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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
When thinking of the college degrees that lead to the highest-paying jobs, a degree in English isn’t the first that comes to mind. Though there’s more to choosing a major than the monetary aspect attached to a future job, there’s also no denying the importance of having strong employment opportunities tied to your college degree.
Today, English is taken up for a completely different reason. Besides serving as a discipline in itself, it also serves as a platform and a springboard to many other jobs and profiles. The language in itself provides a content and language integrate learning (CLIL) platform helps in enhancing general grasp over other disciplines. In terms of personality development, this course contributes to individuals in a big way. It enables those introverts to gain confidence through the sharpening of the ability to express their thoughts and feelings. At times people are unable to express themselves due to the lack of language skills and without these basic skills they often hesitate to interact. So, this is another positive addition that the course offers to the students.
Besides, a degree in English arms you with the most vital statistics needed in the job market- Critical thinking, Creativity, Interpretation. It prepares you for a diverse range of professional fields, including teaching, journalism, law, publishing, medicine, and the fine arts. You may also pursue careers in tech companies and other startup ventures.
To get into B.A English (Hons) degree, you would need to have passed XII from any Board. Some universities like Delhi University, Panjab University give admission to the aspirants through cut off system i.e. according to the class 12 board examination marks. Some universities conduct an entrance examination followed by an interview.
In conversation with Harshita Pathak, 2nd year student of B.A. English(H), MCM DAV COLLEGE, Chandigarh.
Why did you choose English Honors when STEM courses are much sought after?
I opted for English Honors for graduation because of my love for the subject. I felt that this was the subject that gave you an insight into Life which STEM courses did not. It also gives an understanding of one kind or another is at the heart of all human cultures. It is human experience itself, expressed in the emotionally rich medium of the language. The study of literature is a study of the nuances of human nature and imagination as represented by the inexhaustible subtlety of language. Unlike other subjects like Physics, Biology, Maths, Chemistry, Business Studies, Literature is closely related to the other parts of painting, sculpture and music and is fundamental to the newer image-and-language art form of film and to new academic approaches.
What are your career plans for future?
Since I entered high school, my aim has been to become a Professor in English. I had loved literature from an early age and would like to deepen my resolve to be an English Professor by teaching students at a higher level. I would like to possess the gift of a tremendously powerful educator. I would love to teach students to be writer with a voice. It is my dream to share my life’s experiences and personal practical knowledge to capture my students’ attention and teach English writing skills and ideas. I love to impart the knowledge that I receive from anyone to everyone as I believe that it gets enhance when we share ideas and facts. I desire to develop the skills and charisma to pull off an exciting and invigorating English class by making it so lively and tantalizing.
*Lady Shri Ram College for Women New Delhi.
*St. Stephen’s College New Delhi.
*St. Xavier’s College – Autonomous, Mumbai.
* Miranda House New Delhi.
*Christ University Bengaluru.
*Hindu College New Delhi.
*Hans Raj College New Delhi.
*Ramjas College New Delhi.
*MCM DAV College, Chandigarh.
Search Engine Marketing
Your language skills would help you in getting into Search Engine Optimization. This job requires you to use digital media to market products through online advertising and search engine optimization for companies. You don’t need to be a programmer, all you need is a strong analytical ability and creativity in you.
Another file that you can get in is Journalism as this is one industry that values people with good writing skills and who are able to analyze and produce quality work. After graduation, you can be a print reporter, where you would produce, write, and research investigative news reports. They also expect you to have a strong researching ability. You can do a post-graduation or diploma course in journalism.
Social Media and Community
You can also work in a public relation firm. You would be required to write news releases, newsletters and find content to send out to social media companies and writing web copies and brochures. Later, on you can get into the strategic side of things where the aim is to help companies shape the public’s perception through media. The government also hires PR writers to work in house in order to keep the public informed about the various governmental activities. A course in Mass Communication or Media and Communication will be a boost to your career.
This is a new communication role at many companies. Social media community managers are hired to run various social media properties for brands and companies.This job is part marketing, part editorial and communications, and part branding. It is great for out-going people with strong communication skills (for example, English degree and humanities majors).
Even though a large number of people get into the creative and publishing Business after doing English, it can’t be stated as a norm. An English graduate can very well manage a marketing job or get into the corporate sector. Your degree should not hold you back from the vast career choices that are out there for you. As an English major, if you have strong communication skills then this job may excite you. Sports teams, brands, government and companies need people to take care of their social media programs and find ways to engage the public and fans.
This job involves taking care of the development and promotion of their brands and products. People with a good grasp of the English language and good communication skills are suited well for this job. One has to have an understanding of marketing; an MBA in marketing will definitely help.
In case you are eyeing the corporate sector, you can get into Content Writing. No matter what the case is, English literature graduates with a flair for writing along with a dose of humor are severely sorted after by the e-advertising agencies and blogs to fill in the posts of content writers. From educational, fashion and lifestyle contents to that of writing professional articles and web pages, you get to do and know a lot of stuff in this stint as a content writer. And, if you want to go completely corporate, all the e-business firms and other MNCs like TCS, Accenture, Capgemini, Thomson Reuters to the e-companies like Flipkart, a proper content developer and editor has become a necessity.
If you love films and if you have got a strong command over languages, then the job profile of a subtitle specialist is simply tailor-made for you. However, if you yearn for fixed hours’ duties and have strict likes and dislikes as far as films are concerned, please steer clear from this profile. You may have to see each and every scene repeatedly, sometimes even for hours, in order to pitch in the right translations. You would review incoming scripts/pitches/remake ideas, etc, and decides which of those ideas become movies and work with writers, producers, directors, agents/managers, cast, etc. as you shepherd the project through the filmmaking process, often dealing heavily with the development of the story and character themselves.If you’re intelligent, funny and have a way with words then you could opt for digital copy writing.
One can do a masters or diploma in creative writing before applying. Creative social media, blog posts, e-books, web promotional ideas and banner advertisement are some of the things you would be working on.
Another field you can get into is Technical Writing. Many technical writers have writing-related degrees such as English, creative writing or journalism. Technical writers prepare instruction manuals and other supporting documents. They also collect, synthesize and spread technical information between customers, designers and manufacturers.
A better way of describing the role is one of technical communication – taking dense, information-packed manuals, guides and reports and translating them into language a target audience will understand.
If you have a knack for explaining complicated projects and procedures in simple, easy-to-follow steps in correct syntactical form, you have the skills necessary to be a technical writer.
Here’s a prediction: five years from now scoffing at the thought of “online university” will be reserved for only the oldest and foggy puritans of the old guard. You would be required to create, write, and produce new course content, record videos of your teaching, run a virtual classroom. All open education universities, for-profit professional education sites and online colleges would hire you. For the digital universities and online colleges, a PhD or MA would be required.
Therefore, if you have a love and passion for English Language, embrace the career that opens doors for several other careers.
Talent from the East Neuk has shown the stanza strength of the county as two Fifers take top prizes in a national poetry competition.
The traslation app is still in the preliminary stages of development but the goal is to eventually sell it across the country.
Mazel Tov! Voter forms translated into Yiddish
Assemblymember Dov Hikind pushed for the new voter registration forms. Photo courtesy of Hikind’s office
Board of Elections expands language accommodation
By Paula Katinas
Brooklyn Daily Eagle
The Board of Elections is printing voter registration forms in Yiddish this election season, and one Brooklyn lawmaker is hailing the move as an inclusive gesture to the city’s Jewish population.
Assemblymember Dov Hikind said that he had requested back in December of 2015 that the Board of Elections translate voter registration forms into Yiddish.
Up to now, ballots and other materials generated by the Board of Elections had been translated into Bengali, Chinese, Korean, Spanish and Russian.
Hikind, a Democrat who represents the heavily Orthodox Jewish neighborhood of Borough Park, said he felt it was time to expand the available Board of Elections languages to Yiddish. “There are thousands of Yiddish-speakers in my district and New York State,” Hikind said in a statement.
In a letter to Board of Elections President Michael Michel, Hikind wrote that making the registration forms available in Yiddish would encourage speakers of the language to register to vote because the process would be comfortable, inviting and user-friendly.
“I invite you to take a look at any newsstand near my office, where you will see dozens of Yiddish language newspapers, magazines and other publications, attesting to the vibrancy and every day usage of the language,” Hikind wrote.
“Everyone deserves the right to have their voice heard and be able to vote. Now Yiddish speaking constituents can now register with ease,” Hikind said.
Hikind urged all eligible voters to register to vote in the Nov. 8 election. “I urge all who have not yet registered to vote, to take the time now, to do so. Applications must be postmarked no later than Oct. 14 and received by a board of elections no later than Oct. 19 to be eligible to vote in the General Election,” he said.
Voter registration forms are available at Hikind’s office at 1310 48th St. The office is located on the second floor.
The forms can be download at http://www.nyccfb.info/PDF/nyc_votes/forms/YI_Registration_Form.pdf.
September 23, 2016 - 1:32pm
LEXINGTON, Ky., Sept. 23 (UPI) -- The En-Gedi scroll remains rolled and sealed, and will likely never be unraveled. It's also severely burned. But none of that has stopped scientists from revealing the text within.
The ancient scroll is the first severely damaged, ink-based scroll to be transcribed without being physically opened. A team of scientists led by researchers at the University of Kentucky have used sophisticated 3D imaging to scan and reconstruct the bits and pieces of decipherable text.
In virtually unrolling the scroll, researchers were able to identify 35 lines of text, 18 of which were preserved. The remaining 17 were successfully reconstructed.
The scroll is named for the synagogue in Israel where archaeologists unearthed the rolled document in 1970. Its contents are biblical in nature. Previous analysis of the scroll revealed eight verses from the Book of Leviticus.
Researchers hope that their latest scanning success will provide experts another chance to translate ancient scriptures.
"With the aid of the amazing tomography technology we are now able to zero in on the early history of the biblical text, as the En-Gedi scroll has been dated to the first centuries of the common era," Emanuel Tov, a researcher at Hebrew University, said in a news release.
Scientists hope their work will enable others to decipher hidden text within delicate or damaged artifacts.
"We are releasing all our data for the scroll from En-Gedi: the scans, our geometric analysis, the final texture," said lead researcher Brent Seales, a computer sciences professor at Kentucky. "We think that the scholarly community will have interest in the data and the process as well as our results."
The transcription of efforts of Seales and his colleagues were recalled in a new paper, published this week in the journal Science Advances.
Faut-il accorder un participe passé suivi d'un infinitif ou non? Quel temps doit-on mettre après "si"? Pas facile de maîtriser toutes les subtilités de la langue de Molière. L'Express propose 10 astuces pour ne plus faire d'erreurs.
1. L'accord du participe passé précédant un infinitif
Faut-il accorder un participe passé suivi d'un infinitif ou non? Cela dépend. Il faut d'abord identifier le sujet du verbe à l'infinitif.
Par exemple, dans la phrase "les arbres que j'ai vu planter", les arbres ne font pas l'action de planter. Le participe passé "vu" ne s'accorde donc pas.
inRead invented by Teads
En revanche, dans "les arbres, que j'ai vus se dessécher", les arbres sont le vrai sujet du verbe se dessécher. On accorde donc le participe passé qui précède l'infinitif.
: Pour vérifier si le sujet fait bien l'action, il est possible d'ajouter "en train de" entre le participe passé et le verbe à l'infinitif: "Les arbres que j'ai vus en train de se dessécher."
>> Cliquez et corrigez notre fausse lettre d'amour truffée de fautes, ci-dessous!
2. Les adjectifs de couleur
On orthographie "sandales roses" mais on écrit "voitures rouge vif": cherchez l'erreur! La couleur, en tant qu'adjectif, s'accorde en genre et en nombre avec le nom auquel il se rapporte. Ainsi, cinq couleurs s'accordent toujours: rose, mauve, pourpre, écarlate et fauve. Mais si la couleur est désignée par un nom, il est invariable. Il est possible d'avoir des montres marron ou mauves.
Les adjectifs de couleur composés restent aussi invariables: "des carreaux bleus" mais des "carreaux bleu ciel", des "poussins jaunes", mais "des rideaux jaune poussin". De même, deux adjectifs utilisés pour désigner une seule couleur ne s'accordent pas: "des cheveux marron foncé".
: Pour savoir quand mettre un trait d'union ou non entre deux adjectifs de couleur, il suffit de regarder s'il s'agit de deux adjectifs de couleur ou deux mots qui se rapportent à une couleur: "des yeux bleu clair". "Clair" n'est pas une couleur, il n'y a donc pas de trait d'union. Ce qui n'est pas le cas de "des yeux bleu-vert".
3. "a" ou "à" ?
Erreur courante, mais qui paie cher. Avec un accent, "à" est une préposition. Sans, il est le verbe avoir à la troisième personne du singulier: "il va à la montage", "il a besoin de lunettes".
: Pour savoir si "a" est un verbe , il suffit de transposer la phrase à l'imparfait: "Il a tort" devient ainsi "il avait tort" et s'écrit sans accent.
4. La concordance des temps après "si"
"Si j'aurais su, j'aurais pas venu." Cette réplique du Petit Gibus de La Guerre des boutons n'est définitivement pas française mais peut semer le doute chez certains. Que choisir alors entre "S'il pleut, je prendrai mon parapluie" ou "prendrais mon parapluie?" La règle est stricte sur ce point: lorsque le "si" est suivi du présent, le verbe de la proposition principale est au futur. A l'inverse, si le verbe suivant "si" est à l'imparfait, le temps à employer ensuite est le conditionnel: "Si j'avais su, je ne serais pas venu."
5. "Ce" ou "Se"?
Choisir entre le pronom démonstratif, "ce", et le pronom possessif "se" peut parfois s'avérer difficile. Pour bien faire la distinction, il suffit de retenir que "se" est un pronom personnel et se place avant le verbe auquel il se rapporte:
"L'assemblée s'est terminée hier" et non "l'assemblée c'est terminée hier". Le sujet du verbe est "assemblée" et "se" se rapporte au sujet.
En revanche, dans "l'assemblée, c'est terminé", "ce" est le sujet direct du verbe. Si l'on peut remplacer "se" par "celui-là", alors il s'agira du pronom démonstratif et l'on devra écrire "ce": "cette assemblée-là". Ces règles s'appliquent aussi pour différencier "sa" de "ça" (pour "cela").
: Pour s'assurer que l'on doit écrire "se", on peut changer de personne et le remplacer par "me", "te", "nous" ou "vous": "On se téléphone demain" devient alors "nous nous téléphonons demain".
6. Les mots en -ueil ou en -euil
En règle générale, le son "euil" s'écrit "e-u-i-l". C'est le cas pour certains noms de gibier: bouvreuil, chevreuil, écureuil, et autres mots: deuil, fauteuil, seuil, treuil, cerfeuil.
Mais il peut aussi se transcrire "u-e-i-l" lorsqu'il est précédé d'un "c" ou d'un "g" tel que "accueil". Autre exception, le mot "oeil" qui a une orthographe encore différente.
: Pour s'assurer du bon ordre des lettres après le son "c" ou "g", on peut utiliser une expression mnémotechnique dont on retiendra les premières lettres: "Un Enfant Intelligent".
7. Après que + indicatif ou subjonctif?
Quel temps mettre "après que"? Si l'indicatif exprime la certitude, le subjonctif est le mode de ce qui est envisagé. Il paraît donc naturel de conjuguer le verbe suivant "après que" à l'indicatif puisque l'action comprise dans ce verbe s'est déjà déroulée: "Après qu'il a fumé, l'appartement empestait la cigarette."
A l'inverse, "avant que" et "jusqu'à ce que" exigent d'être suivis du subjonctif puisque les faits sont considérés comme encore incertains: "Avant que tu ne fasses la vaisselle, tu devrais boire ton café."
"Bien que" remet en doute l'action sous entendue dans le verbe, il est donc suivi du subjonctif: "Bien que je me sois couché tôt, je suis fatigué."
: on peut remplacer "bien que" par "lorsque": "Après qu'il a parcouru la moitié de la ville, il est entré dans le bar" devient "Lorsqu'il a parcouru la moitié de la ville." Dès lors, impossible d'être tenté de placer un subjonctif:
8. "Y a-t-il" ou "y a t'il"?
Trait d'union ou apostrophe? On utilise le trait d'union lorsque, pour faciliter la prononciation entre deux voyelles, on rajoute un "t" entre le sujet et le verbe. Cette "béquille" n'a cependant aucune fonction dans la phrase et s'appuie sur deux traits d'union: "Y a-t-il un pilote dans l'avion?" évite ainsi "y a il", imprononçable.
L'apostrophe intervient lorsque le "t" renvoie au pronom personnel "toi", élidé en raison de son emplacement à côté d'une voyelle. C'est le cas pour les expressions suivant un verbe à l'impératif comme "va-t'en!" que l'on peut détailler en "Va toi en". Dans "Y a-t-il", "toi" n'est pas sous-entendu: il s'écrit donc toujours sans apostrophe.
: En cas de doute, il est possible de vérifier que le "t" est une béquille et est entouré de traits d'unions en remettant la phrase à l'endroit: "Il y a du soleil" donne ainsi "Y a-t-il du soleil?".
9. Le "ne" de négation
La négation s'exprime au moyen de deux éléments, dont le premier est la particule "ne" et le deuxième "pas" ou "rien". Devant une voyelle ou un h muet, le "e" du "ne" est élidé. Le "ne" est alors remplacé par "n'": "Je n'aurais pas dû boire autant." La difficulté survient lorsque les mots précédant la particule "n'" se terminent par le même son. S'il ne s'entend pas toujours à l'oreille, il est pourtant obligatoire de le mettre: "On n'y voit rien" et non "On y voit rien". De même, "Personne n'est venu réclamer ce bracelet."
10. L'accord des nombres
Les chiffres ont tous leurs exceptions, et compliquent la tâche lorsqu'ils doivent apparaître en toutes lettres. Les nombres sont généralement invariables. Mais le zéro employé comme un nom s'accorde: "Quatre zéros après la virgule." Le chiffre "un" s'accorde en genre, mais ne prend jamais la marque du pluriel: "Ce sont les numéros un de l'entreprise." En revanche, dans l'expression "les uns les autres", "un" s'accorde puisqu'il ne s'agit plus du nombre cardinal, mais d'un pronom indéfini.
Vingt prend un "s" uniquement s'il est multiplié et s'il n'est pas suivi d'un autre nombre. Ainsi on écrit "quatre-vingts" et "quatre-vingt-dix". Cent s'accorde seulement s'il n'est pas suivi d'un autre chiffre: "mille deux cents", à différencier de "mille deux cent cinq". Mille est toujours invariable que ce soit pour "les mille et une nuits" ou "trois mille euros".
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Helen Mirren as Prospera in a 2010 film adaptation of The Tempest. Photograph: Sportsphoto Ltd/Touchstone/Allstar
Saturday 24 September 2016 08.00 BST
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Whenever people ask me that inevitable question, “Who’s your favourite author?” I always say “Shakespeare”. There are some good reasons for that. First, so much of what we know about plots, characters, the stage, fairies and inventive swearwords comes from Shakespeare. Second, if you name a living author the other living authors will be mad at you because it isn’t them, but Shakespeare is conveniently dead.
Third, Shakespeare refuses to be boxed in. Not only do we know very little about what he really thought, felt and believed, but the plays themselves are elusive. Just when you think you’ve got a meaning nailed down, your interpretation melts like jelly and you’re left scratching your head. Maybe he’s deep, very deep. Or maybe he didn’t have a continuity editor. And Shakespeare will never turn up on a talkshow and be asked to explain himself, the lucky devil.
Shakespeare is infinitely interpretable. We’ve had a fascist Richard III, we’ve had a Canadian First Nations Macbeth, we’ve had a Tempest with a female Prospero called Prospera, starring Helen Mirren. In the 18th century they had a Tempest opera, which used only a third of Shakespeare’s original text. Caliban had a sister called Sycorax, Miranda had a sister called Dorinda, and there was an extra young man so Dorinda would have someone to marry.
Illustration by Nick Higgins
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Illustration by Nick Higgins
People have been redoing Shakespeare for a long time, often with odd results. And I too have redone Shakespeare, also with odd results. In honour of his 400th anniversary the Hogarth Shakespeare project has invited a number of authors to choose a play and revisit it in the form of a prose novel. I chose The Tempest. It was my first choice, by miles. It contains a great many unanswered questions as well as several very complex characters, and the challenge of trying to answer the questions and tease out the complexities was part of the attraction.
I’d thought about The Tempest before, and written about it as well. In my book about writers and writing – called, oddly enough, On Writers and Writing – there’s a chapter on the artist as magician and/or impostor called “Prospero, the Wizard of Oz, Mephisto & Co”. All of these figures are illusionists, as artists are. And illusionists always have a dubious side to them. The Wizard of Oz is only pretending to be a real magician: really he’s a fraud. But the magic in The Tempest is real.
Michael Clark Caliban Propero’s Books
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Michael Clark as Caliban in Propero’s Books (1991) Photograph: Allstar/Channel 4
It is the story of a magician and former duke of Milan, Prospero, set afloat with his infant daughter Miranda after being deposed in a coup by his treacherous brother Antonio and Alonso, the king of Naples. They land on an island, already inhabited by a savage creature called Caliban, the son of a dead witch, Sycorax, and the air-spirit Ariel, who was imprisoned by Sycorax in a pine tree. Prospero at first befriends Caliban, but when the creature tries to rape Miranda, Prospero enslaves him with the aid of his magic.
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When an auspicious star brings Prospero’s enemies within his reach 12 years later, he raises an illusory tempest with the aid of Ariel. His enemies, his one-time helper Gonzalo and Ferdinand, son of Alonso, end up on the island and are manipulated in various magical ways by Prospero, with the upshot that Ferdinand and Miranda fall in love and the enemies are entranced, tortured and, at length, forgiven.
Meanwhile, Caliban has joined two lowlifes, Trinculo and Stephano – a drunken butler and a jester – and the three of them plan to murder Prospero, but are punished by Prospero’s goblins. At the end, Ariel is set free, everyone sails off to Naples and Prospero steps out of his own play and asks to be released from it: perhaps the most puzzling ending to any Shakespeare play.
In On Writers and Writing, I wrote:
Prospero uses his arts – magic arts, arts of illusion – not just for entertainment, though he does some of that as well, but for the purposes of moral and social improvement.
That being said, it must also be said that Prospero plays God. If you don’t happen to agree with him – as Caliban doesn’t – you’d call him a tyrant, as Caliban does. With a slight twist, Prospero might be the Grand Inquisitor, torturing people for their own good. You might also call him a usurper – he’s stolen the island from Caliban, just as his own brother has stolen the dukedom from him; and you might call him a sorcerer, as Caliban also terms him. We – the audience – are inclined to give him the benefit of the doubt, and to see him as a benevolent despot. Or we are inclined most of the time. But Caliban is not without insight.
Add to that the fact that Prospero’s loss of his dukedom is largely his own fault – by his own admission, he neglected to take care of his realm, plunging himself into his magic studies instead and delegating his power to Antonio – and we find him altogether an ambiguous gentleman.
I couldn’t write it straight – all the islands are now known; Prospero would have been rescued by helicopter
The first thing I did when starting this project was to reread the play. Then I read it again. Then I got my hands on all the films of it that I could find, and watched them. Then I read the play again.
Then came the usual episodes of panic and chaos: why had I foolishly agreed to write a book in this series? Why had I chosen The Tempest? Really it was impossible! What was the modern-day equivalent of a magician marooned on an island for 12 years with a now adolescent daughter? You couldn’t write that straight: all the islands are known, there are satellites now, they would have been rescued by a helicopter in no time flat. And what about the flying air spirit? And the Caliban figure?
Calm, calm, I told myself. I read the play again, this time backwards. The last three words Prospero says are “Set me free.” But free from what? In what has he been imprisoned?
Julian Bleach Patrick Stewart Tempest
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Julian Bleach (Ariel) and Patrick Stewart at the Royal Shakespeare theatre, Stratford-on-Avon (2006)
I started counting up the prisons and imprisonments in the book. There are a lot of them. In fact, every one of the characters is constrained at some point in the play. This was suggestive. The play is about illusions: magic is the only weapon Prospero has. And it is about vengeance versus mercy, as in so many of Shakespeare’s plays. But it’s also about prisons. So I decided to set my novel in a prison.
Other questions quickly arose. Is Prospero’s island magical in itself? How to suggest that quality in a modern novel? Is the island a place of trial? Maybe both.
And the characters: is Prospero wise and kind, or a tetchy old crank? Is Miranda sweet and pure, or a more savvy, tougher girl who knows about wombs and abuses and vilifies Caliban? Is Caliban himself the Freudian id? Is he Natural Man? Is he a victim of colonial oppression, as he is frequently played these days? But what about his rapist tendencies? Is he bad by nature? Is he Prospero’s dark shadow? What does Prospero mean when he says of Caliban, at the end of the play, “This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine?” And by the way, who is Caliban’s father?
Miranda John William Waterhouse
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Is she sweet or savvy? … Miranda by John William Waterhouse Photograph: Alamy
The Tempest is also a musical: it has more songs and dances and music in it than any other Shakespeare play. The main musician is Ariel, but Caliban also has musical talents. So I incorporated a lot of song and dance numbers in the novel.
But above all, The Tempest is a play about a producer/director/playwright putting on a play – namely, the action that takes place on the island, complete with special effects – that contains another play, the masque of the goddesses. Of all Shakespeare’s plays, this one is most obviously about plays, directing and acting.
How to do justice to all these elements in a modern novel? It was a huge challenge.
I called my novel Hag-Seed, which is one of the names used by Prospero when he is railing at Caliban, and Caliban is cursing him right back. Why name it after Caliban rather than Prospero? I won’t tell you that in advance, but there is a reason.
Hag-Seed is set in the year 2013, in Canada, in a region somewhat close to a town where there is an actual Shakespeare festival. It opens with a video of The Tempest that’s been made in a prison and is being watched by an unseen audience inside the prison. Act 1, Scene 1 – the actual tempest, with sailors running around and yelling – is in progress on screen, when suddenly there are sounds of a prison riot. Lockdown!
Cut to the backstory. (This is what Shakespeare gives us in Act 1, Scene 2.) Twelve years earlier, Felix Phillips, artistic director of the Makeshiweg theatre festival, was ousted from his position by Tony, his second in command, and Tony’s pal Sal O’Nally, a politician. In The Tempest, these characters are dukes and kings, but Canada does not have an overpopulation of those. The nearest equivalent to courtiers and influence-peddling and backroom deals is to be found in the world of federal politics.
My Prospero has the aid of a young computer hacker: after all, what is Ariel but a special effects man?
Felix has been living in exile in a countryside shanty built into a hillside by 19th-century settlers – the closest I could get to Prospero’s “cave” or “cell” – modelled, incidentally, on a real shanty I know quite well. Shakespeare does not provide Prospero with an outhouse, but I’ve taken care of that for Felix.
In isolation, one can hear voices. Felix has come to half-believe that the spirit of his only beloved child, Miranda – who died at the age of three – is with him, and is now 15. To ease his solitude, he’s taken a position as a drama teacher at the Fletcher Correctional Institute, and has been putting on Shakespeare plays there. (Similar prison programmes do in fact exist, or have existed, in the UK, US and Italy as well as in Canada.)
When an “auspicious star” – here, a twinkly female character called Estelle, who has a lot of influence – brings Felix’s enemies within his reach, he stages The Tempest in his prison, thereby hoping to entrap them, enchant them, and get both his revenge and his old position back. He has the aid of a young hacker inmate, who uses digital technology to great effect: what is Ariel to Prospero but an extremely efficient special-effects man, especially good with virtual thunder and lightning, not to mention musical accompaniments? Since no prisoner wants to play a girl, Felix hires a female actor to play the part of Miranda. Meanwhile, the spirit-girl Miranda, fascinated with the play, decides to … but no spoilers!
Ben Whishaw Ariel
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Ben Whishaw as Ariel in the 2010 film (2010). Photograph: Alamy
As with The Tempest, at the end the action is projected into the future, as the inmate student actors submit their reports about what they think will happen to the main characters once they’re aboard the ship to Naples. Hint: it’s not all good. One of the questions that’s bothered me about The Tempest: why would Prospero, having been betrayed by his evil brother once – an evil brother who does not repent, even when he’s been forgiven – throw away his magic weapons and then climb onboard a ship with that very same evil brother? What might happen then?
Writing Hag-Seed was strangely invigorating, and also very informative. I now know what a pignut is: not a peanut, as I’d previously thought, but a vegetable with nodules on the underground stem. And, in a blinding flash of light, I discovered the answer to something that’s always bothered me. Why do Trinculo and Stephano go on and on about Caliban smelling like a fish? Are they just being bullies? No, came the shattering insight! Caliban smells like a fish because he’s the one who catches the fish for Prospero and Miranda. That’s what they’ve been eating for 12 years: fish, pignuts, and scamels, whatever they are. No bread, no butter, no pepper. And no wine – that’s why Caliban falls victim to the demon drink the first time he encounters it.
Oh, and marmosets. And jays’ nests. It’s basic. No wonder Prospero is in such a mad hurry to get back to Milan.
• Hag-Seed is published on 6 October by Hogarth. Margaret Atwood will take part in a number of events across the UK from 6 October starting with the Southbank Centre’s London literature festival. margaretatwood.ca/events or penguin.co.uk.
Exposition - Après Babel, traduire
MuCEM - Du 14 décembre 2016 au 20 mars 2017
samedi 24 septembre 2016 par Mohammad Bakri
Il n’y a pas de traduction sans différence des langues, sans incompréhension. Cette incompréhension s’est nommée « Babel ». Babel, malédiction ou chance ? Il ne s’agit pas de répondre directement à cette question, mais d’explorer l’alternative en se laissant guider par la force de la traduction.
La diversité des langues apparaît bien souvent comme la dernière frontière : un obstacle à l’émergence d’une société unie et d’un espace politique commun. L’exposition inverse cette proposition et montre comment la traduction est un savoir-faire avec les différences, un excellent modèle pour la citoyenneté d’aujourd’hui. « La langue de l’Europe, c’est la traduction », dit Umberto Eco. L’Europe et la Méditerranée se sont construites sur cette pratique paradoxale : dire « presque » la même chose, et inventer en passant, à la confluence des savoirs et des langues.
Partant d’une abstraction : le passage d’une langue à une autre, l’exposition donne à voir, à penser et à voyager dans cet entre-deux. L’exposition présente des œuvres et des objets, des manuscrits, des documents, des installations et des performances, qui manifestent de façon spectaculaire les jeux et les enjeux de la traduction.
Commissariat général : Barbara Cassin, philologue et philosophe, directrice de recherches au CNRS
Commissariat exécutif : Sophie Bernillon, conservateur des bibliothèques au MuCEM
Scénographie : Jacques Sbriglio
En savoir plus sur le site du MuCEM
Exposition - Après Babel, traduire
du mercredi 14 décembre 2016 au lundi 20 mars 2017
lieu : MuCEM - J4 | 2ème étage du J4
adresse : 7 promenade Robert Laffont (esplanade du J4) - 13002 Marseille - Réservations et renseignements : 04 84 35 13 13
Appel à candidature pour l’École de traduction littéraire (ETL) - Date limite de dépôt des dossiers : 30 octobre 2016
L’Ecole de Traduction Littéraire (ETL) a été créée en 2012 par le Centre national du livre afin de répondre à la volonté partagée des éditeurs et des traducteurs français de former de nouvelles générations de traducteurs professionnels, notamment dans les langues dites rares. L’École de traduction littéraire accueillera le 3 décembre prochain une nouvelle promotion de traducteurs, pour une session de deux années (décembre 2016 – décembre 2018).
L’École est la première à offrir aux jeunes traducteurs déjà engagés dans le métier une formation permanente complète, fondée sur un enseignement de la traduction multilingue, assurée sous forme d’ateliers par des traducteurs chevronnés, et complétée par des interventions de représentants de tous les métiers du livre.
Ce cursus s’adresse à des traducteurs professionnels en début de carrière, ayant au moins une traduction à leur actif chez un éditeur commercial. Les traducteurs depuis et vers toutes les langues étrangères sont éligibles. Priorité sera donnée aux langues dites « rares ».
L’École de Traduction Littéraire délivrera un certificat, subordonné à des conditions d’assiduité, chaque candidat s’engageant à suivre la totalité des cours, sauf cas de force majeure.
Les frais de participation à ces deux années de formation pourront être pris en charge par le fonds de la formation professionnelle des auteurs (Afdas), sous réserve que les candidats remplissent les conditions suivantes fixées par cet organisme : être affilié à l’Agessa ou avoir gagné un minimum de 9000 euros en droits d’auteur au cours des trois années précédentes.
Les dossiers de candidature doivent être adressés par courrier à l’Asfored 21 rue Charles-Fourier – 75013 Paris, ou par mail : email@example.com
Date limite de dépôt des dossiers : 30 octobre 2016.
Les candidats retenus seront informés par mail ou par courrier.
Pour plus de renseignements, cliquez ici.
Dans la nouvelle traduction officielle de la Bible en Allemand, la virginité de Marie n’est pas clairement niée, le texte joue délibérément sur l’ambiguïté.
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Human language is crucial to the scientific quest to understand what kind of creatures we are and, thus crucial to unlocking the mysteries of human nature.
In the interview that follows, Noam Chomsky, the scholar who single-handedly revolutionized the modern field of linguistics, discusses the evolution of language and lays out the biolinguist perspective -- the idea that a human being's language represents a state of some component of the mind. This is an idea that continues to baffle many non-experts, many of whom have sought to challenge Chomsky's theory of language without really understanding it.
Journalist and ''radical chic" reactionary writer Tom Wolfe was the latest to do so in his laughable new book, The Kingdom of Speech, which seeks to take down Charles Darwin and Noam Chomsky through sarcastic and ignorant remarks, making vitriolic attacks on their personalities and expressing a deep hatred for the Left. Indeed, this much-publicized book not only displays amazing ignorance about evolution in general and the field of linguistics in particular, but also aims to portray Noam Chomsky as evil -- due to his constant and relentless exposure of the crimes of US foreign policy and other challenges to the status quo.
C. J. Polychroniou: Noam, in your recently published book with Robert C. Berwick (Why Only Us: Language and Evolution, MIT Press 2016), you address the question of the evolution of language from the perspective of language as part of the biological world. This was also the theme of your talk at an international physics conference held this month in Italy, as it seems that the scientific community appears to have a deeper appreciation and a more subtle understanding of your theory of language acquisition than most social scientists, who seem to maintain grave reservations about biology and the idea of human nature in general. Indeed, isn't it the case that the specific ability of our species to acquire any language was a major theme of interest to the modern scientific community from the time of Galileo?
Noam Chomsky: This is quite true. At the outset of the modern scientific revolution, Galileo and the scientist-philosophers of the monastery of Port Royal issued a crucial challenge to those concerned with the nature of human language, a challenge that had only occasionally been recognized until it was taken up in the mid-20th century and became the primary concern of much of the study of language. For short, I'll refer to it as the Galilean challenge. These great founders of modern science were awed by the fact that language permits us (in their words) to construct "from 25 or 30 sounds an infinite variety of expressions, which although not having any resemblance in themselves to that which passes through our minds, nevertheless do not fail to reveal all of the secrets of the mind, and to make intelligible to others who cannot penetrate into the mind all that we conceive and all of the diverse movements of our souls."
We can now see that the Galilean challenge requires some qualifications, but it is very real and should, I think, be recognized as one of the deepest insights in the rich history of inquiry into language and mind in the past 2500 years.
The challenge had not been entirely ignored. For Descartes, at about the same time, the human capacity for unbounded and appropriate use of language was a primary basis for his postulation of mind as a new creative principle. In later years, there is occasional recognition that language is a creative activity that involves "infinite use of finite means," in Wilhelm von Humboldt's formulation and that it provides "audible signs for thought," in the words of linguist William Dwight Whitney a century ago. There has also been awareness that these capacities are a species-property, shared by humans and unique to them -- the most striking feature of this curious organism and a foundation for its remarkable achievements. But there was never much to say beyond a few phrases.
But why is it that the view of language as a species-specific capacity is not taken up until well into the 20th century?
There is a good reason why the insights languished until mid-20th century: intellectual tools were not available for even formulating the problem in a clear enough way to address it seriously. That changed thanks to the work of Alan Turing and other great mathematicians who established the general theory of computability on a firm basis, showing in particular how a finite object like the brain can generate an infinite variety of expressions. It then became possible, for the first time, to address at least part of the Galilean challenge directly -- although, regrettably, the earlier history [for example, the history of Galileo's and Descartes' inquiries into the philosophy of language, as well as the Port-Royal Grammar by Antoine Arnauld and Claude Lancelot] was entirely unknown at the time.
With these intellectual tools available, it becomes possible to formulate what we may call the Basic Property of human language: The language faculty provides the means to construct a digitally infinite array of structured expressions, each of which has a semantic interpretation expressing a thought, and each of which can be externalized by means of some sensory modality. The infinite set of semantically interpreted objects constitutes what has sometimes been called a "language of thought": the system of thoughts that receive linguistic expression and that enter into reflection, inference, planning and other mental processes, and when externalized, can be used for communication and other social interactions. By far, the major use of language is internal -- thinking in language.
Can you please expand on the notion of the internal language?
We now know that although speech is the usual form of sensory motor externalization, it can just as well be sign or even touch, discoveries that require a slight reformulation of the Galilean challenge. A more fundamental qualification has to do with the way the challenge is formulated: in terms of production of expressions. So formulated, the challenge overlooks some basic issues. Production, like perception, accesses the internal language but cannot be identified with it. We must distinguish the internalized system of knowledge from the actions that access it. The theory of computability enables us to establish the distinction, which is an important one, familiar in other domains.
Consider, for example, human arithmetical competence. In studying it, we routinely distinguish the internal system of knowledge from the actions that access it, like multiplying numbers in our head, an action that involves many factors beyond intrinsic knowledge; memory constraints, for example. The same is true of language. Production and perception access the internal language but involve other factors as well, including again short-term memory, matters that began to be studied with some care in the early days of concern with the Galilean challenge, now reformulated to focus on the internal language, the system of knowledge that is accessed by actual production and by perception.
Does this mean that we have solved the mystery of the internal language? For example, the whole idea continues to be questioned in some quarters, although it is widely accepted, apparently, by most scientists.
There has been considerable progress in understanding the nature of the internal language, but its free creative use remains a mystery. That comes as no surprise. In a recent review of the state of the art concerning far simpler cases of voluntary action, two leading researchers, neuroscientists Emilio Bizzi and Robert Ajemian, write that we are beginning to learn something about the puppet and the strings, but the puppeteer remains shrouded in mystery. That is even more dramatically true for such creative acts as the normal [everyday] use of language, the unique human capacity that so impressed the founders of modern science.
In formulating the Basic Property, we are assuming that the faculty of language is shared among humans. That seems solidly established. There are no known group differences in language capacity, and individual variation is found only at the margins. More generally, genetic variation among humans is quite slight, not too surprisingly, given the recency of common origins.
The fundamental task of inquiry into language is to determine the nature of the Basic Property -- the genetic endowment that underlies the faculty of language. To the extent that its properties are understood, we can seek to investigate particular internal languages, each an instantiation of the Basic Property, much as each individual visual system is an instantiation of the human faculty of vision. We can investigate how the internal languages are acquired and used, how the language faculty itself evolved, its basis in human genetics and the ways it functions in the human brain. This general program of research has been called the Biolinguistic Program. The theory of the genetically-based language faculty is called Universal Grammar; the theory of each individual language is called its Generative Grammar.
But languages vary greatly from one another, so what's the link between Generative Grammar and Universal Grammar?
Languages appear to be extremely complex, varying radically from one another. And indeed, a standard belief among professional linguists 60 years ago was that languages can vary in arbitrary ways and each must be studied without preconceptions. Similar views were held at the time about organisms generally. Many biologists would have agreed with molecular biologist Gunther Stent's conclusion that the variability of organisms is so free as to constitute "a near infinitude of particulars which have to be sorted out case by case." When understanding is thin, we expect to see extreme variety and complexity.
However, a great deal has been learned since then. Within biology, it is now recognized that the variety of life forms is very limited, so much so that the hypothesis of a "universal genome" has been seriously advanced. My own feeling is that linguistics has undergone a similar development, and I will keep here to that strand in contemporary study of language.
The Basic Property takes language to be a computational system, which we therefore expect to observe general conditions on computational efficiency. A computational system consists of a set of atomic elements and rules to construct more complex ones. For generation of the language of thought, the atomic elements are word-like, though not words; for each language, the set of these elements is its lexicon. The lexical items are commonly regarded as cultural products, varying widely with experience and linked to extra-mental entities [objects entirely outside of our minds, such as the tree outside the window] -- an assumption expressed in the titles of standard works, such as W.V. Quine's influential study Word and Object. Closer examination reveals a very different picture, one that poses many mysteries. Let's put that aside for now, turning to the computational procedure.
Clearly, we will seek the simplest computational procedure consistent with the data of language, for reasons that are implicit in the basic goals of scientific inquiry. It has long been recognized that simplicity of theory translates directly to explanatory depth. A more specific version of this quest for understanding was provided by a famous dictum of Galileo's, which has guided the sciences since their modern origins: nature is simple, and it is the task of the scientist to demonstrate this, from the motion of the planets, to an eagle's flight, to the inner workings of a cell, to the growth of language in the mind of a child. Linguistics has an additional motive of its own for seeking the simplest theory: it must face the problem of evolvability. Not a great deal is known about evolution of modern humans, but the few facts that are well established, and others that have recently been coming to light, are rather suggestive and conform well to the conclusion that the language faculty is near optimal for a computational system, the goal we should seek on purely methodological grounds.
Did language exist before the emergence of Homo Sapiens?
One fact that does appear to be well established is, as I have already mentioned, that the faculty of language is a true species property, invariant among human groups -- and furthermore, unique to humans in its essential properties. It follows that there has been little or no evolution of the faculty since human groups separated from one another. Recent genomic studies place this date not very long after the appearance of anatomically modern humans about 200,000 years ago, perhaps some 50,000 years later, when the San group in Africa separated from other humans. There is some evidence that it might have been even earlier. There is no evidence of anything like human language, or symbolic activities altogether, before the emergence of modern humans, Homo Sapiens Sapiens. That leads us to expect that the faculty of language emerged along with modern humans or not long after -- a very brief moment in evolutionary time. It follows, then, that the Basic Property should indeed be very simple. The conclusion conforms to what has been discovered in recent years about the nature of language -- a welcome convergence.
The discoveries about early separation of the San people are highly suggestive ... [they] have significantly different externalized languages. With irrelevant exceptions, their languages are all and only the languages with phonetic clicks, with corresponding adaptations in the vocal tract. The most likely explanation for these facts, developed in detail in current work by Dutch linguist Riny Huijbregts, is that possession of internal language preceded separation, which in turn preceded externalization, the latter in somewhat different ways in separated groups. Externalization seems to be associated with the first signs of symbolic behavior in the archaeological record, after the separation. Putting these observations together, it seems that we are reaching a stage in understanding where the account of evolution of language can perhaps be fleshed out in ways that were unimaginable until quite recently.
When do universal properties of language come to light?
Universal properties of the language faculty began to come to light as soon as serious efforts were undertaken to construct generative grammars, including quite simple ones that had never been noticed, and that are quite puzzling -- a phenomenon familiar in the history of the natural sciences. One such property is structure-dependence: the rules that yield the language of thought attend solely to structural properties, ignoring properties of the externalized signal, even such simple properties as linear order.
To illustrate, consider the sentence birds that fly instinctively swim. It is ambiguous: the adverb "instinctively" can be associated with the preceding verb (fly instinctively) or the following one (instinctively swim). Suppose now that we extract the adverb from the sentence, forming instinctively, birds that fly swim. Now the ambiguity is resolved: The adverb is construed only with the linearly more remote but structurally closer verb swim, not the linearly closer but structurally more remote verb fly. The only possible interpretation -- birds swim -- is the unnatural one, but that doesn't matter: the rules apply rigidly, independent of meaning and fact. What is puzzling is that the rules ignore the simple computation of linear distance and keep to the far more complex computation of structural distance.
The property of structure dependence holds for all constructions in all languages, and it is indeed puzzling. Furthermore, it is known without relevant evidence, as is evident in cases like the one I just gave and innumerable others. Experiment shows that children understand that rules are structure-dependent as early as they can be tested, by about age 3, and do not make errors -- and are, of course, not instructed. We can be quite confident, then, that structure-dependence follows from principles of universal grammar that are deeply rooted in the human language faculty. There is evidence from other sources that supports the conclusion that structure-dependence is a true linguistic universal, deeply rooted in language design. Research conducted in Milan a decade ago, initiated by Andrea Moro, showed that invented languages keeping to the principle of structure-dependence elicit normal activation in the language areas of the brain, but much simpler systems using linear order in violation of these principles yield diffuse activation, implying that experimental subjects are treating them as a puzzle, not a language. Similar results were found in work by Neil Smith and Ianthi Tsimpli in their investigation of a cognitively deficient but linguistically gifted subject. They also made the interesting observation that [people with average cognitive abilities] can solve the problem if it is presented to them as a puzzle, but not if it is presented as a language, presumably activating the language faculty.
The only plausible conclusion, then, is that structure-dependence is an innate property of the language faculty, an element of the Basic Property. Why should this be so? There is only one known answer, and fortunately, it is the answer we seek for general reasons: The computational operations of language are the simplest possible ones. Again, that is the outcome that we hope to reach on methodological grounds, and that is to be expected in the light of the evidence about evolution of language already mentioned.
What about the so-called representational doctrine about language? What makes it a false idea for human language?
As I mentioned, the conventional view is that atomic elements of language are cultural products, and that the basic ones -- those used for referring to the world -- are associated with extra-mental entities. This representationalist doctrine has been almost universally adopted in the modern period. The doctrine appears to hold for animal communication: a monkey's calls, for example, are associated with specific physical events. But the doctrine is radically false for human language, as was recognized as far back as classical Greece.
To illustrate, let's take the first case that was discussed in pre-Socratic philosophy, the problem posed by Heraclitus: how can we cross the same river twice? To put it differently, why are two appearances understood to be two stages of the same river? Contemporary philosophers have suggested that the problem is solved by taking a river to be a four-dimensional object, but that simply restates the problem: why this object and not some different one, or none at all?
When we look into the question, puzzles abound. Suppose that the flow of the river has been reversed. It is still the same river. Suppose that what is flowing becomes 95 percent arsenic because of discharges from an upstream plant. It is still the same river. The same is true of other quite radical changes in the physical object. On the other hand, with very slight changes it will no longer be a river at all. If its sides are lined with fixed barriers and it is used for oil tankers, it is a canal, not a river. If its surface undergoes a slight phase change and is hardened, a line is painted down the middle, and it is used to commute to town, then it is a highway, no longer a river. Exploring the matter further, we discover that what counts as a river depends on mental acts and constructions. The same is true, quite generally, of even the most elementary concepts: tree, water, house, person, London, or in fact, any of the basic words of human language. Radically, unlike animals, the items of human language and thought uniformly violate the representationalist doctrine.
Furthermore, the intricate knowledge of the means of even the simplest words, let alone others, is acquired virtually without experience. At peak periods of language acquisition, children are acquiring about a word an hour, that is, often on one presentation. It must be, then, that the rich meaning of even the most elementary words is substantially innate. The evolutionary origin of such concepts is a complete mystery, one that may not be resolvable by means available to us.
So we definitely need to distinguish speech from language, right?
Returning to the Galilean challenge, it has to be reformulated to distinguish language from speech, and to distinguish production from internal knowledge -- the latter an internal computational system that yields a language of thought, a system that might be remarkably simple, conforming to what the evolutionary record suggests. Secondary processes map the structures of language to one or another sensory-motor system for externalization. These processes appear to be the locus of the complexity and variety of linguistic behavior, and its mutability over time.
There are suggestive recent ideas about the neural basis for the operations of the computational system, and about its possible evolutionary origins. The origin of the atoms of computation, however, remains a complete mystery, as does a major question that concerned those who formulated the Galilean challenge: the Cartesian question of how language can be used in the normal creative way, in a manner appropriate to situations but not caused by them, in ways that are incited and inclinedbut not compelled,in Cartesian terms. The mystery holds for even the simplest forms of voluntary motion, as discussed earlier.
A great deal has been learned about language since the Biolinguistic Program was initiated. It is fair to say, I think, that more has been learned about the nature of language, and about a very wide variety of typologically different language, than in the entire 2,500 year history of inquiry into language. But as is familiar in the sciences, the more we learn, the more we discover what we do not know. And the more puzzling it seems.
Copyright, Truthout. May not be reprinted without permission.
C.J. Polychroniou is a political economist/political scientist who has taught and worked in universities and research centers in Europe and the United States. His main research interests are in European economic integration, globalization, the political economy of the United States and the deconstruction of neoliberalism's politico-economic project. He is a regular contributor to Truthout as well as a member of Truthout's Public Intellectual Project. He has published several books and his articles have appeared in a variety of journals, magazines, newspapers and popular news websites. Many of his publications have been translated into several foreign languages, including Croatian, French, Greek, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish.
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Depuis 1975, aucune œuvre d’un auteur camerounais vivant au Cameroun n’a obtenu le Grand Prix Littéraire d’Afrique Noire créé en 1961.
Imbolo Mbue, née en 1982, est une auteure camerounaise originaire de la ville anglophone de Limbé, qui vit à Manhattan, aux États-Unis. Avec son livre intitulé «Voici venir les rêveurs» des éditions Belfond, elle est lauréate du Grand Prix Littéraire d’Afrique Noire 2016. L’année précédente, c’était l’auteure camerounaise francophone Hemley Boum avec son livre «Les Maquisards», la lauréate du Grand Prix Littéraire d’Afrique Noire 2015.
Le Quotidien de l’Économie paru vendredi 23 septembre 2016 indique que le livre «Voici venir les rêveurs» n’est pas encore disponible dans les librairies. Mais, l’auteure, Imbolo Mbue, a déjà signé un contrat avec Random House, un éditeur américain qui lui propose la somme de 1 million de dollars US, soit un équivalent de 500 millions de FCFA. Son roman est proposé sur les sites de ventes en ligne à 13,99 dollars US, soit 6 995 FCFA pour une version imprimée et un peu moins pour une version numérique. «Une fierté pour la littérature camerounaise, pourrait-on dire», ironise le journal.
Le journal déplore le fait que seul le génie camerounais exilé soit reconnu. En effet, depuis 1975, aucune œuvre d’un auteur camerounais vivant au Cameroun n’a obtenu le Grand Prix Littéraire d’Afrique Noire. Étienne Yanou, auteur camerounais vivant dans son pays, a été le lauréat dudit prix en 1975 avec son livre «L'Homme Dieu de Bisso». Yodi Karone (pseudonyme d'Alain Ndongo Ndiye), né en France en 1954, a reçu le même prix avec son œuvre intitulé «Le nègre de paille» en 1982. Le journal indique qu’entre 1982 et 2003, seuls deux prix ont été glanés par des auteurs camerounais. «Daniel Ewande en 1984 et Calixte Beyala 10 ans plus tard».
Le Grand Prix Littéraire d'Afrique noire est attribué chaque année par l'Association des Écrivains de Langue Française, l'ADELF, reconnue d'utilité publique depuis le 19 juillet 1952, dont le but est de «promouvoir l’œuvre des écrivains qui, à travers le monde, s’expriment en français». Le prix est ouvert aux écrivains de langue française originaires de l’Afrique subsaharienne, ou à un ouvrage concernant cette zone géographique, en excluant les traductions.
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