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A modern way to reach masses

A modern way to reach masses | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
CHICAGO — Standing in a security line at O’Hare International Airport seven years ago, the Rev. Bobby Gruenewald wished he had a Bible in his pocket to pass the time. ...
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CHICAGO — Standing in a security line at O’Hare International Airport seven years ago, the Rev. Bobby Gruenewald wished he had a Bible in his pocket to pass the time. Then the tech-savvy pastor raised in central Illinois had a thought: Wouldn’t it be grand if anyone could have their favorite version of the Bible within reach anywhere at any time?

“Could we be at one of these moments in history where technology, if we leverage it correctly, could transform how we engage in the Bible?” Gruenewald, 37, recalls thinking that day. “Drawing from the story of the printing press, for centuries, that really changed our access to the Bible. It’s probably something today we easily take for granted, but it came through invention.”

By the time he reached the gate to board his flight, Gruenewald, now the innovation pastor of an Oklahoma-based megachurch called LifeChurch.tv, had already registered a Web domain name, youversion.com, and hatched a plan that would lead to the world’s most popular Bible app.

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Metaglossia: The Translation World
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Germany Plans to Republish 'Mein Kampf' | VICE | United States

Germany Plans to Republish 'Mein Kampf' | VICE | United States | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Earlier this week, Germany's Institute for Contemporary History (IfZ) announced details of its plan to publish the first local German edition of Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf since World War II. Scheduled for release in January 2016, the IfZ sees its project as a scholarly work, picking apart and pointing out the flaws within the ideological basis of Nazism. It will add over 1,250 pages of academic critique (and 4,000 annotations) to Hitler's original 748-page text, which first appeared in 1925 in the aftermath of the then-prisoner's failed 1923 Munich Beer Putsch uprising.

The government of the Free State of Bavaria, which holds the book's copyright, has blocked publication of the notorious tome in Germany for the past 70 years, but they never actually instated a law banning it. The German Supreme Court ruled in the 1980s that the possession and sale of the millions of copies printed before the war was perfectly legal (although Bavaria still gets to restrict access to copies in public reference collections). Instead, they have restricted new editions locally and tried to block copies internationally and online using their ownership of the book's copyright, which was seized along with many other Hitler assets in 1945. But as of December 31, 2015, the state's copyright will expire.

Still, the expiration doesn't mean that new editions will sail into the public sphere unopposed. State officials and citizens alike have for years been examining ways to either create a new legislative ban or to block the book's publication under national anti-Nazi and anti-defamation laws upon the expiration of the old de faction injunction. Even bodies that once supported controlled, scholastic editions like the IfZ's have now jumped on the opposition bandwagon, which makes it likely that sometime in the next couple of years we're going to see a legal or legislative spat over whether or when Mein Kampf can be banned outright in Germany.
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Shanghai maths book to be exported to UK - Headlines, features, photo and videos from ecns.cn|china|news|chinanews|ecns|cns

Shanghai maths book to be exported to UK - Headlines, features, photo and videos from ecns.cn|china|news|chinanews|ecns|cns | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
"One Lesson, One Exercise (yi ke yi lian)" on different subject areas are pictured in Shanghai on Feb. 26, 2015. (Photo/xinmin.cn)
A famous supplementary textbook on maths from Shanghai will soon be published in the UK this year, as part of the country's efforts to learn from the city's world-class mathematics teaching methods.

The English version of the book "One Lesson, One Exercise (yi ke yi lian)" will be designed on the base of the original Chinese version and integrate with the local curriculum as well.

The Chinese version of the book has been an essential part to the teaching and learning process for many Shanghai teachers and students for some 2 decades.

UK's education authorities have started to learn from Shanghai's maths teaching since last year, as the city is one of the top performers in the Program for International Student Assessment (Pisa) rankings.

Later this February, 29 maths teachers in Shanghai will also visit selected primary schools in the UK to share their teaching techniques.
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Sale a la luz una edición definitiva de “Nuevos Versos y Canciones”

Sale a la luz una edición definitiva de “Nuevos Versos y Canciones”

A partir de un viaje a la localidad francesa de Charleville -lugar de nacimiento de Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891)- el escritor y editor Juan Arabia presenta la edición bilingüe de Nuevos Versos y Canciones, un minucioso trabajo de traducción donde por primera vez quedan al descubierto las imprecisiones de otras traducciones al español de la obra del padre de la poesía moderna.
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Publicado por la editorial Buenosaires Poetry en la colección “Abracadabra”, el libro reúne los versos escritos por Rimbaud en París, Bruselas y otros lugares no registrados hacia 1872, en una bella edición ilustrada por la diseñadora gráfica Camila Evia a través del sitio Doppelganger. 

¿Cómo se te ocurrió hacer esta traducción? 
Hasta que hice el viaje a Charleville no tenía pensado traducir a Rimbaud. Al llegar, empecé a ver y entender mucho más de lo que pasa en su poesía; a la distancia, parece que se trata de un autor complejo, pero cuando ves donde vivía te das cuenta que no es así. Cuando leés su primera época te da la impresión, por ejemplo, de que es un autor con mucho conocimiento de botánica, que sabe mucho de flores, pero en Charleville todo el mundo sabe de flores, es común para ellos. 

De Charleville a París hay 230 kilómetros, es un camino completamente rural, son muchas comunas con un montón de castillos. Esas son cosas que aparecen todo el tiempo en su obra. Exceptuando su parte más alquímica, o sea los libros que leyó a escondidas de su madre, la mayoría de sus textos son entendibles para los que nacieron ahí. 

Igual no fue eso solamente lo que me hizo traducirlo, sino que en la librería Rimbaud, a dos cuadras de la Place Ducale, conseguí dos diccionarios importantes (Le Nouveau Dictionnaire Rimbaud, de Claude Jeancolas y Oeuvre Completes, de Pierre Brunel) y gracias a eso descubrí que en otras traducciones no se respetaban muchos de los sentidos originales de su obra. 

¿A qué se deben estas imprecisiones en las muchas traducciones que existen de su obra? 
La realidad es que se traduce a Rimbaud como se traduce a Baudelaire o a un montón de poetas. No hay compromiso específico con el autor, sino un oficio de traducción. Por ejemplo, un poema como ‘Lágrima’ se puede entender en la medida en que te das cuenta de que esos 230 kilómetros que separan París de Charleville eran donde Rimbaud caminaba por siete días y dormía en el camino, en medio de la naturaleza. 

Eso hace que puedas ver lo que era su realidad y el rechazo que tuvo en París, porque tenía mucho de campesino para la sociedad parisina, y si bien él se siente perteneciente al área rural, tiene como cierto odio por el campesino, existe esa contradicción.

Hay una cierta incomodidad constante que lo sigue todo el tiempo… 
Lo que hay que entender en Rimbaud es su inocencia. Cuando vas a donde nació y conocés a la gente, cómo hablan de él y te dejás llevar por ese lugar, recuperás toda la inocencia que tenía. La historia se centró mucho en su amor con Verlaine, en el delirio con drogas que vivió en París, pero eso para Rimbaud se da como una prueba. Lo que se dio cuenta cuando llegó a París es que eran todos unos burgueses. Verlaine era Verlaine, pero a la noche tenía que irse a comer con su mujer, igual que todos los poetas, y él tenía que dormir en la calle. 

Autores tan diversos como André Bretón, Jack Kerouac, Bob Dylan o Luis Alberto Spinetta fueron marcados por Rimbaud, ¿cómo se explica esa enorme influencia a través del tiempo? 
Rimbaud es el claro ejemplo de cuando la literatura y la experiencia van de la mano. Eso ahora es un lugar común, pero lo que más sorprende es que haya experimentado tanto en tan poco tiempo. No es que solamente fue un gran poeta de los 16 a los 18 años, sino que vivió experiencias únicas, caminó por toda Europa. Lo que más sorprende no es lo que escribió, sino lo que llegó a experimentar en vida. Más que sus versos, extraordinarios, deslumbra como estan ligados a todo lo que vivió. Logró desequilibrar completamente el espacio-tiempo de la racionalidad occidental.
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Books: Emotions close to reality - Life & Style - NZ Herald News

Books: Emotions close to reality - Life & Style - NZ Herald News | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Secret Life of Luke Livingstone
By Charity Norman (Allen & Unwin)
Move over Jodi Picoult. New Zealand-based author Charity Norman has the same clever knack of taking an issue and examining it from all angles, to see the effect it has on everyone involved. In The Secret Life of Luke Livingstone the focus is on gender-identity disorder. Luke is a middle-aged middle-class man. He's a lawyer, husband and father and has known his whole life that he ought to have been born a woman. Pushed to the brink of suicide by having to suppress his real self for so many years, Luke decides it is time to tell everyone the truth even if it means shattering his family's world, shocking his colleagues and becoming an outcast in the community in which he once had good standing. Norman has had international success with her fearless stories about families in crisis. She writes sensitively and thoughtfully; at one point I was moved to tears. Although the plot follows a reasonably predictable arc, the lack of unexpected twists only makes it seem more true to life. Insightful and compassionate, Norman's latest novel has that Picoult-like quality of making you consider how you would feel if you were in the characters' shoes.


The Utopia Experiment
By Dylan Evans (Picador)
This autobiographical book opens with Dylan Evans incarcerated in a psychiatric hospital. So we know from the outset his bid to form a self-sufficient community and simulate post-apocalyptic life has gone very, very wrong. This may rob his account of a measure of tension but it doesn't make it any less fascinating. Clearly, Evans is an extraordinary man - intelligent and fatally grandiose. Why else would he decide to quit his job, sell his home and belongings and move to the wilds of Scotland to live in a makeshift camp of yurts with a bunch of odd people he recruited online. His reasoning was that the world was in a mess and civilisation might collapse. His mission was to create conditions that might exist in a dystopian future, and see how well humanity could adapt. It's an experiment that fails spectacularly - his yurts leak, his leadership falters and the group doesn't even manage to stay away from the supermarket. Excruciatingly honest and stranger than fiction, The Utopia Experiment is a riveting look at the eccentric world of doomers and preppers.

One-dish Dinners
By Penny Oliver (Penguin Random House)
On evenings when cooking dinner feels like an effort, this is the book to reach for. No-nonsense meals from long-time Cuisine food writer Penny Oliver range from stir-fries, soups and stews to salads, tarts and speedy bakes. It's homely food and, aside from the salads, there is a slow-cooked wintry feel to much of it. I can see her spiced beef with silverbeet and the baked lamb and oregano meatballs becoming staples over the colder months. The allure of one-pot dinners is less washing up and although Oliver hasn't stuck faithfully to the concept - occasionally an extra pan or a bit of blending is required - most of these robust, family-friendly meals generate a minimum of dirty dishes. The casserole section is especially good, with cheaper cuts such as beef cheeks and chuck steak making an appearance. A great go-to book of everyday recipes.


Men Explain Things to Me - and Other Essays
By Rebecca Solnit (Granta)
The term "mansplaining" - where a man assumes an expertise he does not necessarily have and proceeds to "explain" to a woman who may well know more about the topic - grew out of Rebecca Solnit's well-known essays. It's funny and infuriating, as are many of the pieces in this stunning collection. The essay on rape culture is searing and shocking. "So many men murder their partners and former partners that we [in the United States] have well over a thousand homicides of that kind a year - meaning that every three years the death toll tops 9/11's casualties, although no one declares a war on this particular kind of terror." Her other essays, all written with clarity and grace, are equally brilliant.

- Reviewed by Carole Beu of Auckland's The Women's Bookshop.

My Heart & Other Black Holes
By Jasmine Warga (Hodder)
Teenagers Aysel and Roman meet through an internet site dedicated to suicide partnerships. Aysel's father is in jail for murder and her reasons for ending her life are many, but she can't figure out why handsome, popular Roman wants to die. As they get to know each other, and plan the unthinkable, Aysel starts to think there may be a reason to live after all. But will she be able to change Roman's mind or has everything gone too far? This touching story about teen suicide is very life-affirming. A mature teen read.

- Reviewed by Tracey Lawton, who owns Matakana's The Village Bookshop.

An Aussie Year: Twelve Months in the Life of Australian Kids
By Tania McCartney and Tina Snerling (Exisle)
An Aussie Year follows five children from different ethnic backgrounds living in Australia. There are many similarities to a Kiwi child's year - with a few tweaks in terminology. When my children read it they were really interested in which activities they shared with the Australian children in the book, as well as what they did differently. The pages are busy with phrases and illustrations from a child's-eye perspective, showing how much fun every season of the year can be. A lovely book for primary-school-aged children.

- Reviewed by Danielle Wright, creator of award-winning children's books and news site
newsmummy.com

Nicky's best read

US chick lit author Jennifer Weiner is a busy tweeter and writes a good blog. She's having a verbal stoush with American literary novelist Jonathan Franzen. Check it out at jenniferweiner.blogspot.co.nz
Booklover


Jesse Mulligan. Photo / Supplied

Comedian and writer Jesse Mulligan hosts Best Bits on TV One.

The book I love most is ... Whatever Love Means, by David Baddiel. So incredibly funny and zeitgeisty.

The book I'm reading right now is ... David Foster Wallace's Everything and More: A Compact History of Infinity. Maths was a big part of my life as a kid and I love to get my head back into the zone.

The book I'd like to read next is ... Theatre of the Gods, by one of my best friends, Matt Suddain. I haven't read it yet because it's long and I'm a terrible friend.

My favourite bookshop is ... Unity Books in Wellington.

The book that changed me is ... One of Alain de Botton's, probably. Status Anxiety is a book every person with a TV career should know by heart.

The book I wish I'd never read is ... The Food of Love, by Anthony Capella. It was given to me as a reader and a foodie, and to be fair both these aspects of me were equally patronised.

- Herald on Sunday
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Shanghai Maths Book to Be Exported to UK

Shanghai Maths Book to Be Exported to UK | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A famous supplementary textbook on maths from Shanghai will soon be published in the UK this year, as part of the country's efforts to learn from the city's world-class mathematics teaching methods.

The English version of the book "One Lesson, One Exercise (yi ke yi lian)" will be designed on the base of the original Chinese version and integrate with the local curriculum as well.

The Chinese version of the book has been an essential part to the teaching and learning process for many Shanghai teachers and students for some 2 decades.

UK's education authorities have started to learn from Shanghai's maths teaching since last year, as the city is one of the top performers in the Program for International Student Assessment (Pisa) rankings.

Later this February, 29 maths teachers in Shanghai will also visit selected primary schools in the UK to share their teaching techniques.
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Las traductoras pioneras del Caribe | Revistas

Las traductoras pioneras del Caribe | Revistas | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Rojano Ovallos
Chía, Vivien y María Cristina comparten una tarde en el apartamento de esta última. Las une el amor por los idiomas.
María Cristina, Chía y Vivien se conocen desde su época de colegio en el Marymount y en el Karl C. Parrish, donde estudiaron y compartieron, entre otras cosas, su primera comunión. Desde entonces, las tres barranquilleras han construido una relación muy cercana en la que su principal punto de encuentro gira en torno a la misión que tienen como traductoras.

Según ellas expresan, “el traductor juega un papel muy importante en las conferencias y eventos donde hace su trabajo, porque es esa persona la que ayuda a transmitir una idea en el idioma que sea requerido”.

Las historias de estas tres mujeres guardan varias similitudes, como son: haber estudiado en los mismos colegios, haberse ido a cursar sus carreras universitarias en el exterior y que cada una de estas amigas y colegas tienen tres hijos —respectivamente—.

María Cristina Dangond,  hija de padre guajiro y madre paisa, una vez finalizó el bachillerato, viajó a Estados Unidos a estudiar antropología en la Universidad Estatal de Lousiana (LSU). Aunque obtuvo el título de antropóloga, nunca ejerció esa profesión, sino que —al regresar a Colombia, a sus 21 años— empezó a trabajar en Morrison Knudsen, la empresa de ingeniería que construyó El Cerrejón.

María Cristina laboró en el departamento de personal de esa compañía por tres años. “Gran parte de mi trabajo allí consistía en establecer comunicación con los extranjeros que llegaban y acompañarlos a realizar las diligencias que tuvieran que ver con su situación legal en el país”, dice. 

Tras terminar su bachillerato en el colegio Marymount, Chía García viajó a Miami a estudiar Economía e Idiomas en la Universidad Estatal de la Florida. “Desde que regresé a Colombia, he trabajado haciendo traducción simultánea y escrita, y me he ocupado de negocios familiares”, afirma.

Por su parte, Vivien Campo —hija de padre colombiano y madre checoslovaca— se graduó en el colegio Lourdes, luego estuvo durante un tiempo en un internado en Suiza y regresó a Colombia para estudiar traducción simultánea en la Universidad del Rosario. Tras ser becada, fue a estudiar a París (Francia) la misma carrera —con un nivel superior—, en la École Supérieure d’Interpretes et de Traducteurs (ESIT).

En un principio, María Cristina y Chía fueron compañeras de colegio en el Marymount. Al ser pasada María Cristina para el Parrish, se conoció con la hermana de Vivien, con la que forjó una amistad que la hacía frecuentar la casa de su familia.

Años más tarde, Chía y Vivien fueron las primeras en abrir una empresa llamada Traducimos Limitada, con la que empezó su experiencia como traductoras. “Tenemos que trabajar siempre en pareja en cabina, porque es una labor extenuante en la que debemos turnarnos cada media hora para poder transmitir el mensaje que se esté emitiendo en otro idioma”, dice Vivien acerca del trabajo que desempeñan.



Estas tres mujeres han sabido ganarse un espacio en el medio, como profesionales calificadas. “Somos traductoras oficiales certificadas por el Ministerio de Justicia y registradas ante el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores”, expresa Vivien, quien junto a su hija mayor, Silvia, pertenece a la Asociación Internacional de Intérpretes de Conferencias (AIIC), con sede en Ginebra, Suiza.

Para hacer parte de ese tipo de asociaciones, la persona debe tener muchos años de experiencia y debe contar con la referencia y certificación que colegas den de su trabajo. Además, se deben tener certificaciones en las que se diga cuántas horas de trabajo se han cumplido y que el nivel de los idiomas que se manejan es el adecuado.

Dentro de las afinidades que estas amigas tienen se encuentra el gusto por el escritor checo, Milan Kundera. Las tres dicen que disfrutan y aprecian mucho sus novelas, tal como gozan el ser traductoras. Cuando se les pregunta por qué se vieron interesadas en ser intérpretes, responden casi al unísono que “por el amor a los idiomas”.

Para ellas, la gracia de su labor radica en que los traductores sirven como ayuda para comunicar y transmitir las ideas que —precisamente por las mismas barreras idiomáticas— otros no entienden. “El papel que nosotras desempeñamos como traductoras es fundamental, porque permitimos que todos entiendan un mismo mensaje”, dicen.


Preparadas para todos

Estas expertas en traducción simultánea expresan que una de las mayores dificultades a las que se enfrentan a la hora de hacer su trabajo es cuando los acentos que van a interpretar no son muy claros y hacen que el mensaje no se entienda bien. Sin embargo, según dicen, en esos casos deben hacer el mayor esfuerzo por manifestar la frase en el sentido que sea más acorde con el contexto donde se esté empleando.

SOBRE su pasión...
“El traductor juega un papel muy importante, porque ayuda a transmitir una idea en otro idioma”.

SOBRE su trabajo...
“Tenemos que trabajar siempre en pareja y en cabina. La labor es extenuante”.
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Nahuatl language through food | Endangered Language Alliance

Nahuatl language through food | Endangered Language Alliance | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
February 26 @ 7:00 PM – 9:00 PM

Did you know the words for chocolate, tomato, avocado and chile all come form the Nahuatl language? Join Nahuatl teacher Irwin Sanchez as he discusses the etymologies behind popular Mexican cuisine and demonstrates the traditional preparation of several dishes. Not only will participants get a crash course in Nahuatl and be able to pronounce “tomato” and “chocolate” properly for the first time, they will also be treated to a sampling of authentic Nahuatl food from the Mexican state of Puebla.
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Le français : une langue, une institution, une mission - N. M.

Le français : une langue, une institution, une mission - N. M. | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
« Le français est une langue qui se porte très bien. » D'emblée, le recteur de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, Bernard Cerquiglini, donne le ton à sa conférence, coupant court, du moins le temps de cette rencontre à la Résidence des pins, à tout pessimisme concernant l'avenir de la langue de Molière.
Historien de la langue, auteur et présentateur de l'émission « Merci professeur », diffusée sur TV5 monde, M. Cerquiglini affirme ainsi que le français est « une langue, une institution, une mission ». Il s'agit de trois traits particuliers dont la « réunion forme la spécificité ». Trois caractéristiques qui ont constitué d'ailleurs le thème de la conférence qu'il a donnée jeudi soir, dans le cadre des rencontres de la Résidence des pins : « Le français : une langue, une institution, une mission. Entre science et passion, itinéraire d'un linguiste. »
Se penchant sur la première caractéristique de la langue française, M. Cerquiglini souligne que « le français est une langue qui est montée très haut », bien qu'elle « soit sortie du ruisseau ». Il rappelle ainsi que les travaux menés pendant plus d'un siècle sur l'origine de cette langue sont ponctués d'une « série de déceptions ». D'abord, le français a une origine « bourbeuse ». Cette langue tient en effet son origine du latin, « non pas classique de la littérature, mais du latin "vulgaire " de la foule, des marchands, des soldats... ». Au fil des travaux de recherche, « on découvre vite que ce latin s'est mêlé de gaulois », ainsi que de germain.
Mais ces déceptions ont été « régulièrement compensées ». « L'histoire du français est une monumentalisation, mais noble », insiste M. Cerquiglini. Il rappelle qu'au XIXe siècle, « l'étude historique de la langue française a exagéré l'influence gauloise, qui se réduit à une cinquantaine de mots actuels comme "chemise", "alouette" ». Cela est dû « au mythe ancien d'une origine gauloise ». « Dans le même temps, on a minoré l'influence germanique, la France ayant été à plusieurs reprises en conflit avec l'Allemagne », note-t-il.

Une France bilingue
Cette monumentalisation de la langue française s'est également faite au niveau de l'orthographe. Le linguiste indique ainsi que « ce n'est pas un hasard si l'orthographe française est fondamentalement latinisée ». Elle l'est « pour que l'écrit rattrape ce que la parole a perdu ». « On a une orthographe volontairement monumentale », avance-t-il. Il rappelle dans ce cadre que l'Académie française avait le choix entre « une orthographe relativement simplifiée, qui est celle des imprimeurs hollandais protestants, et une orthographe très latine, que j'appellerais orthographe catholique ». Et c'est cette deuxième orthographe que l'Académie française a choisie.
« Donc, le français est la couleur particulière prise, vers le IXe siècle, par le latin parlé, mêlé de gaulois et de germain, dans une région qui correspond à peu près aujourd'hui à la France du Nord et à la Belgique du Sud, poursuit-il. Cela veut dire que la France n'est pas le seul berceau de la langue française. » Il convient de noter, par ailleurs, qu'au sud de la France, « le latin non germanisé a donné naissance à une autre langue : l'occitan ou le provençal ». Donc, explique le linguiste, « le latin a connu deux destins en France ». « La France est constitutivement bilingue », constate-t-il, un fait qui a été « caché pendant des siècles, car le français au Nord prenant son essor et devenant la langue de l'État a étouffé ou du moins tenté d'éteindre l'autre ».
Quid du français aujourd'hui ? Il est au nombre des langues internationales en expansion. « On compte aujourd'hui au moins 220 millions de locuteurs de français dans le monde, précise M. Cerquiglini. Cela signifie que depuis quelques années, les Français de France sont minoritaires. La France ne peut plus donc prétendre à donner le ton ni à fournir la norme. D'extension mondiale, le français a acquis des couleurs locales en prenant racine un peu partout. Il y a un français du Canada, d'Afrique, d'Océanie, comme il y a un français de France. Cette variété forme sa richesse. »

Biodiversité des langues et des cultures
Le français est aussi une institution, dans le sens où c'est une langue qui a été « instituée ». « Le français fut écrit très tôt, dès 842, à une époque où l'écriture européenne, quand elle existe, est massivement latine, indique M. Cerquiglini. C'est la première des langues romanes passées à l'écrit. Le premier texte français, les Serments de Strasbourg, est un document éminemment politique. Cet acte diploma
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Ghana joins the world to celebrate International Mother Language Day -

Ghana joins the world to celebrate International Mother Language Day - | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dr. Avea Ephraim Nosh, a Lecturer at the University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Department of Gur-Gonja Languages Education, has called on lecturers, students to collectively work with politicians and other stakeholders in education to ensure that children continue to benefit from their mother tongue in a much improved manner.

Dr. Nosh made the called in a presentation delivered on the topic “Are indigenous Languages still relevant in the current dispensation?” at a durbar as part of this year’s International Mother Language Day Celebration held at the College of Languages Education, UEW Ajumako Campus.

The celebration was on the theme “Inclusion in and through Language Education counts”, was attended by personalities including, chiefs in the area led by the Paramount Chief Ajumako Traditional Council Nana Ogeabo Ababio Hammah, lecturers of the UEW, students and other stakeholders in education.

The General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) in November, 1999 declared 21st February every year as the International Mother Language Day aimed at promoting awareness of linguistic and culture diversity, multilingualism and above all, to promote and indemnify the linguistic rights of individuals specially children across member countries.

The United Nations General Assembly on 16th May, 2009 endorsed it compelling all member countries “to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by peoples of the world” which fortunately, these international conventions found expression and space in Ghana’s national laws including the language policy in education and in the 1992 constitution, he added.

Dr. Nosh said on International Mother Language Day it was legitimate to seek answers to the questions why thousands of BECE and WASCE graduates should be denied admission into the higher institutions when they pass Kasem, Asante or Ewe but fail the English language, a situation in which the young ones were deny opportunities because of artificially created languages barriers, which were inexhaustible and heart breaking.

“The day reminds us of the responsibility to our children with respect to the use of language in education and we cannot talk of inclusive education when thousands of children are excluded from education simply because they speak a particular language from some part of the county or just that they cannot pass some foreign language examination, these are discrimination and the constitution of the country frowns on them,” he added.

He said there was no doubt about the relevance of indigenous languages in the present day of “our” country or even the current global setting whereby we have to accept the fact that the we have gone a long way but much more needs to be done.

According to him, as a people, we have to realize that our attitudes to mother tongue worldwide is not different from what is seen in the country and for that matter policy makers should speed up with the language policy.

Earlier in the day students from various tribes at the University dressed in their tribal costumes, amidst drumming and dancing to portray the rich culture and traditions, as well as entertain the gathering.

GNA
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Heroes’ reality show set to preserve Nigerian languages

Heroes’ reality show set to preserve Nigerian languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
BY OLAMIDE BABATUNDE

An exciting expository maiden edition of the first Nigerian television reality show with a mission to reawaken the inter­est and unleash the potentials of tour­ism abundant in the country has ended with Happiness Udodang emerging the ultimate winner.

Heroes: Back to the Roots real­ity show set out to house 37 contestants picked from all states, including the Fed­eral Capital Territory, laden with culture-based task as they co-habited for 60 days.

The concept is the brain child of Chinyere Ogbukagu, Head, Havilah Timeless Production, based in Jos, Plateau State. In a bid to pick up the gradual loss and fizzling passion for the cultural heritage and values pertinent to Nigeria’s socio economic development and global outlook, especially among the youth, she deemed it fit to use the tube as the ap­propriate channel, working with Ifeanyi Onyeabor (Big Slim), an erstwhile Nol­lywood director.

Beyond showcasing the strength in di­versity in culture, which Nigeria is blessed with, the show spotlighted various tourism potential yet to be harnessed in various states the cast and crew visited. Alhaji Hassan Aliu, tourism officer, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Niger state, added that logistics were provided, and the house mates visited the first bridge in Niger state and other notable tourist sites.

The aim of the show is also to preserve the Nigerian languages from becoming extinct. While interacting with the media, Technical Director, Ifeanyi, said: “We want our youth to speak at least other Nige­rian languages besides their own mother tongue. We also hope to take the show further across Africa, where we can imbibe other culture. Our culture is our strength and we must be able to preserve it.”

The 37 contestants traversed Kaduna and Plateau states before moving to the camp in Niger State, where they spent 60 days under close observation and per­formed all the various tasks expected of them.

Ultimate winner, Happiness Udodang, described her experience thus: “It has been awesome and great, and I thank God for making me a winner. This is the kind of show we need in Nigeria, because we have many things to project. Our Culture is our pride, identity and root. A man without cul­ture is a man without his roots. I see people going to have their weddings outside Nige­ria, a country with many beautiful places around. Some people also favour wearing western attires over our colourful Ankara fabric. These are things we need to watch, because it’s not helping us as a people. We need to realize who we are, speak one voice and brandish our diversity against intoler­ance and disunity.”

The end of the 2014 show culminated in an event of honour to recognize individu­als and institutions that contributed to a better understanding of cultural legacies in Nigeria, with great emphasis on tolerance. Governor Babangida Aliyu came up as Best Supporting Governor, Cross River State as the cleanest, Niger State as the Most Cul­ture Friendly State, while the Best Gover­nor was Godswill Akpabio of Akwa Ibom.

A nationwide audition for the second edi­tion will begin in March, 2015. According to Chinyere, it is a show for everybody and a better way to preach unity and love.
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Salesforce gère le support en 53 langues avec Desk.com - Le Monde Informatique

Salesforce gère le support en 53 langues avec Desk.com - Le Monde Informatique | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Service en ligne permettant de gérer le support aux clients, Desk.com améliore la personnalisation de la prise en charge par une approche multilingue. L'outil s'adresse aux petites structures même s'il convient aussi aux plus grandes.

Il ne suffit pas de vendre, si la relation engagée avec les clients ne leur apporte pas satisfaction, ils ne reviendront pas. A l’inverse, leur apporter un support adapté peut contribuer à les faire revenir et acheter de nouveau. Destiné à gérer le support aux clients dans les petites entreprises, mais aussi dans les plus grosses structures, le logiciel cloud Desk.com vient de s’enrichir d’une vingtaine de langues supplémentaires. Au total, cette solution appartenant au catalogue de Salesforce.com (à la suite du rachat d'Assistly en 2011) propose maintenant 53 langues pour s’adresser au client avec les mots qui lui parlent le mieux : français, allemand, grec, arabe, chinois, danois, hébreu, hindi, japonais, swahili… Les utilisateurs de Desk.com peuvent ainsi constituer leur base de connaissances dans de multiples langues. Dans la liste, on trouve dix versions d’anglais, selon que l’on s’adresse à des interlocuteurs australiens, canadiens, hongkongais, néozélandais, etc. 



Les contenus sont traduits dans la langue choisie. (agrandir l'image)

Suivant la langue, router la demande vers le bon agent
Multilinguisme aussi pour la console utilisée par les agents de l’équipe support. Celle-ci est maintenant disponible en français, néerlandais, allemand, italien, japonais, espagnol et anglais. Des fonctions de reconnaissance de la langue permettent par ailleurs de router la demande d’un client vers l’agent parlant sa langue. Les administrateurs du service sont également concernés par ces évolutions puisqu’ils pourront eux aussi choisir leur langue.  

Desk.com comprend des outils de reporting fournissant des statistiques sur les actions des équipes de support, mais aussi sur les réclamations enregistrées, les problèmes rencontrés sur les produits et l’impact obtenu à la suite des améliorations apportées. Présente à Paris cette semaine, Sara Varni, responsable marketing de l’offre, a notamment expliqué comment la société Munchery, qui livre les repas de chefs à San Francisco, utilise le reporting de Desk.com pour mesurer la satisfaction des consommateurs et identifier des tendances. Les feedbacks sont partagés avec les chefs et les équipes opérationnelles pour optimiser de façon continue les options de menus proposées. Munchery utilise aussi Desk.com pour gérer les problèmes liés aux changements de commandes de dernière minute et, même, assure la société, pour recruter de nouveaux employés.

A partir de 60 € environ pour le service multilingue
Les utilisateurs de Desk.com sont pour l’instant principalement aux Etats-Unis, mais Salesforce.com cherche maintenant à développer l’offre sur d’autres marchés, dont la France. La tarification de Desk.com démarre autour de 30 € par mois et par agent pour la version de base. Le support multilingue est plus coûteux : environ 60 € par mois et par agent. Les outils destinés à l’administrateur n’arriveront en disponibilité générale qu’au 2ème semestre. En complément, un portail d’apps pour étendre le service avec les apps de partenaires. TalkDesk, par exemple, propose un logiciel pour intégrer ses interactions téléphoniques avec Desk.com pour garder en un seul endroit l’historique de la relation avec ses clients.

Article de Maryse Gros
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WHO/Europe | Slovenia - Health 2020 now available in Slovene language

WHO/Europe | Slovenia - Health 2020 now available in Slovene language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Health 2020 now available in Slovene language

27-02-2015
Health 2020: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being that sets out a far-sighted and ambitious agenda for health has been translated in Slovene language and published. Translation came just in time, as in the following months Slovenia will work on the new National Health Plan and the health system reform.

Strategic objectives of Health 2020: stronger equity and better governance for health, as well as four priority areas for policy action (investing in health through a life-course approach and empowering people; tackling the Region’s major health challenges of noncommunicable and communicable diseases; strengthening people-centred health systems, public health capacity and emergency preparedness, surveillance and response; and creating resilient communities and supportive environments) shall certainly inspire the Slovene policy makers in their desire to achieve measurable impact on health. 

Health 2020: a European policy framework supporting action across government and society for health and well-being has been translated and published in close collaboration of the WHO Country Office Slovenia and the Ministry of Health as part of the activities agreed by the Biennial Collaborative Agreement 2014-2015.
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Translating trust in Iraq, one Arabic greeting at a time

Translating trust in Iraq, one Arabic greeting at a time | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The United States has sent its most potent weapon to Iraq to battle Islamic State. She's a 5-foot-6-inch, 60-year-old grandmother. When I served as a military advisor to Iraqi security forces in 2011, Um Safa was our cavalry battalion's chief interpreter. She accompanied the commander to meetings, endured the same risks he did and did the same for me. I have since retired from the Army, and she returned to her family and civilian life in the United States. When she emailed me in January that she would soon be shipping out to Iraq, I called her to connect again, our first conversation in two years.

Islamic State and its increasingly sophisticated cinema of terror
Um Safa is not her real name, but it's how Iraqis knew her when we served together. Like most interpreters, she took on a nom de guerre for safety, to conceal her real identity. Because hers means “mother of Safa,” her daughter's middle name, it personalized her while shrouding her identity from our Iraqi partners. And it's how I addressed her when I called her. I greeted her in Arabic, the way she'd taught me to.

To teach an American soldier to greet an Iraqi in her native tongue is a rare and powerful talent in this war. Our conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are complex things where firepower alone cannot save the day. Interactions with the locals, with the enemy and especially with one's allies take on extreme significance.

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Guns destroy, but interactions can build. And cooperation between groups is what is needed now, because building a military force and perhaps a stable country was and is the goal.

When we were not among the local Iraqis, I knew Um Safa as Marlene, the actress-inspired name that was a gift from her father. He was an Assyrian Christian and cosmopolitan film distributor who cultivated her love for the English language. After graduating college in Baghdad, she moved to the U.S. in 1979, became a citizen and began the family that blossomed in Los Angeles, the family she left in 2009 to become an interpreter to U.S. troops.

Marlene was integral to maintaining our relationships with local Iraqi leaders, with police chiefs, army generals and governors.
-  
This soft-spoken woman became a wonderful example of the strength America gains from its immigrants — the constantly regenerating fluency in understandings, cultures and languages that provides a bridge to the countries of their birth.

Marlene was integral to maintaining our relationships with local Iraqi leaders, with police chiefs, army generals and governors. Though U.S. Army units rotated in and out of Camp Kalsu, she remained a constant, stabilizing and calming American presence for our Iraqi counterparts.

She helped us avoid cultural missteps — such as showing the bottom of one's boot, an affront in the Muslim world — and taught us how to craft relationships. Although American business dealings can be efficient and frank, those in Iraq begin with meandering small talk and tea drinking. Marlene helped us understand that.

cComments
Hi Michael W.Brough, "She seems unable to give up her bond with the place. She once showed me a picture of 1950s-era Baghdad, with a traffic circle, water fountain, lush greenery and strolling citizens. The scene could have depicted any peaceful mid-20th century city. “This is what it used...
DR.ABDULRAHMAN1
AT 12:12 AM FEBRUARY 28, 2015
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She graciously conducted impromptu Arabic sessions with me at her small desk in the battalion headquarters. One of her most useful gifts to me was a turn of phrase with profound cultural resonance. In the giving and receiving of greetings, one often asks “How are you?” In Arabic, Alhamdulillah (“all praise to God”) is a common response.

But Marlene taught me a far more Iraqi reply: Fog al nakhal, literally “at the top of the palm tree.” It refers to a timeless Iraqi love song, and also indicates that the speaker has a perch above everything, enjoying peace and a commanding view. This answer always won me at least a surprised look, but more often a wide smile or even a belly laugh. From this simple root, a conversation sprouts. From a conversation, goodwill; from goodwill, trust. And now, as during my last tour in Iraq, trust is in short supply.

These days, real conversations between Americans and Iraqis are more necessary than materiel. Unlike ammunition and fuel, trust can't be manufactured and shipped in; it must be cultivated. Cultural guides such as Marlene are what allow it to grow.

Marlene has undertaken a sacrifice — separation from her family, a Spartan existence and significant bodily risk. After two tours of my own there and for complex reasons, my heart's not in it anymore, but she's returning again.

She seems unable to give up her bond with the place. She once showed me a picture of 1950s-era Baghdad, with a traffic circle, water fountain, lush greenery and strolling citizens. The scene could have depicted any peaceful mid-20th century city. “This is what it used to be like,” she murmured wistfully. “It used to be so beautiful here, before they ruined it.” I don't know what she dreams for Iraq, but she has returned to make it better somehow.

At the end of our conversation, my teacher bid me goodbye: Masalama.

And I returned with another phrase she had taught me: Allah wiach — God go with you.

Michael W. Brough, a freelance writer, is co-editor of the book "Rethinking the Just War Tradition."

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Swedish Translating Services Company Prohibits Wearing Crosses / Sputnik International

Swedish Translating Services Company Prohibits Wearing Crosses / Sputnik International | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Interpreters working for the Swedish Migration Board, particularly those from the Jarva Tolk & Oversattning AB company, have been forbidden to wear crosses that point to their religious beliefs.

© FLICKR/ RUMINATRIX
Swedish University Cancels Lecture by Prophet Muhammad Cartoonist After Copenhagen Attack
MOSCOW (Sputnik) – The company's employees have all received a letter, saying that none of them could wear symbols indicating their religious affiliation, such as crosses, due to a number of complaints received on the issue.
Several interpreters working for Jarva Tolk & Oversattning AB have expressed strong disapproval over the company's new regulations, saying that they were discriminatory and ran counter to the principle of religious freedom, propagated in Sweden.


© FLICKR/ JORGE CORREA
Big Swedish Companies Draw Flak for Hiring 'White' Staff
The incident caused a stir in the media, following which Jarva Tolk & Oversattning AB apologized to its employees.

The company said on its official website that it did not mean to discriminate against any religion and that its employees were free to wear religious symbols in the future if it does not offend its clients.
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Zambia: Holy Bible Translation to Local Languages On Course

Zambia: Holy Bible Translation to Local Languages On Course | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Since the publications of the original manuscripts of the Bible, originally written in Hebrew and Greek (with a few sections in Aramaic), the holy book has gone through several translations.

As the Christian movement grew after operating underground as a cult for some time, both Old and New Testaments were translated into other languages, including Coptic, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Armenian.

Because of the Roman Empire's influence, a Latin translation (called the Vulgate) became the most widely used version of the Bible for the next thousand years.

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the radical translation of the Bible came in the fourteenth century when John Wycliffe produced the first complete English translation (translated from the Latin Vulgate, not from the original Hebrew and Greek writings).

The King James Version remains popular among many English-speaking people. Nonetheless, a variety of English translations have appeared in recent years for several reasons.

The main reason for translations has been that the English language itself has evolved in the last four hundred years.

While the Shakespearean prose of the King James Version may feel more traditional, eloquent, and sacred, it does not represent the way people communicate today (nor in Jesus' day).

Now there are numerous English versions today simply because different teams of scholars take different approaches to translating the texts.

These approaches are generally described on a scale of formal equivalence (word-for-word translations) to functional equivalence (thought-for-thought or meaning-for-meaning translations).

In order to be accurate and communicate well to their target audiences, translations have to mix formal and dynamic elements.

This is no easy task and is time-consuming and tedious work. For example, there are some words and expressions in Hebrew and Greek that

simply don't have English equivalents.

Therefore, every translation team must be creative in their endeavour to convey the Bible's meaning across cultural and linguistic distance.

It is this consideration that calls for the best scholars in the world to produce accurate and readable versions of the Bible with great

caution taken to check and recheck their translations with various experts.

In Zambia, like elsewhere, translation of the Bible from English to local languages has posed the same contextual and linguistic

challenges.

Foremost among these challenges is the growth of a population that cannot understand the original vernacular translations of the Bible.

Fortunately, the Bible Society of Zambia (BSZ) is addressing these challenges by translating the Bible in understandable vernacular

versions.

The society has translated several vernacular languages in comprehensible versions which are more reader-friendly than original adaptations.

The society's computer assistant publishing officer Reverend Gremfriday Kapakasa said currently they were translating three local languages ci-Tumbuka, ki-Kaonde and ci-Nyanja.

He said the original translation in ci-Cewa called Buuku Lopatilika -The Holy Bible done by Dr Robert Laws who was a pioneer missionary cum medical doctor at Livingstonia in Malawi in the 1920s is incomprehensible to many ci-Nyanja speakers.



'The language in the Bible is difficult to an average ci-Nyanja speaker both in rural and urban areas thus calling for some changes to make it accessible,' he said.

To address this problem, the Bible Society of Zambia has come up with more reader-friendly ci-Nyanja Holy Bible versions called Buuku Loyela and Cipangano cha Tsopano cha ci-Nyanja.

Reverend Kapakasa said the new Bibles are being widely used by both Ngonis and Chewas in Zambia though the original book Buuku Lopatilika is still used by some Chewa-speaking Malawians.

The clergyman said even in Malawi the Bible is becoming unpopular especially with the younger generation.

The stages of translating the Bible in understandable vernacular versions include translators making translations which are taken to congregations where a particular language is spoken for assessment.

So far the ci-Nyanja new Bible versions are being used in the Reformed Church of Zambia, Church of Central Africa Presybeterian and United Church of Zambia.

The society has done the same with translations in ki-Kaonde to enable congregants of churches where the language is spoken access it.



These include churches in North-Western province like the Evangelical Church of Zambia (ECZ) and Christian Missions in Many Lands (CMML).

In the ci-Tumbuka translation project, headways have been made to rid the linguistic challenges that the original ci-Tumbuka version Magzo agh Chiuta-Holy Bible posed.

'The original version also translated by Dr Laws has a blend of Henga and Ngoni which poses a lot of difficulties for Tumbuka readers,' observed Reverend Kapakasa.

The Livinstonia Mission which was a citadel of missionary work regionally contributed a lot to ecclesiastical work in Central Africa.

Newly-trained African clergymen like the first republican president Kenneth Kaunda's father David snr pioneered church work in places like Lubwa in Chinsali-then called Mirongo.

Many white missionaries like Dr Laws doubled as linguists and were responsible for early translations of the Bible in popular local languages.

Reverend Kapakasa said translation is a tedious and pain staking work that calls for translators to be familiar with the King James version which is linked to Hebrew and Greek.



'When translators are stuck they consult the King James version or Revised standards because they are benchmarks of Bible translations that help with user-friendly versions.'

The requirement for translators at the Bible Society of Zambia is a degree in Theology with a a clear understanding of Hebrew and Greek.

The society also conducts workshops to train translators and familiarise them with the use of the partext, a training software that makes translations easier.

So far the society has done tremendous work in translating vernacular Bibles in understandable versions considering the rapid changes languages are undergoing.

As a result many readers of vernacular Bibles can now buy reader-friendly versions from the Bible Society of Zambia shop along

Freedom Way in Lusaka.
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Pinker's 'Sense of Style' - Good writing

Pinker's 'Sense of Style' - Good writing | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The first chapter of Steven Pinker's book "The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century" is titled simply "Good writing."

To catch up with his prologue -- and mine --see the post "Move over, Strunk and White." (The link doesn't seem to work, so I'll direct you this way.)

In this chapter, Pinker sets out to "illustrate... the habit of lingering over good writing wherever you find it and reflecting on what makes it good."

He encourages "a delight in the best work of the masters and a desire to approach their excellence."

The examples in this first chapter are too long to quote here, but all are worth reading. Pinker uses the examples clearly to back up his observations, such as:

"Good writing is understood with the mind's eye."

"Classic style overlaps with plain and practical styles."

Classic style, according to Pinker, is one in which "the writer has worked hard to find something worth showing and the perfect vantage point from which to see it."

Classic, plain and practical styles all "differ from self-conscious, relativistic, ironic, or postmodern styles, in which 'the writer's chief, if unstated, concern is to escape being convicted of philosophical naivete about his own enterprise.'"

(The difference is quoted by Pinker from "Clear and Simple as the Truth" by Francis-Noel Thomas and Mark Turner.)

"Good writing finishes strong" is another statement from Pinker's first chapter.

Future posts will cover future chapters. I call them such because I have yet to finish reading. (I admire it so much that I wanted to write about the book faster than I could finish it!)

For more fun with words, stop by the Margaret Serious page on Facebook.

Be a thinking person! Type your email address in the box and click the "create subscription" button. My list is completely spam free, and you can opt out at any time.
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Les arbres et l’Homme

Les arbres et l’Homme | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Olivier de Marliave raconte les hommes et les arbres.
© PHOTO B.D.
C
ertes, le nouveau livre de l'ancien journaliste Olivier de Marliave, membre de la société historique d'Arcachon et de l'académie du bassin d'Arcachon, et installé à Arcachon, se présente comme un dictionnaire. Dans le sens où, respectant l'ordre alphabétique, il étudie une quarantaine d'arbres, de l'abricotier au tilleul, que l'on trouve en Europe (à l'exception du baobab).


Publicité
Mais chaque arbre est surtout l'occasion de parler et même de raconter des histoires d'hommes.

« Sud Ouest ». Comment vous êtes-vous intéressé aux arbres ?
Olivier de Marliave. C'est une histoire d'amitié. Un très bon ami, Yves Touchard (auquel le livre est notamment dédié) était propriétaire d'un arboretum à Fargues-Saint-Hilaire. Je le visitais souvent. Il avait des arbres assez uniques. Je lui ai demandé s'il existait une histoire des arbres. Il m'a répondu que non. Il a mis sa bibliothèque de botanique à ma disposition, et j'ai commencé à m'y plonger.

Comment avez-vous recueilli toutes vos informations ?
J'ai rencontré des spécialistes à l'INRA qui m'ont donné des tuyaux. Je me suis déplacé à Orléans et Nancy. Et puis, au cours de mes voyages, j'avais déjà vu beaucoup d'arbres étonnants. Je me suis aussi intéressé, notamment, à l'histoire des espèces qui avaient disparu après la grande glaciation et qui ont été redécouvertes. Il y a aussi des espèces comme les hêtres, les chênes, les conifères, les frênes, les saules… qui sont revenus naturellement. Il y a encore les arbres réimplantés par l'homme, l'exemple le plus connu est le platane, introduit depuis l'Asie Mineure. Le plus vieux du Monde se trouve sur l'île de Kos (Grèce), on pense que c'est l'arbre sous lequel Hippocrate enseignait la médecine (il y a 2 400 ans).

Quels sont les arbres les plus anciens ?
Je suis allé voir les Séquoias en Californie, et le Bristelcone qui pousse dans les Rocheuses, un arbre torturé par les vents, aux troncs énormes. Les spécialistes se disputent encore sur les arbres les plus vieux du monde.

Vous racontez l'étonnante repousse des peupliers sur des lieux incendiés.
Un savant américain, Burton Barnes, a remarqué que les peupliers avaient repoussé en nombre, dans les rues de Moscou en 1813, à la suite du grand incendie provoqué par les troupes napoléoniennes. Il a observé la même chose dans un parc naturel de l'Utah (États-Unis), après un violent incendie de conifères. Les racines des peupliers couraient dans le sous-sol et ont été épargnées par le feu.

Quel lien entretient l'homme avec l'arbre ?
Il y a toute une mythologie sur les rapports entre les arbres et les hommes. Au Kerala (Inde), par exemple, on le fête comme une divinité. Les Celtes adoraient les chênes. En Sibérie, les chamans vénèrent le saule. L'arbre est passé dans l'Histoire. Et puis, il y a tout ce que l'arbre a apporté à l'homme, la médecine, la construction…

A-t-on, un jour, compté les arbres ?
Le seul recensement au monde est celui des chênes en France. Il y aurait neuf milliards de chênes pédonculés.

Connaît-on tous les arbres ?

Il y a toujours des espèces à découvrir, notamment en Guyane. 20 % de la forêt reste à explorer, souvent, ce sont des arbres qui ne sont exploitables et donc qui n'ont pas intéressé l'homme.

Recueilli par Bernadette Dubourg

(1) « Petit dictionnaire des hommes et des arbres, curiosités botaniques d'Europe et d'ailleurs », d'Olivier de Marliave, Éditions Imago, 265 pages, 22 euros. L'ouvrage contient des photos de Régine Rosenthal.
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Asuntos Sociales suscribe un convenio con Digmun para financiar proyectos

Asuntos Sociales suscribe un convenio con Digmun para financiar proyectos | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El Consejo de Gobierno celebrado ayer dio luz verde a un convenio suscrito entre Asuntos Sociales y Digmun para financiar proyectos de inclusión tales como las aulas de inmersión lingüística en las que se favorece el aprendizaje de los MENA o el servicio de traducción a inmigrantes.
El dinero que se destinará asciende a 87.663 euros que permitirá el trabajo de seis personas para atender a unas 500, que son el grueso de beneficiarios, tal y como explicó el portavoz del Ejecutivo, Emilio Carreira a los periodistas. En el caso de las aulas de inmersión, de cuya puesta en marcha ya informó El Faro en un reportaje, se trata de atender a los MENA que están tutelados por la Ciudad para así garantizar su integración en los centros escolares. En el caso del servicio de traducción, se atiende un compromiso plenario adoptado en octubre del pasado año, atendiendo así a las necesidades específicas de inmigrantes. En aquel entonces, el Gobierno se comprometió a facilitar la traducción en servicios en los que sea necesario para atender debidamente a usuarios extranjeros, una situación que en Ceuta no es extraordinaria por tratarse de una ciudad fronteriza. Carreira recordó ayer que ante la imposibilidad de hacer contrataciones, esta demanda se resolvía vía convenio con Digmun.

Apoyo al Banco de Alimentos con 63.500 euros de la Ciudad

Otro de los convenios que fue aprobado ayer en Consejo de Gobierno afecta directamente al Banco de Alimentos y su operatividad. Así se aprobó una financiación de 63.500 euros, que permitirá la viabilidad de una entidad que atiende a más de 10.000 personas y de la que dependen dos trabajadores. En este año la idea del Banco es repartir 105.000 kilos, contando además con las aportaciones que espera obtener de entidades y colectas o de otros Bancos de Alimentos peninsulares. La labor que desarrolla esta entidad en Ceuta es clave puesto que permite que muchas familias dispongan de una atención básica en la recepción de alimentos. De no ser por su operatividad el riesgo de exclusión sería aún mayor así como la cantidad de unidades familiares que se verían obligadas a recurrir de las ayudas sociales en sus conceptos más básicos. La entidad, tras luchar por obtener un local mejor al antiguo de Loma Colmenar, espera seguir contando con apoyo de la ciudadanía.
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OPINION La diversité linguistique menacée dans la haute administration | La-Croix.com - Articles du Forum

OPINION La diversité linguistique menacée dans la haute administration | La-Croix.com - Articles du Forum | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Par un simple arrêté ministériel (du 16 avril 2014, ministère de la décentralisation et de la fonction publique), le régime des langues aux concours d’entrée à l’École nationale d’administration a été changé de manière radicale. D’apparence anodine, cette réforme est susceptible d’avoir des conséquences lourdes sur le long terme.

À partir de la session de 2018, la seule épreuve de langue maintenue sera l’épreuve d’anglais. Les autres langues, retenues par l’arrêté du 13 octobre 1999, à savoir 13 langues dont l’allemand, le chinois, l’espagnol, l’italien, le japonais, le portugais ou le russe, seront éliminées des concours d’entrée et, s’agissant de la scolarité, reléguées dans des formations facultatives non prises en compte dans le classement final.

Ce choix de la langue unique représente une régression incompréhensible, contraire à toute vision prospective et aux intérêts de la France tels qu’ils sont généralement affirmés par le gouvernement français.

Le monde d’aujourd’hui est un monde plurilingue qui ne devrait admettre aucune hégémonie linguistique.

Certes, l’anglais est aujourd’hui la langue avec laquelle il est le plus facile de se déplacer à travers le monde, mais l’utilité qu’on lui reconnaît ne doit pas privilégier une seule culture au détriment de l’ouverture au monde que permet la diversité linguistique et culturelle.

Priver les futurs hauts fonctionnaires de cette dimension indispensable est en soi un non-sens, alors que les anglophones s’interrogent eux-mêmes sur les limites de leur monolinguisme.

Mais il faut aussi tenir compte des effets en chaîne que cette décision ne manquera pas de provoquer.

Tout d’abord, la France donnerait un très mauvais signal à l’ensemble des pays dont les langues sont éliminées du concours. Il ne faudra pas s’étonner si ceux-ci, qui représentent la majorité de la population mondiale, épousant la logique affichée par l’ENA, considèrent à leur tour que leurs futurs responsables peuvent se passer du français. Ajoutons que les ambassadeurs de la France se plaignent souvent que leurs collaborateurs maîtrisent insuffisamment les langues et cultures des pays dans lesquels ils sont affectés.

Ajoutons que l’ensemble des concours administratifs ne tarderont pas à s’aligner pour les langues vivantes sur l’exemple donné par l’ENA.

Par ailleurs, les universités, souvent aux prises avec des difficultés budgétaires considérables, se verront ouvertement incitées à abaisser leur effort pour les langues vivantes alors que les besoins sont criants. Et ce ne sont pas les grandes écoles qui combleront le retard linguistique de notre pays.

On se demande enfin comment l’on peut justifier d’avoir rendu obligatoire au baccalauréat deux langues parmi plusieurs dizaines, quand aux plus hauts niveaux universitaires on constate un repli sur une seule langue.

Cette situation relève de la plus complète incohérence et révèle avant tout une fermeture à la créativité et à l’innovation et une absence d’ouverture intellectuelle et d’ambition pour notre pays.

Lorsque la France fait sien le principe arrêté au Conseil européen de Barcelone en 2002 selon lequel tout citoyen devrait apprendre dès le plus jeune âge au moins deux langues étrangères, principe auquel elle a donné force de loi en l’intégrant au code de l’éducation (article L.123-1) (« la maîtrise de la langue française et l’enseignement de deux langues étrangères sont un objectif fondamental de l’éducation »), on est en droit de penser que ce principe devrait inspirer toutes ses décisions à caractère linguistique.

Nous ne pouvons pas non plus négliger l’image que nous donnons au monde entier. La France ne doit-elle pas être simplement elle-même, c’est-à-dire ouverte au monde et à la diversité linguistique et culturelle ?

Il y a un vrai paradoxe. La dernière promotion de l’ENA vient de se donner comme nom de baptême George Orwell. Or George Orwell a inventé le newspeak ou la novlangue, c’est-à-dire cette langue unique qui dans son esprit est synonyme de servitude.

(1) ADEAF : Association pour le développement de l’enseignement de l’allemand en France ; (2) AFEA : Association française d’études américaines ; (3) AFR : Association française des russisants ; (4) AGES : Association des germanistes de l’enseignement supérieur ; (5) ALF : Avenir de la langue française ; (6) APLV : Associations de professeurs de langues vivantes ; (7) CLEC : Cercle littéraire des écrivains cheminots ; (8) ICEG : Institut culture, économie et géopolitique ; (9) OEP : Observatoire européen du plurilinguisme ; (10) SHF : Société des hispanistes français de l’enseignement supérieur ; (11) SIES : Société des italianistes de l’enseignement supérieur ; (12) SLNL : Société des langues néo-latines.
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Speak thine own tongue, urges ESL

Speak thine own tongue, urges ESL | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
E.S.L. Narasimhan

Governor of AP, TS

On a platform meant for the promotion of English language, the first citizen of the State gave a call urging people to give primary importance to their mother tongue.
Governor of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh E.S.L. Narasimhan said English was fast becoming the common language in a country with diverse languages and appealed to the citizens to not neglect their native language.

He felt that knowing how to read and write Indian languages has its own advantages since Sanskrit forms the basis of not only local but global languages.

The Governor was speaking at the inaugural of the fifth International English Language Teacher Educator Conference (TEC 15) in Hyderabad on Friday. The event is being organised by British Council in association with English and Foreign Languages University (EFLU).

Mr. Narasimhan, in his speech, pointed out a problem being created as a result of growing influence of English language. “Are we creating a society of have’s and have not’s based on the knowledge of English language? Let us not make it elitist. Parents are sending their children to private schools as English is taught well there. It’s time now that English is introduced in all government schools,” he said.

He felt that India’s human resource potential can contribute greatly to the English language in the form of teachers if they are trained well.

Global conference

The conference is being attended by about 1,000 participants from over 30 countries, including teacher educators, ministerial officials, heads of universities and colleges, representatives of the vocational sector, NGOs and policymakers.

Sunaina Singh, Vice-Chancellor, EFLU, said the critical aspect of higher education in India is sustaining quality. Keeping abreast with changes by constantly re-inventing the curriculum is one way of improving the standard of English.

Chris Brandwood, Director, English, British Council South Asia said: “The theme for this year’s conference is timely from a national and global perspective. Internationally, the most recent global monitoring report highlighted quality as its central concern. Key initiatives such as Teacher Education Mission (2013), National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009-10) and 12th five year plan highlight issues of quality as fundamental to professional development of teachers.”

Mei-kwei Barker, Director, British Council South India said that about 20,000 persons from across the globe have registered to follow the proceedings of the conference through digital platforms.

Are we creating a society of have’s and have not’s based on the knowledge of English language? Let us not make it elitist. It’s time English is introduced in all government schools said Governor AP and TS ESL Narasimham.
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Sacrifice for recognition of Bangla language | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh

Sacrifice for recognition of Bangla language | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Bangla is the state language of Bangladesh - more than 155 million people of Bangladesh speak Bangla. It is the mother tongue of almost all people of Bangladeshi origin. Although Bangla is one of the 23 official languages recognised by the Republic of India, it is the official language of the states of West Bengal and Tripura. It is also a major language in the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  Bangla is also the co-official language of Assam, which has three predominantly Sylheti-speaking districts of southern Assam, Cachar, Karimganj and Hailakandi.  Bangla is a second official language of the Indian state of Jharkhand from September 2011. It is also a recognised secondary language in the city of Karachi in Pakistan. In December 2002, Sierra Leone's President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah also named Bangla as an "official language" of Sierra Leone in recognition of the work of more than 5,300 troops from Bangladesh in the United Nations (UN) Mission in Sierra Leone peacekeeping force. The national anthems of both India and Bangladesh were written in Bangla by the Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.  Another giant of Bangla literature, Kazi Nazrul Islam, is the national poet of Bangladesh. In 2009, elected representatives in both Bangladesh and West Bengal called for Bangla to be made an official language of the UN.

There may be some other countries or nations who have campaigned for or demanded recognition of their languages, but Bangla is the only language for which people have made the highest sacrifice.  People gave their lives for Bangla on 21st February 1952. The day of that utmost sacrifice was declared as the 'International Mother Language Day' throughout the world by the UN on 17th November 1999 - a day to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism.  International Mother Language Day has been observed every year since 2000 February. As a Bengali as well as Bangladeshi I remember with utmost respect those who sacrificed their lives for the Bangla language to be recognised. My thoughts and prayers are for those martyrs. May the Almighty (SWT) accept their sacrifice and grant them Jannatul Ferdous - the highest place in jannah. I would also like to remember and thank those who contributed to the cause and suffered for it (harassment, torture, being falsely implicated to legal cases, being jailed etc.) in our historic chapter of the language movement which was fought from 1948 for Bangla to be recognised officially.    

Three languages are very important to us: Bengali, English and Arabic

In my view, people of Bangladeshi origin must learn three languages side by side: Bengali, English and Arabic. They must learn Bangla because it is their mother tongue and state language, and it is for this language that the utmost sacrifice of an unprecedented nature was made. With about 220 million native speakers, and about 250 million speakers in total, Bengali is one of the most spoken languages, ranked seventh in the world. In order to learn other languages, one must be good at one's own native language.  One who is competent in his or her own langue can easily pick up other languages. In other words, the mother tongue is a gateway to other languages.

Alongside Bangla, English must be learned because it is the only international language by which one can communicate anywhere in the globe. Truly, the "English" language is the most important language in the world. It is an international language in proper and true sense. It is the mother tongue and the first language of some of the most powerful nations and developed countries of the world. After Bangla, English is a highly desirable language in Bangladesh.  In many countries of the world, English is the second or third official language.  Any country can hardly be found on the earth where English is not spoken or written or at least understood.  English is given due importance [often given over importance too] in non-English speaking countries. Even in those countries, native applicants who are fluent or competent in English are given apparent priority in the competitive job market. Almost all International bodies, agencies, institutions and organisations consider fluency and competency in the English language as one of the compulsory or mandatory requirements for recruitment or appointment of their staff. The English calendar is followed in all international trades and businesses and by almost all countries of the world, regardless of whether English speaking or non-English speaking.  

In Bangladesh, English is widely spoken, written and used.  Students who studied at English medium schools or students who studied at public schools but were good at English have, statistically, been doing better in their subsequent profession, job and career.  Generally, a student or job applicant who has good command of English is considered smart, skilled and competent. Thus, apart from linguistic value and international dimension, the English language has distinct economic value too. Thus, former British High Commissioner to Bangladesh Mr Anwar Chowdhury once rightly said "English is not only a language, but it is an essential commodity too."

Besides Bangla and English, Arabic must also be learned.  At least 85% of the population in Bangladesh are Muslims. The holy book of Islam, the Quran, was revealed in Arabic.  Other important religious texts including the major/authentic Hadith books and original tafseers are written in Arabic.  In order to understand the religion of Islam properly and perfectly in a non-alienated way the knowledge of the Arabic language is essential. Apart from the religious perspective, there are economic and business benefits as well in learning Arabic. There are huge markets and employment prospects in the Middle East and in some countries of Africa, in which the native or state languages include Arabic. Arabic is one of the current official languages of the UN. Therefore, knowledge of the Arabic language, regardless of religion, would be an invaluable communicative asset for exploring that huge market and to get maximum benefit of that global opportunity.

Our children in the UK can easily learn four languages:

Our children who live in the United Kingdom can easily learn four languages: English, Bangla, Arabic and one modern language. The medium in which our children's teaching and learning is conducted in the UK is English. Therefore, parents do not need to do anything extra for their children to learn the English language. They will automatically and naturally learn and be competent in the English language and literature. Alongside the English language, all pupils in schools are required to learn a modern language: either French or Germany or Spanish or another suitable language.  It is a part of their national curriculum.  With the efforts of school and little effort from parents, our children can learn one of the modern languages.  The first or at least second language of almost all of our children is Bangla. Most of them have Bangla as their mother tongue. Bangla is widely spoken in the house and the community they live in.  With proper support and care, our children can easily learn Bangla. Almost 90% or above of those of British-Bangladeshi origin in the UK are Muslims.  To all Muslims, Arabic has a distinct value and importance, for the reasons stated above. With extra care and support, our children can easily learn the Arabic language. Learning more languages is like acquiring new skills. Those who are competent in their own language, be it Bangla or English or any other, can easily grasp other languages. With proper support, guidance and care, our children can be multi-lingual - skilled in four languages!  This is a unique opportunity for our children which should not be taken or considered lightly.    

Can 'Bangla' be fully introduced in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh?

Although 'Bangla' is our mother tongue and state language of Bangladesh, the language of the Apex Court of Bangladesh is, however, English.  Thus, many people demand that 'Bangla' be fully introduced in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh.  As mentioned above, we are the only nation on earth which sacrificed lives for the restoration of our mother tongue.  This is probably why when the month of February comes, we become emotional and there is, no doubt, a logic for being so. But when people demand the introduction of 'Bangla' fully in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, they genuinely need to consider the wider importance and international implication. When late Dr M Zahir, an eminent jurist and country's leading company law expert, visited London few years ago, I discussed this with him and drew some issues to his kind attention. One of them was the possibility of introducing 'Bangla' at the Supreme Court.  He straightway replied "Nazir, look, three things you cannot do in Bangla: Namaj (prayer) cannot be done in Bangla, company law cannot be done in Bangla and Supreme Court proceedings cannot done in Bangla." There is a strong logic for this assertion. One of those is perhaps that the Supreme Court judgements of a country are often referred to throughout the world.  For example, House of Lords' judgments and the judgments of the Indian Supreme Court are frequently referred to the proceedings and hearings of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh.  Likewise, in order for the judgments of our Apex Court to be referred to the proceedings of the Apex Court abroad, the judgments would have to be of that standard. Thus, if the judgement is written in Bangla, can it have international force and be referred abroad?

How could 'Bangla' be an official language of the UN?

Six languages are currently official languages of the UN.  These are: English, French, Arabic, Russian, Chinese and Spanish.  Proposal has been made to include 'Bangla' as one of the official languages of the UN.  Besides Bangla, Esparento, Hindi, Portuguese and Turkish have also been proposed.  There have been some campaigns, albeit of a very limited scale, for recognising Bangla as one of the UN official languages.  Despite all these, the UN has not yet recognised it.

The mere wish or desire to have Bangla recognised by the UN, or a limited campaign to achieve this, would not bring any fruitful result. In order for Bangla to be recognised by the UN, the value and importance of the country would have to be raised. Our images would have to be positive throughout the world.  The presence of a proper democracy in the country, having a record of upholding human rights and rule of law, being known outside the country as a civilised and desirable nation, less dependence on foreign aid, having an excellent and cordial relationship with the major and powerful nations and having competent diplomacy are all relevant key factors in order for this demand to be recognised by the highest international body, the UN, to be pursued. If anyone compares and assesses our country against the barometer of the above components, he can easily ascertain where our country is at the moment. Empty rhetoric, emotional outcry and making demands without being able to show support for them are one thing - and marching ahead with a solid demand backed by sustainable and appreciable records and tangible and concrete evidence is completely another thing.  The latter is the most important thing needed for our country.  The sooner our superior authorities realise this, the better for our country.



Barrister Nazir Ahmed: Legal expert, analyst, writer and columnist.  He can be contacted via e-mail: ahmedlaw2002@yaho.co.uk
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Upholding dignity of mother languages | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh

Upholding dignity of mother languages | FEATURE & ANALYSES | Financial Express :: Financial Newspaper of Bangladesh | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Upholding dignity of mother languages

Representatives from almost 25 ethnic groups and speakers of 40 languages gathered to take part in the Walk



International Mother Language Movement (IMLM), Canberra, Australia celebrated the International Mother Language Day with Language Walk and Community Celebration.

IMLM has successfully organised its annual 'Language Walk and Community Celebration' to commemorate the International Mother Language Day 2015. On a bright sunny morning, people from different ethnic groups started to gather at the International Flag Display at the southern shore of Lake Burley Griffin. Representatives from almost 25 ethnic groups and speakers of 40 languages gathered to take part in the Walk.

IMLM volunteers distributed free T-shirts specifically designed for the Walk to all the participants gathered there. When people of different races and colours put on the common T-shirt, they become one and exude the spirit of 'unity in diversity'.

After paying due respect to the Ngunnawal people, the original custodian of this Land, the Walk was officially inaugurated by Ms Yvette Berry, Minister for Multicultural Affairs and Community Services of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government.

The procession of multilingual and multi-ethnic people started to walk from the International Flag Display towards the Regatta Point crossing the Commonwealth Bridge and raised the slogan, 'My Language, My Pride'. After walking 1.8 km, the procession reached their destination at the Commonwealth Park next to the Regatta Point.

While they were slowly walking towards their destination, they were greeted with the live music played by the local 'Gourmet Band'. While adults were walking in a sombre mood, kids were having a blast at the jumping castle and were busy getting their face painted. Live music of the Gourmet Band was followed by poem recitation in Dari Language, traditional Afghan fashion parade, Bangla song, Chinese classical dance, Portuguese song and poem, Brazilian martial arts and dance and traditional Tongan dance.

Amidst all these fun and festivities, a genuine concern was palpable among the participants about the steady demise of many ethnic languages especially Aboriginal languages of Australia.

One of the main objectives of IMLM's organising this programme is to raise awareness about the conservation of endangered languages especially rapidly declining Aboriginal languages as well as promoting multilingualism in Australian multicultural social fabric and mutual respect and acceptance of different languages and cultures.     — Press release
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International Mother Language Day celebrated

International Mother Language Day celebrated | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dr. Avea Ephraim Nosh, a Lecturer at the University of Education, Winneba (UEW), Department of Gur-Gonja Languages Education, has called on lecturers, students to collectively work with politicians and other stakeholders in education to ensure that children continue to benefit from their mother tongue in a much improved manner.

Dr. Nosh made the called in a presentation delivered on the topic “Are indigenous Languages still relevant in the current dispensation?” at a durbar as part of this year’s International Mother Language Day Celebration held at the College of Languages Education, UEW Ajumako Campus.

The celebration was on the theme “Inclusion in and through Language Education counts”, was attended by personalities including, chiefs in the area led by the Paramount Chief Ajumako Traditional Council Nana Ogeabo Ababio Hammah, lecturers of the UEW, students and other stakeholders in education.

The General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) in November, 1999 declared 21st February every year as the International Mother Language Day aimed at promoting awareness of linguistic and culture diversity, multilingualism and above all, to promote and indemnify the linguistic rights of individuals specially children across member countries.

The United Nations General Assembly on 16th May, 2009 endorsed it compelling all member countries “to promote the preservation and protection of all languages used by peoples of the world” which fortunately, these international conventions found expression and space in Ghana’s national laws including the language policy in education and in the 1992 constitution, he added.

Dr. Nosh said on International Mother Language Day it was legitimate to seek answers to the questions why thousands of BECE and WASCE graduates should be denied admission into the higher institutions when they pass Kasem, Asante or Ewe but fail the English language, a situation in which the young ones were deny opportunities because of artificially created languages barriers, which were inexhaustible and heart breaking.

“The day reminds us of the responsibility to our children with respect to the use of language in education and we cannot talk of inclusive education when thousands of children are excluded from education simply because they speak a particular language from some part of the county or just that they cannot pass some foreign language examination, these are discrimination and the constitution of the country frowns on them,” he added.

He said there was no doubt about the relevance of indigenous languages in the present day of “our” country or even the current global setting whereby we have to accept the fact that the we have gone a long way but much more needs to be done.

According to him, as a people, we have to realize that our attitudes to mother tongue worldwide is not different from what is seen in the country and for that matter policy makers should speed up with the language policy.

Earlier in the day students from various tribes at the University dressed in their tribal costumes, amidst drumming and dancing to portray the rich culture and traditions, as well as entertain the gathering.
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Défense de la diversité des langues vivantes - actions récentes - Association des Germanistes de l'Enseignement Supérieur (A.G.E.S.)

Vous trouverez ci-joint un certain nombre de documents par rapport aux démarches concernant la diversité des langues vivantes auxquelles l’AGES s’est associée, notamment dans le cadre de la réforme du concours de l’ENA.

1. Courrier envoyé le 18 février 2015 à François Hollande, Président de la République, et aux autorités politiques suivantes :
* Manuel Valls, Premier Ministre
* Laurent Fabius, Ministre des Affaires Étrangères et du Développement International
* Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, Ministre de l’Éducation Nationale, de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche
* Geneviève Fioraso, Secrétaire d’État de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche
* Fleur Pellerin, Ministre de la Culture et de la Communication
* Harlem Désir, Secrétaire d’État aux Affaires Européennes

2. Question au gouvernement
Des messages ont été envoyés à
* pour l’Assemblée nationale : Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, Thierry
Mariani, Jacques Myard, François Fillon, Charles de Corson, Bruno
Lemaire, Pouria Amirshahi
* pour le Sénat : Jacques Legendre, Catherine Tasca, Claudine Lepage,
Jean-Pierre Sueur, Philippe Marini, Gérard Longuet, Louis Duvernoy,
Dominique Gillot

3.Tribune libre envoyée au Monde, à Libération, La Croix, au Figaro et à Marianne Seule à présent La Croix a répondu favorablement pour une prochaine parution dans la page Forum

4. Autre presse : article paru dans la revue Achats Publics

titre documents joints
Courrier aux autorités politiques (PDF - 101.4 ko)
Question au gouvernement (PDF - 21 ko)
Tribune (PDF - 66.4 ko)
Article Achats publics (PDF - 48.9 ko)
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Your Eyes: A Window to Your Health

Your Eyes: A Window to Your Health | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The old saying goes that the eyes are the windows to the soul, but they can also be a window into your health. Ophthalmologists often see clues in the eyes that warn of health issues elsewhere in your body.

“Any ophthalmologist who does routine eye exams can detect these problems,” says ophthalmologist Richard Gans, MD. “Eye exams are important not only for the health of the eye, but also to determine if there are systemic issues that need attention,” he says.

Here are some health warning signs ophthalmologists can find in your eyes:

1. Diabetes

Dr. Gans looks for a condition called diabetic retinopathy, which damages the blood vessels in the eye. “We can see areas of bleeding and swelling in the retina, or abnormal blood vessels developing, which are hallmarks of diabetic damage,” he says. This damage can be observed even before vision is affected.

When diabetic retinopathy is detected, laser treatments and medications are used to repair blood vessels. However, surgery may be required if the bleeding is severe enough.

2. Hypertension

“High blood pressure can cause permanent damage to vision by affecting the circulation within the eye,” says Dr. Gans. Such damage can be the first clue that a patient is suffering from hypertension.

3. Inflammatory conditions

These include inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and lupus. “There’s a well-known connection between inflammatory diseases and inflammation in the eye,” says Dr. Gans.

Most commonly, inflammatory diseases cause uveitis, which is an inflammation of the middle part of the eye (called the uvea). Untreated, uveitis can cause permanent damage to the eye.

4. Metastatic cancer

“Cancers by themselves rarely have manifestations in the eye,” Dr. Gans says. “However, there are certain cancers that can spread to the eyes,” he adds.

Melanoma is one cancer that is primary to the eye, but it can often be found elsewhere on the body. Breast cancer is an example of a cancer that can metastasize to the eye, where it could be found before other tests show the cancer has spread.

Retinal Diseases Treatment Guide
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