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Diccionario del espionaje digital

Diccionario del espionaje digital | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Explicación de los términos más novedosos con los que el público tiene que lidiar para entender cómo EE UU espió al mundo
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Los documentos filtrados por el exanalista de la Agencia de Seguridad Nacional estadounidense (NSA) Edward Snowden ha sacado a la luz numerosos términos, unos nuevos para el público y otros con un nuevo significado.

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Native American languages still not offered at UM

Native American languages still not offered at UM | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
There are 10 distinct Native American tribes with 10 distinct languages in Montana, according to the Sacred Roots Language Society, but none of them are offered on campus. 
The group, which was created to promote and revitalize language, is working to change that. By using events to raise awareness, Sacred Roots has a goal to bring more indigenous languages to campus with the help of the student body and Missoula community.
Jessie Desrosier, University of Montana student and cofounder of Sacred Roots, said it took time to understand the importance of language, but he has since felt a duty to pass it on.
The need to revitalize indigenous languages is becoming urgent. According to Derosier, it is mainly older generations who are fluent in Blackfoot. His mother is also fluent, though she did not learn until later in life.
When she asked her parents and grandparents why they didn’t teach her, they told her it was because she was loved.
When boarding schools were established to assimilate Native American children to European-American ways in the early 20th century, speaking indigenous languages or mentioning spirituality often came with severe punishment.
“They did not teach their children because of fear,” Desrosier said.
Desrosier said his generation can bridge that gap by learning and promoting indigenous languages. Once he started school at UM, he noticed many Native students were interested in learning more about their ancestry in a college setting.
Although Blackfoot hasn’t been taught for the past two semesters, the Native American Studies department is looking for an instructor and plans to offer the class in the fall. The course was recently approved to fulfill the modern and classical languages general education requirement.
When Desrosier found out the Blackfoot language course wasn’t offered, he helped form Sacred Roots. He said losing the only indigenous language offered at UM was the final push he needed.
“It’s kind of crazy to have a Native studies program without any languages,” Desrosier said.
Desrosier said learning indigenous perspectives, philosophy and spirituality are incomplete without language.
“Learning them in the translated European version doesn’t give the real opportunity to learn and get the insight of what all these things mean,” he said. “Once the language is gone, the people don’t seem to exist.”
Sacred Roots has 34 active members and is focusing on raising awareness. For Valentine’s Day, they debuted their first project.
In a video posted on YouTube, 21 students said “I love you” in 11 indigenous languages. The project was simple, but for many students it had an important message.

For UM student Kenneth Flamand, it was a chance for self-expression.
“We are still here and we have our language, and in that we can still express ourselves,” he said. “There is more than one way to say I love you.”
Flamand's mother speaks Blackfoot, and he said he is proficient, but still learning.
Flamand joined Sacred Roots because he thinks it could be influential in spreading indigenous languages by raising awareness.
He said his ultimate goal is to see indigenous languages present in all public schools, not just on reservations. By offering different languages based on geographic locations to people at a younger age, Flamand said disappearing languages could be revitalized.
Sacred Roots is limited to promoting or speaking Montana’s indigenous languages, and has worked to attract students, faculty and community members who are interested in language.
Danielle Yarbrough, a linguistics graduate student, said she heard about the group because the Linguistics Club and Sacred Roots share a faculty advisor.
Yarbrough said she is part Hispanic, but never spoke Spanish, which made her feel like she was missing out on a part of her culture. After going to a few Sacred Roots meetings, Yarbrough said she wanted to get involved.
“The passion that’s in the group and the drive behind this cause is just really attractive,” she said.
Sacred Roots is planning a 5K fun run in April to promote health, while also raising awareness about the group. They are also planning to host films on Native American history, heritage and language.
erin.loranger@umontana.edu
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Stop confusing the Ghanaian child

Stop confusing the Ghanaian child | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
By Paa Kow Ackon

It is true that globalization has placed an importance on the learning of English at every level of society. However, I have observed a seemingly dangerous sub-culture occurring in Ghana, which I am convinced, is an affront to our culture. It is very normal now to see a sizeable number of parents who have developed the proclivity of always speaking English with their children at the expense of the local language; just with the hope that their children will become better English speakers.

Some even believe that if they do not speak English with their children, they will not do well in school. I just do not know where this is coming from. Who says the more you speak English with your child/children, the better English speakers they will become? The sad thing is that most of these parents are not even good English speakers themselves and so they end up transferring their bad English to their naive children.

Although you cannot laugh, it becomes quite hilarious sometimes to listen to the kind of English these children speak, not because the children are bad English speakers, but because of the bad English language training they received from their parents. Interestingly, because these children get to speak the language nonetheless, they do not even make the effort to read. This is a serious observation that must receive attention.

Some have suggested that since children turn to master their first language more than what they learn in later years, it is good to first train them in English since it will help improve the mastery of the language. Well, I am still wondering how many of our English dons at the Universities were taught English at home by their parents when they were kids. I am not too sure mastery of the language can be as a result of how early or late one learns to speak English. In any case, mastery is simply due to continuous reading. Parents should rather encourage their children to read more instead of just thinking that if they speak English with their children, they will just be fine.

Ghanaian parents should understand that the very foundation of language which is formed through the local language should always be pulled out from under the child in order to promote any new language. Available research shows that children with strong first language skills are more ready and able to learn a second language. In other words, it is difficult to build a second language if the first language foundation is not established and supported while the second language is being learned. What most parents should realize is that the child's first language is critical to their identity. Maintaining the first language helps children to value their culture and heritage, which contributes to a positive self-concept.

Recent Research from the George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Center for the Study of Language and Education shows that children who learn English at school and continue to develop their native language have higher academic achievement in later years than do students who learn English at the expense of their first language.

The research further stated that "Students need uninterrupted intellectual development. When students who are not yet fluent in English switch to using only English, they function at an intellectual level below their age. Interrupting intellectual development in this manner is likely to result in academic failure. However, when parents and children speak the language they know best with one another, they are both working at their actual level of intellectual maturity".

Sadly enough, our society now perceives parents who do not speak English with their children as being backward and benighted. I am not too sure if this is Kwame Nkrumah’s Ghana. Black people turned White all in the name of globalization? What shall we make of the National Theatre, School of Ghanaian Languages at Ajumako, the Arts Council of Ghana, the Ghana Dance Ensemble, the Institute of African Studies, our Festivals, the School of Music and Drama, or the Ghana Bureau of Languages if we continue to teach our children English at the expense of the local language? We should take a clue from South Africa which has eleven official languages that are mostly indigenous.

Not too long ago, a very good friend quizzed me “tell me what use is it for a child to speak Chamber when he is in Accra. I rather teach him English, Twi, Ga and Hausa. These languages will help him more than my father's language which is Chamber. Think about it”. I found myself shocked and confused at the comment made by my friend. I believe this is the philosophy of most parents who teach their children English at home instead of their local language. It is important we encourage parents to speak the local language with their children from birth to preschool. Once the child enters early intervention school, they can then start learning the English language.

The need for a child to speak a native language like Chamba or Nzema when he is in Accra is that it will not hurt the child’s language growth. Parents should not forget that children must be able to function or communicate effectively in their homes before they can do same outside and that mastering the native language like Chamba or Nzema will not impede on the child’s English language development but rather enhance it. Therefore, the native language cannot be stripped away, even for children with language development delays. There cannot be any rationalization or justification for this.

One can comfortably say that parents have the choice of deciding which language they would want to teach their children so why the bother. The plain truth is that we all have the responsibility as a society to promote our culture. The Ghanaian culture which includes our local languages plays a central role in shaping the principles of our lives. Our culture shapes our personality and gives us unique identity. Why do we want to be what we are not?

The importance of language in sociolinguistic terms is inseparable from culture. Language is even the vehicle through which culture is transmitted and manifested. Another significant issue is how as a nation we have decided not to include the study of Ghanaian languages in our educational system. It has been said by many linguistic scholars that to deny any child literacy in their mother-tongue by not including it in the educational system will only be a means of helping the child to look down on his or her own culture. This point is adequately illustrated by Armstrong (1963) that if we despise the language of a people then by that very token we despise that people. If we are ashamed of our own language then we must certainly lack that minimum self-respect which is necessary for the healthy functioning of society.

Arguably, most of our first and second-cycle school graduates use mainly their local language to communicate in their day-to-day activities. English is hardly spoken partly because of their low level of proficiency. Boadi (1971) confirms that as far as the majority of school leavers are concerned if there is any agreement about the level of attainment which they reach in English, it is that this is low and inadequate for most ordinary purposes. If this is the ultimate plight of the Ghanaian school leaver in the use of the English language, then instead of directing almost all energies at the teaching of English, emphasis should equally be placed on the good old Ghanaian language which will be of immediate and practical use when they leave school.

Many people have suggested that our educational policies should reflect our national goals and aspirations but we must also appreciate the extent to which a serious approach to the teaching of a Ghanaian language in our institutions and at home is of prime importance. In other words, for government policies such as increased productivity, decentralisation, rural development and industralisation to succeed, the broad masses of the population need to be involved. The truth is that we can only achieve these objectives with the proficient use of the Ghanaian languages rather than with English. As the parliament of Ghana in 1971 indicated “The continued use of English condemns the overwhelming majority of the people of Ghana to second-rate citizenship by disqualifying them from discussions of serious national issues”.

It is certain that apart from the mass functional literacy campaigns under the non-formal unit of the Ministry of Education and under non-governmental organisations, there is no deliberate effort by government to promote the study of Ghanaian languages at home and in schools. It will be a step in the right direction if the majority of our children have a good working knowledge of their written mother-tongue through an emphasis on Ghanaian language education in the homes and at school.

In the words of Chinebuah (1976) “If the Ghanaian and, for that matter, the African is to have roots in the way of life into which he is born and in which his earliest emotional and social experience have their setting, he must be taught an appreciation of the culture of his people and his native tongue in which that culture finds its fullest expressions. Otherwise our educational system will only succeed in producing men and women who are linguistically and therefore culturally displaced persons”.

The Bureau of Ghana Languages is an agency of the government of Ghana that focuses on Ghanaian languages, including publication of materials in them. Although the Bureau was established in 1951 by the missionaries who in their time produced a high quality newspaper in Twi, (Kristofo Senkekafo) and in Ga, (Kristofonyo Sanegbalo) and several textbooks, it has had little support from government to enable it to perform its key role of promoting the 11 Ghanaian languages: Mfantse, AkuapemTwi, Asante Twi, Ewe, Ga, Dangme, Nzema, Dagbani, Dagaare, Gonja and Kase. How can such a state institution function effectively with only two offices in Accra and Tamale since it was established in 1951?

We promise in our National Pledge to hold in high esteem our heritage won for us through the blood and toil of our fathers. But heritage is our inherited traditions and culture of which language plays an important part to shape who we are and ultimately our personalities for our future and our future heirs.

We must all accept that our local language is the road map of our culture. It tells us where we come from and where we are going. The subject of language is perfectly illustrated by a quote of the great African, Nelson Mandela. He said, “if you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. But if you talk to him in his own language, it goes to his heart”.

Whatever you are thinking, just be mindful that you are a Ghanaian first and you cannot force your child to be someone they are not or will never be. We must therefore not confuse our children.

Paa Kow Ackon
ackon.pk@gmail.com
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Research challenges popular theory on origin of languages

Research challenges popular theory on origin of languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
International research involving the University of Adelaide has shed new light on the origins of some of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

Three billion people today speak a language that is part of the Indo-European family of languages, spanning Europe as well as Central, Western and South Asia. But the reason why these languages – such as English, Spanish, Russian and Hindi – are related has been a source of some argument for more than two hundred years.
New research published today in the journal Nature, led by University of Adelaide ancient DNA researchers and the Harvard Medical School, shows that at least some of the Indo-European languages spoken in Europe were likely the result of a massive migration from eastern Russia.
"This new study is the biggest of its kind so far and has helped to improve our understanding of the linguistic impact of Stone Age migration," says co-first author Dr Wolfgang Haak, from the University of Adelaide's Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD). "Using genome-scale data from more than 90 ancient European people, ranging from 3000-8000 years old, we were able to trace these people's origins."
The researchers found evidence of two major population replacements in Europe during the Stone Age. The first was the arrival of Europe's first farmers, who had spread from the Near East (modern-day Turkey).
"Their genetic profiles show remarkable similarity despite vast geographic distances and differences in material culture. Whether from Hungary, Germany or Spain, the first farmers are genetically almost identical and must have come from the same origin," says ACAD Director Professor Alan Cooper, co-author on the study.
Co-first author of the study Dr Iosif Lazaridis, a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard Medical School, says remarkably, the hunter-gatherers that lived in Europe did not disappear after the first farmers moved in. "By 6000-5000 years ago, a resurgence of hunter-gatherer ancestry had occurred in agricultural populations across Europe," he says.
Surprisingly, a third ancestry component, with its origins in the east, was found to be present in every Central European sample after 4500 years ago, but not before that time, marking the second population turnover. "It was a Eureka moment when we looked at the new data," says Dr Lazaridis.
The team estimates that the so-called "Corded Ware" people (named after their distinctive pottery) had 75% of their ancestry from the eastern steppe. "This large migration almost certainly had lasting effects on the languages people spoke," says Dr Haak. "This later migration sits well with linguists who had suggested a more recent spread of Indo-European, based on similar words for wheeled vehicles that had only been in use since 5000 years ago."
The leader of the study, Professor David Reich of Harvard Medical School, the Broad Institute, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, says: "These results challenge the other popular theory that all Indo-European languages in Europe today owe their origin to the arrival of the first farmers from Anatolia more than 8000 years ago."
He says the new study doesn't solve the centuries-old problem of the homeland of all Indo-European languages, which are distributed widely in Eurasia. However, the team is optimistic that a solution may be within reach. "We now want to understand how the people of Europe 3000-6000 years ago were linked with those in the East, the Caucasus, Iran and India, where Indo-European is also spoken," Professor Reich says.
Explore further: Indo-European languages emerged roughly 6,500 years ago on Russian steppes, new research suggests
More information: "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe." Nature (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nature14317
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Australian scientists use ancient DNA to trace origins of languages

Australian scientists use ancient DNA to trace origins of languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Australian scientists studying the development of human language say the world’s population may be more closely related than we think.

By Karen Ashford
3 MAR 2015 - 7:55 AM  UPDATED YESTERDAY 8:57 AM

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Australian scientists have slipped another piece into the puzzle about human language development and it suggests that nearly half the world’s population may be more closely related than we think.

Analysis of ancient DNA has shed light on migration patterns, helping researchers trace the origins of some of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

Three billion people today speak a language that is part of the Indo-European family of languages, spanning Europe as well as Central, Western and South Asia, and these days the Americas.

But the reason why these languages are related has been a source of some argument for more than 200 years.

Now, Dr Wolfgang Haak from the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA at Adelaide University thinks he and his team may have uncovered a clue: the start of the agricultural era.

"Languages spread easier with a substantial number of people carrying it," he said.

"Linguists have always argued that the best candidate for the spread of an early Indo-European language must have been based on a substantial population movement, and if we look back in the past then there used to be only one predominate candidate that stood out that could not be ignore and that was the expansion of farmers, so people formed the farming-language dispersal hypothesis."

"Languages spread easier with a substantial number of people carrying it."
Dr Haak specialises in unravelling the oldest secrets of the fundamental human building blocks, DNA, with a particular focus on central Europe.

He said that by studying genetic sources, he could map population movements and likely language spread.

He was exploring his theory by testing the bones of old farmers, who muscled in on traditional hunter gatherers and had a profound impact on genetic makeup across Europe.

"Expanding farmer communities arrived in Europe about 7,500 years ago where we have a different type of ancestry, a different signal coming in that is unique across all farmers whether we look in Spain or in Germany or Hungary or even in Scandinavia," he said. "They all look very similar, which tells us they must have come from a similar geographic origin."

"If there's a signal strong enough then it is very likely it must have carried a common language was well."

But he said the big news that had just been published in the prestigious journal Nature was the discovery of a second major movement of people on the verge of the early bronze age, about 3000 years after that first wave.

He thought this discovery had brought scientists a step closer to pinpointing the very genesis of modern language and the answer appears to go back to a step of a different kind: the Russian steppes.

"We see a very strong signal coming from the Eurasian steppes," he said.

"Genes will always be silent on the type of language that people in the past spoke, but what we see and how we can contribute is we see population turnovers. In our case the second one towards the late Neolithic at the verge of the bronze age was unexpectedly big, so we’re seeing an influx from the steppe up to three quarters of the ancestry of central Europeans 5000 years ago comes from the steppe and that is a massive proportion that makes it very likely that it was not only the genes that came from the east but probably language as well."

Dr Haak said the theory was further supported by common elements in vocabularies, such as similar terms for inventions that were critical to farming like the wheel, the cart and the domestication of horses.

"It is only plausible to assume that once they share a certain economy, certain markets, social stratification or a social system, then it is only reasonable to assume that it would have had originally the same language before they split up into smaller regions," he said.

"Genes will always be silent on the type of language that people in the past spoke."
Dr Haak said it was a theory that should give people pause for thought before that criticise on the basis of race or go to war over territory.

"Why is it relevant? We have three billion speakers in the world speaking one of the 445 languages or dialects that can be summarised under Indo-European," he said.

"English is one of these but that also comprises a lot of Hindu/Urdu speakers in India, for example. Persian is Indo-European, and all the Romance languages. Maybe it can all be traced back to a number of mobile steppe cattle herders 5000 years ago."
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Why our ancestors couldn't see blue

Why our ancestors couldn't see blue | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Could our ancestors see blue? Ancient people didn't perceive the colour because they didn't have a word for it, say scientists
Studies say language shapes what we see by making us focus on objects
Blue doesn't appear at all in Greek stories and other ancient written texts
As a result, scientists believe ancient civilisations didn't notice the colour 
Egyptians - who were the only culture that could produce blue dyes - were the first civilisation to have a word for the colour blue in 2500 BC 
The Himba people in Namibia do not have a word for blue and tests have shown they have difficulty distinguishing between green and blue 
By ELLIE ZOLFAGHARIFARD FOR DAILYMAIL.COM

PUBLISHED: 23:00 GMT, 2 March 2015 | UPDATED: 02:01 GMT, 3 March 2015


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The blue and black (or gold and white) dress that sweeped the internet last week revealed just how differently two people can see the world.

But it's not just about lighting conditions or optical illusions - evidence is mounting that until we have a way to describe something, we may not see its there.

Ancient languages, for instance, didn't have a word for blue and scientists believe as a result our ancestors didn't notice the colour even existed.

Scroll down for video 


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Evidence is mounting that until we have a way to describe something, we may not see its there. Ancient languages, for instance, didn't have a word for blue and scientists believe as a result our ancestors didn't notice the colour even existed

According to Business Insider's Kevin Loria, in 'The Odyssey,' Greek poet Homer famously describes the 'wine-dark sea.'

In 1858 William Gladstone, who later became the British prime minister, counted the colour references in the Homer's Odyssey and found blue wasn't mentioned at all.

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Black is mentioned nearly 200 times and white about 100. Red, meanwhile, is mentioned fewer than 15 times, and yellow and green fewer than 10.

It wasn't just the Greeks. Blue also doesn't appear in the Koran, ancient Chinese stories, and an ancient Hebrew version of the Bible, according to a German philologist named Lazarus Geiger.


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Can you see which green square is a different shade? It is the second one of the top left.  While we may not be able to distinguish it, the Himba tribe - who have a number of different words for green - can see it instantly


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Several years ago, researchers showed some of the Himba tribe a circle with 11 green squares and one blue. The study found they could not pick out which one was different from the others, or took much longer to make sense of it

Has Adobe solved the fierce debate on the two-tone dress?

Egyptians, who were the only culture that could produce blue dyes, were the first ancient civilisation to have a word for the colour blue.

Once this product spread, other civilisations picked up on the colour, which doesn't readily appear in nature.   


Today, there remain tribes who don't have a colour for blue, such as the Himba people in Namibia. 

Several years ago, researchers showed some of the Himba tribe a circle with 11 green squares and one blue.

The study found they could not pick out which one was different from the others, or took much longer to make sense of it. 

However, the same tribe has many different words for green. When they were shown squares with one green a different shade, they could pick it out immediately.  


Another study focused on how Russian speakers have separate words for light blue (goluboy) and dark blue (siniy).


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Language lessons: On the left, you can see the number of English names for colour hues, and the right shows how there are much fewer names for colours in Chinese. In English, the most popular base colours are blue, pink and green, while in China red, blue and green are more prominent

MIT recruited 50 people from the Boston area in Massachusetts, half of whom were native Russian speakers.

They found they were 10 per cent faster at distinguishing between light (goluboy) blues and dark (siniy) blues than at discriminating between blues within the same shade category.

A separate study last year seemed to confirm that while colours may be the same around the world, the language in which they are described has an impact on how they are perceived.

In English, the most popular base colours are blue, pink and green, while in China red, blue and green are more prominent.

A data scientist wanted to put this theory to the test and, in doing so, created a graphic that reveals how few ways there are in certain Eastern cultures to talk about colours, compared to the West.

PEOPLE TRAINED TO 'SEE' LETTERS AS COLOURS SEE AN INCREASE IN IQ

The University of Sussex has devised a training programme to see if adults without synaesthesia can develop the key hallmarks of the condition

Synaesthetes, including singers Pharrell Williams and Lady Gaga, report an overlap in their senses; they see smells, taste colours or feel sounds.

The neurological condition, which can affect as many as one in 23 people, has long been linked with creativity.

And now scientists believe the condition correlates to an increase in intelligence - and they claim people can even be taught to experience it.

The University of Sussex has devised a nine-week training programme to see if adults without synaesthesia can develop the key hallmarks of the condition.

They found, in a sample study of 14, that the participants were able to develop strong letter-colour associations to pass all the standard tests for synaesthesia.

Most experienced sensations such as letters seeming 'coloured' or having individual personas, for instance, 'x is boring', 'w is calm'.

One of the most surprising outcomes of the study was that those who underwent the training also saw their IQ jump by an average of 12 points, compared to a control group that didn't undergo training.

Muyueh Lee from Taipei designed the infographic to show the range of names for colours and hues on Wikipedia, in English and then in Chinese.

His method is biased as there are more Wikipedia users that are English speakers, but it does reveal the importance of certain colours in both languages. 

In Chinese, most popular base colours are 紅 (red), 藍 (blue) and 綠 (green). Colours can also relate to objects like salmon, stone and pine tree.

This may be telling as red in Chinese cultures symbolises good fortune and joy. It remains a popular colour in the country and is affiliated with the current government.

By comparison, popular English colours are blue, green and pink, with some colours based on objects. 


This graphic shows the number of different words for each colour shade in Chinese. One of the most popular colours is red, which symbolises good fortune and joy in Chinese culture


There are far more words for blue and green in English than there are in Chinese. 'I was fascinated by the urban legend that Eskimo has 50 words for snow, and the idea that a culture will develop a richer vocabulary for things it cares,' said Mr Lee on Reddit


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Igbo Language And Its Downward Trend

Igbo Language And Its Downward Trend | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Longman dictionary of contemporary English defined extinction as ‘’when a type of person, custom, language stops existing’’. Examples of extinct languages in Nigeria includes (a) Ajawa; formerly spoken in Bauchi State, Nigeria. It became extinct between 1920 and 1940 as speakers switched to Hausa. (b) Kpati; formerly spoken in Taraba state, speakers now speak Hausa. (c) Basa Gunma; it’s an extinct Kainji language of Nigeria formerly spoken by people around Niger and Nasarawa states, speakers now speak Hausa. This is to mention but a few. You can check this link for more on extinct Nigerian languages.

It is no longer news that UNESCO in 2012 predicted that Igbo language might become extinct in the next 50 years. To some it is impossible, but it unsettles me, and I make bold to say that it is a possibility. I will tell you why.

There are about 500 languages spoken in Nigeria today, in them you will find Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba being spoken by a larger population in Nigeria. In other words, these three are the masquerades (Mgbadike) of the Nigeria languages. The fact Igbo language instead of gaining communication height in the hierarchy of languages is currently moving in the downward trend because of the rate at which the Igbos especially the youths are shying away from their language with reckless abandon.

Let us use our parents as a case study to x-ray UNESCO’s prediction. There is no doubt that our parents understands and speak Igbo, but how many of their children can effectively communicate in Igbo language? Even the once that knows it prefers to communicate with their brethren in English. If in the next 50 years, our parents passes on to the great beyond leaving behind their children who cannot or refuse to communicate in Igbo, don’t you think that UNESCO’s prediction has come to pass then?

From my research and observations, it is only the older generation of Igbos (40 years and above) that speak the language both in the cities and in the rural places. The worst hit are the female folks especially the younger ones (30 years and below) they understand the language but refuse to speak it. Listen to a Hausa person speak to a fellow Hausa, you will never hear English in their communication, in the same way, when I speak Igbo to an Igbo person I make sure I don’t add English and yet over 90% of my female friends will reply me fully in English. This shows that they understand the language but refuse to speak it.

Among the male counterpart, it is only those that didn’t go to school that proudly speaks the language. It gladdens my heart anytime I go to the market to buy things (Lagos and Abuja), there you will see Igbo traders and business men proudly speaking the language, but it is not so when you visit our universities or meet our graduates on the road.

I once asked a female Corp member posted to serve in our office why she prefers to communicate in English instead of Igbo to her fellow Igbos, she told me that if she speak Igbo people will see her as an illiterate and a local girl. Gosh!!! Why do the Yoruba and Hausa people not have this type of silly mentality that is prevalent among Igbo Youths?

I feel ashamed that my Hausa and Yoruba colleagues will see their people and say stuffs like Inakwana, Inaoni, Ekaro, Ekaso (i.e morning and day greetings in those languages) But the Igbos will see each other and start saying things like: Nna how far, good morning and good afternoon. Hardly will you see an Igbo person that will greet you with: Nna kedu, Ututu Oma, Ibolachi, Kaoo, Jokwaa etc. This is not only prevalent among the Igbos of the South East, the Igbos of Rivers and Delta states where my mom hails from are equally guilty.

English is a means of communication between people of different tribes since Nigeria is a multilingual country. People of the same tribe should not use English to talk to each other. It is a sick thing for an Igbo person to communicate in English to a fellow Igbo, you will never see a Hausa person communicating in English to his tribal person. If you are Igbo and you don’t know how to speak the language, it is actually a shame, it’s your number one identity, and so you should go and learn it. Nobody is asking you to go and serve your ancestor’s deity but to speak your language.

Asking a young Igbo person to say the numbers or naira value in Igbo language is like asking them to trek from Abuja to Aba. I could remember an episode with an Igbo woman that sells roasted yam opposite PHCN office in Maitama Abuja. Below is our conversation.
Woman: Nna, Kedu ihe I choro? (Sir what do you want?)
Me: Biko nye m ji otu akpa ego (Please give me yam of N200)
Woman: I si gini (What did you say)
Me: A si m gi nye m ji otu akpa ego (I said you should give me N200 yam)
Woman: Gini bu otu akpa ego? (What is N200)
Me: Obu na ibughi onye igbo, I maghi ihe ana akpo ego na asusu igbo (Are you not Igbo, don’t you know the names of money in Igbo)
Woman: A mabu m ya mbu, mana e chefuola m ya (I know it before but I have forgotten it).
Me: (Gets angry) Biko nye m ji N200 naira ka m rie si ebe a puo. (Please give me yam of N200 let me eat and get out of this place.

This woman is not alone on this. These days, it is hard to find Igbos who knows the Igbo meaning for some certain things. Gather people from different tribes in Abuja or Lagos and ask them what some certain things are called in their native language and you will see them boldly telling you but ask an Igbo person the name for Chameleon in his native language and you will see them looking at the skies as if the answer is going to fall from there, the best answer you will get is I used to know it before.

Those that still manages to speak Igbo language mixes it with English. Listen to someone talk in Igbo, you will discover that 40% of their speech contains English. It’s only among the elderly ones in the rural places that you can still find someone that speaks Igbo language flawlessly without adding an English word.

Hardly will you see non Igbos visiting or residing in the Igbo states learn Igbo language anymore because the inhabitants of those lands no longer speak Igbo language. But reverse is the case when Igbos are visiting Yoruba or Hausa states, just give them 6 months there, they will come back and speak those languages more than the original owners.

My elder brother’s wife is from Edo state but schooled in Madonna University Anambra state. The first time I met her I greeted her in Igbo and spoke some simple Igbo to her but to my greatest surprise she told me that she didn’t understand anything in what I just said. I became embarrassed and told her that I spoke Igbo to her because I was told she schooled in Anambra state and should have used the opportunity to learn some basic Igbo language. She told me that during her school days, the Igbos who are majority in her school (over 80%) hardly speak Igbo to each other, they always communicate in English, so how was she supposed to learn the language since the owners of the language seldom speaks it.

I know some people will say that I am exaggerating, but I want you to know that this is a research that has taking me 5 years since I came back to Nigeria after my studies abroad (2010-2015) Don’t just hide behind the screen of your computer and gadgets and criticize me. Take a trip down to Nigeria if you are not here already, then you will understand what I am taking about. Visit all the major cities in Nigeria, south eastern states inclusive, then you will know that this downward trend of our dear language is really scary. If you think I am joking just pick up your phone right now and call any of your Igbo friend or family member and hear them speak then you will understand my lamentation.

Does it not bother you that we started Nollywood and over 80% of Nollywood stars have Igbo roots yet we don’t have a dedicated channel on DSTV whereas there are some channels dedicated to Hausa and Yoruba people.

If you are non-Igbo, I will advise that you steer clear of this thread, this is not the time for tribal war, it’s the time to bring to the consciousness of my Igbo brethren what is happening to us,but if you must contribute, please let it be constructive since nothing warms your blood than a thread that bashes the Igbos. And to my fellow Igbos, it is a wake-up call to all of us, it is time to bring this to bare, there is nothing to hide anymore, there is no better time to discuss this topic, it doesn’t matter if other tribes laugh at us now, the greatest scorn and laughter will be when UNESCO’s prediction will come to pass and we will be speaking English, Hausa and Yoruba in our villages. (A na eji bekee awa oji?) If we fail to do something fast, we will have a rude awakening and will become a laughing stock to other tribes soonest. And if nothing is done to correct this anomaly now, we will wake up one day to find Igbo language extinct like the others that have gone into extinction.

If you will make it a point of duty not to speak English to your fellow Igbos from today and to also spread this to your friends and family outside nairaland, I think our problem is already half solved. Be quick to correct your Igbo friends that speak English to you by reminding them that they are Igbos and should only speak Igbo language to you.

Igbo muru Nze muo Ozo, biko kulie nu na ura. Bido ta subara nwanne gi asusu Igbo.

#Suba asusu Igbo.

Ka Chineke mezie okwu.

Written by Nnamdi Ositadinma a.k.a Mba-ana-abara-Agu (the threat made against the Lion)
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Progress in Manx hailed by magazine

Progress in Manx hailed by magazine | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The revival of the Manx language has featured in a blog on leading magazine the National Geographic’s website.

An article written by a leading specialist in the study of endangered languages, K. David Harrison.

Harrison talks about how the Manx language almost vanished and features a photo of himself at the Manx Museum listening to a recording of the ‘last speaker’ of the Manx language, Ned Maddrell, who died in 1974.

Mr Harrison goes on to write: ‘Manx dramatically awoke from near dormancy in the 1980s and 90s with a generation of “new native speakers”, children who were raised by language-activist parents speaking only Manx in the home.’

Also included in the article is a link to a video Harrison made on the island, showing local schoolchildren speaking in Manx and including interviews with Breesha Maddrell and Adrian Cain from Culture Vannin, Rob Teare, head of the Manx language team in schools and Julie Matthews, head teacher at Bunscoill Ghaelgagh in St John’s.

Mr Harrison writes: ‘Manx’s remarkable comeback sets a hopeful example for language revival efforts worldwide’.

Read the full article and see the video here.
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Brian Merriman’s The Midnight Court translated into Japanese

Brian Merriman’s The Midnight Court translated into Japanese | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A new Japanese translation of Brian Merriman’s earthy 18th-century poem Cúirt an Mheán Oíche (The Midnight Court) will be presented to the Japanese Ambassador to Ireland, Chihiro Atsumi, by two of the Japanese scholars who produced the translation and critical edition today, Tuesday, March 3rd, at the Chester Beatty Library, hosted jointly by the library and Cumann Merriman.
Two of the 12-member Kyoto Society for Research of the Irish Language and Literature in Japan which recently published the translation and critical edition are in Ireland to mark the event – Prof Kuninao Nashimoto of Hosei University Tokyo and Prof Emerita Takako Haruki of Kobe Shoin Women’s University. Cumann Merriman and the Irish and Japanese departments in the University of Limerick will be holding events in Dublin and Limerick respectively to mark the event. Prof Nashimoto acted as project leader of the translation; he is a frequent visitor to Ireland, having studied for his PhD in Irish in NUIG and lectured in Japanese in UL.
The Japanese translation is the first translation directly from Irish to a language other than English in 100 years (Ludwig Stern published his German translation in Berlin in 1905). Notable previous translators of Merriman’s 1,026-line comic poem to English include Arland Ussher (1926), Frank O’Connor (1945), David Marcus (1953), Thomas Kinsella (1986), Seamus Heaney (1993) and Ciaran Carson (2005).
Cumann Merriman provided support and assistance to the Kyoto Society of scholars from2007-2014 and introduced the scholars to Dr Liam P Ó Murchú of the Department of Modern Irish in UCC, who published the definitive edition of Merriman’s poem in 1982 and assisted the scholars in their work.
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Common Challenges for Spanish to English Translators - Translation Blog

Common Challenges for Spanish to English Translators - Translation Blog | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Translators have quite an interesting job that is full of challenges. No two tasks are ever alike, which makes for an especially dynamic job, but also ensures that the translator is in a constant state of learning and must constantly adapt to different writing styles, topics and dialects. In addition, just being bilingual isn’t enough to be a good translator. A translator must have mastered both languages and be able to perfectly render one into the other, as discussed in another post, “The Subtle Gap Between Being Bilingual and Being a Translator.” However, each “language pair,” as it’s known in translation lingo, presents its own unique difficulties. The problems faced by someone who translates from French into English are vastly different from those who translate the other way around, from English into French, not to mention into other languages.  In this post however, I will draw from my own experiences and describe some of the common challenges faced by Spanish to English translators.

Grammar

Both English and Spanish utilize the same Subject-Verb-Object (Sally threw the ball) sentence structure. However, Spanish grammar rules are much more lenient and allow for different structures to be used, while English does not. Also, in Spanish, the subject that is to be emphasized is often placed at the end of the sentence. So, for example, in Spanish if we want to emphasize that Sally threw the ball, and not Sam, the literal syntax in Spanish  might look something like “the ball threw it Sally.” A good Spanish to English translator is able to recognize these syntactic differences in a text and rearrange them in a logical way that flows well in English, although, this isn’t always easy to do.

Vocabulary

Quite a large portion of the Spanish language is derived from Latin, just like the other Romance languages. English on the other hand is an Anglo-Saxon language that has been influenced by Latin, but to a lesser extent. As a result, many words that may be common, everyday words in Spanish, have cognates in English that are used only formally. Due to this, the translator must be aware of the level of formality and the context of the document in order to decide whether to keep the more formal cognate, or choose a more appropriate alternative.

Punctuation marks

As simple as it seems, some of the punctuation rules are exactly the opposite  between English and Spanish. For instance, all punctuation marks in Spanish must always be placed outside of quotation marks or parentheses, while in English, within. This is something that often causes much confusion.

As you can see, translators have to take many different things into consideration and pay attention to many details and nuances of both languages while translating a text. We here at Trusted Translations only employ linguistic experts who have proven experience in all of these aspects in their particular language pairs.

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A Marriage of Two Languages: My Journey on Embracing Both English and Spanish

A Marriage of Two Languages: My Journey on Embracing Both English and Spanish | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I vividly remember when I learned how to speak English. I have memories of understanding what people were saying when they were speaking English as early as three years old of age, and understanding that they wouldn't be able to comprehend my words -- Spanish. My assimilation to the English language was quick, and I took off running with its adoption, and have since been involved in a messy love affair. It is because of this, even despite the huge nopal on my forehead, that people are often surprised to discover that Spanish was my first language. More likely, because now when I speak Spanish I can come out sounding like a gringa -- a total "white girl."

In my defense, I had two battles to overcome to retain the Spanish I still know and am able to speak. With the education system as it still was during my elementary years, speaking Spanish in school was discouraged. I remember early on being reprimanded in class as the English-only speakers felt we were talking about them -- which, most of the time, we were.

School quickly became an English-only environment. The second obstacle that I had against me was that I was not raised in a traditional "Mexican home" where Spanish was the primary language -- something that undoubtedly had helped and ensured others to keep their Spanish language. I was raised in a bi-racial home where English was our main language. My step father, my adoptive father, is American -- un gringo. I was four years old when my parents married, and I was put on a fast-track course into American culture.

I struggled a lot with my identity growing up. I was unsure if I identified myself more as an American or Mexican -- it is still sometimes an issue for me. I had relatives who often told me that I did not have the "right" to call myself Mexican, as I was not born in Mexico, but with the nopal en mi frente, how could I also possibly identify with what has been the traditional view of "American"? This question is made even more difficult to answer when we reside in the epicenter where these two cultures crash, creating an area of ambiguity: by the border -- la frontera.

The idea that the region around the border contained its own culture along with its own version of Spanish didn't become a solidified concept to me until I began to feel the backlash for the type of Spanish I spoke when I left our cultural bubble -- this informal, hybridized version of Spanish was not considered "proper." It was almost as if I was being rejected by both the American and Mexican cultures because the version that I exhibited as was not "right."

As I continued my love affair with English and the written word, I couldn't deny the fact that Spanish -- my first language -- was not something that could be ignored or suppressed. There are some words and expressions that cannot be translated into English. They roll off the tongue in Spanish in such an elegant way, that to turn it into English would chop it to bits and take away from its beauty. There is a musical tone and quality that exists in Spanish that is seductive without even trying.

Without realizing it, when not being conscious of having and needing to speak English, these words and expressions would come out of their own accord -- they have a life of their own. It is when I am my most comfortable, when I'm not having to think about what I am saying, that I mix the two languages. More importantly, it feels right when they are mixed.

The mixture of the two languages is indicative of the mixture of my two cultures. It is inherently who I am. I am Mexican, and I am also American. I am a hybrid. It has taken me a long time to accept that this is ok. I do not have to fall under the pressure of having to choose one over the other, nor do I have to fall under the negative stigmatization that to claim both is wrong.

When I first stumbled on Gloria Anzaldúa's book, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, I felt I had found the words of a kindred spirit who knew and understood the struggle of finding your voice when you have each foot standing in two different worlds. What I had found incredible was that her book was first published in 1987, yet still holds as much relevance as it did then -- maybe even more so today. This book spoke to me on such a spiritual level and brought a voice to the shame I had been feeling of not feeling like I was Mexican enough because my Spanish was "broken." But I am not broken; I am evolved, and more importantly, I am not alone. There are more like me who exist. Anzaldúa wrote:
Ethnic identity is twin skin to linguistic identity - I am my language. Until I can take pride in my language, I cannot take pride in myself. Until I can accept as legitimate Chicano Texas Spanish, Tex-Mex and all the other languages I speak, I cannot accept the legitimacy of myself. Until I am free to write bilingually and to switch codes without having always to translate, while I still have to speak English or Spanish when I would rather speak Spanglish, and as long as I have to accommodate the English speakers rather than having them accommodate me, my tongue will be illegitimate.
I wish I had read Anzaldúa's book sooner so that I could have understood myself sooner. I wish that more of us would read this book so that they can come to the same conclusions I have: I am not wrong or uneducated because I mix two languages. I am not less Mexican because I speak English. I am not less American because I speak Spanish. I am not less. I am more. I am me.
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Google has developed a technology to tell whether ‘facts’ on the Internet are true

Google has developed a technology to tell whether ‘facts’ on the Internet are true | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Internet, we know all too well, is a cesspool of rumor and chicanery.

But in a research paper published by Google in February — and reported over the weekend by New Scientist — that could, at least hypothetically, change. A team of computer scientists at Google has proposed a way to rank search results not by how popular Web pages are, but by their factual accuracy.

To be really clear, this is 100 percent theoretical: It’s a research paper, not a product announcement or anything equally exciting. (Google publishes hundreds of research papers a year.) Still, the fact that a search engine could effectively evaluate  truth, and that Google is actively contemplating that technology, should boggle the brain. After all, truth is a slippery, malleable thing — and grappling with it has traditionally been an exclusively human domain.

Per this recent paper, however, it’s not too difficult for computers to determine whether a given statement is true or false. Basically, to evaluate a stated fact, you only need two things: the fact and a reference work to compare it to. Google already has the beginnings of that reference work, in the form of its Knowledge Graph — the thing that displays “August 15, 1990” when you search “Jennifer Lawrence birthday,” or “American” when you search “Obama nationality.”


Answers from the Google Knowledge Graph, which pop up when you search “flu,” “Obama nationality” and “Jennifer Lawrence birthday,” respectively. (Google)
Google culls those details largely from services like Freebase, Wikipedia and the CIA World Factbook; a separate, internal research database, called Knowledge Vault, can also automatically extract facts from the text on Web pages. Whichever database we’re talking about, Google structures these ‘lil factoids as things called “knowledge triples”: subject, relationship, attribute. Like so:

(Jennifer Lawrence, birthday, August 15 1990)
(Barack Obama, nationality, American)
(Somalia, capital, Mogadishu)

… so to check if a fact found in the wild is accurate, all Google has to do is reference it against the knowledge triples in its giant internal database. And to check whether a Web page or a Web site is accurate, Google would just look at all the site’s knowledge triples and see how many don’t agree with its established body of facts.

The distant suggestion, these researchers write, is that Google’s version of the truth would iterate over time. At some point, perhaps even Google’s hotly debated and much-studied ranking algorithm — the creator and destroyer of a million Web sites! — could begin including accuracy among the factors it uses to choose the search results you see.


This chart basically shows the distribution of accurate (toward the right) and non-accurate (toward the left) Web sites, for sites where the research team could extract seven or more facts. The good news: There are a lot more accurate sites! (Google)
That could be huge, frankly: In one trial with a random sampling of pages, researchers found that only 20 of 85 factually correct sites were ranked highly under Google’s current scheme. A switch could, theoretically, put better and more reliable information in the path of the millions of people who use Google every day. And in that regard, it could have implications not only for SEO — but for civil society and media literacy.

It’s worth noting, in fact, that the Barack-Obama-nationality example comes straight from the Google report, which would seem to imply that the technology’s creators envision it as a tool against stubborn misconceptions and conspiracy theories.


“How do you correct people’s misconceptions?” Matt Stempeck, the guy behind LazyTruth, asked New Scientist recently. “People get very defensive. [But] if they’re searching for the answer on Google they might be in a much more receptive state.”

Increasingly, information intermediates like Google have begun to take that suggestion seriously. Just three weeks ago, Google began displaying physician-vetted health information directly in search results, even commissioning diagrams from medical illustrators and consulting with the Mayo Clinic “for accuracy.” Meanwhile, Facebook recently launched a new initiative to append a warning to hoaxes and scams in News Feed, the better to keep them from spreading.

It’s unclear exactly what Google plans to do with this new technology, if anything at all. Still, even the possibility of a search engine that evaluates truth is a pretty incredible breakthrough. And it definitely gives new meaning to the phrase “let me Google that for you.”

Liked that? Try these:

What was fake on the Internet this week
Did Facebook just kill the Web’s burgeoning fake-news industry?
Why people fall for dumb Internet hoaxes

Caitlin Dewey runs The Intersect blog, writing about digital and Internet culture. Before joining the Post, she was an associate online editor at Kiplinger’s Personal Finance.
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Stratus Video Addresses Inadequate Language Interpreting for 2.4 Million U.S. Children

Stratus Video Addresses Inadequate Language Interpreting for 2.4 Million U.S. Children | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
To meet the needs of young patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) and hearing loss, a growing number of healthcare providers are relying on Stratus video remote interpreting (VRI) services to overcome language barriers.




Sean Belanger of Stratus Video Interpreting addresses a growing number of healthcare providers turning to video remote interpreting (VRI) services to overcome language barriers.
“[Patients] feel like they’re being heard, that they’re being understood, and it allows them to express their fears and say when they don’t understand.
Clearwater, FL (PRWEB) March 02, 2015

While many hospitals have implemented medical interpretation services to comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, the unique needs of children with limited English proficiency (LEP) and hearing loss are bringing light to the value of video remote interpreting (VRI) services. U.S. Census Bureau statistics reveal that nearly 1 in 20 U.S. children have LEP—a number that rises to more than 1 in 10 in some major cities.(1) Stratus Video Interpreting enables healthcare providers and patients to communicate via live medical interpreters, who have the ability to display text and graphics on screen to better communicate with children.
A recent article in the Santa Barbara News-Press examined how Stratus’ video remote interpreting has been implemented by Cottage Health System in Southern California.(2) Denise Filotas, interpretive services coordinator for Cottage Health System, explained that Stratus’ services supplement their own staff interpreters, with 45 video interpretation units deployed at Cottage Health System’s hospitals in Santa Barbara, Goleta and Santa Ynez as well as outpatient clinics.
“[Patients] feel like they’re being heard, that they’re being understood, and it allows them to express their fears and say when they don’t understand,” said Filotas. She noted that 15% to 20% of Cottage’s patient base speaks a language other than English, and estimates that 95% of those are Spanish-speaking patients. She added that Stratus’ healthcare interpreters have been sensitive to patients’ needs, and recounted an incident where a male interpreter realized that a young woman was embarrassed to speak about her health problems, so he quickly connected her to a female interpreter to put her at ease.(2)
According to the Census Bureau’s most recent Community Survey (1), 4.5% of children aged 5 to 17—more than 2.4 million children in total—speak English less than very well. The Census Bureau’s findings showed that the population of LEP children rises substantially in certain metropolitan areas, including Dallas (18.1%), El Paso (17.3%), Houston (14.9%), Miami (12.4%), Los Angeles (11.9%), New York (11.2%) and San Francisco (10%). While there are no definitive figures concerning the number of children who are deaf or hard of hearing, data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that between 1 and 5 children per 1,000 have hearing loss.(3)
“A visit to the doctor or hospital can be a scary situation for any child, especially one who is ill or injured. But imagine how much more frightening it must seem for children who cannot communicate with their healthcare providers,” said Sean Belanger, CEO of Stratus Video Interpreting. “Children with limited English proficiency or hearing loss may have difficulty explaining what hurts, understanding their diagnosis or paying attention to medical staff. To overcome these challenges, Stratus’ medical interpretation services take full advantage of the video medium. Our interpreters can display text, images and animation on screen to engage children and aid their understanding.”
Belanger emphasizes that the ability of patients to communicate effectively with their healthcare providers has a significant impact on the quality of care they receive. Research has shown that professional interpretation services resulted in a significantly lower percentage of medical errors than ad-hoc interpreters or no interpreters.(4) For these reasons, Belanger envisions that timely access to certified healthcare interpretation services will one day factor into best hospital rankings such as those published by U.S. News & World Report.
Stratus’ video remote interpreting services are designed to be flexible and adaptable to meet the needs of healthcare organizations of any size and type. As an example, Belanger cites the recent Stratus implementation at Yale-New Haven Hospital, which includes stationary carts with large touch screens for use in specific locations as well as mobile units featuring iPads attached to wheeled poles, or “iPoles.” He also points to video interpreters’ use of text, graphics and animation as another form of customization that healthcare providers can employ to better serve deaf, hard-of-hearing and LEP patients of all ages.
For more information on Stratus and its medical interpretation services, visit http://www.stratusvideo.com.
About Stratus Video Interpreting:
Stratus Video Interpreting provides on-demand interpreter services by using technology to connect clients with interpreters in over 175 spoken and signed languages in less than 30 seconds. Stratus’ cloud-based video solution delivers an array of unique features to virtually any Internet-enabled PC, Mac, smartphone or tablet. Stratus clients use the technology to connect with their own staff interpreters, as well as with Stratus interpreters, who have years of healthcare and courtroom experience and hold multiple certifications. With Stratus, state-of-the-art video remote interpreting is made available with virtually no capital investment. Stratus averages 65,000 video calls a day, up from 40,000 in mid-2013. Stratus Video is the sister company of The Z® (CSDVRS, LLC, dba ZVRS), which was established in 2006 and developed by and for deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals, setting the industry standard as the nation’s premier Video Relay Service Provider and the first VRS Provider to receive a 5-year certification from the FCC. In 2014, Stratus was recognized as one of the fastest-growing privately held companies, ranking #3,827 on Inc. magazine’s Inc. 5000 list. For more information, visit http://www.stratusvideo.com.
1. U.S. Census Bureau. “Age by Language Spoken at Home by Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over”; 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates; report generated via American FactFinder; accessed February 20, 2015. factfinder2.census.gov
2. Mason, Dave. “The Face of Health: Video Translations Help Non-English-Speaking Patients”; Santa Barbara News-Press; December 30, 2014. newspress.com/Top/Article/article.jsp?Section=LIFE&ID=567118456210718744 (full text available at stratusvideo.com/in-the-news/)
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “Hearing Loss in Children: Research and Tracking”; Hearing Loss section on CDC website; page last updated November 17, 2014. cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/research.html
4. Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; et al. “Errors of Medical Interpretation and Their Potential Clinical Consequences: A Comparison of Professional Versus Ad Hoc Versus No Interpreters”; Annals of Emergency Medicine; November 2012. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22424655
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Indian Television Dot Com | ‘Fast and Furious 7’ to release in four languages across India

Indian Television Dot Com | ‘Fast and Furious 7’ to release in four languages across India | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
MUMBAI: After the success of all its prequels, Universal Pictures India is all set to give Fast and Furious 7 a multi-lingual release in Indian theatres on 2 April, 2015.
 
The movie will release across India in four languages namely English, Hindi, Tamil and Telugu.
 
Fast and Furious 7 will be more special for the franchise’s fans as this will be the last time they will see the late Paul Walker reprising his role as Brian O'Conner. It may be recalled that Walker died in a car crash last year.
 
The movie also stars Vin Diesel, Dwayne Johnson and Michelle Rodriguez, Jason Statham and Indian actor Ali Fazal in a special appearance among others.
 
The movie is directed by James Wan. The movie will also see Michelle Rodriguez, Jordana Brewster, Tyrese Gibson, Chris “Ludacris” Bridges and Lucas Black, who will be joined by international action stars new to the franchise including Jason Statham, Djimon Hounsou, Tony Jaa, Ronda Rousey, Nathalie Emmanuel and Kurt Russell.
 
Talking about the movie, Wan said, “When you're making a bigger movie you have much bigger set pieces that require more time and more effort and more people. But I think the final product will surprise a lot of people. It's the hardest film I've ever had to make but it's also the one I'm proudest of.  I'm really proud of this film.”
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Research challenges popular theory on origin of languages

Research challenges popular theory on origin of languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Research challenges popular theory on origin of languages
Tuesday, 3 March 2015
International research involving the University of Adelaide has shed new light on the origins of some of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

Three billion people today speak a language that is part of the Indo-European family of languages, spanning Europe as well as Central, Western and South Asia. But the reason why these languages – such as English, Spanish, Russian and Hindi – are related has been a source of some argument for more than two hundred years.

New research published today in the journal Nature, led by University of Adelaide ancient DNA researchers and the Harvard Medical School, shows that at least some of the Indo-European languages spoken in Europe were likely the result of a massive migration from eastern Russia.

"This new study is the biggest of its kind so far and has helped to improve our understanding of the linguistic impact of Stone Age migration," says co-first author Dr Wolfgang Haak, from the University of Adelaide's Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD). "Using genome-scale data from more than 90 ancient European people, ranging from 3000-8000 years old, we were able to trace these people's origins."

The researchers found evidence of two major population replacements in Europe during the Stone Age. The first was the arrival of Europe’s first farmers, who had spread from the Near East (modern-day Turkey).

"Their genetic profiles show remarkable similarity despite vast geographic distances and differences in material culture. Whether from Hungary, Germany or Spain, the first farmers are genetically almost identical and must have come from the same origin," says ACAD Director Professor Alan Cooper, co-author on the study.

Co-first author of the study Dr Iosif Lazaridis, a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard Medical School, says remarkably, the hunter-gatherers that lived in Europe did not disappear after the first farmers moved in. "By 6000-5000 years ago, a resurgence of hunter-gatherer ancestry had occurred in agricultural populations across Europe," he says.

Surprisingly, a third ancestry component, with its origins in the east, was found to be present in every Central European sample after 4500 years ago, but not before that time, marking the second population turnover. "It was a Eureka moment when we looked at the new data," says Dr Lazaridis.

The team estimates that the so-called "Corded Ware" people (named after their distinctive pottery) had 75% of their ancestry from the eastern steppe. "This large migration almost certainly had lasting effects on the languages people spoke," says Dr Haak. "This later migration sits well with linguists who had suggested a more recent spread of Indo-European, based on similar words for wheeled vehicles that had only been in use since 5000 years ago."

The leader of the study, Professor David Reich of Harvard Medical School, the Broad Institute, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, says: "These results challenge the other popular theory that all Indo-European languages in Europe today owe their origin to the arrival of the first farmers from Anatolia more than 8000 years ago."

He says the new study doesn’t solve the centuries-old problem of the homeland of all Indo-European languages, which are distributed widely in Eurasia. However, the team is optimistic that a solution may be within reach. "We now want to understand how the people of Europe 3000-6000 years ago were linked with those in the East, the Caucasus, Iran and India, where Indo-European is also spoken," Professor Reich says.
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What Marvel Characters End Up Being Called In Other Languages

What Marvel Characters End Up Being Called In Other Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Along with the actual text and words of superhero tales getting translated abroad, the names of these characters also gets changed. Some are pretty literal and others, like Loki above, are a bit more descriptive.

We've seen this kind of work from James Chapman, who tackled the translated titles of TV shows. Now, he does warn that these come from both movies and comic books — and that some of them are older and no longer the current translation — but that makes them more interesting in a way. It's also a bit of a historical deep dive. Also, Blunderbuss is a fabulous name for Rocket.

You can see more of Chapman's work on Facebook, tumblr, and Tapastic.
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Secrets of learning a language — quickly

Secrets of learning a language — quickly | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
 Picture this: You want to apply for a dream assignment abroad. There’s just one problem. You need foreign language skills that you don't have – and time is not on your side.

It might sound like an impossible task, but according to language experts, you can learn basic communication skills in weeks and master the basics of a foreign language in several months. While you might not quickly reach the fluency that allows you to understand great foreign literature classics, you can, though, quickly hone in on phrases and technical language specific to your needs whether you are working with the diplomatic service or a blue chip multinational. 

It won’t take most people long to be well on their way to discussing current affairs with a native speaker in Rome or sharing a 'water cooler' moment with new French work colleagues in Paris.

Getting started

Sometimes travelling the globe for work will force you to come up with ways to master conversation in many languages. Benny Lewis, an engineer, learned enough of seven languages -- including Spanish, French and German — to work easily and attained near fluency in several others, including Mandarin.

Learning Spanish, Lewis’s first non-native language, took over a year but subsequent languages, even the basics of conversational Mandarin, were quicker. His secret: when he first needs to learn a language, Lewis compiles a script of sorts for himself so that he can respond to simple queries from strangers.   As Lewis mastered new languages, he was even able to do work as a translator of technical engineering texts.

Phrasebooks and online tutorials can prove useful in this early stage, experts say, as they can give you the vocabulary and the confidence to have basic conversations with native speakers, the crucial first step in learning a language.

“The biggest barrier in the beginning is the lack of confidence,” said Lewis. “That got better and better for me [as I spoke].”

Indeed, simply having the courage to speak is necessary if you are going to make progress in a foreign language, language experts said.

“A lot of people don't make progress if they don't open their mouths,” said Michael Geisler, the vice president for language schools at Middlebury College in Vermont in the US. “If you are not willing to put your identity on the line, progress will be slower.”

This means not being afraid to take risks or make mistakes. When he started learning Spanish, Lewis said he spoke a lot like Tarzan, the fictional man of the jungle.

“I would say 'me want go supermarket'. But I reached the advanced stage by starting as a beginner. My 'light bulb' moment was when – two weeks into learning Spanish – my toothbrush broke and I was able to ask for a replacement at the supermarket,” he said. “Wherever you go, people are very patient.”

Immerse yourself

Geisler believes that total immersion is key to mastering a foreign language quickly. The more you immerse yourself in the foreign language – such as reading, listening to the radio or speaking to people – the more rapid your progress will be.

Students at Middlebury College are required to conduct all extra-curricular activities, from sport to theatre, in the language they are learning. Middlebury, which also runs graduate programs, runs courses in 10 languages including French, German, Chinese and Hebrew.

Such immersion is also actively encouraged at the Foreign Service Institute in Washington, DC, which trains US diplomats and US foreign affairs personnel in foreign languages. With teaching expertise in more than 70 foreign languages, courses last up to 44 weeks, with the aim of taking students to 'level 3' in a language – essentially this means they can read and understand the equivalent of a magazine like Time and hold in-depth conversations.

Getting to basic conversational proficiency can be achieved in much less time, just several weeks according to experts, particularly if you can speak regularly. James North, associate director for instruction at the Foreign Service Institute, said students are encouraged to get to know native speakers.

“You need to invest not just the head but also the heart,” North said. You can, for instance, do volunteer work or engage with the local community at restaurants and neighbourhood functions. 

More broadly, in major cities there are often regular — several times weekly — language-immersion Meet-Up groups that join together people practicing a language. There are also online alternatives. Lewis recommends italki.com, a language social network that connects native speakers and teachers with students. Others include lang-8.com and voxswap.com.

By conversing regularly with language experts or native speakers you also have someone to check – and correct – your progress.

“Practice makes perfect,” said North. “But practice without feedback just makes perfect whatever you are practicing. The naïve learner does not have a perspective on what they are doing. It is really vital to have someone saying yes you are on track.”

You’ll need to ask those you speak with for feedback and make sure they know it’s OK to correct your pronunciations and grammar, although experts say you need not worry too much about grammar in the early stages.

Use the language first and focus on the grammar later, Lewis said. When you are ready to pick up the grammar, he recommended using podcasts at sites such as radiolingua.com or languagepod101.com as particularly useful in picking up grammar and dissecting the language.

“By then you have so much context. I would see a rule and I would say, 'That's why they say it that way',” he said.

As you learn, be sure to consume media in the foreign language. If you are starting out, read illustrated children's books or watch familiar films in a foreign language, experts advise.

If you have specific goals to achieve, such as conversing with a partner or using a foreign language at work, that motivation can be all you need to begin to master conversations. But beware lofty ambitions. If you say you want to be fluent in two months, you will likely be disappointed. But if your goal is to reach some level of conversational proficiency, especially for a work assignment, that’s entirely possible.

To comment on this story or anything else you have seen on BBC Capital, head over to our Facebook page or message us on Twitter.
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PressTV-Migrants spread Indo-European languages

PressTV-Migrants spread Indo-European languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A recent study has suggested that a vast human migration by ancient Eastern European steppe herders may have spread Indo-European languages to other parts of Europe.

The study was carried out by a team of researchers from the US, Australia, and other countries by assessing multiple libraries of DNA samples from the remains of 69 people who lived some 3,000 to 8,000 years ago in Europe.

The group used an enrichment procedure known as in-solution hybridization and deep sequencing of nearly 395,000 targeted Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) to assess the DNA samples. 

The study was published in the Nature journal on Monday.

The data from the genomes of the 69 ancient Europeans showed that the herders had migrated en masse from the continent's eastern periphery into Central Europe, thus expanding Indo-European languages, which make up the majority of spoken languages in modern day Europe.

The group discovered that early farmers traveled from the Mediterranean to Spain and on to Germany and Hungary around 7,000 to 8,000 years ago.

The famers’ DNA was distinct from the indigenous hunter-gatherers they came across during their travels, but eventually both groups mixed and by 5,000-6,000 years ago the migrants’ genetic signature had melded with that of the indigenous Europeans.

"Against this background of differentiated European hunter-gatherers and homogeneous early farmers, multiple population turnovers transpired in all parts of Europe included in our study," said senior author and DNA researcher David Reich.

 "These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe," he added.

Most indigenous European languages, such as English, Russian, Greek, and French, are part of the Indo-European group and all have shared vocabulary and grammar features.

"An open question for us is whether the languages spoken by these steppe migrants were just ancestral to a sub-set of Indo-European languages in Europe today -- for example, Balti-Slavic and maybe Germanic -- or the great majority of Indo-European languages spoken in Europe today," Reich told BBC News.

He added that the Indo-European languages used in India and Iran probably diverged from that of steppe travelers before they migrated into central Europe.

SRK/NN/AS
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Emirati children must know their mother tongue | The National

Emirati children must know their mother tongue | The National | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Reports that Arabic is at risk of becoming a foreign language are both disturbing and a call to action. But the circumstances that have created this situation are many, so there will be no quick fix. Part of the problem is the unique situation of Emiratis being a minority in their own country. We grow up with English all around us – including from domestic staff in our homes, as well as on television and through video games and popular computer apps. By the time our children get to school, they may be approaching fluency in a language that is not their own. But this would be fine if they knew the language of their forebears.

Addressing the problem requires a multi-pronged approach that involves homes, schools and workplaces. As with most things to do with rearing children, it must start with the parents. The mother tongue must be the most commonly spoken language in the family home. Even if parents work and socialise in an English-language environment, they must take the time and make the effort to speak to their children in Arabic. They should also make sure that their children have access to good quality and appealing Arabic-language storybooks, games, websites and television programmes. And our children must have regular contact with grandparents and other fluent Arabic speakers.

Next, it is the responsibility of schools to emphasise written and spoken Arabic, particularly in the early learning stage. Studies by ­Unesco have shown that children who master their native tongue first achieve better academic results and are more easily able to learn, and study in, other languages in later life. There is no reason that our schools cannot ensure that teachers are primed to instruct in Arabic in a way that promotes a lifelong love of the language. Of course, for this they would need the appropriate teaching resources – from books to apps – and it goes without saying that these must be up-to-date, relevant and engaging. Last but not least, tertiary institutions and workplaces should also encourage the use of Arabic where possible.

While there is no doubt that proficiency in English is important, it should not come at the cost of Arabic. Language is a connection to culture. We have seen great change in our country over the past four decades and must be vigilant to ensure that Arabic is not swept aside in the rush to modernise and compete internationally.
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Herders spread Indo-European languages

Herders spread Indo-European languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Nomadic pastoralists from the Great Steppe helped spread the large group of languages that includes English, an analysis of ancient DNA confirms.

The findings, reported today in Nature, gives weight to one of two competing hypotheses about where this language group came from.

"These results provide support for a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe," write the researchers in their paper.

Although English, Spanish, Russian, Urdu and Persian may sound very different, linguistic analysis suggests they all came from a common source, says lead author archaeo-geneticist Dr Wolfgang Haak of the University of Adelaide.

One idea is that this language group, now spoken throughout Europe, South Asia and the Middle East, spread with Neolithic farmers who migrated west from places like Turkey into Europe around 8000 years ago.

Another idea is that these languages must have emerged later because they include words for transport, such as wheel, a phenomenon that didn't emerge until later. Likely sources were the highly mobile cultures in the Great Steppe north of the Black Sea. These nomadic people were cattle herders who could have easily have brought language with them.

"They domesticated the horse in the Steppes around 5000 years ago and were probably using oxen-drawn carts to get around," says Haak.

But, he says, the subject has been controversial.

"The debate has been stuck for a while and has almost becomes a religious thing where you have believers of one side or the other," says Haak.

Archaeological evidence supports the 'Great Steppe' hypothesis, but until now, there has been a lack of evidence that herders migrated in large enough numbers to influence language, he says.

Ancient European DNA
Haak and colleagues analysed nuclear DNA from 69 ancient Europeans ranging from 3000 to 8000 years old, and combined this with existing data from another 25 ancient samples.

They found that there were three distinct genetic signals. The first was from 7000 to 10,000-year-old Stone-Age hunter-gatherers.

The second was from farmers that migrated from the Near East about 7500 years ago.

The third provided evidence of a migration of nomadic pastoralists west from the Great Steppe 4500 years ago.

Haak and colleagues found that the ancient central Europeans in their analysis shared 75 per cent of their DNA with these nomadic herders, suggesting these people had a large contribution to the development of language.

"It was not just a handful of people coming west. It was much much bigger than we anticipated," says Haak.

"If you have a genetic contribution that is that strong it's very very likely that language followed the same way and that what we currently speak in Europe is the aftermath of the most recent migration."

While modern speakers of Indo-European languages carry DNA markers from all three of these sources, the eastern pastoralist signal is most prominent in those from countries like Norway, Lithuania and Estonia. In countries like Greece, Spain and France, the signal is diluted out.

Haak says in future research he would like to test whether Steppe ancestry is evident in ancient Iranian or Indian populations.

He says one challenge will be finding well-preserved ancient DNA in subtropical environments.

Analysis: Words, genes and the science of past deeds
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Shanghai Library_In Those Years, We Made Dreams with Voices_

Shanghai Library_In Those Years, We Made Dreams with Voices_ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Lecturer: Sun Yufeng, famous director of dubbed films
Time: Feb. 23, 2015 14:00 pm
Place: Fl.2 Lecture Hall (west wing) (No. 1555 Huaihai Road (M), near Gaoan Road)

Quote from the lecture:
In China, the 1970’s and 1980’s are the golden years of dubbed films when a generation of fans cultivated their own hearing habits: to hear those foreign characters speaking Chinese in dubbed films where the characters’ new voices meet their personalities so much. Those dubbed films and the voices therein accompanied the growing of a generation of fans. They are so familiar with those voices and are obsessed by them: Jane Eyre, Rochester, Esmeralda, Zorro, Eceнuя, and Du Qiu … each voice reminds one of an image, and each image is deep in the memory of that generation of fans. Organized by Shanghai Library Lecture, during the Spring Festival of 2015, the audience will review “The Voice of China” in those years along with famous director of dubbed films Sun Yufeng, who will tell interesting stories about dubbed films. After that, a signing promotion will be held for Mr. Sun Yufeng’s new book: In Those Years, We Made Dreams with Voices.

 
About the lecturer:
Sun Yufeng, born in 1940, former actor of Shanghai Film Studio Actors Troupe, and director (National Level 2) and actor of Shanghai Film Dubbing Factory. Résumé: As a director of dubbed films, he directed more than 300 dubbed films, which won for three times “Governmental Film Award for Excellent Dubbed Film” and “Huabiao Film Award for Excellent Dubbed Film” issued by the Ministry of Culture and Radio, Film and Television Department, namely, French film La raison d'état in 1985, French film Coup De Tete in 1990, and American film Jurassic Park in 1997. In 1997, he directed the dubbing of American film Dante’s Peak, which was nominated as “Excellent Dubbed Film” in the 6th Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Award. He directed many popular dubbed films, such as Bokyo, Zorro, The Wild Geese, Bathing Beauty, A Cruel Romance, Les Misérables, A Walk in the Clouds, and Rush Hour. He directed more than 40 broadcasting plays, some of which won national awards. For example, in 1986, Yuhua and Error of Judgment won “Osmanthus Cup Award for Broadcasting Plays” issued by China National Radio; in 1997, The Party Branch Staying Behind won “Five One Project Award” issued by the Ministry of Propaganda. Many others won the first prizes and second prizes issued by provincial and municipal broadcasting studios. In addition, he directed the dubbing of more than 300 home-made films and TV dramas.
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Orange Klif : un smartphone Firefox OS à 35 € pour les pays africains

Orange Klif : un smartphone Firefox OS à 35 € pour les pays africains | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Ce n’est pas cette année que l’on verra Firefox OS monter en gamme. Au contraire, la fondation Mozilla double la mise sur les téléphones à bas coût, qui pourront pourquoi pas posséder des claviers coulissants ou des écrans à clapet. C’est le sens d’un partenariat noué avec KDDI, Telefonica et Verizon en vue du développement de nouveaux formats pour une commercialisation en 2016.


Le Orange/Alcatel Klif. Image Orange.
De nouveaux formats, de nouveaux marchés aussi : Orange s’est associée à Mozilla et Alcatel pour concevoir le Klif, un smartphone à bas coût doté d’une puce 3G et destiné à dix pays africains. Contrairement à iOS et Android, Firefox OS intègre de nombreuses langues africaines, comme le wolof ou le swahili. Voilà qui en fait un système de choix pour un opérateur comme Orange, qui dépense sans compter pour se positionner sur les marchés africains émergents.

L’appareil en lui-même, construit autour d’un processeur MediaTek poussif et doté d’un écran 3,5 pouces 480x320 px, importe peu. Seul son mode de distribution compte : il sera vendu pour moins de 35 € avec six mois de forfait inclus. Le « forfait mobile type » comprendra de trente minutes à une heure d’appels, des SMS sans limite et surtout 500 Mo de données par mois. À l’issue des six mois, le forfait pourra être rechargé ; un deuxième logement SIM permet d’utiliser une autre offre selon le lieu ou le moment de la journée.

Le Klif sera vendu au Botswana, en Égypte, au Sénégal, en Tunisie, au Cameroun, à Madagascar, en Côte d’Ivoire, au Mali, au Niger et au Kenya, ainsi qu’en Jordanie, à l'île Maurice et au Vanuatu. Une demi-douzaine d’autres pays pourrait s’ajouter à la liste d’ici à la fin de l’année.
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PMEs: Ferramenta traduz sites para 30 línguas

PMEs: Ferramenta traduz sites para 30 línguas | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
EBureau Proxy faz atualizações em tempo real e é acessível ao pequeno e médio empreendedor
 
Possuir um portal em mais de um idioma é fundamental para alcançar clientes ao redor do mundo. Mais do que traduzir, a grande dificuldade é mantê-lo atualizado a cada inserção de conteúdo. Para tornar o processo mais dinâmico e acessível ao pequeno e médio empreendedor, a Bureau Translations (http://www.bureautranslations.com/), considerada a maior empresa de tradução da América Latina, lança o Bureau Proxy. 
 
Bureau Translation
 
O serviço inclui a criação de versões de um site em outras línguas e atualizações. “Fazemos o monitoramento em tempo real e, a cada novo conteúdo postado, acionamos um profissional para fazer a tradução e adaptação em até três horas”, explica Gabriel Fairman, CEO da Bureau Translations.
 
Ao contrário das traduções automáticas, o trabalho feito por um especialista é fiel à terminologia original do texto, sem traduzir ao pé da letra e recair em expressões que não existam ou não tenham sentido.  “Temos uma rede com 350 linguistas associados para o serviço ser feito com todas as nuances necessárias em qualquer idioma”, afirma o executivo.
 
O custo médio para a tradução de um endereço na web é de R$ 600, variando conforme o número de palavras, mais uma taxa a partir de R$ 50 mensais para manutenção. “As plataformas de gestão de conteúdo chegam a custar 15 vezes mais para fazer o mesmo serviço que o Bureau Proxy”, diz Fairman.
 
A ferramenta, lançada em fevereiro de 2015, está disponível em 30 línguas, como inglês, espanhol, francês, alemão, italiano, chinês e japonês, mas, segundo o CEO da Bureau Translations, a expectativa é que a procura por idiomas menos comuns aumente com a disponibilização da solução. A meta é encerrar o ano com mil clientes utilizando a nova tecnologia. “Queremos que as empresas de comércio exterior e turismo ganhem acesso a um site multilíngue, imprescindível para o seu trabalho”, completa Fairman.
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Google plans to rank websites based on facts not links

Google plans to rank websites based on facts not links | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Google has planned to rank websites on its search engine based on factual accuracy, a move that will prevent sites full of misinformation from appearing first in search results.

Google currently uses the number of incoming links to a web page as a proxy for quality, determining where it appears in search results. So pages that many other sites link to are ranked higher.

The disadvantage of the system is that websites full of misinformation can rise up the rankings, if enough people link to them, ‘New Scientist’ reported.

The trustworthiness of a web page might help it rise up Google’s rankings if the search giant starts to measure
quality by facts.

A Google research team is adapting that model to measure the trustworthiness of a page, rather than its reputation across the web.

Instead of counting incoming links, the system will count the number of incorrect facts within a page.

The score they compute for each page is its Knowledge-Based Trust score. The software works by tapping into the Knowledge Vault, the vast store of facts that Google has pulled off the internet.

Those facts which the web unanimously agrees on are considered a reasonable proxy for truth. Web pages that contain contradictory information are bumped down the rankings.
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Cultural programme on Int'l Mother Language Day

Uccharan Academy, a leading cultural organisation of Bogra, arranged a cultural programme on International Mother Language Day and Shaheed Dibosh at its office in Wood-burn Municipality Park in Bogra town.

The chief coordinator of Uccharan Academy, Atiqur Rahman Mithu presided over the function.

Among the speakers were noted human rights activist Anwarul Islam Bacchu, president of Sammilito Sangskritik Jote Monowarul Islam, noted social worker Akram Hossain, poet Selim Reza Kajal and director of the academy Adv. Polash Khandakar.

At the event about 40 children gave a group performance, 20 children performed solo songs and 15 children recited poetry from the writings of different poets. Of the performers, three were from a school for the differently-abled, who were awarded crests by the academy for their brilliant performance at the recent international Olympiad.
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Preview: ‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’- Crossing into a fairytale | The Oxford Student

Preview: ‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’- Crossing into a fairytale | The Oxford Student | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Think of all the tales you’re going to discover…”

Arriving on the B-T stage this 7th week is ‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’, a new adaptation of an 11th century Japanese text. This play includes the elements of what student drama does best: it has an original score, a new script and includes ballet sequences. In short they’re doing something, new, interesting and a little experimental.

‘As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams’ follows the life of Lady Sarashina as she travels through Japan. She is passionate about stories and finds refuge in the tales she is told. The stories are such a significant part of her identity that this mystical play obscures the boundaries between dreams and reality.

Impressively director Laura Cull adapted the original text into a play with help from her friend Harriet Rowe who studies Japanese. The original does not give names to many characters but Harriet was able to find appropriate ones; she also gave cultural advice, having read it in Japanese and being familiar with their customs. Working with her own script meant that Cull was able to develop and change moments as they rehearsed; the characters and script could be developed during the rehearsal process with the input of the actors. She also had the liberty to emphasise moments which she found particularly important from the original; it is her interpretation of the ancient Japanese text that we will be watching in the play.

What I heard from the script was skilfully done; the language maintains the ethereal mood of the piece with lines such as “I continued to bathe in the tales…” Cull has managed to sustain an oriental tone when writing this script. It has a complicated structure as the plot flits between the real and the fantasy worlds; the result is a beautiful mix of stories woven together.

The stories are presented in a range of ways too. Cull wanted it to be an “immersive, multimedia project” including live music and ballet. The music was written especially for the play by Marco Galvani who also wrote the score for His Dark Materials which enjoyed a successful run at the O’Reilly last term. It certainly adds atmosphere to pivotal moments of the play.

Ballet adds to the fairy-like qualities of some of the characters and the dance is used to illustrate the stories on stage. The ballet I saw in the preview was of particularly high quality and I loved the idea that they are mixing so many different techniques in one play. The drama scene in Oxford is very strong but I like that this play is giving dance a platform too. It makes the piece much more varied and I like that they are experimenting with the different ways a story can be communicated.

Whether you are interested by avant-garde ethereal music, some expressive dance or a new translation of an ancient text – this play provides different aspects which will appeal to a range of people. I look forward to seeing how it all comes together.

As I Crossed A Bridge of Dreams is playing at the Burton-Taylor Studio from 3rd – 7th March.  

IMAGE/Artwork by Shannon Smith, graphic design by Steven Doran
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