant donné qu’une partie des Malgaches est d’origine indonésienne. Cela se reflète par le rapprochement des deux langues. En effet, la langue malgache fait partie du groupe Malayo-polynésien occidental, de la famille austronésienne. Cette grande famille couvre différents pays comme la Malaisie, l’Indonésie les Philippines, le Hawaï, les îles « Java, Sumatra, Bornéo, Sulawesi », Taiwan ou la Nouvelle Zélande….
Les deux langues, qui sont issues d’une même famille, présentent ainsi différents termes similaires où les prononciations et les écrits diffèrent. Par exemple : mora (morah), telo (telo), tanana (tangan), maty (mati), vato (batu).
Boursiers malgaches en Indonésie
Sur le plan éducation, l’Indonésie octroie des bourses à des étudiants malgaches depuis 1995, dans plusieurs disciplines, pour les diplômes de Licence et de Master. Depuis l’an 2000, 220 étudiants malgaches ont déjà pu bénéficier des bourses d’étude en Indonésie. Nambinintsoanirina Léonorra Joliesse est l’une de ces étudiants, elle étudie en Indonésie depuis 2011. « J’ai choisi d’étudier en Indonésie car premièrement, nombreux sont ceux qui ont déjà pu poursuivre leurs études dans ce pays ; puis leur culture m’intéresse vraiment comme la danse traditionnelle et la cuisine. Je trouve qu’ils sont très attachés envers leur identité et c’est-ce qui leur permet d’attirer beaucoup de touristes. Pour la question de sécurité, on n’a pas à s’inquiéter car c’est un pays serein. Concernant la langue indonésienne, vu qu’elle est proche de la langue malgache, je n’ai pas vraiment eu de difficulté à se l’approprier, seulement il y a les dialectes comme ceux de Madura, Jawa ou Bugis, qui sont un peu difficiles car ce ne sont pas des langues indonésiennes officielles. Je me suis habituée à leur langue quotidienne en six mois mais la langue académique est bien plus formelle donc j’ai dû y consacrer plus de temps » confie Léonorra.
Effectivement, les jeunes Malgaches s’intéressent particulièrement aux langues étrangères à part le Français et l’Anglais, comme le Mandarin ou le Japonais. Cela leur donne l’occasion de découvrir les cultures de ces pays jusqu’à s’en imprégner complètement. Ce n’est pas étonnant que la culture manga envahisse les espaces des jeunes, sans contrôle ni maîtrise des différents enjeux qui s’y trouvent derrière, pour un pays comme Madagascar. Ces passionnantes découvertes n’auraient rien de mal si l’on est habile à les exploiter pour l’éducation et pour les activités professionnelles ou tout simplement pour entretenir notre relation avec les pays étrangers.
Publication de la 3ème édition
1er août 08:57, par ramaso (#7441)
Les communales et municipales ne vous disent rien RANDRIA M ? Degagez votre edito.qui n´est pas du tout actuel laissez la place a LEA RATSIAZO !
Dictionnaire du handicap
Gérard Zribi, Dominique Poupée-Fontaine
Cette nouvelle édition, entièrement revue, augmentée et mise à jour, propose comme les précédentes une grande variété de termes autour du handicap : les définitions et classifications des handicaps et des maladies qui les causent, les principaux éléments de politique sociale, les caractéristiques des prestations, établissements et services spécialisés, ainsi que les droits des usagers, les professionnels œuvrant auprès des personnes handicapées, les courants de pensée, méthodes éducatives, approches thérapeutiques et pratiques sociales.
Au total, 400 articles, précédés d'une brève chronologie de la politique du handicap, suivis d'un index de près de 500 entrées et d'un guide pratique destiné aux usagers et à leurs familles. Un ouvrage de référence indispensable pour les professionnels et les décideurs du travail social, de l'éducation nationale, des collectivités territoriales et des entreprises.
Dominique Poupée-Fontaine, diplômée de l'Institut d'études politiques de Strasbourg, est ancienne élève de l'École des hautes études en santé publique.
Gérard Zribi est directeur général d'une association gestionnaire d'établissements et services spécialisés. Il est l'auteur de plusieurs ouvrages sur les handicapés mentaux et psychiques et participe à plusieurs enseignements dans ce domaine.
Dictionnaire du Handicap - Gérard Zribi, Dominique Poupée-Fontaine - 2011 - Presses de l'EHESP
Prix conseillé : 32 Euros.
Code ISBN-13 : 9782810900480 .
SAN DIEGO — From the moment of birth a child is likely to be surrounded by the sound of human voices. It doesn’t take long for the child to decode what at first may seem like chaotic babel into organized transmittal of information – language. It is the one skill which is acquired by the child without instruction from adults.
John McWhorter states that human speech is thought to have begun over 100,000 years ago with one proto-language from which thousands of languages branched off with approximately 6000 surviving today. He explores this history and but never explains why there would be only one proto-language. Is it not just as likely that there may have been several groups of humans each speaking a different language? Neither does he explain how the approximate date for the onset of language is ascertained.
How do languages come to be? How do they change and why do they die? What is pidgin and what role does it play in creating language? Can linguists detect the echo of the original proto-language of any family (Indo-European, Afroasiatic, etc.) group? McWhorter disagrees with those who think that there are existing vocabulary descendants of one original language; assuming one accepts that there was a true proto-language which gave birth to all the thousands of languages that have ever existed.
The author emphasizes the tremendous diversity of how humans communicate through speech. Some languages are loaded with seemingly needless complexities such as adding gender to inanimate objects as in French: la plume (the pen – feminine) – le pied (the foot – masculine). Other languages get along very well without this feature. Also, the more isolated the speakers, the more complex the language which seems counterintuitive.
Some languages are “tonal” – the voice tone (rising and/or falling) as the word is spoken affecting its definition. Some languages have a glottal quality involving opening or closing the larynx. Other languages have a clicking sound. And, then, of course, there is language with no sound such as sign language.
For most of us who speak a language which is also written, we end up actually using three means of communication: ordinary daily spoken language, more formal speech and written language. We speak casually to friends, in short packets of information – seldom in complete sentences. However, were we to appear before a judge or other situation in which we wanted to impress our view we speak more formally.
An example….. to a friend we might say: “I went to get a beer and when I got back the house was dark.” But, to a judge we might say: “I went to buy/purchase a bottle/can of beer and when I returned the house was dark.”
Languages which are written tend to change more slowly and acquire an aura of grammatical standardization. But, according to McWhorter, there is no standardization and in fact there is no such thing as a standard language. He posits the interesting view that all languages are a collection of various dialects. The English spoken in New York City is a variant of that which is spoken in Alabama or the San Fernando Valley in California. Who is to say what “standard” English is?
An exception to this is modern Hebrew which is spoken by a very small group of people in a tiny country for less than a century. Hebrew is also an example of a rare success story of reviving a language but this was because of several unique factors. It was explicitly designated as the official language of a new country – not imposed upon an existing country. It had government support and funding. Immigrants coming to Israel spoke many languages and so were motivated to move to a single language. McWhorter states, however, that the most important factor was the religious link; Hebrew represented the very soul of the people.
I was surprised that McWhorter never mentioned the Basque language which is unique in Europe, seemingly unrelated to any other European language and is thought to pre-date the arrival of Indo-European as well as Romance language families.
I enjoyed this book and though McWhorter does not “write down” to a general readership (such as me) the material is clearly and engagingly presented. He injects personal humor that some might find annoying – but I did not.
I do, however, take issue with the several instances in which the author tries to incorporate his strongly held leftist political ideology which includes: the bane of capitalism, imperialism, globalization, etc. This interjection is awkward and seems desperate – it just doesn’t “fit.”
In an ad hoc footnote McWhorter takes a gratuitous swipe at a former American president regarding his lack of facility in extemporaneous communication with the undertone that this indicates a lack in the president’s other intellectual capabilities. It might be well to remember that Churchill had a speech defect – as did Moses. It seems to me when an author has a need to demean a public figure by name with no tie to the subject of the book – the author actually demeans himself.
With this caveat, I would still recommend the book.
Orysiek is a freelance writer who specializes in coverage of the arts and literature. You may comment to her at email@example.com
Lecturer in Professional Translation Studies (Welsh-medium)
Aberystwyth University - Department of Welsh
Salary: £34,233 to £45,954
Hours: Full Time
Contract Type: Contract / Temporary
Placed on: 31st July 2015
Closes: 7th September 2015
Job Ref: WE.15.01
Aberystwyth University wishes to appoint a lecturer to develop a national postgraduate programme for an MA qualification in Professional Translation Studies. The successful candidate will have expertise in the field of professional translation studies or a relevant subject. He/she will be expected to collaborate with lecturers from many institutions as well as representatives from the translation sector to develop a national professional postgraduate study programme. The successful candidate will have completed (or will be working towards) a PhD thesis in a relevant field or have a suitable professional portfolio to be considered for developing a professional doctorate. He/she will have experience of teaching within the university sector and/or experience of working within the translation sector in Wales, will be able to work within a team, and have the research background and agenda which will strengthen the research portfolio within the field. The ability to communicate fluently throughout the medium of Welsh and English is essential.
This post is funded as part of a national project by the Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol to provide an MA qualification in Professional Translation Studies. This project is led and administrated by Aberystwyth University. The post-holder will be expected to undertake regular teaching duties on weekends in different locations within Wales.
Interview Date: Interviews to be held during the week beginning 21 September 2015
For information and application forms please go to www.aber.ac.uk/en/hr/jobs/vacancies-external/
Completed Application Forms should be signed and returned to the Human Resources Recruitment Team by e-mail, or post. Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org / Tel: 01970 628556
NOTE: Please put the post reference on the front of your envelope and on your application form.
We are a Bilingual Institution which operates a Welsh Language scheme and is committed to Equal Opportunities.
Kannada Okkoota, an umbrella body of Kannada organisations, which is fighting a battle against the “dubbing culture”, has decided to oppose the attempts by a section of the film industry to usher in dubbing of other language films and television contents in Kannada.
According to Vatal Nagaraj, president of Kannada Okkoota, a meeting has been convened on August 8 in the city to discuss the future course of action in view of the recent order of the Competition Commission of India fining the film bodies, including the Karnataka Film Chamber of Commerce, the Kannada Film Producers’ Association and the Karnataka Television Association, for “restraining screening of dubbed films and airing dubbed television content”.
In January 2014, the okkoota took out a huge procession in the city opposing dubbing, and it was attended by film stars and the television fraternity.
Addressing presspersons Mr. Nagaraj said: “A procession against ushering dubbing culture has been planned and the date will be finalised on August 8.”
The Crimean War (1853-1856) pitted the combined might of Great Britain, France, Turkey and Sardinia against Russia. At stake was control of the holy places of Jerusalem and the strategic importance of the Crimean peninsula to the commerce and politics of the Black Sea.
At the Battle of Balaclava, on Oct. 25, 1854, the heaviest British losses were the result of a futile attack by the 670 men of a gallant light cavalry brigade. The carnage was devastating, and the travesty and tragedy are immortalized in the Alfred, Lord Tennyson poem “The Charge of the Light Brigade”:
“Forward, the Light Brigade!”
Was there a man dismayed?
Not though the soldier knew
Someone had blundered.
Theirs not to make reply
Theirs not to reason why,
Theirs but to do and die:
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
“Someone had blundered.” The nature of the blunder was a confusion about one word that meant one thing to the speaker but another to the receivers of his commands. Fitzgerald James Henry Somerset, Lord Raglan, commander of the British forces, gave the order to “charge the guns.” The guns to which he referred were an isolated battery over a slight rise in the valley, in plain sight from his vantage point. The only guns visible to James Thomas Brudnell, Earl of Cardigan and leader of the Light Brigade, were those of the tightly secured Russian battalion at the far end of the valley. The command seemed utter madness, but it was a command. While Raglan and his staff watched from behind the lines, Lord Cardigan dutifully led the charge into the Valley of Death. More than two-thirds of his men were killed or wounded.
That such a failure to communicate could result in the deaths of hundreds of soldiers is appalling, but evidence exists that World War II was extended by a deadly three weeks because of a single error in translation.
More Richard Lederer columns on language
Victory in Europe for the Allies came on May 8, 1945, and Japanese resistance on the island of Okinawa ended seven weeks later. On July 26, 1945, Churchill, Stalin and Truman issued the Potsdam Declaration: Japan had to surrender unconditionally or accept the consequences.
The Japanese cabinet seemed to favor a settlement but had to overcome two major obstacles to compliance — the tenacity of the Japanese generals and the pride of the citizens of Japan. Needing time, Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki, on behalf of the Imperial Cabinet, issued a statement explaining that they were giving the peace offer mokusatsu.
Mokusatsu can mean either “We are considering it” or “We are ignoring it.” Most Japanese understood that the reply to the surrender ultimatum contained the first meaning, but there was one notable exception. The man who prepared the English language translation for the Domei news agency used ignore in the broadcast monitored by the English-speaking press. To lose face by retracting the news release was unthinkable to the proud Japanese. They let the statement stand.
Believing that their proposal had been ignored or rejected and unaware that the Japanese were still considering the Potsdam Declaration, the Allies proceeded to open the atomic age. On July 28, 1945, American newspapers printed stories that the Japanese had ignored the peace offer, and on August 6 — 70 years ago — President Harry Truman ordered an atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. A new era in human history was irretrievably begun.
The destructive power of the bomb was an emblem of the destructive potential of language misused and misunderstood. The dead and missing from the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki three days later numbered 134,000. Concurrently, Russia declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria.
In the 20 days that followed the confusion about the meaning of mokusatsu, more than 150,000 men, women and children were lost. One word misinterpreted.
Please send your questions and comments about language to email@example.com www.verbivore.com
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Sharpest comebacks are mightier than the sword
Coloring books for adults have seemingly become a new fad for the nation’s white-collar workers to destress, but doctors warn that overuse of the books might cause physical problems and suggest limiting their use.
The coloring books focus on geometrical and floral patterns, as well as figures for coloring, with increasing claims that the process provides emotional release and calming of the mind, achieving the effects of art therapy.
Hsinchu Cathay General Hospital department of ophthalmology director Chen Ying-shan (陳瑩山) said that the department recently saw a patient who has used the method 20 minutes at a time three times a day for two weeks before coming to the hospital complaining of sore and puffy eyes with accompanying sensations of pain and numbness.
The patient has greater than minus-8 diopters in both eyes and has developed minor symptoms of presbyopia, the department said.
“The coloring books require users to focus on detail and necessitate close scrutiny,” Chen said.
“Long-term close scrutiny can cause the eye muscles to become overly taut and might cause vision issues and discomfort,” Chen said, adding, however, that after using ciliary muscle relaxant for a month the patient has fully recovered.
Chen suggests a 33cm distance from coloring books and a time limit of 20 minutes per day with at least a 30-minute break after coloring, or coloring before going to sleep, as the calming effect might aid sleep quality.
He also said that those electing to use coloring books should be sure to eat lots of green vegetables for their lutein content, which has a direct relationship to eye health.
Cheng Hsin Hospital doctor Yuan Wei (袁瑋) said that coloring focuses the attention of the drawer on the image to be colored, adding that it might decrease stress and calm the nerves.
However, Yuan said that coloring, like sports or carving, only offers temporary relief and if people have experienced anxiety or depression for more than a month, they should seek professional help.
According to books.com.tw, coloring books for adults accounted for half of the top 10 titles on their best-sellers list last week.
The Chinese version of Scottish illustrator Johanna Basford’s coloring book Secret Garden has been No. 1 on the online bookstore’s Chinese-language best-sellers list for four weeks.
Last week, five of the 10 best-selling titles on the list were coloring books for adults. A copy of Secret Garden was being sold every 30 seconds on the online bookstore last week and more than 1,000 pre-orders for Basford’s coloring book Enchanted Forest were placed within three hours of its release this month.
Books.com.tw executives said that 90 percent of coloring book purchases were made by women from 27 to 44 years of age.
An office worker surnamed Lin said she heard about the coloring books from friends and wants to try it because she thinks coloring can help to relieve work pressure.
CommLab India's team visits China to strengthen its translation vendor network in order to cater to the growing demands for translation and localization of e-learning courseware.
Hyderabad, India, August 02, 2015 --(PR.com)-- With globalization, corporate organizations, big and small, have spread far and wide. As a ripple effect, there has been a great deal of interest in translation and localization of e-learning courseware. According to RK Prasad, CEO of CommLab India, never has been such a demand for translated e-learning courses by organizations; what's more, the demand is not just for translation of content and text, it is also for audio narration into almost all international languages.
CommLab India is riding this wave for the last six years, with about 20% of its revenue coming from e-learning translations. It anticipates even more growth in the years to come. To meet this ever-increasing demand from its global customers, CommLab is now making all efforts to beef up its capacity by recruiting and partnering with translation companies and audio narrators across the world.
In this context, its senior management team has visited China (Beijing and Hong Kong) this July and conducted a series of meetings with local translation companies. CommLab hopes that this endeavor will result in partnering with cost-effective, quality conscious companies who wish to take advantage of CommLab's enviable list of Fortune 500 clients.
About CommLab India
CommLab India LLP is a leading learning solutions company with expertise in design and development of e-learning courses. Its learning solutions include e-learning course development, m-learning solutions, conversion of legacy courses into the mobile compatible HTML5 format, translation of online courses and hosting and managing training materials on LMS.
CommLab has worked with organizations in various industries such as finance, insurance, manufacturing and healthcare. Based in India, it is the preferred vendor to several Fortune 500 companies, such as Alcoa, Mettler-Toledo and Pepco Holding Inc. and has an ongoing relationship with organizations such as SAI Global, Hill-Rom and Unilever.
Ayesha Habeeb Omer
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Salary: $15.00 to $30.00 per hour
Location: Charlotte, NC
Post Date: 2015-07-31-07:00
Employment Type: Freelance
Job Order Number: 03200-9775424Apply Now
The Creative Group is actively seeking Proofreaders who enjoy fast-paced environments for a contract to full-time opportunity with our expanding Charlotte client. The Proofreader will be responsible for editing ad copy, newsletters, product copy, and more! Naturally, a keen eye for errors and a strong knowledge of the grammar.
Please send resumes to Courtney Nicholson at firstname.lastname@example.org for immediate consideration!
We're seeking a grammatical expert. Must have a keen eye for detail and spelling errors. Knowledge of the AP Style guide and copyediting techniques.
The Creative Group, a Robert Half company, specializes in placing highly skilled marketing, advertising, design, interactive and public relations professionals on a project and full-time basis with advertising and public relations agencies, Fortune 500 companies and small to mid-sized firms. We are faster at finding you work because of our strong network. We reach out to over 12,000 creative and marketing hiring managers each week. In addition to our free job search services, we provide our candidates with access to online skills training and a competitive benefits and compensation package.
In 2015, our company once again was named to FORTUNE® magazine's list of "World's Most Admired Companies." (March 1, 2015).
Apply for this job now or contact our branch office at 1.888.846.1668 FREE to learn more about this position.
All applicants applying for U.S. job openings must be authorized to work in the United States. All applicants applying for Canadian job openings must be authorized to work in Canada.
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