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News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Nigeria: More New English Words in Oxford and Other Dictionaries

Nigeria: More New English Words in Oxford and Other Dictionaries | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
By Farooq Kperogi
The article I wrote about two weeks ago on new words that have been added to the lexical pantheon of the English language elicited tremendous interest from my readers--at least judging by the several enthusiastic emails I have received in the aftermath of the article's publication. Encouraged by this, I have decided to introduce readers to more new words the Oxford Dictionaries--and other English dictionaries--added to the language this year. Like I did in the previous article, I will provide definitions and usage examples of the words. So here goes:

Acquihire. This is a noun, and it means "An act or instance of buying out a company primarily for the skills and expertise of its staff, rather than for the products or services it supplies." Usage examples include "the start-ups are being acquihired in a bid to harvest their talent"; "It's powered by talent acqhired from a solar-powered drone maker as well as poached from NASA."

The word is a portmanteau made by joining "acquire" and "hire."

Air punch. This is defined as "An act of thrusting one's clenched fist up into the air, typically as a gesture of triumph or elation." Example: "the verdict was greeted with cheers and air punches by her family and friends."

Amazeballs. It's an informal word for "extremely good or impressive; amazing." Example: "The atmosphere was nothing special but the food was amazeballs." Oxford says the word is the product of a humorous contortion of "amazing." I frankly don't see what lexical void this word fills. I am not confident this word won't be a lexical flash in the pan.

Anti-vax. This informal American English adjective is derived from the shortening of "anti-vaccination." Oxford Dictionaries defines it as "opposed to vaccination." Usage examples are "anti-vax parents," "Anti-vax sentiments have, in fact, been around since Edward Jenner first demonstrated the effectiveness of the smallpox vaccine in the late 18th century."

The dictionary traces the word's origins to the 1990s, but it is just now being considered a legitimate word worthy of an entry in the dictionary. This word would resonate with many northern Nigerians where "anti-vax" sentiments still remain high.

Binge-watch (binge-view). This is another informal word that began life in 1990s America and has become a prominent part of the active idiolect of contemporary young Americans. It is defined as "Watch multiple episodes of (a television programme) in rapid succession, typically by means of DVDs or digital streaming." Example: "you can binge-watch the entire season with this set."

The nominal form of the word is binge-watching or binge-viewing.

To "binge" is to overindulge in something, usually food. Older words formed in combination with "binge" are "binge-eat" and "binge-drink."

Bro hug. This is actually one of my favorites of the new words Oxford welcomed to its database. It is defined as "a friendly embrace between two men." The "bro" in the phrase is the short form of "brother" that has been part of African American English for years. Another variation of the expression is "man hug." Usage example: "they had a little bro hug in front of the cameras."

The phrase is important because it helps to denote that the embrace between two men isn't homoerotic.

Clickbait. As a new media scholar, I have been using this word for at least the last five years. I am glad it's been finally legitimized for popular usage. Oxford Dictionaries defines it as "(On the Internet) content whose main purpose is to attract attention and encourage visitors to click on a link to a particular web page. Example: "These recent reports of the show's imminent demise are hyperbolic clickbait." Clickbait is the Internet's equivalent of yellow journalism.

Clickbait can also be used as a modifier, as in "a clickbait article," or "clickbait blog posts."

Deep Web. This is defined as "The part of the World Wide Web that is not discoverable by means of standard search engines, including password-protected or dynamic pages and encrypted networks." Example: "The biggest weakness of the Deep Web is also its greatest strength: it's really hard to find anything."



Doncha (also dontcha, don'tcha). The word is derived from the informal contraction of "don't you." This looks like one of those words that will be perpetually stuck informal, colloquial register, like "gonna," (going to) or wanna (want to). But the word isn't new. It's been around for years.

Other New Words You Should Note:

Douchebaggery (n.): obnoxious or contemptible behavior.

E-cig (n.): another term for electronic cigarette.

Fandom (n.): the fans of a particular person, team, series, etc., regarded collectively as a community or subculture.

Fast follower (n.): a company that quickly imitates the innovations of its competitors.

5:2 diet (n.): a diet that involves eating normally for five days out of a seven-day period and greatly restricting the amount of food eaten on the other two days.

FML (abbrev.): (vulgar slang) f-- my life! (used to express dismay at a frustrating personal situation)

Hot mic (n.): a microphone that is turned on, in particular one that broadcasts a spoken remark that was intended to be private.

Humblebrag (n. & v.): (make) an ostensibly modest or self-deprecating statement whose actual purpose is to draw attention to something of which one is proud.

ICYMI (abbrev.): in case you missed it.

Mud run (n.): an event in which participants negotiate a course consisting of obstacles filled or covered with mud.

Neckbeard (n.): growth of hair on a man's neck, especially when regarded as indicative of poor grooming.

Paleo diet (n.): a diet based on the type of foods presumed to have been eaten by early humans.



Sentiment analysis (n.): the process of computationally identifying and categorizing opinions expressed in a piece of text.

Smartwatch (n.): a mobile device with a touchscreen display, worn on the wrist.

SMH (abbrev.): shaking (or shake) my head (used to express disapproval, exasperation, etc.).

Subtweet (n.): (on Twitter) a post that refers to a particular user without directly mentioning them, typically as a form of furtive mockery or criticism.

Tech-savvy (n.): well informed about or proficient in the use of modern technology.

Time-poor (adj.): spending much of one's time working or occupied.

Throw shade (phr.): publicly criticize or express contempt for someone.

WDYT (abbrev.): what do you think?

YOLO (abbrev.): you only live once (expressing the view that one should make the most of the present moment).

Notable Words of the Year

Chambers Dictionary and Collins English Dictionary, two well-regarded dictionaries in Britain, named their words of the year early in the year. The words have also helped expand and legitimize the range of our lexical repertoire.

Chambers Dictionary's word of the year is "overshare." It defines it as "to be unacceptably forthcoming with information about one's personal life." It can also mean unsolicited and inappropriate self-disclosure of private, intimate information with online interlocutors. In addition, it can be used to denote the disclosure of the private, often embarrassing, information of one's ex-lover, with intent to expose them to ridicule.
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UK jobs market set for upbeat 2015 but skills shortage remains

UK jobs market set for upbeat 2015 but skills shortage remains | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
As the economic recovery continues, 50% of British businesses are planning to take on extra workers in 2015, the CBI said, but skills shortage could stop jobs being filled.

All regions of the UK stand to benefit according to the business lobby group, while Scotland has the biggest plans for the job creation.

Employers also said they would give workers pay rises next year, though at a “cautious rate” as productivity remains weak and competition tough.

Among firms polled for the CBI/Accenture employment trends survey 2014, 43% said they were planning pay rises in line with the retail prices index (RPI), at 2%. About 12% said they would hand workers pay rises above the RPI measure.

 
UK workers are finally benefitting from a rise in real wages – where pay growth outstrips inflation – after six years of decline. The report found that more permanent than temporary jobs would be created.

Katja Hall, the CBI’s deputy director-general, said businesses were concerned that they would not be able to fill some jobs because of a lack of suitably skilled candidates. This, as well as worries over regulation directed at the flexible labour market, were considered the biggest workforce threats to UK competitiveness.

“It’s a concern that the UK’s growing skills gap is now seen as the number one workforce threat to the long-term health of its economy,” she said.

The CBI has argued that controversial zero-hours contracts – where staff are hired without being guaranteed a minimum number of hours – are an important part of the jobs market.

Zero-hours contracts, of which there are about 1.4m in the UK, have been criticised by unions, which claim workers employed on such terms are paid less on average and have fewer employment rights than permanent employees.

The issue is likely to be debated by politicians in the run-up to the general election in May 2015.

Hall said: “Unstitching the fabric of the UK’s flexible labour market would risk piling new costs onto businesses and ultimately put jobs at risk, so politicians must take care.

“The UK’s flexibility makes it attractive as a place to create jobs and it has been crucial to the recovery, allowing firms to hire quickly or tailor their staff levels to meet customer needs.”

She added that the living wage, based on the amount people need to earn to cover the basic cost of living and which is higher than the minimum wage, should remain voluntary. “Many firms simply cannot afford it,” she said.


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Skype Translator beta is released - and it could banish language barriers around the world

Skype Translator beta is released - and it could banish language barriers around the world | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Skype Translator lets users have live voice conversations across different languages. When one user speaks, a computerized voice delivers the translation to the other user. A transcription also appears in a sidebar next to the main video chat window.
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6 astuces rigolotes pour apprendre une langue étrangère en s’amusant

6 astuces rigolotes pour apprendre une langue étrangère en s’amusant | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Tout le monde n'a pas le temps ni l'argent de se payer des séjours linguistiques ou des cours de langue. Pas grave ! Car il existe des moyens de progresser en s'éclatant. Mieux : plus vous vous amuserez, plus vos progresserez. Elle n'est pas bien faite, la vie ?

1/ Regarder vos films préférés en version originale sous-titrée (en vo aussi). Love Actually, Bridget Jones, Harry Potter,... vous les connaissez par coeur ? Alors, pas besoin de mettre du français dessus ! Laissez-vous portez par l'histoire et de temps en temps, sur un petit carnet, notez les mots que vous ne connaissez pas, cherchez les ensuite sur le dico et apprenez vos répliques préférées par coeur. Vous verrez : ça rentrera tout seul !

 
2/ Lire des livres qu'on aime en langue étrangère. A éviter : les livres "qui ont la classe" mais qui nous intéressent moyennement. Là, on ne choisit que des histoires qui nous font vibrer, pour jeunes de préférence (plus facile à lire), type Hunger Games, Divergente, Harry Potter (oui, on est fans!) ou encore des BD (Astérix a été traduit en 107 langues, alors vous avez le choix !).

3/ Chanter. Le matin, sous la douche, pour vous réveiller, lâchez-vous sur une chanson dans la langue désirée en essayant de deviner les paroles ! Vous vérifierez ensuite si vous avez bon et vous apprendrez les vraies paroles, histoire de chanter juste...ne serait-ce qu'au niveau du vocabulaire ou de la grammaire.

4/ Suivre un sujet qui nous intéresse. Vous êtes fan du cinéma ou des animaux ? Chez votre marchand de journaux, vous trouverez plein de magazines sur le sujet dans le langage que vous souhaitez. Et grâce à la magie d'Internet, vous pourrez continuer à approfondir vos connaissantes dessus.

5/ Papoter sur Internet. Grâce aux réseaux sociaux et aux forums, il n'a jamais été si facile d'apprendre une nouvelle langue. Echangez, postez, réagissez sur ce qui vous passionne, avec des internautes de la nationalité choisie. Oh Yeah !

6/ Imaginer des dialogues. Dans votre tête, ça mouline pas mal. Phrases à sortir pour un entretien d'embauche, déclaration d'amour toute prête pour Ryan Gosling (au cas où on le croise...), reproches qu'on aimerait adresser à notre poissonnier ("il est pas frais, mon poisson ?")... : on essaie de tourner tout ça dans notre tête dans la langue qu'on veut apprendre. C'est ludique, ça défoule et ça nous permet d'utiliser les vrais mots du quotidien ! Le parler réel. Et ça, ça fait sacrément progresser !
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En criollo, por favor - - diariojudicial.com :: la actualidad desde el derecho ::

En criollo, por favor - - diariojudicial.com :: la actualidad desde el derecho :: | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
En criollo, por favor

Foto: Gerard Stolk
La Cámara Comercial ratificó la orden de traducir al español la documentación presentada por un banco holandés en un juicio que le inició una asociación de consumidores argentina. “El juez no tiene el deber de conocer otro idioma que no sea el nacional”, explicó el fallo.

La Sala “B” de la Cámara Comercial confirmó la decisión del juez de Primera Instancia en los autos “Consumidores Financieros Asociación Civil para su Defensa c/ Rabobank (Coiper. Cent. Raiffeisen Boerenleenbank B.A.) s/ Ordinario” de ordenar la traducción al español de la documentación presentada por la entidad demandada.

El fundamento legal de esa decisión reposa en lo establecido en el artículo 123 del Código Procesal Civil y Comercial de la Nación, que exige que cuando “se presentaren documentos en idioma extranjero, deberá acompañarse su traducción realizada por traductor público matriculado”. Como el banco tiene domicilio real en Ámsterdam, Holanda, el primer magistrado también extendió el plazo de contestación de la demanda por 60 días.

Esa decisión fue atacada por la actora. Es que la traducción de los documentos implica la obligación de designar un traductor público, lo que conlleva un incremento de las costas del proceso. Por ello, solicitó también que el costo de la traducción sea a manos de la empresa demandada.

Sin embargo, las camaristas Ana Piaggi, Matilde Ballerini y María Gómez Alonso de Díaz de Cordero optaron por acatar la regla que impone el Código de Procedimientos.

“Dicha orden, contempla las estipulaciones del art. 123 Cpcc. y no puede soslayarse, diferirse o posponerse toda vez que la contraparte al evacuar el traslado pertinente debe pronunciarse en los términos previstos en el art. 356 Cpcc., quedando a partir de allí establecidos los límites del contradictorio”, detallaron las magistrados.

A continuación, explicaron que “tal exigencia obedece, además a que el juez no tiene el deber de conocer otro idioma que no sea el nacional, sin perjuicio claro está que en caso de conocerlo utilice sus propios conocimientos idiomáticos”.

El fallo también puntualizó que la solución de la controversia no podía variar “por el argumento referido a que los profesionales del estudio jurídico contrario dominan la lengua inglesa, pues como se dijo, el proceso debe ser comprendido por el Juez y no debe perderse de vista que tampoco sus colaboradores tienen obligación de trabajar con documentos en idioma extranjero”.

Por todas esas razones, el pedido de imponer a la demandada la carga de traducir los documentos tampoco prosperó, “desde que la decisión no se sustenta en su pedido sino la estricta aplicación del Código Ritual”.

La Cámara también justificó el criterio de grado, de extender el plazo de contestación de la demanda, toda vez que “el art. 342 Cprr. establece la facultad del Magistrado de fijar el plazo ‘atendiendo a las distancias y a la mayor o menor facilidad de las comunicaciones’” lo que torna razonable el plazo establecido por el Juez de primera instancia, considerando que Holanda se encuentra a más de 11.000 kilómetros de esta sede”.

“No se soslaya la invocación de que existe una oficina de la accionada en esta Ciudad, sin embargo ello no es suficiente en tanto no ha sido acreditado que la totalidad de los documentos o constancias para contestar la demanda se encuentren en Buenos Aires. Ello obsta a considerar su existencia como elemento de reducción del cuestionado plazo”, concluyó el fallo.
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A. Grezka Aude, M. Leclère, M. Temmar (dir.). Les Sciences du langage en Europe

A. Grezka Aude, M. Leclère, M. Temmar (dir.). Les Sciences du langage en Europe 
 
Information publiée le 22 décembre 2014 par Marc Escola(source : Aude Grezka)

Les Sciences du langage en Europe. Actes du colloque 2011 de l'Association des Sciences du langage

Ouvrage collectif

Parution : Janvier 2014
Nombre de pages : 210 pages
Format : 13,5 x 21,5 cm
ISBN : 978-2-35935-096-8

Présentation de l'éditeur :

Après s’être intéressée aux rapports de la linguistique avec la société en 2003, avec les sciences de l’homme en 2005, avec les demandes sociales en 2007, avec les nouvelles technologies en 2009, l’Association des Sciences du Langage a souhaité, pour l’édition 2011 de son colloque biennal, élargir géographiquement la réflexion en invitant des chercheurs d’autres pays d’Europe. Ce recueil rend ainsi compte, en douze articles et en langue française, de travaux portant sur le français, l’allemand, le grec, le tchèque, le roumain et le finnois, centrés sur la grammaire, l’analyse de discours, les rapports entre langue et culture et le multilinguisme. L’ouvrage permet au lecteur de prendre connaissance de ce qui se fait ailleurs en matière de recherche et d’enseignement universitaires dans le domaine des sciences du langage, en relation ou non avec ce qui se fait en France.

 

Responsable(s) scientifique(s) : Grezka AudeLeclère MaloryTemmar Malika 
Institution(s) : Ouvrage publié avec le concours de la DGLFLF
Introduction : Aude Grezka, Malory Leclère et Malika Temmar
Contributeurs : Anastassiadis-Syméonidis AnnaBaqué LorraineBlanco Xavier,Erfurt JürgenGrezka AudeHärmä JuhaniJansen SilkeKalmbach Jean-Michel,Leclère MaloryMaingueneau DominiqueMunteanu Siserman Mihaela,Raynaud SavinaRosier LaurenceSrpovà MilenaTemmar Malikavon Münchow Patricia

 

TABLE DES MATIÈRES

 

Présentation

Aude Grezka, Malory Leclère et Malika Temmar

 

1. L’Analyse du discours et l’espace européen. Quelques réflexions

Dominique Maingueneau

 

2. Un objet bipolaire, des épistémologies imbriquées. Langues et langage face aux techniques, aux arts, aux sciences, à la philosophie

Savina Raynaud

 

3. Les linguistiques contrastives en France et en république tchèque : de la comparaison synchronique des langues à la pragmatique interculturelle

Milena Srpovà

 

4. L’impossible manuélisation de l’AD

Laurence Rosier

 

5. L’analyse du discours contrastive : comparer des cultures discursives

Patricia von Münchow

 

6. Tendances actuelles dans la recherche en linguistique roumaine

Mihaela Munteanu Siserman

 

7. Grec moderne et français : des relations linguistiques toujours vivantes

Anna Anastassiadis-Syméonidis

 

8. Les recherches sur le français en Scandinavie, en particulier en Finlande

Juhani Härmä

 

9. Le français dans l’espace francophone – la francophonie au-delà du français : regards sur la professionnalisation et l’institutionnalisation de la recherche

Jürgen Erfurt

 

10. Grammaire du français et contextualisation : l’exemple de l’enseignement du français en Finlande

Jean-Michel Kalmbach

 

11. De l’Europe plurilingue à la didactique du plurilinguisme. Le discours des institutions européennes et l’« eurocompréhension »

Silke Jansen

 

12. Le master Ticom (Traitement de l’information et communication multilingue) : une expérience en TAL et en gestion du plurilinguisme à l’UAB

Lorraine Baqué et Xavier Blanco

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communiqué de presse - Orléans accueille la 7ème agence A4 Traduction, premier réseau français d'agences multilingues franchisées

communiqué de presse - Orléans accueille la 7ème agence A4 Traduction, premier réseau français d'agences multilingues franchisées | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Orléans accueille la 7ème agence A4 Traduction, premier réseau français d'agences multilingues franchisées
Dirigée par Hervé Delmond, ancien éditeur touristique à Orléans, A4 Traduction Orléans vient d'ouvrir ses portes. Septième agence du réseau A4 Traduction après celles de Rouen, Lyon, Toulon, Marseille, Nice et Grenoble, l’agence d’Orléans couvre toute la région Centre et rejoint le premier réseau français de franchise de traduction et d’interprétariat.
 
 

 

Fondée en 2002 par Hugues Mantoux, A4 Traduction est membre de la CNET (Chambre Nationale des Entreprises de Traduction). Agence multilingue, elle possède 12 années d’expérience et s'appuie sur un réseau mondial de traducteurs.

Basant son développement sur une présence locale, les nouvelles technologies et un site internet efficace www.a4traduction.com, le réseau d’agences propose à une clientèle de professionnels et de particuliers un service sur mesure, rapide, de qualité et à un coût raisonnable.

La traduction est un secteur d'activité amenée à se développer avec l’internationalisation des échanges commerciaux et le développement européen. Une récente étude du cabinet Common Sense Advisory, qui mène depuis plusieurs années une enquête trimestrielle sur la santé du secteur de la traduction, vient à nouveau de confirmer cette tendance.

Le site web de l’agence d’Orléans est déjà en ligne et attend les professionnels comme les particuliers pour un véritable service de qualité sur mesure.


Plus d'informations : https://www.a4traduction.com/agence-traduction-orleans
 
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Language translation software market set to explode with Microsoft technology enabling Skype Translate

Language translation software market set to explode with Microsoft technology enabling Skype Translate | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Language translation software market set to explode with Microsoft technology enabling Skype Translate

Industry Sector

Information Technology
Published

22 December 2014

Author

Emma Le Marchand

Type of News

Market

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Microsoft has developed advanced voice recognition software that has helped produce Skype Translate, a Skype add-on that will enable the face-to-face interaction of those who speak different languages. The technology is set to revolutionise the language translation software market.

Skype Translate takes spoken words, converts them into text, translates the text, and then synthesises it into spoken words in the language of the person on the other end of the call. The voice recognition component - being able to recognise speech and convert it into coherent text - has long been the trickiest component of language translation, but Microsoft has developed this technology, enabling Skype Translate's oral language translation software. A select group of Skype beta testers now have access to the new Microsoft technology which has been developed in Microsoft's research and development laboratories since 2009, when a presentation by University of Toronoto's professor, Geoff Hinton, presented his work at a mini-symposium on technology at Whistler, British Colombia. Hinton had developed a machine learning model that mimicked the neurons in the human brain, gradually building a deeper understanding of things such as English speech. Microsoft took over funding of his work, calling for further tests on speech recognition accuracy, working quietly whilst competitors announced advances in their own technology: in 2012, Google announced it had used deep neural networks to identify cat videos on YouTube, which led to Android boosting their voice recognition software. Microsoft has used some of their translation technology to power their Bing Translate search engine and to jump start foreign language translation of their products, manuals and support documents, but, by collaborating with Skype, they have enabled internet-calling software that will transcend language barriers.

The globalisation of business and commerce has produced greater demand for language translation software as businesses have a growing need to communicate with customers, officials, employees, and partners in foreign markets. The rising popularity of the internet for accessing and exchanging data is also causing significant growth in the language translation software market, with online translation services and localised websites witnessing a growth in demands, especially in non-English speaking regions such as Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Innovative processes, technologies, applications, and usage of sophisticated products are other factors driving the growth of the market.

The United States represents the largest regional market globally, with their increasing population diversity and the need for businesses to develop their global offerings are major factors attributed to the rise in translation services in the country. The Asia-Pacific region is forecast to show the fastest growth in the next five years at 14.9% CAGR, driven by the rapid resurgence of foreign owned businesses in the developing region, the lucrative customer base with rising income levels, and the existence of several non-English languages.

The global language translation software market is expected to reach US$ 71 billion by 2020. Microsoft's new software in Skype Translate, is set to support development and accelerate competition.

Get acquainted with language translation software in the latest market research: Language Translation Software Market

 

Follow us on Twitter @CandMResearch
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Is Skype Translator ready for 'primo tiempo?'

Is Skype Translator ready for 'primo tiempo?' | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Skype Translator may be the biggest advancement in real-time language translation since the babelfish on “Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.”

The app, currently in a limited trial for Windows 8.1 and for English and Spanish speakers only, listens to what you say on a Skype video or audio call and then translates immediately. It can also translate the text you type during a Skype instant messaging chat. The chat works for over 40 languages beyond Spanish including German, French, Arabic and even Klingon.

Recently, I had a chance to test out the preview release by calling a Spanish-speaking person on the Microsoft team named Ignacio Perez Lozano, who lives in Spain. A calm and collected millennial, he was game to let me try a few tougher words and local idioms.

The technology that makes this happen involves a third-party: a robot. When you place a call, a translation engine serves as an interpreter. It literally joins the call and processes what you say.

According to Vikram Dendi from Microsoft Research, the back-end processing comes from many lessons the tech giant (that now owns Skype) has learned about natural language processing over the past 15 years. For now, they only offer Spanish and English, but will expand soon.

“This approach allows for a better user experience, as we will not release languages until they meet a certain standard of accuracy, including input from our internal users and partners,” he told me. “We’ll be listening to feedback to determine what platforms are most important to customers, which languages they want to use, and how they plan to use Skype Translator.”

The big surprise here is that Skype Translator really does work almost instantly. As I spoke, the robot sometimes started translating mid-sentence. Only in a few cases did my words not translate quite accurately. I asked about the weather in Spain -- turns out, it is sunny and mild right now -- and asked a few easy questions about working in a foreign country.

In a few cases, I tried to find out if the translation could understand colloquialisms and slang, and if it could keep up with a few well-placed words most people would not understand.

I first said "I just lap-tested a Bugatti in Miami and it was sick." My helper in Spain could see the real-time text of the translation in both Spanish and English, and he understands both languages so he knew I meant I had driven on a track and that I felt the car was amazing (not broken or at the shop). However, the exact translation used the word "enfermo," which means ill.

Next, I tried saying words like "egregious:" and "serendipitously," which are not part of everyday vocabulary. Egregious means "unusually terrible" and translated correctly by both voice and instant message. Serendipitously means "out of the blue" and the word did not translate quite right (it said “serendipitous Lee”) and Lozano didn’t know the meaning in Spanish.

Since I'm from Minnesota, I also tried the ultimate test. I mentioned something about going to a potluck on Sunday. Skype Translator used the English word, but Lozano didn’t know it. That said, even people fluent in English from other countries have a hard time with local idioms. And, when I explained it meant everyone brings a meal to share, he understood easily.

Skype Translator works fast, it's reliable, and it understood even unusual and complex multi-syllable words. The main takeaway is that a computer is more than capable of translating what we say. It has a hard time relaying what we mean in every context. For that, Microsoft researchers might need to teach it more than just the words but the context of what we are really trying to say. It would sure help with any globe-spanning misunderstandings.
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Teach yourself ... five phrases in an endangered language - video

Teach yourself ... five phrases in an endangered language - video | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
With less than 50 people who understand Ume Sami, the last speakers are now experimenting with an app to document their language
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Type More Than 100 Words Per Minute With the New NinType Keyboard for iOS

Type More Than 100 Words Per Minute With the New NinType Keyboard for iOS | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Third-party keyboards like Swype and Fleksy promise to make typing on iPhones and iPads faster with features like predictive text and swiping, but new third-party keyboard NinType goes even further, combining taps, swipes, and shortcuts to allow users to type more than 100 words per minute.

Created by app developer Yose Widjaja, NinType's magic comes from its ability to support two-handed swipe-based gestures for spelling out words. Using two thumbs, it's possible to use a combination of taps and swipes to write words and insert punctuation quickly.



The NinType typing experience is significantly different from the standard iOS typing experience, so it does take some time to adjust to the two-handed swipe and tap input. Users are advised to use the keyboard as a standard keyboard to begin with, inserting swipe-based words gradually to adjust to the difference.

NinType has a built-in game-like tutorial that's designed to walk users through all of the app's features, and it is deeply customizable with a top bar that can be arranged to a user's liking, different visual effects, extensive shortcut options, and settings for nearly every aspect of the keyboard. There are a number of handy gestures in NinType, including a swipe on the spacebar to move the cursor, a swipe on the backspace key to quickly delete words, edge slides for inserting punctuation, and flick to autocomplete. NinType does not require users to enable full access.

MacRumors went hands-on with the NinType keyboard to show off how it works and to highlight some key features like themes and the ability to easily insert emoji. NinType also includes features like a built-in calculator, support for multiple languages, a tool for counting words typed per minute, and a "word transformer" mode for stylizing the words that you type.



Like most iOS 8 keyboards, NinType occasionally experiences some hiccups that cause it to fail to show up at times, but this appears to be more of an issue with iOS than with NinType itself. Aside from that, we ran into a few crashing problems during our time testing the keyboard, but the developer has been hard at work pushing updates and resolving any lingering issues.

NinType is available for both the iPhone and the iPad and can be downloaded from the App Store for $4.99. [Direct Link]
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Innovation Excellence | Finding a Better Word for Innovation

Innovation Excellence | Finding a Better Word for Innovation | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Remember when the word “paradigm” was killed in the dot-com era? How about “synergy” “edgy” or the prefix “e-” – these expressions all died from the same disease: overuse.

Now, the word “innovation” has been uttered so many times that it has lost its breath, meaning, and resonance.

A quick glance at death by burnout: there were 33,528 mentions of “innovation” in quarterly and annual reports last year alone; 255 new books published in the last ninety days had “innovation” in the title.

According to a recent Capgemini study, four in 10 executives claim a chief innovation officer. Yet the findings show a dark side. Most of the executives interviewed claim that the role is “for appearances” and that there is not a clear strategy for their innovation efforts.

A consulting industry now exists to aid innovation efforts, with project costs ranging from $30,000 to $1 million.

Even business schools try to squeeze life out of the tired phrase – 28 percent of them note “innovation” in their mission statements alone.

In plain language, the word “innovation” has been hijacked by the unimaginative, the posers, and the lemmings of the business community.

While scholars split hairs about the various types of innovations, the mere fact that they are arguing the topic means it’s dead.

Leading companies define the market. They define the market by following a process that recreates market expectations, creating a leadership position. Meaning gets created by the language used to describe this naturally occurring process with companies who strive to grow.

Then, the problem starts. All the followers use the language of the few leaders, because they lack the will to create in the first place. It’s sickening, really. Language creates meaning and expectations – and the world of business understands this basic human truth less than most other fields.

Readers, can we make a deal? Can we create a movement? Can we redefine “innovation?” It used to be such a strong word, but has been watered down to the point of meaninglessness.

What is the thrust behind this word, anyway?

Where I work, we define it as Strategic Growth. Yet, other concepts could always fill the void.

How about Value Generation? Is that what is at stake?

Invention? Or is this too imbued with overtones of mystical pseudo science?

Smart Business? Planning? Market foresight? Trend creation?

Help. Innovation has died from exhaustion, overuse, and misuse. Innovation, as a label, has died.

Business continues. Welcome to the creative process. Lead. Name it yourself.

Long live ______.
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Why 'culture' is an appropriate word of the year

Why 'culture' is an appropriate word of the year | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
If our language is a reflection of our lives, 2014 has been the year of culture.
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News - Arts Faculty signs translation studies agreement...

News - Arts Faculty signs translation studies agreement... | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences recently signed a cooperation agreement, primarily aimed at the PhD programme in Translation (translation, interpreting, editing), with the Faculty of Arts of the Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven) on the latter's Antwerp campus in Belgium. This agreement not only provides for exchange opportunities, but also the future conferment of a joint PhD degree by Stellenbosch University (SU) and KU Leuven.

The agreement was signed on 13 November by representatives of both universities, as well as Prof Luc van Doorslaer, the director of CETRA (the Centre for Translation Studies) at Leuven.

"For some time now, our faculty, and particularly our department, has been collaborating at an individual level with the former Lessius Hogeschool in Antwerp, which now forms part of KU Leuven. Prof Luc van Doorslaer, for instance, has been a research fellow in our department since 2013. Following the signing of this agreement, Van Doorslaer will specifically assist in supervising PhD candidates in Translation in our department," explains Prof Ilse Feinauer, Vice-Dean: Languages and the coordinator of programmes in Translation in the Department of Afrikaans and Dutch.

The agreement, Feinauer says, entails researcher exchange (particularly doctoral and postdoctoral students, but academics also), research initiatives and projects, as well as future joint PhDs.

"This will enable us to offer our PhD and postdoctoral candidates joint PhD supervision in translation, interpreting and editing," she adds.

Feinauer says the groundwork for the agreement was laid by Prof Rufus Gouws, who spent part of his research leave at KU Leuven in 2014. Here, Gouws liaised with the dean of arts on Antwerp campus, Prof Frieda Steurs, and held further talks to facilitate the agreement.

"What further enabled the agreement was the signing of a preferred partner agreement between Leuven and SU in May 2014. That agreement has certainly helped facilitate the signing of this accord between our two faculties."

According to Feinauer, CETRA hosts an annual summer school in translation studies, which SU's PhD students would now also be able to access more easily, while Leuven students would be able to visit Stellenbosch to conduct their research here.

"For Leuven, this agreement not only presents an opportunity for us to learn from them, but also for them to learn from us, particularly about translation and interpreting in Africa and South Africa, but more specifically about multilingualism. They are also unfamiliar with our concept of educational interpreting, and one of our PhD students will hopefully be the first to conduct research on this topic as part of the joint degree programme."

"We have a strong postgraduate programme in Translation, and the fact that they have chosen to enter into an agreement with us at that level confirms that Leuven understands the significance of the research conducted here, which I believe is a feather in our cap," says Feinauer.

Photo 1: Johan Hatting and Luk Draye. (Photo supplied.)

Photo 2: The signing of the agreement between the Faculties of Arts of Stellenbosch University and KU Leuven. Pictured from the left are Profs Ilse Feinauer, Vice-Dean: Languages in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences and coordinator of programmes in Translation in the Department of Afrikaans and Dutch, SU; Johan Hattingh, Dean: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences; Rufus Gouws, coordinator of Lexicography programmes in the Department of Afrikaans and Dutch, SU; Bart van den Bossche, Vice-Dean: Internationalisation, KU Leuven; Frieda Steurs, Dean: Arts of Antwerp campus, KU Leuven; Luk Draye, Dean: Arts, KU Leuven; Luc van Doorslaer, Vice-Dean: Research of Antwerp campus and CETRA director, KU Leuven. (Photo supplied.)
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Translating The Year In Tech | Multichannel

Translating The Year In Tech | Multichannel | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
After thumbing through every 2014 issue of this magazine, five tech trends rose to the top:
 
(1) We’re now squarely in the middle of the transition to “all-IP” (Internet Protocol), as the umbrella technology-enabling clouddelivered services, bandwidth (wired and wireless), connected devices, TV everywhere and all else in the technological vogue. It began with the cable modem, in the late ’90s. Nobody really knows when the “all” part of “all-IP” will happen — but “not in my lifetime” is a seldom-heard response.
 
(2) This year, the term “OTT” — over-the-top — became less of a categorical description of Netflix, Amazon and the rest of the new ilk of video competition, and more of a common technological ingredient, used by all. In short, with every step toward cloud, operators are “overthe- topping themselves.”
 
(3) The recognition that “the competition” now extends beyond satellite and telco-delivered services, to the OTT camp, brought with it a new “tech culture” reality. Vendors, operators and programmers alike spent a sizeable chunk of 2014 retooling to work at “Web speed,” which means adopting agile software and “DevOps” strategies.
 
(4) RDK, the Reference Design Kit, rose in strategic importance this year, big-time. Evidence: In October, Liberty Global CEO Mike Fries famously called RDK “a DOCSIS moment,” referencing the cable-modem specification that changed the economics of what became the broadband industry.
 
(5) “Speed vs. capacity” will sustain as one of the more important tech subtleties. It’s the “Gig” that can gum things up: Gigahertz is a unit of capacity, Gigabyte a unit of storage, and Gigabit a measure of speed. But! Throughput, or, the amount of stuff we’re moving to and from our various screens, is just as important. Knowing the distinctions matters.
 
That’s the short list! Merry merry, and may your 2015 technologies be kind and useful. Stumped by gibberish?
 
Visit Leslie Ellis at translation-please.com or multichannel.com/blogs.
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La Francophonie "ne peut être vertueuse comme espace économique'' (économistes)

La Francophonie "ne peut être vertueuse comme espace économique'' (économistes) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it


SENEGAL-MONDE-ECONOMIE-PERSPECTIVES

La Francophonie "ne peut être vertueuse comme espace économique'' (économistes)

 2014-12-22 13:50:15 GMT

Dakar, 22 déc (APS) - Le monde francophone ne peut être "vertueux" comme espace économique, malgré l’importance du rôle que l'Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) peut être amenée à jouer dans le développement économique de l'Afrique, estiment des économistes, dont le Sénégalais Chérif Salif Sy, dans une tribune publiée dans le dernier numéro de l’hebdomadaire Jeune Afrique.

Ces économistes affirment que "seule l'addition simpliste de pays où l'essentiel des populations ne parle en réalité pas le français mais d'autres langues, africaines ou non, conduit à créer l'illusion d'un espace économique commun qui représenterait 6 à 8% de l’économie mondiale".

"Quelques équations économétriques visent ensuite à affirmer que ce serait un espace vertueux. Il n'en sera rien", soutiennent les auteurs de cette tribune. Outre M. Sy, ancien conseiller technique d'Abdoulaye Wade, le ministre togolais de la Prospective et de l'Evaluation des politiques publiques, Kako Nubukpo, et l'économiste français Jean-Joseph Boillot sont signataires de la tribune.

L’Afrique "ne peut en fait se développer qu’en s’industrialisant, et elle doit, pour cela, protéger ses industries naissantes, y compris sur le plan monétaire", écrivent-ils en citant l'économiste turc de l'Université Harvard (États-Unis d'Amérique), Dani Rodrick.

Le continent africain "doit ensuite transformer, de façon prioritaire, ses régions parfois morcelées en marchés intégrés qui regroupent des voisins géographiques proches en termes de niveau de développement, exactement comme l'a fait l'Union européenne après la guerre", ajoutent-ils.

"On comprend bien par exemple qu'une Afrique de l'Ouest sans le Nigeria et le Ghana n'a aucun sens sur le plan économique. Et que prôner le libre-échange entre des pays dits francophones industrialisés et des pays riches en matières premières mais aux agricultures fragiles et à l'industrie inexistante ne peut que prolonger le sous-développement selon toutes les théories économiques connues", font valoir les auteurs du texte.

"Pour la France elle-même, estiment les trois économistes, construire un espace économique francophone n’est pas bon", l'avenir de l'appareil productif français se jouant en Europe, "aussi difficile que soit le bras de fer avec ses voisins".

Dans ces conditions, affirment-ils, "à la France d'œuvrer pour convaincre que l’avenir de l'Europe se joue en effet en Afrique, mais pas dans la politique du chacun pour soi, qui prédomine aujourd'hui si l'on en juge par les politiques africaines de l'Allemagne, du Royaume-Uni, et donc de la France".

Les signataires de la tribune notent toutefois que l'OIF "peut jouer un rôle extrêmement utile dans le développement économique de l'Afrique, dès lors qu'elle cible deux des problèmes majeurs du continent, qui font déjà partie de ses objectifs : la gouvernance et le développement humain".

BK/ESF

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Nancy Napier: How languages can change your life | Nancy Napier | Idahostatesman.com

Nancy Napier: How languages can change your life | Nancy Napier | Idahostatesman.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Languages may be a secret weapon
In this era of discussion about whether learning multiple languages is a good thing, I say who cares about the words and phrases? Perhaps learning another language is more about finding a way to bash fears of all kinds, not just to sound smart.

We adopted our older son from Thailand, when he was five years old. Fully formed, chattering away in Thai, this boy had never stepped on snow, worn closed toe shoes, or heard English, let alone German, which we spoke at home at the time.

We had no way to communicate with each other until about two months later when he looked out of the car, into the sky, and said, “Flugzeug.” Airplane.

From there he studied Spanish in school and when I worked in Belgium, he learned Flemish (Dutch) on the playground. He and his brother spoke Flemish, even after we returned to Boise. Finally, our sons spent a semester with me in Hanoi, Vietnam. They went to the international school where every child had to study Vietnamese or French. He chose French. In fact, the first day of school when he told me he’d be learning it, he said, “no problem. I speak five languages already.” (by his count: Thai, German, English, Spanish and Flemish). The reality was that he’d been exposed to those languages but spoke only English and German well. Still, his lack of fear said much about his willingness to make mistakes.

No matter how much or little of a language he learned, he had no fear of trying a new one, or of doing many other things later in life that were also hard.

Yes, there are studies that suggest people who speak more than one language may be more creative. Yes, according to some researchers, learning languages may delay symptoms of diseases like Alzheimer’s. And yes, learning a language can help you create relationships, which are important for business when you work around the world.

But for me, one of the biggest reasons to learn another language is its relentless demand of a good work ethic and a way to look fear head on and not let it win.

When I’m with my German friends and they say, “how do you say it in YOUR German?” I could get defensive and quit talking or I could find my work-around, and stay in the conversation, no matter what the topic. They forgive me, I forgive myself, and I have a chance to learn more and nurture those friendships. I have to step up, make mistakes, get frustrated when I fail to get my message across and then realize it’s part of the learning process.

So, if you want to encourage creativity and discourage fear of mistakes, tell yourself and your colleagues it’s time to learn a new language. Talk about encountering fear and resistance!

Or as the Germans might say, “Lass die Angst sein!” Let that fear go.
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Parlons Francophonie - Par Cheikh Bamba Dièye

Parlons Francophonie - Par Cheikh Bamba Dièye | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Après le succès tant organisationnel que populaire du XVième sommet de la Francophonie, il est peut-être temps de s’arrêter pour réfléchir sans œillères sur la francophonie et ce sommet qui a tenu en haleine le pays pendant une dizaine de jours. Quelles sont les retombées du sommet ? N’est-il pas...
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Traduire la sonorité dans l'œuvre proustienne / Translating Sounds in Prous

Traduire la sonorité dans l'œuvre proustienne / Translating Sounds in Proust
Information publiée le 22 décembre 2014 par Marc Escola (source : Naomi Toth)
Du 25 juin 2015 au 26 juin 2006
Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre

Traduire la sonorité dans l’œuvre proustienne

Colloque international —  25-26 juin 2015 — Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre

(English version below)

Pour Proust, la traduction est intrinsèque à la création littéraire et sa conception rythmique et musicale du langage littéraire en fait une langue elle-même étrangère. Que se passe-t-il alors en traduisant Proust, et, plus particulièrement, qu’est ce que la pratique de la traduction révèle de la pensée du rapport entre son et langage, entre phonè et écriture, qui y est à l’œuvre ? Réunissant critiques littéraires et traducteurs de l’œuvre proustienne, ce colloque prendra appui sur les traductions de langue anglaise d’À la recherche du temps perdu afin d’explorer à de nouveaux frais le rôle perturbateur que joue la sonorité en tant qu’élément qui fait vaciller les distinctions entre l’« original » et l’écho qui en est la traduction, entre le texte de « départ » et d’« arrivée », entre silence, bruit, musique et langage, et, enfin, entre expérience, représentation et mémoire.

 

Translating Sounds in Proust

International Conference — 25-26 June 2015 — Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre, France

Translation is inherent to Proust’s idea of literary creation, and his work develops a rhythmical, musical conception of literary language as foreign in and of itself. What then happens when Proust’s work is itself translated, and, more specifically, how does the practice of translation shed light on his understanding of the relationship between sound and language, between phonè and writing? Bringing together critics and translators, this conference draws on the English-language translations of Proust’s work in order to explore the way sound plays out in his work, disrupting the lines that separate the “original” or source text from its echo in translation. This, in turn, interrogates the distinctions in his work between silence, noise, music and language, and between experience, representation and memory.

 

PROGRAMME PROVISOIRE/ DRAFT PROGRAMME

 

Jeudi 25 juin, après-midi / Thursday 25th June, afternoon

 

Françoise Asso (Université de Lille III) : La Traduction chez Proust (titre provisoire)

Margaret Gray (Indiana University, Bloomington) : Voices Off: Translating the Sounds of Silence in Proust

Daniel Karlin (Bristol University) : Translating "les cris de Paris" in Proust's La Prisonnière

 

Vendredi 26 juin (matin et après-midi/ Friday 26th June (morning and afternoon)

Vincent Ferré (Université de Paris Est Créteil) : Titre à confirmer / Title to be confirmed

Lydia Davis (traductrice, Du côté de chez Swann, Penguin 2002 ; écrivain) : Hammers and Hoofbeats

James Grieve (traducteur, A l’ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs, Penguin, 2002, Visiting Fellow, Australian National University) : Voix proustiennes à l’anglaise. L’Idiolecte des personnages de la Recherche en traduction.

Lydia Davis, James Grieve : Table ronde des traducteurs / Translators’ round table

 

Colloque organisé par le groupe de recherche Confluences du CREA (Centre de recherches anglophones) dans le cadre du séminaire Sounds Foreign, avec le soutien de l'UFR LCE et de l'Ecole Doctorale Langues, Lettres et Spectacles de l’Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre

 

APPEL À ARTICLES / CALL FOR ARTICLES

Une publication bilingue est prévue à l’issue du colloque. En plus des contributions des participants, nous accueillons des propositions d’article sur cette question. Un résumé peut être envoyé à Emily Eells dès maintenant (emily.eells@u-paris10.fr)

Papers will appear in a bilingual publication following the conference. Please note that we welcome submissions of additional articles on this question for inclusion in the final volume.  Abstracts should be sent to Emily Eells (emily.eells@u-paris10.fr).

 

INSCRIPTION/REGISTRATION

Inscription gratuite et obligatoire auprès d’Emily Eells and Naomi Toth (emily.eells@u-paris10.frntoth@u-paris10.fr)

There is no fee for attending the conference, however participants should register beforehand by sending an email to Emily Eells and Naomi Toth (emily.eells@u-paris10.frntoth@u-paris10.fr)

ADRESSEUniversité de Paris Ouest Nanterre
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Local stand-up comic wins Toastmasters award for humorous speech : Hammond Community News

Local stand-up comic wins Toastmasters award for humorous speech : Hammond Community News | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Local stand-up comic wins Toastmasters award for humorous speech
Print Email
17 hours ago  •  Marlene A. Zloza marlene.zloza@nwi.com, (219) 662-5340

Jeannie Rapstad recently received a District 11 Toasrmasters International award in the annual Humorous Speech Contest.

Enlarge Photo
Jeannie Rapstad makes people laugh. And she's so good at it, she got an award.

Imagine the jokes she's writing about that.

Rapstad, a professional stand-up comedienne from Hammond, recently earned first-place in the annual Humorous Speech Contest hosted by Toastmasters International District 11, which encompasses local clubs in Indiana and northern Kentucky.

"It was really great to win," said Rapstad, who recently returned from a performance tour that took her to Wyoming and California with her show "Comedy Sketches."

"There were some good speakers and good writers (in the contest) that were so, so funny."  Rapstad advanced to the District 11 contest held at the fall conference in Syracuse, Ind. after winning at the club, area and division levels.

A member of Toastmasters since 2011, formerly in Billings, Mont. and now with the Great Communicators of Northwest Indiana chapter, Rapstad enjoys trying out new material at meetings held at 6:30 p.m. the first, third and fifth Tuesdays of each month at the Lake County Public Library, Room C, 1919 W. U.s. 30, Merrillville.

"I try to make one speech every month or six weeks," said Rapstad, who writes a humorous speech, rehearses and edits it before presenting it to the Toastmasters group for an evaluation by her audience.

"I want to keep writing and developing my act," added Rapstad, whose act includes characters Seventies Suzanne, Chef Charlotte and Nurse Killqwik, as well as her own persona.

A former patent paralegal in Chicago, she retired last year from that serious profession to "get serious" about her public speaking career, and now travels the U.S. performing at clubs like The Comedy Store and The Improvisation in Los Angeles, as well as at conventions and business conferences.

Her biggest fan, however, her mother, Mary Burkenstock, who is waiting at home in Hammond when Rapstad returns from her travels.
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This beer tells you how much to drink to boost your creativity

This beer tells you how much to drink to boost your creativity | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
When you've been stuck on a problem or that creative spark just won't come, the chances are you've turned to a cup of coffee to get things moving. A quic
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Review: A charming cast anchors the dark 'Into the Woods'

Review: A charming cast anchors the dark 'Into the Woods' | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
This is one Disney film that's definitely not a light fairy tale.
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Translation Journal Issue 4

Issue 4

Introduction
Presentation
I am very pleased to announce that politics is the theme of translation’s first special issue. The guest editors Sandro Mezzadra and Naoki Sakai Sakai, to whom I express my deep gratefulness for producing such excellent work, have thoughtfully assembled it. They have succeeded in responding to all the goals I have set for such a special issue: to create a space of reflection and debate with and among scholars representing different disciplines; to inaugurate transdisciplinary discourse and take a step toward what we have called posttranslation studies; to unite different voices and approaches under one unitary theme; and to create an issue that constitutes a point of reference for future thinking and research on one specific theme.
As Mezzadra and Sakai write in their introduction to this issue, “the ‘politics of translation’ has emerged as a fundamental topic, even for the more technical debates within translation studies, while the concept of translation itself has been politicized and used as a theoretical tool in discussions of nationality, citizenship, multiculturalism, and globalization.” Translation, they continue, is “a process, political par excellence, which creates social relations and establishes new modes of discrimination.” This issue serves as an excellent example of the various ways in which translation and politics are necessarily intertwined, or rather, of how translation is always political.
I am fascinated to see how Sakai’s concept of heterolingual address emerges as a thread connecting all the essays present in this issue, a thread that takes us beyond a traditional communication model of translation to an approach that assumes heterogeneity to be inherent in every medium, thereby illustrating the endlessness of translation.
The articles collected by Mezzadra and Sakai are followed by my interview with Vicente Rafael, a conversation which focuses on yet other aspects of the politicality of translation. The interview is already available on the journal’s website http://translation.fusp.it/interviews, and I am grateful to Rafael for his kind permission to print an edited version of our talk.
I am sure you will all join me in my appreciation of the stimulating thought behind the concerns developed by the authors of this issue.
Before I give the word to Mezzadra and Sakai, let me thank Bob Hodgson, a member of translation’s board as well as one of its founders and active promoters, who is retiring. On behalf of the journal’s board, its contributors, and readers, I thank Bob for his precious work and support during these formative years.
S.N.

Introduction
Over the last decades the encounter with cultural and postcolonial studies has deeply influenced the development of translation studies.&sup1. The study of the conditions of translation, and more radically of what Antonio Gramsci would call “translatability,” has led to an emphasis on the issue of power and deep asymmetries between languages, and social and “cultural” groups. The “politics of translation” has emerged as a fundamental topic, even for the more technical debates within translation studies, while the concept of translation itself has been politicized and used as a theoretical tool in discussions of nationality, citizenship, multiculturalism, and globalization.

The relations between translation, violence, and war, to give just one example, have been productively at play in these theoretical developments (cf. Apter 2006; Rafael 2012). Translation can be productive or destructive, by inscribing, erasing or redrawing borders; it is a process, political par excellence, which creates social relations and establishes new modes of discrimination. Far from being conceived of as the “other” of violence, translation has emerged as a deeply ambivalent concept and practice. Put simply, translation always cuts both ways: at once a mechanism of domination and liberation, clarification and obfuscation, commerce and exploitation, opening up to the “other” and appropriation. Translation, to further explicate its constitutive relation with the concept and institute of the border, produces both bridges and walls (see Mezzadra & Neilson 2013). To insist on this requires, however, some critical remarks on the ways in which translation has been traditionally conceived of. This will clear the way for a better understanding of the stakes of current discussions surrounding the politics of translation and the politicization of the concept of translation.

1. Translation beyond communication
Often, translation has been apprehended within an implicit framework of the communication model. Just as a verbal interaction between individuals is typically and schematically construed according to the model of communication in which a message supposedly travels from a speaker’s consciousness to a listener’s consciousness, the action of translation is represented in a similar schema of communication in which a message is transferred from one language to another. Whereas the verbal communication occurs between two individual minds through the common medium of the same language, presumably translation is distinct from verbal communication in general precisely because the common medium is absent in the case of translation. Instead, two languages are involved in translation so that a message cannot be deciphered in terms of a common code. It is expected that translation takes place where, due to language difference, there is no immediate comprehension. In this view of translation as a communication, the trope of border works powerfully to make and determine a particular incident of social and political transaction as translation. From the outset, whenever translation takes place, a border between one language and another is given as a gap or distance that separates one group of people from another and differentiates one language from another. Let us call this particular image or representation of translation according to the model of communication “the modern regime of translation.” But, the status of discontinuity or incommensurability that prompts translation is far from self-evident in this representation of translation between the preestablished unities of languages. Accordingly, we are led to further investigate the workings of the communication model in our understanding of translation.

We are thus skeptical of the model of communication that underlies the view of translation readily accepted in some translation studies today. First of all, as the tropes of war, battle, or violence capture some aspects of translation very well, translation cannot be simply regarded as an act of overcoming a gap or of bridging a distance between languages. Neither can it be merely an operation of diplomacy and conciliation between national polities, distinct ethnic groups, religious communities, or political orders. The relation between translation and borders is again crucial here. There is a need to repeat that translation can inscribe, erase, and distort borders; it may well give rise to a border where there has been none before; it may well multiply a border into many registers; it may erase some borders and institute new ones. Similar to the maneuver of occupation at war, translation deterritorializes and reterritorializes languages and probable sites of discommunication. It shows most persuasively the unstable, transformative, and political nature of border, of the differentiation of the inside from the outside, and of the multiplicity of belonging and nonbelonging

In short, a border is not something already accomplished, something engraved in stone, so to say, but in constant motion and metamorphosis. It is rather in the register of action than of substance, rather a verb than a noun. It is a poietic act of inscribing continuity at the singular point of discontinuity. Viewed from the peculiar angle of this constitutive relation with processes of bordering, new and in a way unexpected political implications of translation come to light.

2. Modernity in translation
The role of translation in the epistemic structure of modern colonialism and the formation of the modern state and national sovereignty, as well as in the operations of global capitalism, has therefore been underscored by several scholars, while often the same scholars have emphasized the need to rework the concept and practice of translation as a cornerstone of a new politics of liberation. The very unity of the concept and practice of translation has consequently been challenged and productively exploded. This is the very site where, as Gavin Walker insists, the politicality of translation ought to be explored. What we called above “the modern regime of translation” has been contested, and it has been acknowledged that different, even antagonistic, regimes of translation were prevalent in previous eras and in many regions in the world. What must be investigated is a specific structure of homolingual address that characterizes “the modern regime of translation”(see Sakai 1997).² The different regimes may also be “homolingual,” but the modern regime of translation institutes a particular and strict economy of homogeneity and heterogeneity through translational transactions. It is important to note that the “identities” we take for granted in the world today—ethnic, national, cultural, and civilizational identities—are premised upon “homolingual” addresses in the modern regime of translation.

Some genealogical remarks are needed here. What must be emphasized with respect to the formation of the modern state and nationality is the particular role played by the modern regime of translation by means of which the unities of national languages were projected and manufactured. The so-called modern era, which witnessed the emergence of national languages—German, French, English, and so forth in Western Europe, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in Northeastern Asia, and many others in other parts of the world—is fundamentally different from previous eras in the identification of language³

In the eras prior to the one we understand as modernity, there was no political entity—empire, kingdom, city–state—whose subject population was monolingually unified. In the premodern eras, there were only multilingual societies, where belonging to a polity was never equated to the possession of an ability to speak a single language. Of course, the multiplicity of languages did not mean an egalitarian recognition of different languages. Language use was always associated with social rank, so that different languages were hierarchically ordered and regarded as markers of the social station an individual speaker or interlocutor occupied, but in the eras of premodernity it was impossible to find the legitimacy of government based on an official monolingualism or of a nativist heritage by which the identity of the individual was determined in the last instance by whether or not he or she was a native speaker of the official language. The very idea of the native speaker, which plays the decisive role in the identity politics of national recognition in modern cultural politics, was invented in the transitional phases from the premodern eras to the modern era.

It is evident that what is crucial in this diagnosis of modernity and its politics of language is a presumption that language is countable—that is, that language is some being in the world which
can be subsumed under the grammatical category of the countable.&sup4 Here the countability consists in separating one language from another (externality) on the one hand, and juxtaposing these separated units within a common genre (commensurability) on the other. The transition from the premodern eras to the modern era seems to have given rise to two essential conditions to render the monolingualism of national language available. To separate one language from another is to locate a language outside another and thereby establish an externality of one language to another.&sup5 Of course, this process of separation is generally called “translation,” which is again a process of inscribing a border. As one can see, the externality of one language and another is necessarily accompanied by a certain practice of “bordering” (Mezzadra & Neilson 2013).

The language unit thus separated, however, is not unique beyond comparison in each case—language A is separated from language B, and language B is separated from language C. Despite different operations of separation, the languages thus isolated—A, B, C, D, and so on—form one common genre; they are commensurate among themselves so that, from the outset, they are posited as comparable units in the common genre. In this respect, translation is also a procedure of comparison. To use the terminology of Aristotelian logic, each language is a species in the general class of languages, with the separation of one language from another, marking the instance of “species difference or specific difference (diaphora)”; this thus accommodates languages within the classical conceptual economy of species and genus. It goes without saying that the operation that measures this “species difference” is nothing but a historically specific form of translation, and this particular regime of translation conforms to the design of the modern international world. Translation may be carried out in many different forms, but modernity does not allow for forms of translation that do not accord with the modern international world. Let us call this particular assemblage of the methods, criteria, and protocols regulating the conduct of translation, as distinct from other forms, “the modern regime of translation.” 

It is important to note that the explication of modernity offered here is not descriptive of the empirically valid reality of the modern international world. It is essentially prescriptive. The regime of translation is said to project and produce the supposed unity of a national language, the externality of one language to another, and the idea of the international space in which ethnic and national languages supposedly coexist and are compared. The operation of national translation, of translation conducted in terms of the modern regime of translation, asserts and institutes these components— the unity of a national language, the external relationship of one language to another, and the presupposition of the international space—not on a descriptive but a prescriptive basis.

What this theoretical elucidation reveals is the prescriptive design of the international world. The unity of a national language, for example, is not an empirically ascertainable objectivity; rather it is what Immanuel Kant called “the regulative idea,” which does not concern itself with the possibility of experience. It is no more than a rule according to which a search in the series of empirical data is prescribed. What it guarantees is not the empirically verifiable truth. Therefore, the regulative idea gives only an object in idea; it only means “a schema for which no object, not even a hypothetical one, is directly given” (Immanuel Kant 550 [A 670; B 698]). Therefore, what takes place performatively in accordance with the modern regime of translation might also be called “the schematism of cofiguration.” Schematism means a working of schema, so, in this case, it represents a working of two schemata projecting two different language unities between which a message is transferred.

The unity of language cannot be given in experience because it is nothing but a regulative idea; it enables us to comprehend other related data about languages “in an indirect manner, in their systematic unity, by means of their relation to this idea” (Kant 550 [A 670; B 698]). It is not possible to know whether a particular language as a unity exists or not. The reverse is true: by subscribing to the idea of the unity of language, it becomes possible for us to systematically organize knowledge about languages in a modern, scientific manner. And the occasion on which the schemata of national languages are projected is the process of translation, prescribed by the protocols of the modern regime of translation.

3. Bordering the international world
In this respect, the regime of translation, which helped to institute national languages and sustain the view of the international world as a forum for a juxtaposition of distinct ethnic or national languages, is distinctly modern. In the premodern eras, as we contended above, the population was not unified through the common language imposed by the state; rather it was fragmented into many different kinship lineages, classes, ranks, and regions. Until the eighteenth century in Western Europe and until the nineteenth century in East and South Asia, Eastern and Northern Europe, and Russia, there hardly existed the idea of integrating the entire population under the norm of one ethnic or national language. Consequently some universal languages—Latin, Classical Chinese, Arabic, Sanskrit, Classical Greek, and so forth—prevailed across regions, kingdoms, fiefdoms, and various graduated zones of power and suzerainty. The elite minority was skilled at one of these universal languages while the vast majority of commoners lived in a multiplicity of local dialects and pidgins. 

Two points must be noted with regard to the modernity of the international world. The first is the historical particularity of the concept of nationality. The word “nationality” signifies the relationship between an individual and a territorial national sovereign state. However, it is important to note that this relationship is mediated by the “nation.” The institution of a territorial state sovereignty came into existence in the system of the Jus Publicum Europaeum in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the process of its “nationalization” took off quite later even in Western Europe.&sup6 As the relationship between an individual and a territorial national sovereign state, the concept of “nationality” means a formula of identification according to which a particular individual subjects him or herself to the sovereignty of the state. It is a specifically modern form of communal belonging for an individual and, to our knowledge, was not to be found anywhere in the world before the eighteenth century. Nationality connotes an individual’s exclusive belonging to the state, but this feeling of belonging is primarily expressed in one’s sympathy with other individuals belonging to the same state. And this community of shared sympathy is called a “nation.” Even when the word is used in the sense of ethnicity or race, it necessarily implies an exclusivity of belonging. The concept of nationality is erected upon the assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between an individual and a nation, and indirectly between an individual and a state sovereignty.
The second point that must be stressed is how the unity of language is appropriated into the assumption of one-to-one correspondence between an individual and a particular state sovereignty.
It is through the concept of the native speaker that one-to-one correspondence between an individual and a particular nation is most unambiguously expressed. With the native speaker, the possession of a language is equated to the innate identity of the individual’s destiny. It is a truism that a language is something one acquires after birth, but against all counterevidence, the concept of the native speaker reconstitutes an individual’s belonging to the nation in terms of his or her innate and almost biological heritage. This is how the concept of nationality is most often asserted in ethnic terms, and the ethnic identity of an individual is recognized in reference to his or her native language.

In the new international configuration of modernity, there is no room for universal languages that transcend nationalities and ethnicities. It is no accident that all the universal languages—except perhaps for Arabic—gradually declined as national languages were established to symbolize the cultural homogeneity of the national community (while at the same time, due to colonialism, some languages were spread across continents, gaining a status that was nevertheless completely different from previous universal languages). Regardless of whether or not a language is actually spoken by the vast majority of the nation in the territory of the national state, the national language is held as a norm with its use as a prescriptive marker of nationality. The institution of national language thereby acquired an incredible force of command with which to nationalize the population. For a long time, however, as if to reiterate ultranationalist mythology, it has been assumed that national language is a transhistorical entity and can be traced back to the ancient origin of the nation. But as soon as the historical vicissitudes of national or ethnic languages are in question, one can no longer evade a series of problems — how the modern national language came into being in the first place, how a language could be conceived of as an internally coherent entity distinguished from other languages in an analogy to the territorial integrity of the modern territorial state, and ultimately in what modality the national language can be understood to be a unity unambiguously distinguished from other national languages. Once again we must go back to translation, a process of border—or bordering, to use the terminology of Mezzadra and Neilson once again—in which a distinction is inscribed and reinscribed between a language and another, a quite violent process of negotiation in which two figures of a language to translate from and another language to translate into (schemata of cofiguration) are projected to regulate the conduct of translation. Let us note that the distinction of one language from another is primordially figured out in this process of translation, without reference to which the very externality of one language to another could not be established.

4. Citizenship and translation
By staging an encounter between scholars who work on the politics of translation and those involved in the politicization of the concept of translation, this special issue of Translation attempts to take stock of the theoretical developments and achievements in the field. At the same time, it aims to lay the basis for future conversations and new directions of research. It needs to be repeated that the politicization of the concept of translation in recent years has run parallel to the discovery of its deep ambivalence. As Rada Iveković writes in her contribution to this issue, “translation does not guarantee freedom of any kind, and […] it can be as much a politics of conquest, capture, exploration–and–exploitation and colonialism, whether inner or outer.” “But politics of translation,” she adds, “may be invented.” It is in working through this deep ambivalence that some of the main concepts and topics at stake in contemporary political debates can be productively reframed. No doubt, what is unambiguously declared—and this is a guiding motto of this special issue of Translation—is that translation is not a matter confined solely to the domain of linguistics.

Take citizenship, for instance. There have been several attempts to rethink the concept of citizenship through translation in order to open it up and delink it from the national norm. Étienne Balibar comes to mind here, among others. In his contribution to this issue, Balibar dwells very effectively on the opposition as well as the tricky entanglement of the “paradigm of war” and the “paradigm of translation” in the construction of the “other” of the citizen, which means of the “foreigner” and the “stranger.” At stake in his essay is the emergence of the very opposition (of the borders) between “us” and “them” upon which modern citizenship is predicated. While it is rather obvious to think of “war” as the most catastrophic modality of the relation between “us” and “them,” the role of translation as a “transcendental” condition of possibility for the existence of reified political identities can easily pass unnoticed.

The essay by Boris Buden is particularly relevant here. It draws a convincing parallel between the scene of translation and the seminal scene of the “state of nature” in European modern political philosophy. Thinking of an original “state of language,”within which the “first translation” produces the emergence of distinct languages and linguistic communities, works on both sides. On the one hand it sheds light once again on the deep political implications of the very concept and practice of translation—“All Contract,” Thomas Hobbes symptomatically writes in Leviathan (1981, 194), “is mutuall translation, or change of Right.” On the other hand, it opens up a peculiar angle on the development, and even on the technical apparatus, of the modern regime of translation we discussed above (starting with the important instance of the German Romantic tradition, emphasized by Buden). Simply put, this regime of translation does not merely reinforce the distinctiveness of national languages upon which the bordering of citizenship is predicated. Rather, it contributes to their production—as well as to the production of the “other” of citizenship. 

A whole set of questions arises here—ranging from debates on multiculturalism (as well as on its multiple current crises) to the contemporary transformations of border and migration “management” regimes. When considering such issues, it is clear that the role of translation cannot be confined to the one we have just highlighted. It is clear, in other words, that here and now, not in somer emote future utopia, “vernacular” practices of translation are working the boundary between “distinct” and reified linguistic communities, building platforms that enable the daily crossing of fortified borders and are fostering new experiences of identity and “otherness.” 8 It is definitely possible and productive to envisage a kind of clash between the ordered regime of translation staged by borders and the translational practices connected to the production of subjectivity, which meshes with migration as a social movement. What Naoki Sakai has called “heterolingual” address nicely captures these subversive aspects of practices of translation, which point to the emergence of a “multitude of foreigners” (Sakai–Solomon 2006). “There is no absolute translation,” Rada Iveković writes in her contribution. This impossibility (notwithstanding the many attempts to deny it) opens up a wide and heterogeneous field of social conflict and political experimentation.

While what we can call “homolingual citizenship” oscillates between the extreme of war and a benevolent “integration” within an already constituted and bordered assemblage in dealing with the “other,” the heterolingual practices of translation outside the modern regime of translation disrupt this very polarity and keep open both the space of citizenship and the production of subjectivity that inhabit it. This is the reason why a particularly important task today is an exploration of spaces of citizenship below and beyond the nation–state—from cities to regions.9 As far as the production of subjectivity is concerned, the relevance of translation in the forging of the modern Western subject has often been highlighted in recent years. Both Rada Iveković and Jon Solomon refer to it in their contributions to this issue. It is therefore crucial to insist on the fact that to point to an opposition and a conflict between radically different regimes of translation is to open up a field of investigation where the very constitution of the subject, itself crisscrossed by lines of antagonism, is always at stake.

While it is rooted, as we stressed above, within concrete practices of translation, our use of the “heterolingual” address here also works more broadly, shedding light on practices and dynamics well beyond the translational and even linguistic field. The concept of the institution itself deserves to be reassessed from this angle; it must open up towards the imagination of a continuous labor of translation between its stabilizing function and the multifarious social practices that the institution targets and that at the same time make its existence possible.

5. Translating capital
As Brett Neilson’s contribution to this issue demonstrates in particular, one of the multifarious ways in which the concept of translation has been politicized in recent years lies in its use as a tool for the critique of political economy, or, in other words, for critical understanding of the operations of contemporary (global) capital. In highlighting the growing relevance of “machine translation” in our time, Neilson focuses on two crucial aspects of these operations: so-called “knowledge management,” and logistics. More generally, Neilson is keen to register “the link between translation and the production of value,” referring to the parallel drawn by Marx in the Grundrisse “between translation and the role of money in facilitating circulation and making possible the universal exchange of commodities.” This is a crucially important point discussed by several scholars in recent years. By placing the problem of translation within the “political economy of the sign,” several years ago Lydia Liu, for instance, mapped some intriguing connections “between the exchange of commodity and that of the sign in Marx” (Liu 2000, 23; see also Spivak 1985, 83).

The crucial point here, as both Neilson and Liu recognize, is the commensurability and equivalence—between languages, systems of signs, and values of commodities. From this point of view, it becomes possible to use what was previously discussed as the “homolingual” address to critically grasp the modalities with which capital translates the heterogeneous contexts, ways of human activity and life, modalities of labor it encounters in its “development” into the homogeneous language of value (Mezzadra 2010). How does capitalism repeatedly sanction this specific regime of translation, according to which it is an act whereby to establish an equivalence between different languages on the one hand, and a linguistic difference represented as a gap to be bridged by translation on the other? The international space of commensurability on the one hand and the externality of one language to another on the other? How is the formula of equivalence prepared in the modern international world as a space of commensurability? We think these questions are becoming increasingly urgent today.

One of the ways in which they emerge, as Neilson shows, is the challenge of achieving “interoperability” between systems in the governance of supply chains through logistical protocols. Another way in which it surfaces is, as Gavin Walker succinctly observes in his contribution to this volume, the refusal of the political in translation, of the potentiality in translation of contestation, by the “flattening of the uneven and hazardous practice of translation” into simplistic forms of commensurability. Thus, the question of equivalence brings us back to the topic of the politics in and of translation. “To insist on the historical,” Walker argues, “is also an insistence on the instability of this two [of the contrasting figures in the regime of translation], an emphasis on the point that this two is in no way a coherent or natural arrangement but rather itself a historical product of the encounter of translation.” What Gavin Walker uncovers in this politics of translation is exactly what Marx called the historically practical character of relation “in which the very terms of its relation itself is subject to a fluid motion, a flux of radical singularity.”

6. Framing the world
There is a need to emphasize this link between capital and translation within the more general discussion that surrounds the multiple roles played by translation in the historical and conceptual constitution of modernity. In particular, it is looking at the global scope that has characterized it since its inception, which means looking at colonialism and imperialism as constitutive aspects of modernity, that it “cannot be considered unless in reference to translation” (Sakai 2000, 797). In his contribution to this issue, Jon Solomon proposes to critically consider “the various forms of social domination and exploitation that have accompanied modernity ”from the triple perspective of capitalist accumulation (which produces “the subjects of political economy”), translational accumulation (which produces “the subjects of civilizational and anthropological difference”), and erudite accumulation (which produces “normalized bodies of knowledge”). Needless to say, what counts more is the interweaving between these three regimes of accumulation. Translation, in particular, is deeply implicated in capitalist accumulation, as just mentioned, and apparently it has prominent roles to play in the production of “normalized bodies of knowledge” through what Solomon calls “erudite accumulation.”

The combination of these three angles allows light to be shed on the constitution of “the West” through the encounter with its multiple “others”; this necessarily required multiple exercises in translation, linguistic as well as conceptual. Both the spatial partitions that organized the global geography of modernity (from the “global lines” described by Carl Schmitt in The Nomos of the Earth to the “areas” of area studies) and the cognitive partitions, upon which modern knowledge and rationality are predicated, bear the traces of these translational exercises. While it is still necessary to investigate these traces and the reproduction of “Eurocentrism” in the present, there is also a need to carefully analyze current global developments and trends in order to grasp elements of continuity and discontinuity.

7. Translation, universalism, and the common
Among other things, the financial crisis of 2007–2008 has exposed the shattering of old spatial hierarchies, the reshuffling of geographies of development, and the emergence of new regionalisms and patterns of multilateralism that are among the most important tendencies of contemporary capitalist globalization. For the first time since the beginning of “modernity,” the hegemony of “the West” within the world system appears unstable and challenged. Constructed as “particular” and “ubiquitous” at the same time through the “homolingual address” (Sakai 1997, 154–155), “the West” can definitely reproduce itself, even in a situation in which Western hegemony destabilizes. But again, it is urgent to map the practices of translation emerging in the current geographical turmoil that point to different frames of encounter, transnational and transcontinental entanglement. In her contribution to this issue, Lydia Liu’s reconstruction of the development of “Afro-Asian” writers’ solidarity after the 1955 Bandung conference is especially important from the point of view of the construction of the historical archives of such practices in the past. A new theory and practice of translation can help us to imagine new spatial and political constellations that emerge out of the current spatial turmoil, and also test and challenge the stability of the “international world,” and the Eurocentricity upon which the internationality of the modern world was initially erected.

Considering the prominent role played by translation both in the production of national languages and in the “regulation” of the intercourses between them, it is not surprising that the modern regime of translation, as we insisted above, was also pivotal to the shaping of the modern world as an international world, i.e. as a world organized around the (legal and political) norm of the “nationality.” The Chinese translation of Henry Wheaton’s Elements of International Law (1836) by the American missionary W. A. P. Martin and his Mandarin collaborators, published in 1864, is a good case in point, and Lydia Liu discusses it in her essay (see also Liu 2006, chapter 4). Wang Hui also shows very effectively in his recent The Politics of Imagining Asia (2011, 233–242) the ways in which this particular translation traveled very quickly to Japan and became an important tool for the disruption of the “tribute system” that prevailed in the region of today’s East Asia, particularly along China’s borders.

The Japanese elite was already aware before the Meiji Restoration that the tribute system was incompatible with the international world. The Japanese takeover of the Ryukyu archipelago, with the establishment of the Okinawa prefecture in 1879, and the occupations of Taiwan and Korea are part and parcel of the process through which the national norm and the aesthetics of nationality— with its imperial implications—were imposed on the population of the regions. The “translation” of Western international law prompted this process, legitimizing it “on the basis of a new kind of knowledge and new rules of legitimacy” (Wang 2011, 241). It is important not to overlook that in the process of modernization, while the Japanese state effectively undermined the tribute system in East Asia and subsequently appropriated Okinawa, Taiwan, and Korea externally on the international stage, the Japanese national language was formed internally or domestically. It goes without saying that the Japanese national language was invented through the regime of translation (Sakai 1991).

New borders were drawn in this process, both on maps and in minds. The role of translation in law deserves careful study both in past history (think for instance of the Japanese adoption of the French and, later, German model of civil law, and the British model of commercial law in the late nineteenth century through translation10) and in the present (think for instance of the global transfer of the American standard of “rule of law”11). In her contribution to this issue, Lydia Liu points to a rather different instance with her analysis of the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). In reconstructing the multilingual making of that historical document, Liu shows how the contribution of a multiplicity of languages, as well as the translations, clashes, and even misunderstandings between them, potentially opened the Declaration to “the radical multiplicity and translingual plurality of the philosophies and cultures of the world, first in its moment of genesis and then in subsequent translations.” It is necessary to keep in mind, as Liu herself does, that this moment of “openness” was foreclosed by the hegemony of the United States of America, which largely monopolized the interpretations and uses of the document. Nevertheless the multiple temporalities and the dense fabric of cultural and political encounters hidden behind the text of the Declaration point to a conflict between different regimes of translation which deserves further investigation.

It is important to remember in this regard that African American leaders like W. E. B. Du Bois played an important role in the process that led to the constitution of the UN and to the drafting of the Declaration (see Anderson 2003). More generally, Du Bois (as well as the late Malcolm X) interpreted “human rights” in a particularly radical way. One of the earliest African American political texts, David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (1830), may be quoted here in order to highlight the background of this peculiar interpretation. “There is a great work for you to do,” Walker wrote to his “coloured” fellows, “as trifling as some of you may think of it. You have to prove to the Americans and the world, that we are MEN, and not brutes, as we have been represented, and by millions treated” (Walker 2003, 32). Put simply, it was this experience of a “failed recognition,” this violent negation of humanity, common to colonized and enslaved peoples (men and women, of course), that allowed Du Bois to see in the claim for human rights something more than a merely juridical or political device. The “human” itself could not be taken for granted; rather, it was something to be (re)constructed as a fundamental “ontological” stake in politics.

Once we consider it from this standpoint, Lydia Liu’s discussion of the roles played by translation in the multilingual making of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights acquires new, and more general, meanings. It effectively points to the potentialities of the very concept of translation in the contemporary discussions surrounding the topics of universalism, universality, and the common. In brief, we think there is a need to even go beyond the notion of alternative and competing universalisms, which risks ending up reproducing the familiar picture of “equivalent” (universal) languages, with translation playing the role of arbitrator and mediator among them, thereby restoring the modern regime of translation for national translation rather than undermining it. The point is, instead, to insist that the universal itself (as the example of the “human” in the African American experience shows) has to be produced, and to focus on the necessary roles of translation in this aleatory process of production. These roles cannot but be profoundly ambivalent, and this ambivalence (discussed in this introduction from the point of view provided by the distinction between “homolingual” and “heterolingual” addresses) shapes universalism as such. Keeping universalism open (open in translation to multiplicity and heterogeneity) means keeping it accessible to the common process of its production, as a basis for the invention of new processes of liberation. It is here that the “hazardous and contingent possibility of the common,” to quote once more from Gavin Walker’s contribution to this issue of translation, emerges as a fragile but necessary key to the collective invention of “a new mode of life desperately needed in the global present.”

The Regime of Translation and the Figure of Politics
by Gavin Walker

Translation and national sovereignty. The fragility and bias of theory
by Rada Ivekovic

At the Borders of Europe From Cosmopolitanism to Cosmopolitics
by Étienne Balibar

Beyond the Regime of Fidelity
by Boris Buden

Knowledge on the Move Between Logistics and Translation
by Brett Neilson

The Eventfulness of Translation Temporality, Difference, and Competing Universals
by Lydia H. Liu

The Postimperial Etiquette and the Affective Structure of Areas
by Jon Solomon

translation speaks to Vicente L. Rafael
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No hate but looking for justice - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan

No hate but looking for justice - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
December 1, 2014 - Booker T. Washington said; “Everybody on earth should have answers to the following questions; who am I ? Where is the world am I ? How I get here? Where am I going?"

I was on usual intellectual debate with some of fellow Sudanese journalists on facebook discussing the current Sudanese issue of mass rapes in Tabit in region of Darfur. I wrote; " the rapes in Darfur are encouraged by provocative speech of President Omer Albashir himself; who said that if Darfurian woman is raped by his Arab tribe Al-Jaali, she (Darfurian woman) should feel proud, because she has been raped by the best race in Sudan". Then I added that if you think that you are a superior race came to purify Africans whether with your religion, color or culture your Arab race is not needed in Africa let alone Sudan.

The brother and sister who were much Arabized and reached the limits of their minds; which I think are full of porridge and they wrote; " why do you hate and talk ill about Arabs and they are the one who brought you from jungles, educated you; civilized you and brought you in the light?".

I was not surprised because, this is what I and they were taught at Sudanese schools and they responded with what they were told. The so called current history of Sudan which is written by the invaders is not a history but his story about indigenous people of Sudan. They wrote it on their own perspectives. For example they taught us in schools that all kingdoms in Sudan were found by Arabs who entered to Africa through Sinai in Ancient Kemet or Ethiopia of today Egypt in 636 AD; and then arrived to Sudan as traders in 652AD according to the authentic records. Meanwhile the records on Pyramid text in Sudan predated Ahraham or Ephrahim or Ibrahim, Moses or Moshee more than 25 southlands of years. Even the step Pyramid of Sakara built by the King named Nerma or Aha is older than Adam and Eve who according to the writings of the three religions have only, 6000 years on earth, the Christian said they have 4300 years, whereby the step Pyramid of Sakara goes back to at least 2o,000 years which means that our grandfather Pharaoh Aha is older than Adam and Eve. The chronology of the rulers of Egypt and Sudan since 25,000 years up to 1981 when Husni Mubarak took over Egypt is in records. Everything is well recorded; nothing is lost but only confusion was created meant to erase our African memory by hiding the records. Therefore; all African enemies show only the Dark side of African history that is connected with slavery only. They will never mention African rule of Spain for 700 years, they never mention that Africa civilized Europe three times and is well documented by the Greeks who civilized Europe after Africans educated them. Alexander the Greek Son of Philippe of Macedonia, who turned to be called Alexander the "great" bears witness that after his invasions to Thebes he brought later Greek Philosophers to study there and he translated all Egyptian books in to their own language. Read Black Athena by Dr. Martin Bernal and destruction of black civilization by Chancellor Williams.

I was reading the translated ancient Ethiopian or Nubia (today Egypt and Sudan) the book of the dead or the book of coming forth by day and night; and I came across seven principles of MAAT, which in fact are about 20, 000 years old or more. In that book there are set of values that were necessary for black people of the Nile to construct their lives in their own image.

These translated set of principles are seven: TRUTH, JUSTICE, RIGHTOUSNESS, ORDER, BALANCE, HARMONEY AND RECIPROCITY. In addition there were 10 virtues of MAAT that reads; CONTROL OF THOUGHT, CONTROL OF ACTION, DEVOTION OF PURPOSE, HAVING FAITH IN THE ABILITY OF MY TEACHER TO TEACH ME THE TRUTH, HAVING FAITH IN MYSELF TO ASSIMILATE THE TRUTH, HAVING FAITH IN MY SELF TO WIELD THE TRUTH, BEING FREE FROM RESENTMENT UNDER THE EXPERIENCE OF PERSECUTION, BEING FREE FROM RESENTMENT UNDER THE EXPERIENCE OF WRONG, CULTIVATING THE ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN RIGHT AND WRONG AND CULTIVATING THE ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN REAL AND UNREAL.

These set of principles were enough to make us as the inheritors of the Blackman of the River Nile to love more than to hate others. Black people are the fathers and mothers of humanity and the humanity started in Africa. Not only that; but we the people of the Nile; were the first to write on earth the symbolic language called heliography, whereby Ethiopian language alphabets other languages were derived from.

The UNESCO and many scholars; approved with evidences that the people of the Nile and Africans in generals are the first to have scripts; we have coffin text, pyramids text, Ta Seiti script found in Kustul Northern Sudan, the first medical text by Queen Hatshubsut, the first mathematical papyrus ( the paper; we were the first to write on paper, not the Chinese) is African; its 1500 years old before Christ, its documented by Edmond Smith, we have Merowitic script that is 200 pages which is not broken the code yet and the youngest we have is Mandingo script.

The first person to write in Europe was the Greek man by the name of Homer in 833 BCE; at that time our African heritage reached to it zenith and declined. According to Greeks mythologies, all Greek Gods including Zeus and Apollo came from Ethiopia and also most of its philosophers if not all, studied in Africa in Ancient Ethiopia today Egypt whom Homer himself described them as burned skins or black as coal. People of today Sudan Ta Nehisi and Egypt Ta Merry were like people of North Korea and former two Germanys the same black ethnic group.

Nevertheless; the end of Arab Ignorance era as describe in Islam, was at the beginning of 650 AD, which was yesterday; and at that time all Pyramids were built by our African ancestors from the Nile, whereby they used mathematics, geometry and astrology. The step Pyramid was estimated to have been built in 4100 BCE, let alone the recent discovery of Ta Seiti in Kustul by the Americans in North Sudan which is 3000 years older than the 72 Pyramids in Egypt.

I say the ignorant can’t educate the civilized person; if how people are civilized is measured by means of concrete or hard evidences! We have 350 Pyramids in Sudan or Nubia which both means black, and we have 72 Pyramids in Egypt or ancient Ethiopia; built by our black ancestors, before Ibrahim, Moses ( Moses was Sudanese born in 1346 BCE in a city called Goshen in Northern Sudan, his ten commandments were copied from Egyptian book of the dead or also called the book of coming forth by day and night; these ten commandments 42 negative confessions Moses copied the above ten and left 32).

At UNICCO conference in 1974 in Cairo; the two African scholars Proff. Cheik Anta Diop from Senegal and Proff. Theodore Obenga from Congo presented linguistics, archeological and biological and anthropological evidences, whereby they defeated 42 two global scholars brought by UNESCO; the Egyptian cultural Minister at that time named Abdul Mukhtar was shocked and jumped and said even if the mummies tested black they were white; as the same case today with white Egyptian Egyptologists who say; the mummies are black because they smeared mud on their skins; whereby they ignored melanin and DNA findings just to satisfy their ego.

Proff. Diop of Carbon Lab in Dakar tested the mummified bodies and he found the density of the Melanin in mummies in derma and epee-derma recorded %99; which means the pharaohs were jet black. Some may wonder how come all Pharaohs were color black? the answer would be even if they were few colored among them, they were indigenous African people; because black and black can produce any color but white and white can’t produce a black color; in biologically the dominant genes can produce recessive genes, "the albino children everywhere in Africa" ; but recessive or weak genes can’t produce the dominant genes; also having mixed pharaohs in middle kingdom would also be true since the foreigners continued invading Kemet Ethiopia or Egypt and continuously repelled by the indigenous populations.

Hence we hated no body and still hate no one as indigenous Sudanese; but we hate those arrogant behaviors and venomous attacks on us and our African heritage in Sudan whether through educational system, media or other ways around.

I remember an interview on Egyptian TV with Egyptian actress named Lila Alawi; when she was asked that there were rumors; that she was going to marry famous black Egyptian football player at that time, a Nubian brother named Ahmed Al Kass; she replied " how can I marry a crow". The same arrogant behaviors are repeated today by so called Sudanese Arabs towards indigenous population of Sudan like using a word slave (Abb) for black skin people.

Therefore; the knowledge about Sudanese indigenous or Nubians or Pharaoh or Cushitic or Ethiopian people; call them whatever you want; is politicized and vast to be spoken back for southlands of years of its making. The colonization of any group starts with colonization of information about them; or it’s called the erasing of our African memories, until we reached to the stage that we thought we had no even a history to the extent that some deemed we are half humans.

I would close up with the words of my master teacher Dr. Ivan Van Sertima who said; " The major history is never truly lost, the history is only lost when we lose it. If we allowed ourselves to forget it then its truly lost. Nothing is lost that is contained consciously, even that is drawn; that we have forgotten it and we thought it’s lost; we found out that the scattered world of Africa could be collected together again".
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'Anti-corruption' word of the year - Global Times

'Anti-corruption' word of the year - Global Times | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
"Law" and "anti-corruption" have been chosen as the Character and Word of the Year 2014, respectively, according to a survey released on Friday.

The winning Chinese character and word were chosen from a pool of more than 7,000 recommended by Internet users over the last month, according to a survey conducted by the Chinese National Language Monitoring and Research Center and the Commercial Press.

This is the first time in the Character and Word of the Year's nine-year history that the public have been able to recommend and vote for the winners. In the past, the final decision was in the hands of experts.

The selection panel, which included media and linguistic experts, also chose "missing" and "Malaysia Airlines" as the international Chinese character and word of the year.
Also released Friday were "catchword of the year", "new word of the year" and "Internet slang of the year", which were selected based on research by the research center.

Last year's character and word were "House" and "positive energy". Past winners have included "dream", "smog", and "tuhao", a disparaging term for rich people with poor taste.
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