Metaglossia: The ...
Follow
Find
181.9K views | +283 today
 
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
onto Metaglossia: The Translation World
Scoop.it!

Rochester police agree to translate more

Rochester police agree to translate more | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Under the agreement, the department says it will improve officer access to interpretation and translation services for victims, witnesses, and subjects of investigations.
more...
No comment yet.
Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
Curated by Charles Tiayon
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Ask Emily: What if you can’t translate your coverage notices?

Ask Emily: What if you can’t translate your coverage notices? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Covered California has taken a lot of heat for its communication — or lack thereof — to consumers who don’t speak or understand English well.

To its credit, the agency has improved in the past year, especially in its Spanish-language enrollment-related materials. Unfortunately, the news isn’t so great when it comes to important notices sent after enrollment.

Consumers complain they can’t understand some of the letters they receive about their insurance, whether from Covered California, Medi-Cal (the state’s Medicaid program) or directly from their health plans.

The stakes are high. Covered California, for instance, recently contacted nearly 100,000 families to inform them they have until the end of September to submit documents verifying their immigration status. If they don’t comply, they risk losing their coverage. But it’s not always that clear ...

Q: I received a letter about my health insurance that I don’t understand because it’s not in my language. What should I do?

A: Qiuhua Wu, an energetic and athletic Chinese immigrant, owns USA International WuShu Kung Fu Academy in Sacramento.

Wu speaks Mandarin Chinese and a little English. She enrolled in a Covered California plan through Anthem Blue Cross but didn’t pay her premiums for several months, thinking auto-pay had her covered. It didn’t.

She received several warning letters from Anthem — but all in English, so she didn’t understand them. She was able to make out a phone number included in the letters offering language assistance in Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Tagalog.

The person who answered told Wu she could not provide help in Mandarin, so Wu contacted Evette Tsang, the Sacramento insurance agent who first enrolled her. It was too late. Wu’s plan had been canceled, leaving her uninsured until she signs up for a new plan for next year.



Wu certainly bears responsibility for not paying her premiums, but Tsang — who says 95 percent of her clients speak Chinese as their primary language — and others say that critical communications need to be translated. If not, they argue, they should at least include a tagline in other languages that says something like, “Failure to respond may result in the loss of your coverage.”

“It would have made a difference,” says Wu in her native Chinese. “I would have taken more action.”

There’s a spot in the Covered California application that asks consumers in what language they prefer to be contacted. Tsang checks Chinese for most of her clients, but she says, “Our clients still receive letters in English.”

Federal and state laws prohibit discrimination based on language, but they govern Medi-Cal, Covered California and health plans differently.

Not every document is required to be translated, says Claudia Menjivar, an attorney at the Western Center on Law and Poverty who specializes in language access.

Instead, she says, translation is required for “vital documents,” meaning those carrying information that may impact or reduce a person’s benefits. Even then, they are only required in certain languages, based on the demographics of the affected population.

Health plans and government agencies often try to meet this requirement by including telephone numbers for interpretation services, such as the one Wu tried to call. “The result is that people are falling through the cracks and potentially losing their coverage,” Menjivar says.

Menjivar notes the laws govern oral interpretation services as well, actually giving consumers even more rights than for written translations.

Cary Sanders, director of policy analysis for the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network, says key documents routinely aren’t translated. She heard from Covered California, for instance, that upcoming annual renewal notices will only go out in English and Spanish.

But Covered California spokesman Dana Howard says a final decision has not been made on the translation of the renewal forms, noting that while the recent mailings on immigration documents went out in Spanish and English, a follow-up email was sent in English, Spanish, Korean, Chinese and Vietnamese.

“This is a new organization,” Howard says. “We do communicate in both English and Spanish. We are building on the Asian languages. We hope to include all languages as we grow.”

Here are some tips on what to do if you — or someone you know — receives a letter or email about health coverage that isn’t in the recipient’s primary language:

• Don’t ignore it. If a certified insurance agent or enrollment counselor who helped you enroll in your plan speaks your language, ask him or her for translation help.

• Click on the “find help near you” link on Covered California’s homepage to access free resources.

• If you believe a health program that receives federal money (including Covered California and Medi-Cal) engaged in language discrimination, file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services at www.hhs.gov/ocr. In general, the complaint must be filed within 180 days from the time of the alleged discrimination.

• If language-access issues contributed to a loss of or change in benefits, consider filing an appeal with Covered California.

• Call the state Department of Managed Health Care’s Help Center at 888-466-2219 if you believe your plan violated language-access laws.

To see an index of past questions, read Bazar’s column at www.centerforhealthreporting.org
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Covered California has taken a lot of heat for its communication — or lack thereof — to consumers who don’t speak or understand English well.

To its credit, the agency has improved in the past year, especially in its Spanish-language enrollment-related materials. Unfortunately, the news isn’t so great when it comes to important notices sent after enrollment.

Consumers complain they can’t understand some of the letters they receive about their insurance, whether from Covered California, Medi-Cal (the state’s Medicaid program) or directly from their health plans.



The stakes are high. Covered California, for instance, recently contacted nearly 100,000 families to inform them they have until the end of September to submit documents verifying their immigration status. If they don’t comply, they risk losing their coverage. But it’s not always that clear ...

Q: I received a letter about my health insurance that I don’t understand because it’s not in my language. What should I do?

A: Qiuhua Wu, an energetic and athletic Chinese immigrant, owns USA International WuShu Kung Fu Academy in Sacramento.



Wu speaks Mandarin Chinese and a little English. She enrolled in a Covered California plan through Anthem Blue Cross but didn’t pay her premiums for several months, thinking auto-pay had her covered. It didn’t.

She received several warning letters from Anthem — but all in English, so she didn’t understand them. She was able to make out a phone number included in the letters offering language assistance in Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese and Tagalog.

The person who answered told Wu she could not provide help in Mandarin, so Wu contacted Evette Tsang, the Sacramento insurance agent who first enrolled her. It was too late. Wu’s plan had been canceled, leaving her uninsured until she signs up for a new plan for next year.



Wu certainly bears responsibility for not paying her premiums, but Tsang — who says 95 percent of her clients speak Chinese as their primary language — and others say that critical communications need to be translated. If not, they argue, they should at least include a tagline in other languages that says something like, “Failure to respond may result in the loss of your coverage.”

“It would have made a difference,” says Wu in her native Chinese. “I would have taken more action.”

There’s a spot in the Covered California application that asks consumers in what language they prefer to be contacted. Tsang checks Chinese for most of her clients, but she says, “Our clients still receive letters in English.”



Federal and state laws prohibit discrimination based on language, but they govern Medi-Cal, Covered California and health plans differently.

Not every document is required to be translated, says Claudia Menjivar, an attorney at the Western Center on Law and Poverty who specializes in language access.

Instead, she says, translation is required for “vital documents,” meaning those carrying information that may impact or reduce a person’s benefits. Even then, they are only required in certain languages, based on the demographics of the affected population.



Health plans and government agencies often try to meet this requirement by including telephone numbers for interpretation services, such as the one Wu tried to call. “The result is that people are falling through the cracks and potentially losing their coverage,” Menjivar says.

Menjivar notes the laws govern oral interpretation services as well, actually giving consumers even more rights than for written translations.

Cary Sanders, director of policy analysis for the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network, says key documents routinely aren’t translated. She heard from Covered California, for instance, that upcoming annual renewal notices will only go out in English and Spanish.



But Covered California spokesman Dana Howard says a final decision has not been made on the translation of the renewal forms, noting that while the recent mailings on immigration documents went out in Spanish and English, a follow-up email was sent in English, Spanish, Korean, Chinese and Vietnamese.

“This is a new organization,” Howard says. “We do communicate in both English and Spanish. We are building on the Asian languages. We hope to include all languages as we grow.”

Here are some tips on what to do if you — or someone you know — receives a letter or email about health coverage that isn’t in the recipient’s primary language:



• Don’t ignore it. If a certified insurance agent or enrollment counselor who helped you enroll in your plan speaks your language, ask him or her for translation help.

• Click on the “find help near you” link on Covered California’s homepage to access free resources.

• If you believe a health program that receives federal money (including Covered California and Medi-Cal) engaged in language discrimination, file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services at www.hhs.gov/ocr. In general, the complaint must be filed within 180 days from the time of the alleged discrimination.



• If language-access issues contributed to a loss of or change in benefits, consider filing an appeal with Covered California.

• Call the state Department of Managed Health Care’s Help Center at 888-466-2219 if you believe your plan violated language-access laws.

To see an index of past questions, read Bazar’s column at www.centerforhealthreporting.org

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Which translation is best for Bible study?

Which translation is best for Bible study? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

As a pastor I am often asked what translation of the Bible I think is best. The short answer is "the best Bible translation for you to use is the one that makes the most sense to you.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

As a pastor I am often asked what translation of the Bible I think is best. The short answer is "the best Bible translation for you to use is the one that makes the most sense to you."

But how do you find the right one? Begin by recognizing they are all translations. The Bible was originally written in Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic—so unless you are reading it in one of these languages, you are reading a translation. God did not send down the King James Red Letter Authorized Edition and say, "This is the best one"--though certainly some kings and churches have tried to say so.

Here are a few commonly used translations and what makes them so appealing.

New International Version (NIV): a simple translation of the Bible requiring about an 8th grade reading level. The NIV is available in a vast variety of study Bibles with excellent notes. Two I particularly like are the CS Lewis and Archeology Study Bibles. More popular than these however are the Men & Women's Devotional versions. With so many to choose from it's easy to see why this is the bestselling translation in the United States.

King James Version (KJV): Number two on the best seller list for Bibles the KJV is nevertheless the most read translation according to studies. Appreciated primarily for its poetry and influence upon the English language it requires a 12th grade reading level. According to a Christianity Today poll 55 percent of Christians who read the Bible re

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Intellectual Property News Agency(AG-IP-News) | WIPO Pearl Launched, a Free Multilingual Terminology Database

Intellectual Property News Agency(AG-IP-News) | WIPO Pearl Launched, a Free Multilingual Terminology Database | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
GENEVA - The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) launched a new database providing free access to a wealth of multilingual scientific and technical terminology, a press release by the Corporation stated.

Through its web-based interface, WIPO Pearl promotes accurate and consistent use of terms across different languages, and makes it easier to search and share scientific and technical knowledge.

The database initially includes terms found in applications filed via WIPO’s Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and will eventually include collections from other areas of WIPO, such as trademarks, industrial designs, and terminology found in other treaties administered by WIPO.

The 90,000+ terms and 15,000 concepts in 10 languages have all been entered and validated by WIPO-PCT language experts and terminologists, who have experience working with technical documents in multiple languages. Regular additions to the data are planned.

WIPO Pearl offers powerful search features, including the ability to select source and target languages, search by subject field as well as with abbreviations, and “fuzzy,” “exact” and Boolean search functions.
Users can obtain a quick list of results, which can be expanded, while browsing via “concept maps” that show linkages among related concepts by language and subject field - for example, showing concepts that are broader or narrower in scope than other concepts.

Key features

Ten languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish
Classification of concepts by 29 subject fields
Fully validated content with reliability scores
“Concept maps” that give an innovative graphical display of related concepts by language and subject field
Context provided for all terms
Term labelling (e.g. “recommended”, “standardized” or “avoid”)
Integrated with PATENTSCOPE and CLIR (Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval)  
Users can rate the quality of results
WIPO Pearl can be accessed from the Reference page, along with WIPO’s PATENTSCOPE technology database - which now contains nearly 40 million patent records – and WIPO’s other searchable data collections.
WIPO is the global forum for the promotion of intellectual property (IP) policy, services, information and cooperation. A specialized agency of the United Nations, WIPO assists its 187 member states in developing a balanced international IP legal framework to meet society’s evolving needs. It provides business services for obtaining IP rights in multiple countries and resolving disputes. It delivers capacity-building programs to help developing countries benefit from using IP. And it provides free access to unique knowledge banks of IP information.
Charles Tiayon's insight:
GENEVA - The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) launched a new database providing free access to a wealth of multilingual scientific and technical terminology, a press release by the Corporation stated.

Through its web-based interface, WIPO Pearl promotes accurate and consistent use of terms across different languages, and makes it easier to search and share scientific and technical knowledge.

The database initially includes terms found in applications filed via WIPO’s Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and will eventually include collections from other areas of WIPO, such as trademarks, industrial designs, and terminology found in other treaties administered by WIPO.

The 90,000+ terms and 15,000 concepts in 10 languages have all been entered and validated by WIPO-PCT language experts and terminologists, who have experience working with technical documents in multiple languages. Regular additions to the data are planned.

WIPO Pearl offers powerful search features, including the ability to select source and target languages, search by subject field as well as with abbreviations, and “fuzzy,” “exact” and Boolean search functions.
Users can obtain a quick list of results, which can be expanded, while browsing via “concept maps” that show linkages among related concepts by language and subject field - for example, showing concepts that are broader or narrower in scope than other concepts.

Key features

Ten languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish
Classification of concepts by 29 subject fields
Fully validated content with reliability scores
“Concept maps” that give an innovative graphical display of related concepts by language and subject field
Context provided for all terms
Term labelling (e.g. “recommended”, “standardized” or “avoid”)
Integrated with PATENTSCOPE and CLIR (Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval)  
Users can rate the quality of results
WIPO Pearl can be accessed from the Reference page, along with WIPO’s PATENTSCOPE technology database - which now contains nearly 40 million patent records – and WIPO’s other searchable data collections.
WIPO is the global forum for the promotion of intellectual property (IP) policy, services, information and cooperation. A specialized agency of the United Nations, WIPO assists its 187 member states in developing a balanced international IP legal framework to meet society’s evolving needs. It provides business services for obtaining IP rights in multiple countries and resolving disputes. It delivers capacity-building programs to help developing countries benefit from using IP. And it provides free access to unique knowledge banks of IP information.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

«J’aime prendre le lecteur à rebrousse-poil»

«J’aime prendre le lecteur à rebrousse-poil» | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Depuis six ans Markus Haller édite et traduit de l’anglais des essais du monde entier. Sa maison d’édition, qui porte son nom et est basée à Genève, s’est fait une réputation en terre francophone. Coup de projecteur sur une micro-entreprise qui défie le mercantilisme
Charles Tiayon's insight:

«Editeur genevois? Je me vois plutôt éditeur de la francophonie.» Depuis son tout petit bureau genevois niché au cœur des Eaux-Vives, Markus Haller rayonne; sa maison d’édition, qui porte son nom, vient de publier son vingtième livre à l’occasion de ses six ans d’existence. Sa spécialité? Faire traduire et publier en français des essais de langue anglaise. Une spécialité unique dans l’édition en Suisse romande, et qui souffre de peu de concurrence. «En Allemagne ou en Suisse alémanique, je n’aurais jamais pu monter un tel modèle, car là-bas les essais en anglais sont beaucoup plus vite traduits qu’en France ou en Suisse romande», raconte ce Zurichois d’origine, établi à Genève depuis 1979.

«La France est riche en essayistes et s’intéresse avant tout à sa production, poursuit Markus Haller. Pensez qu’un essayiste majeur comme John Rawls et sa Théorie de la justice a mis dix-sept ans à être traduit! Peut-être les éditeurs français craignent-ils trop souvent de présenter des idées minoritaires dans les universités ou dans les sociétés.»

Vingt livres en six ans, disions-nous: c’est modeste. Mais à y regarder de près, c’est une prouesse. Markus Haller travaille seul, il fait tout, depuis la sélection de livres éligibles jusqu’au service de presse. Seules la traduction et la correction sont déléguées à des spécialistes. Au résultat, des ouvrages impeccables, cousus au fil, à la maquette soignée, pour un contenu de haute tenue intellectuelle. «Au fil des ans, je me suis fait une réputation parmi la petite frange de personnes qui s’intéressent aux essais écrits par des non-Parisiens, sourit-il. J’ai de bons relais à la radio et dans la presse, notamment le magazine Books, qui suit l’actualité à travers les essais anglo-saxons.» Quant à son marché, il est davantage tourné vers la France que la Suisse.

Et qui sont ses auteurs de prédilection? Markus Haller puise dans une vaste communauté d’universitaires de langue anglaise (mais pas forcément anglo-saxons), qui ont le don de vulgariser des thèmes extrêmement pointus pour un public cultivé et curieux des sciences humaines: l’économiste Paul Seabright (La Société des inconnus), l’expert en développement William Easterly (Le Fardeau de l’homme blanc), le philosophe Stuart Hampshire (La Justice est conflit), l’historien Peter Baldwin (Le Narcissisme des petites différences), le psychologue Gerd Gigerenzer (Penser le risque) ou encore le criminologue Diego Gambetta (La Pègre déchiffrée)…

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Criticism and Language Barrier | Life | Daily Sabah

Criticism and Language Barrier | Life | Daily Sabah | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
When you are writing in a language other than your native tongue you are out of your element. No matter how much you know of the non-native language, mistakes will be there. In most cases the amount of mistakes usually depends on your level of knowledge,... | Daily Sabah
Charles Tiayon's insight:

When you are writing in a language other than your native tongue you are out of your element. No matter how much you know of the non-native language, mistakes will be there. In most cases the amount of mistakes usually depends on your level of knowledge, but when your profession is journalism it becomes very important to convey your meaning to the readers flawlessly. Actually, I already wrote about this issue on June , 2014, in a story titled, "A Slope in Journalism: Translation." 

As the ombudsman for Daily Sabah, aside from preparing this page every week and writing about the state of journalism at the paper we also review letters from readers as well as surf Internet platforms to spot possible criticisms about our newspaper and act accordingly. One of the most frequent criticisms I encounter usually concerns our use of the English language in the paper. Many critics have said that news articles published in the Daily Sabah were poorly written, grammatically wrong and used incorrect words. Furthermore, nearly every one of these critics neglected to give examples of the aforementioned flaws and thus we could not take measures to correct the mistakes or inform the authors of their mistakes. 

Last week, a letter with similar content was sent to our Chief Copy Editor Gönül Taban. The correspondence read exactly as such:

"Hello,

I want you to say that, there is something wrong with your newpapers' [sic] language. It is so clear, your authors use google translate or something like this type of dictionary. Cause [sic], sentences are so much 'chicken translate' [sic]. Please solve this huge problem to perfection.

Ece TEZCAN

Hacettepe University"

Our chief copy editor requested some examples from the reader and she provided us with some. We thank Ms. Tezcan for taking the time to provide us with a structured critique. Below are the cited mistakes and Gönül Taban's responses:

ET: Sure, I need to give 'a couple' of examples. But u [sic] can be sure, there are so many mistakes in whole, but i [sic] have no time to correct all. 

1) Sept. 10, 2014, page: 2
[...] Social Circus Festival, organized by the Art Anywhere Association (Her Yerde Sanat Dernegi)..." if somebody wants to explain "her yerde sanat" that always [sic] be "art is everywhere" 

GT: We cannot change the name of an association. This is how the "Her Yerde Sanat Derneği" refers to itself in English on its own official website. Please click on the link to see for yourself:

http://artanywhere.weebly.com/

ET: 2) Same day, page: 3 
"Miners return to work at Soma mine" mine means always elements [sic] not the area or region. Author has to write "Miners back to work at Soma mine region"

GT: A brief Google search will show that even The New York Times (only because you referred to it as a reference) this is not an error and they too have simply written "Soma mine…" in reference to the area.

ET: 3) Same day, page: 10
Author translated ISID (Turkish version) as ISIS. But New York Times translated that organization as ISIL - Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant-.

GT: In our earlier prints we used ISIL, but later made an executive decision to use ISIS. They are both correct. There are different translations for the name. The name in the original is the Islamic State of Iraq and "al-Sham" (an Arabic word that refers to Greater Syria or the Levant). So it is alternately referred to as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, or ISIL; or the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, or ISIS; or other versions of "al-Sham."

The exchange was considerably longer but these will do for now. I chose not to edit the mistakes of the correspondence to give you a better picture. It is important when engaging in criticism to have sufficient knowledge of the subject before criticizing, otherwise what is thought to be a mistake could in fact be the correct usage. Nevertheless, as I said before, we thank our reader and release both the examples and our copy editor's answers in order to address such topics in case anyone else had similar thoughts about the issues mentioned above.

At Daily Sabah, every word is checked by our team of native-English-speaking copy editors before the paper goes to print. However, we are only human, so minor typos and even grammatical mistakes can slip through the cracks as it happens with even some of the biggest papers around the world. As long as the errors don't change the meaning and are rare enough to be nearly nonexistent, how a newspaper choses to conduct journalism should be more significant.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Le Tây Nguyên préserve le trésor lingustique des ethies -- Vietnam+ (VietnamPlus)

Le Tây Nguyên préserve le trésor lingustique des ethies -- Vietnam+ (VietnamPlus) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Les provinces de Dak Lak, Dak Nông, Lâm Dông, Gia Lai et Kon Tum dans le Tây Nguyên (Hauts plateaux du Centre) redoublent leurs efforts pour préserver le trésor lingustique de ses ethnies.
Charles Tiayon's insight:
Les provinces de Dak Lak, Dak Nông, Lâm Dông, Gia Lai et Kon Tum dans le Tây Nguyên (Hauts plateaux du Centre) redoublent leurs efforts pour préserver le trésor lingustique de ses ethnies. 

La préservation des langues ethniques minoritaires passant par l’éducation, elles ont investi dans la construction des écoles dans tous les hameaux et villages et attiré de plus en plus d’enfants en âge de la scolarisation. 

Le nombre des élèves issus d’ethnies minoritaires a ainsi progressé de 10% en moyenne annuelle pour atteindre 461.230 durant l’année scolaire 2014-2015, soit plus de 32% des élèves de la région. 

Kon Tum et Gia Lai ont introduit les langues des ethnies Bahnar, Jarai dans le cursus de 121 écoles primaires. Dans la province de Dak Lak, 92 écoles primaires et 13 écoles secondaires avec internats destinées aux élèves d’ethnies minoritaires apprennent à lire et à écrire la langue Edê. 

Les élèves se sont vu accorder à titre gracieux les cahiers comme les manuels scolaires et documents didactiques dans leurs langues maternelles. 

Nombre de cours de langues de diverses ethnies ont été également organisés à l’intention des cadres et employés des établissements publics pour faciliter leurs contacts avec les habitants locaux. 

Les provinces du Tây Nguyên se sont coordonnées avec des ministères et branches pour étudier, rédiger et publier les dictionnaires Viet-Edê, Edê-Viet, Bahnar-Viet, comme les contes et épopées en version bilingue. 

Les Services de la culture, des sports et du tourisme de Dak Lak, Dak Nông, Lâm Dông, Gia Lai et Kon Tum ont publié et diffusé plusieurs bulletins bilingues dans les hameaux et villages. 

Kon Tum et Lâm Dông prévoient encore de publier et introduire dans leurs écoles les manuels et documents didactiques en langues Xêdang et Churu dans les temps à venir. 

Ces cinq provinces ont étoffé leurs programmes de radio et de télévision en langues ethniques minoritaires, dont Edê, M’nong, Bahnar, Jarai. 

La Voix du Vietnam diffuse pour sa part des programmes en six langues ethniques minoritaires principales au Tây Nguyên, à savoir bahnar, êdê, jarai, m’nông, k’ho, xêdang. 

L’Agence vietnamienne d’information distribue gratuitement tous les mois 18.300 exemplaires de la revue illustrée bilingue "Ethnies et Région montagneuse" Viet-Bahnar, Viet-Ede, Viet-Jarai, Viet-K’ho, Viet-M’nong. 

Ces produits contribuent efficacement à vulgariser les options et politiques du Parti, ainsi que les lois de l’Etat au sein de ces populations, et à préserver la langue et l’écriture des ethnies minoritaires. – VNA

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

The Cavalier Daily

The Cavalier Daily | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
UVA's premier student-operated independent news organization and Charlottesville's oldest daily newspaper.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Each language department approaches the competency requirement differently, however. Where some departments emphasize immediately teaching in the target language — conducting the entire course in the language within the first semester — many others focus on developing grammar before speaking.

Meeting the requirement

Students have to complete through — or earn exemption through testing from — the 2020 level in a target language.

“Each level requires another level of proficiency,” French Department Chair Prof. Ari Blatt said. “There’s no exit exam, but they need to get a passing grade in 2020.”

Blatt noted some universities require students to successfully pass a “proficiency interview” in order to fulfill the language requirement. Blatt previously administered proficiency interviews at another university.

“There’s been some talk of that,” Blatt said. “I thought it was fun to administer. I think the students felt a sense of accomplishment afterward.”

There are currently no plans to initiate a language proficiency interview in the University’s French Department.

“Nobody’s expecting that by the time a student finished 2020 or even a French major that they’re going to be speaking or writing like someone with native French,” Blatt said. “But the idea is to get them as close to that as we can.”

Language in the classroom

Each foreign language department upholds four pillars of language: writing, reading, oral comprehension and speaking. No department explicitly prioritizes one skill above the others, but instructors emphasize the importance of exposing students to relevant language as early and as often as possible.

Modern Hebrew Program Coordinator Zvi Gilboa said students must practice speaking skills right away in order to attain fluency.

“Learning a foreign language is a very long process,” Gilboa said. “I put an emphasis on students being able to be fully functional, regardless of the shortcomings of their skills or vocabulary at any point.”

This technique of immersion is a fairly new approach to language acquisition.

“It used to be that you could learn, learn, learn and then you have learned everything you need to know,” Gilboa said. “The approach that I take is that you actually have to jump into the water from the very first moment and realize that the gap between you and where you want to be is gradually going to become smaller.”

Gilboa encourages his students to practice their speaking skills at all levels, even if they feel discomfort or uncertainty with learning a language.

“As a speaker of a foreign language, a lot of your ability and competence depends on your ability to hide your inabilities,” Gilboa said. “You have to participate even when you don’t exactly understand everything that’s being said to you. That is the true art of learning a foreign language, of operating in a foreign language, and also teaching in a foreign language. It’s faking it all the time until you no longer need to fake it.”

Second-year College student Zak Krooks is a student in Gilboa’s Intermediate Modern Hebrew course. Krooks noted a concerted effort to develop all aspects of his language skills.

“I think that Zvi attempts to really give a complete teaching,” Krooks said. “We do try to do as much writing as speaking. In class it’s more speaking, but at home it’s more writing, so it really rounds itself out.”

Though Krooks said he has noticed an improvement in his Hebrew skills, he would not feel comfortable conversing with a native Hebrew speaker at this juncture.

“I definitely can say that [the Hebrew department is] doing a great job,” Krooks said. “I didn’t know any Hebrew beforehand, and now I am much more confident in my abilities. Every day I see an improvement.”

Each language poses its own unique challenges. For example, faculty members of the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures said it is often difficult for students to speak Slavic languages until later on in their course of study because even simple sentences require multiple cases and it takes several semesters to completely introduce each grammatical case.

Maria Ivanova, a lecturer in the Department of Slavic Language and Literature, teaches first-year Polish as well as second- and fourth-year Russian.

Ivanova noted that particularly in Slavic languages, it is very difficult for students to learn basic concepts without using a fair amount of English.

“Even in the beginning levels I try to use as much of the language as possible,” Ivanova said. “I will use the words that they might not necessarily understand but can figure out with context. I try to expose them to the language as much as I can without scaring them.”

Ivanova said students often experience a boost in confidence once they master basic grammatical concepts.

Lilia Travisano, associate professor of Russian and coordinator of the Russian Language Program, agreed.

“I tell students that Russian is an exceptional language, because almost every single grammar rule has tons of exceptions,” Travisano said. “It’s the kind of language that we don’t expect conversation right away. … It’s slower than other languages.”

Third-year College student Ben Gorman is a student in Travisano’s first-year Russian course. He has only been studying Russian for about three weeks.

“You really just have to practice every night and keep up with it,” Gorman said.

Beyond the requirement

The language departments at the University offer various programs to enrich the study of language, which many students choose to take advantage of.

For example, the German department has recently introduced a content-focused seminar on modern German history as an alternative to the traditional Intermediate German course.

Manuela Achilles, associate director for the University Center for German Studies, teaches the course.

“We’re doing everything that a textbook would do, but we are looking at historical topics and drawing on authentic materials,” Achilles said. “It’s a class that tries to add an experiential level to learning.”

Achilles said she believes the inclusion of a theme adds an element of interest to the course.

“It helps that you have a more concrete experience so that you can build vocabulary around the theme,” Achilles said.

Third-year College student Ravynn Stringfield dedicates herself to applying her foreign language skills outside of the classroom while living in the Maison Française, the University-owned French House.

Stringfield said in Maison Française, faculty advisors allow her to practice her language skills on a regular basis.

“It’s definitely intimidating, but I feel comfortable holding my own with a native speaker,” Stringfield said. “They usually understand that no matter how long you’ve been taking it, it’s not your first language.”

The University also offers a wide variety of study abroad programs which can help students develop their language skills. Students can choose to study abroad during the school year, during January Term, or during the summer in locations such as Delhi, Dublin, Lyon, Rabat, Valencia and many more.

Ivanova noted the benefits of studying abroad in developing language skills.

“Lots of students gain confidence when they study abroad, and after they return they really see how their grammar can work,” Ivanova said. “Everyone starts speaking significantly more confidently if they go abroad and they are immersed in the language.”

Creating a global community

Blatt said studying other languages and cultures is especially important in today’s increasingly globalized world.

“Learning a second language is useful for your brain,” Blatt said. “It exercises your brain that learning something else is not going to do. Knowing something about another culture and knowing their values and history.”

Blatt and the French Department are attempting to provide students with a curriculum which acknowledges and embraces globalization.

“We changed our name recently; we’re no longer the Department of French Language and Literature, we’re the Department of French,” Blatt said. “We do language to be sure, but we also do literature, we teach about North Africa, we teach about the Caribbean, we teach about other Francophone countries. There’s a lot more that goes into it, and I think the language is really important, but getting to know the world — getting out of the “America-Box” that a lot of students get into in college — is really useful.”

Fourth-year College student Dylan Herrmann chose to continue his study of French past the language requirement by becoming a French major.

“It’s less about the requirements of the language in terms of the brick and mortar of it,” Herrmann said. “What it should be about is the growing importance of a [second] language worldwide.”

A 2002 study found that college graduates who spoke a second language had on average salaries 2 percent greater than monolingual graduates.

Everette Fortner, executive director for professional development and adjunct faculty member at the Darden School, confirmed the growing importance of familiarizing oneself other cultures.

“More and more job opportunities have an international component, whether you are traveling internationally, or just dealing with suppliers, customers, or other divisions of your company,” Fortner said. “I think what’s more important is that students can demonstrate that they can deal with a diverse set of people from different cultures, rather than being able to speak a different language.”

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Plan to send 300,000 new Bibles into Iran | The Times

Plan to send 300,000 new Bibles into Iran | The Times | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
A new Persian translation of the Bible will be smuggled into Iran to feed a growing Christian community in the Islamic republic
Charles Tiayon's insight:

A new Persian translation of the Bible will be smuggled into Iran to feed a growing Christian community in the Islamic republic, defying a campaign of persecution by Tehran.

Publishers of the new edition, unveiled at a ceremony in London today, plan to ship 300,000 copies into Iran over the next three years. Iranian clerics have denounced the text, but missionary groups claim Iran’s Christian community is the world’s fastest growing, rising by 20 per cent a year.

More than 60 Christians are being held in Iranian jails, and police continue to target the “house churches” where small groups gather

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Les descriptions lexicographiques du mot argot : une longue tradition d’imprécisions

Les descriptions lexicographiques du mot argot : une longue tradition d’imprécisions | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Les descriptions lexicographiques du mot argot : une longue tradition d’imprécisions
Denis Delaplace, L’Article « Argot » au fil des dictionnaires depuis le XVIIe siècle, Paris : Classiques Garnier, coll. « Classiques de l’argot et du jargon », 2013, 312 p., EAN 9782812409424.

1Spécialiste du jargon ancien et de l’argot, Denis Delaplace se penche plus précisément dans son nouvel ouvrage sur le traitement lexicographique du terme argot depuis l’apparition du mot en 1629 jusqu’à nos jours. Au fil des siècles et des dictionnaires, il veut rendre compte de l’évolution de la description du terme et des différentes représentations qui ont été véhiculées par ces ouvrages sur ce même mot.

2Pour ce faire, il prend en considération trois types de dictionnaires, dictionnaires de langue française, dictionnaires encyclopédiques et dictionnaires spécialisés, sur une période de quatre cents ans. L’approche historique étant privilégiée dans ce travail, il considère qu’un examen chronologique, qui est celui qu’il nous propose, est la seule manière efficace pour montrer les influences existantes d’un dictionnaire à l’autre et l’apparition d’éléments novateurs de l’un à l’autre. C’est en effet grâce à un tel parcours, clair et rigoureux, qu’il nous est donné de voir que l’histoire du mot argot, quasiment dès ses origines, est fondée sur un glissement de sens fondamental qui va être repris par tous les dictionnaires. C’est ce que s’attache à décrire l’auteur, insérant ce cas particulier dans une critique plus large des dictionnaires et de l’utilisation de leurs sources.

3Faisant se succéder les reproductions d’articles « argot » des dictionnaires qu’il a préalablement sélectionnés lors de son travail de recherche, et annotant le texte de chacun de ces articles, D. Delaplace nous livre les résultats d’un véritable travail critique sur les dictionnaires autour du terme argot. L’ensemble est très structuré avec, à chaque fois, un descriptif succinct de la nature du dictionnaire étudié.

4Il s’agit d’un ouvrage très fourni, quasiment exhaustif et se présentant comme un compte-rendu de recherche. S’il s’adresse principalement aux « spécialistes de l’étude scientifique des dictionnaires » (p. 293) et qu’il peut, du fait des nombreuses annotations, longues et développées, insérées non pas dans le corps du texte, mais en bas de page, rendant ainsi plus difficile la lecture, dérouter quelque peu le lecteur non averti, il faut toutefois reconnaître à l’auteur un langage simple et la prise en compte d’un lecteur moins spécialiste. C’est d’ailleurs le lecteur de dictionnaires qu’in fine il apostrophe, l’invitant à exercer son esprit critique afin de « ne pas prendre […] pour argent comptant » les définitions des dictionnaires argotographiques.

5L’avantage d’un tel ouvrage est qu’il résume clairement l’histoire d’un mot dont les contours sont pourtant difficiles à délimiter, dont le glissement de sens est aussi rare qu’il est malaisé à expliquer. D’autre part, l’abondance des sources ici examinées, données dans leur entier, est un trésor pour le lecteur, puisque certains de ces dictionnaires (notamment ceux des premiers siècles pris en considération) sont difficilement accessibles. Ces références nous plongent de manière passionnante dans l’histoire de notre langue.

6Revenons un instant, en un bref résumé, sur la généalogie du mot argot exposée par l’auteur, pour ensuite nous attarder sur les problématiques plus générales que soulèvent ces descriptions lexicographiques. Le terme apparaît en 1629 dans un livret populaire et facétieux, Le Jargon ou Langage de l’Argot reformé d’Ollivier Chereau, œuvre mineure mais à la postérité fort riche (eu égard au mot argot, justement : le livre a en effet connu un retentissement important dès le xviie siècle, avec de nombreuses rééditions). Il y est toujours employé comme un nom propre et a une acception non langagière : il désigne ironiquement le métier de mendiants organisé en une fictive corporation. Le langage de ces mendiants est le jargon, terme attesté depuis le xiiie siècle pour désigner des langages particuliers que des gens ne vivant pas conformément aux règles prédominantes dans la société (ici, des mendiants) ont adoptés au sein de leurs groupes, et qui sont souvent incompréhensibles pour les non-initiés.

7Quelques décennies plus tard, en 1694 précisément, a lieu le glissement de sens de cette acception non langagière de départ à une acception langagière, et qui va accompagner désormais le terme argot. Il s’agit, nous indique D. Delaplace, d’un cas rare de dérivation sémantique par une métonymie très particulière, le nom d’un métier étant employé pour désigner le jargon de ceux qui exercent ce métier. Dès lors, les lexicographes, en particulier ceux du début du xviiie siècle, vont définir le motargot comme étant la langue des gueux uniquement, effaçant pour longtemps la trace du glissement sémantique qui s’est produit. La nouvelle acception s’impose désormais dans l’usage ; argot et jargon deviennent synonymes à partir de la fin du xviie siècle. Puis, pendant presque tout le xixe siècle, les différents ouvrages lexicographiques que l’auteur passe en revue reprennent la seule définition langagière, apportant peu d’éléments novateurs malgré les nombreuses rééditions. La notion d’argot dans son acception prépondérante voire désormais unique, c’est-à-dire au sens de langue, s’élargit même à d’autres catégories de locuteurs : peuvent être définis argots des langages de différentes sortes de catégories professionnelles.

8Ce n’est qu’en 1890, dans le Dictionnaire général de la langue française par Adolphe Hatzfeld et alii qu’est réintroduite l’acception non langagière. Par ailleurs, la seconde moitié de ce siècle connaît une profusion accrue des ouvrages argotographiques.

9Continuant son parcours au fil des siècles, D. Delaplace modifie sa présentation, comme il en a averti d’emblée le lecteur, pour les xxe et xxie siècles, jugeant plus à propos d’établir une synthèse thématique pour résumer les acquis des siècles précédents et en comprendre l’évolution dans les périodes les plus proches de nous. Ce que l’on peut en retenir, c’est que les dictionnaires, à la suite de celui d’A. Hatzfeld, reprennent peu à peu la première acception, non langagière, qui est toutefois souvent gauchie puisque les ouvrages mêlent, dans la définition d’argot, des locuteurs aussi différents que des voleurs, des bohémiens, qui ne faisaient pas partie de l’acception d’origine. En outre, le parcours chronologique adopté ainsi que la synthèse thématique finale mettent en évidence l’extension incroyable qu’a connue le mot argot, dans son acception langagière évidemment, au fil des siècles. D’un langage de mendiants, puis de malfaiteurs dans un sens plus large, il est devenu un langage particulier propre à un groupe dont les membres sont réunis par un ensemble d’activités communes, pour être également perçu comme un « vocabulaire expressif propre aux usages populaire et familier » (p. 273). Les dictionnaires du xxe siècle refusent toutefois, le plus souvent, d’enregistrer cette dernière définition, qui renvoie à une réalité certes observable à l’époque et de nos jours, mais qui ne se justifie pas du point de vue des linguistes. Or D. Delaplace estime que les dictionnaires de langue doivent cesser de nier cette acception observable du mot argot et ont pour devoir de la définir, quitte à marquer qu’elle résulte d’un abus de langage par rapport aux acceptions déjà recensées.

10L’exposé de D. Delaplace met ainsi en relief plusieurs points problématiques. À l’échelle du mot lui-même, l’étymologie est très difficile à établir. Cela est dû au fait que la première apparition du terme, donc la première source que l’on ait jusqu’à présent, est un livret facétieux. Son auteur, Chereau, n’est pas à prendre vraiment au sérieux : il a pu créer le terme Argot comme nom de la corporation fictive qu’il décrit, d’où une étymologie des plus incertaines et controversées. Mais c’est à l’échelle des dictionnaires plus largement que se répercute une telle remarque : sur une étymologie si incertaine, les lexicographes ont souvent voulu en établir d’autres plus fantaisistes les unes que les autres, et ce d’autant plus que ces derniers ne tiennent souvent pas compte du sens premier, non langagier, du terme argot tel qu’on le trouve chez Chereau. L’ensemble en résulte faussé et très peu fiable, tout comme l’évolution de la représentation lexicographique du mot qui a trop peu souvent, nous dit D. Delaplace, reposé sur une observation juste et précise de la réalité.

***

11Cet essai sur la description du mot argot nous met donc en garde contre un des travers des lexicographes. Nous montrant au fil des pages comment les définitions d’aujourd’hui héritent d’une longue tradition faite de contradictions et d’imprécisions, D. Delaplace nous prévient également qu’il faut toujours considérer avec précaution le contenu lexicographique d’un dictionnaire. On constate en effet, à un réexamen attentif de ces différents ouvrages, combien depuis la fin du xviie siècle, s’appuyant sur les premiers livrets de gueuserie, puis se transmettant les uns les autres des informations approximatives et non vérifiées, cautionnant aussi l’existence de tel ou tel lexique (par exemple l’argot comme vocabulaire du monde des malfaiteurs) sans fournir de preuves suffisantes, les dictionnaires se sont fourvoyés dans leurs définitions et leurs descriptions. Ces dernières sont fluctuantes d’un ouvrage à l’autre, qui pourtant se recopient souvent, et recopient donc des erreurs sans aller vérifier la source exacte. L’auteur nous indique que même les descriptions des dictionnaires modernes manquent de précision, ne serait-ce que dans l’identification des procédés de l’argot, et ne théorisent pas assez l’ensemble décrit.

12C’est pourquoi, face à des articles ni très novateurs ni très fiables (il se réfère à ceux du xixe siècle en particulier), l’auteur cherche à formuler en guise de conclusion quelques pistes pour forger une théorie de l’argot, partant avant tout de sa valeur subjectivante. Il propose ainsi de définir l’argot comme un « ensemble lexical expressif (termes et procédés) difficile à délimiter, mais permettant aux énonciateurs, par l’expressivité des termes qu’ils emploient, alternatifs (substituts) ou à sens spécifique, de marquer leur discours de l’implication de leur subjectivité, cette marque pouvant s’interpréter, selon les contextes, non seulement comme un signe d’appartenance à un groupe ou de connivence affirmée ou recherchée pouvant aller parfois jusqu’à une entente entre initiés, mais aussi et surtout comme l’affirmation d’une manière personnelle, généralement chargée d’affectivité, de s’exprimer sur les choses et le monde » (p. 292). Invitant dans sa conclusion les lexicographes et en particulier les argotographes  à « améliorer leurs descriptions de ce terme », Denis Delaplace nous livre une lecture critique et foisonnante des articles « argot » au fil des siècles.

PLAN
    AUTEUR

    FLORENCE COURRIOL

    Voir ses autres contributions


    Courriel : flocourriol@yahoo.fr

    POUR CITER CET ARTICLE

    Florence Courriol, « Les descriptions lexicographiques du mot argot : une longue tradition d’imprécisions », Acta fabula, vol. 15, n° 7, Notes de lecture, Septembre 2014, URL : http://www.fabula.org/revue/document8861.php, page consultée le 22 septembre 2014.

    Charles Tiayon's insight:
    Les descriptions lexicographiques du mot argot : une longue tradition d’imprécisions
    Denis Delaplace, L’Article « Argot » au fil des dictionnaires depuis le XVIIe siècle, Paris : Classiques Garnier, coll. « Classiques de l’argot et du jargon », 2013, 312 p., EAN 9782812409424.

    1Spécialiste du jargon ancien et de l’argot, Denis Delaplace se penche plus précisément dans son nouvel ouvrage sur le traitement lexicographique du terme argot depuis l’apparition du mot en 1629 jusqu’à nos jours. Au fil des siècles et des dictionnaires, il veut rendre compte de l’évolution de la description du terme et des différentes représentations qui ont été véhiculées par ces ouvrages sur ce même mot.

    2Pour ce faire, il prend en considération trois types de dictionnaires, dictionnaires de langue française, dictionnaires encyclopédiques et dictionnaires spécialisés, sur une période de quatre cents ans. L’approche historique étant privilégiée dans ce travail, il considère qu’un examen chronologique, qui est celui qu’il nous propose, est la seule manière efficace pour montrer les influences existantes d’un dictionnaire à l’autre et l’apparition d’éléments novateurs de l’un à l’autre. C’est en effet grâce à un tel parcours, clair et rigoureux, qu’il nous est donné de voir que l’histoire du mot argot, quasiment dès ses origines, est fondée sur un glissement de sens fondamental qui va être repris par tous les dictionnaires. C’est ce que s’attache à décrire l’auteur, insérant ce cas particulier dans une critique plus large des dictionnaires et de l’utilisation de leurs sources.

    3Faisant se succéder les reproductions d’articles « argot » des dictionnaires qu’il a préalablement sélectionnés lors de son travail de recherche, et annotant le texte de chacun de ces articles, D. Delaplace nous livre les résultats d’un véritable travail critique sur les dictionnaires autour du terme argot. L’ensemble est très structuré avec, à chaque fois, un descriptif succinct de la nature du dictionnaire étudié.

    4Il s’agit d’un ouvrage très fourni, quasiment exhaustif et se présentant comme un compte-rendu de recherche. S’il s’adresse principalement aux « spécialistes de l’étude scientifique des dictionnaires » (p. 293) et qu’il peut, du fait des nombreuses annotations, longues et développées, insérées non pas dans le corps du texte, mais en bas de page, rendant ainsi plus difficile la lecture, dérouter quelque peu le lecteur non averti, il faut toutefois reconnaître à l’auteur un langage simple et la prise en compte d’un lecteur moins spécialiste. C’est d’ailleurs le lecteur de dictionnaires qu’in fine il apostrophe, l’invitant à exercer son esprit critique afin de « ne pas prendre […] pour argent comptant » les définitions des dictionnaires argotographiques.

    5L’avantage d’un tel ouvrage est qu’il résume clairement l’histoire d’un mot dont les contours sont pourtant difficiles à délimiter, dont le glissement de sens est aussi rare qu’il est malaisé à expliquer. D’autre part, l’abondance des sources ici examinées, données dans leur entier, est un trésor pour le lecteur, puisque certains de ces dictionnaires (notamment ceux des premiers siècles pris en considération) sont difficilement accessibles. Ces références nous plongent de manière passionnante dans l’histoire de notre langue.

    6Revenons un instant, en un bref résumé, sur la généalogie du mot argot exposée par l’auteur, pour ensuite nous attarder sur les problématiques plus générales que soulèvent ces descriptions lexicographiques. Le terme apparaît en 1629 dans un livret populaire et facétieux, Le Jargon ou Langage de l’Argot reformé d’Ollivier Chereau, œuvre mineure mais à la postérité fort riche (eu égard au mot argot, justement : le livre a en effet connu un retentissement important dès le xviie siècle, avec de nombreuses rééditions). Il y est toujours employé comme un nom propre et a une acception non langagière : il désigne ironiquement le métier de mendiants organisé en une fictive corporation. Le langage de ces mendiants est le jargon, terme attesté depuis le xiiie siècle pour désigner des langages particuliers que des gens ne vivant pas conformément aux règles prédominantes dans la société (ici, des mendiants) ont adoptés au sein de leurs groupes, et qui sont souvent incompréhensibles pour les non-initiés.

    7Quelques décennies plus tard, en 1694 précisément, a lieu le glissement de sens de cette acception non langagière de départ à une acception langagière, et qui va accompagner désormais le terme argot. Il s’agit, nous indique D. Delaplace, d’un cas rare de dérivation sémantique par une métonymie très particulière, le nom d’un métier étant employé pour désigner le jargon de ceux qui exercent ce métier. Dès lors, les lexicographes, en particulier ceux du début du xviiie siècle, vont définir le motargot comme étant la langue des gueux uniquement, effaçant pour longtemps la trace du glissement sémantique qui s’est produit. La nouvelle acception s’impose désormais dans l’usage ; argot et jargon deviennent synonymes à partir de la fin du xviie siècle. Puis, pendant presque tout le xixe siècle, les différents ouvrages lexicographiques que l’auteur passe en revue reprennent la seule définition langagière, apportant peu d’éléments novateurs malgré les nombreuses rééditions. La notion d’argot dans son acception prépondérante voire désormais unique, c’est-à-dire au sens de langue, s’élargit même à d’autres catégories de locuteurs : peuvent être définis argots des langages de différentes sortes de catégories professionnelles.

    8Ce n’est qu’en 1890, dans le Dictionnaire général de la langue française par Adolphe Hatzfeld et alii qu’est réintroduite l’acception non langagière. Par ailleurs, la seconde moitié de ce siècle connaît une profusion accrue des ouvrages argotographiques.

    9Continuant son parcours au fil des siècles, D. Delaplace modifie sa présentation, comme il en a averti d’emblée le lecteur, pour les xxe et xxie siècles, jugeant plus à propos d’établir une synthèse thématique pour résumer les acquis des siècles précédents et en comprendre l’évolution dans les périodes les plus proches de nous. Ce que l’on peut en retenir, c’est que les dictionnaires, à la suite de celui d’A. Hatzfeld, reprennent peu à peu la première acception, non langagière, qui est toutefois souvent gauchie puisque les ouvrages mêlent, dans la définition d’argot, des locuteurs aussi différents que des voleurs, des bohémiens, qui ne faisaient pas partie de l’acception d’origine. En outre, le parcours chronologique adopté ainsi que la synthèse thématique finale mettent en évidence l’extension incroyable qu’a connue le mot argot, dans son acception langagière évidemment, au fil des siècles. D’un langage de mendiants, puis de malfaiteurs dans un sens plus large, il est devenu un langage particulier propre à un groupe dont les membres sont réunis par un ensemble d’activités communes, pour être également perçu comme un « vocabulaire expressif propre aux usages populaire et familier » (p. 273). Les dictionnaires du xxe siècle refusent toutefois, le plus souvent, d’enregistrer cette dernière définition, qui renvoie à une réalité certes observable à l’époque et de nos jours, mais qui ne se justifie pas du point de vue des linguistes. Or D. Delaplace estime que les dictionnaires de langue doivent cesser de nier cette acception observable du mot argot et ont pour devoir de la définir, quitte à marquer qu’elle résulte d’un abus de langage par rapport aux acceptions déjà recensées.

    10L’exposé de D. Delaplace met ainsi en relief plusieurs points problématiques. À l’échelle du mot lui-même, l’étymologie est très difficile à établir. Cela est dû au fait que la première apparition du terme, donc la première source que l’on ait jusqu’à présent, est un livret facétieux. Son auteur, Chereau, n’est pas à prendre vraiment au sérieux : il a pu créer le terme Argot comme nom de la corporation fictive qu’il décrit, d’où une étymologie des plus incertaines et controversées. Mais c’est à l’échelle des dictionnaires plus largement que se répercute une telle remarque : sur une étymologie si incertaine, les lexicographes ont souvent voulu en établir d’autres plus fantaisistes les unes que les autres, et ce d’autant plus que ces derniers ne tiennent souvent pas compte du sens premier, non langagier, du terme argot tel qu’on le trouve chez Chereau. L’ensemble en résulte faussé et très peu fiable, tout comme l’évolution de la représentation lexicographique du mot qui a trop peu souvent, nous dit D. Delaplace, reposé sur une observation juste et précise de la réalité.

    ***

    11Cet essai sur la description du mot argot nous met donc en garde contre un des travers des lexicographes. Nous montrant au fil des pages comment les définitions d’aujourd’hui héritent d’une longue tradition faite de contradictions et d’imprécisions, D. Delaplace nous prévient également qu’il faut toujours considérer avec précaution le contenu lexicographique d’un dictionnaire. On constate en effet, à un réexamen attentif de ces différents ouvrages, combien depuis la fin du xviie siècle, s’appuyant sur les premiers livrets de gueuserie, puis se transmettant les uns les autres des informations approximatives et non vérifiées, cautionnant aussi l’existence de tel ou tel lexique (par exemple l’argot comme vocabulaire du monde des malfaiteurs) sans fournir de preuves suffisantes, les dictionnaires se sont fourvoyés dans leurs définitions et leurs descriptions. Ces dernières sont fluctuantes d’un ouvrage à l’autre, qui pourtant se recopient souvent, et recopient donc des erreurs sans aller vérifier la source exacte. L’auteur nous indique que même les descriptions des dictionnaires modernes manquent de précision, ne serait-ce que dans l’identification des procédés de l’argot, et ne théorisent pas assez l’ensemble décrit.

    12C’est pourquoi, face à des articles ni très novateurs ni très fiables (il se réfère à ceux du xixe siècle en particulier), l’auteur cherche à formuler en guise de conclusion quelques pistes pour forger une théorie de l’argot, partant avant tout de sa valeur subjectivante. Il propose ainsi de définir l’argot comme un « ensemble lexical expressif (termes et procédés) difficile à délimiter, mais permettant aux énonciateurs, par l’expressivité des termes qu’ils emploient, alternatifs (substituts) ou à sens spécifique, de marquer leur discours de l’implication de leur subjectivité, cette marque pouvant s’interpréter, selon les contextes, non seulement comme un signe d’appartenance à un groupe ou de connivence affirmée ou recherchée pouvant aller parfois jusqu’à une entente entre initiés, mais aussi et surtout comme l’affirmation d’une manière personnelle, généralement chargée d’affectivité, de s’exprimer sur les choses et le monde » (p. 292). Invitant dans sa conclusion les lexicographes et en particulier les argotographes  à « améliorer leurs descriptions de ce terme », Denis Delaplace nous livre une lecture critique et foisonnante des articles « argot » au fil des siècles.

    PLAN
      AUTEUR

      FLORENCE COURRIOL

      Voir ses autres contributions


      Courriel : flocourriol@yahoo.fr

      POUR CITER CET ARTICLE

      Florence Courriol, « Les descriptions lexicographiques du mot argot : une longue tradition d’imprécisions », Acta fabula, vol. 15, n° 7, Notes de lecture, Septembre 2014, URL : http://www.fabula.org/revue/document8861.php, page consultée le 22 septembre 2014.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Middlebury to launch Bread Loaf Translators’ Conference in 2015 - VTDigger

      Middlebury to launch Bread Loaf Translators’ Conference in 2015 - VTDigger | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      In June 2015, Middlebury will welcome participants to the inaugural session of the Bread Loaf Translators’ Conference, the first conference to highlight the important role that literary translators of poetry and prose play in the United States and beyond.
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      In June 2015, Middlebury will welcome participants to the inaugural session of the Bread Loaf Translators’ Conference, the first conference to highlight the important role that literary translators of poetry and prose play in the United States and beyond. Modeled after Middlebury’s Bread Loaf Writers’ Conference, the new forum is also a natural complement to another signature Middlebury program, the Middlebury Language Schools. The intensive week-long conference is designed to provide training and community to beginning and experienced literary translators. The unique program also aims to strengthen visibility and access to high quality literary translations in the U.S., and to recognize that translators require the same skills and expertise as writers.

      “The role of the literary translator is often completely overlooked and yet it is a deeply important profession,” said Jennifer Grotz, director of the new conference. “The creation of this conference is a welcome acknowledgement that literary translation at its best is equivalent to creative writing in one’s native language and in fact plays a large part in enriching our own culture’s literature,” she added. A poet and literary translator, Grotz is also the program director for the Master of Arts in Literary Translation at the University of Rochester.

      According to Grotz, the conference is for translators who want to improve their literary craft; for students mastering a foreign language who want to begin acquiring skills in the art of translation; for teachers interested in bringing the practice of literary translation into their classrooms; and for those who would like to learn more about and participate in the ever-growing community of literary translators.

      Taking place June 1-7 at Middlebury’s Bread Loaf campus in Ripton, the new conference will feature faculty who are acclaimed and award-winning translators: Susan Bernofsky, Maureen Freeley, Bill Johnston, Don Share, and Grotz. Established editors from literary journals and publishing houses will also attend and give presentations on the publishing trends and opportunities in literary translation.

      The conference will incorporate the Bread Loaf Writers’ Conference model of small, focused, genre-based workshops coupled with readings, discussions, lectures, and classes focusing on the art of literary translation.

      For more information on the Bread Loaf Translators’ Conference, including information about grants and scholarships, visit http://www.middlebury.edu/blwc/bltc.

      The Middlebury Bread Loaf Writers’ Conference, the oldest writers’ conference in the country, has taken place every summer since 1926 at Middlebury’s Bread Loaf campus in Ripton. The conference remains one of America’s most respected literary institutions. Every August, more than 300 writers, students, faculty, literary agents and editors gather to participate in the conference, which offers two weeks of workshops, lectures, classes, and readings. A dynamic setting, the mountain campus has attracted many renowned literary figures such as Robert Frost, Carson McCullers, John Irving, Terry Tempest Williams, Ted Conover and Julia Alvarez.

      In 2013, Middlebury and Orion magazine launched the Bread Loaf Orion Writers’ Conference, an intensive week-long program modeled on the Bread Loaf Writers’ Conference and designed for those who want to bring more depth of knowledge and understanding to their writing about the environment and the natural world. The Bread Loaf Orion Writers’ Conference and the Bread Loaf Translators’ Conference will take place concurrently at Middlebury’s Bread Loaf campus.

      – See more at:http://www.middlebury.edu/newsroom/node/485716#sthash.9qK93vbk.dpuf

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Celebrating the Art and Spirit of Literary Translation, NEA Style

      Celebrating the Art and Spirit of Literary Translation, NEA Style | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      The translation of literature is equal parts art, psychology, technical skill and spirituality – and it brings humanity closer together.
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      On 12 August, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) announced the recommended recipients of $300,000 in grants. Twenty translators were the beneficiaries of this funding, earmarked by the NEA “to support the new translation of fiction, creative nonfiction, and poetry from 12 different languages into English.”



      The NEA has been supporting the important art of translation since 1981. During that time, it has offered 412 fellowships for translating literature from 86 countries, spanning 66 different languages.


      This year, the NEA awards coincided with its publication of a delightful new book of essays devoted to celebrating the important role played by translated literature. The Art of Empathy: Celebrating Literature in Translation brings together 19 translators and supporters of translation work, reflecting on the practice of translation: a higher calling to which they share a passionate devotion.


      The types of projects awarded this year offer a glimpse at the wide range of translation work the NEA supports. One fellowship is going to Jeffrey Yang of Beacon, New York, to help translateCity Gate Open Up, a lyrical autobiography by poet Bei Dao, originally in Chinese. Another recipient is Niloufar Talebi of San Francisco, California, who will be working on a translation of the Persian-language works of Iranian writer and poet Ahmad Shamlou, a Nobel Prize nominee.


      The Importance of Translation


      In today’s educated, globalized world, lovers of international literature are easy to find. But while it’s easy to find people who appreciate literary masters – from Fyodor Dostoevsky to Hitomi Kanehara – how many share an equal appreciation for the translators who make our familiarity with these works possible?


      The role of the translator is a central one that readers often don’t fully appreciate. In my own case, discovering the centrality of that role was provoked by 19th century Russian author Nikolai Chernyshevsky. I read his remarkable novel, What Is to Be Done? (credited with inspiring the pivotal revolutionary essay of the same title by Lenin, as well as many of the other Russian revolutionaries of the era) when I was in junior high school: an old, battered library copy of the translation by eminent leftist theoretician Benjamin Tucker (dating from the early ‘60s).


      I spent years (in the pre-Amazon era) hunting for another copy for my own, and when I finally found one, almost shelled out the $40 for it (a fortune on an undergrad’s budget) until I began reading it. It read like an entirely different book! The tone, the style, the humour: everything was different! And then I took a second look, and realized the translator was different, too (this was the Michael Katz translation, dating from the late ‘80s). I continue to search for an affordable copy of the out-of-print Tucker translation.


      I encountered another dimension of translation when I discovered the beautiful and insightful works of Japanese author Sue Sumii. A social activist and prolific writer, she penned a brilliant, seven-volume series titled The River with No Bridge, written over the course of an almost 30-year period. The series recounts life in early 20th century Japan (the saga follows a multi-generational community over several years) from the perspective of the Burakamin, a traditionally outcast caste whose experience and identity still provokes controversy in that country. Her novels were written as social protest, yet also provide beautiful and moving depictions of life and social relationships in the Burakumin communities.


      When I found an English translation (translated by Susan Wilkinson) of Volume 1, I sped through it in no time, unable to put it down. Once I did put it down – to go online and order the remaining six volumes – I discovered to my horror they have not been translated. And worse yet: there are currently no plans to do so.


      Controversies and Copies


      The complexities of translation can prove bewildering at times, and even provoke political complications. Jay Rubin, literary scholar and one of the translators of Haruki Murakami’s work, relates an incredible incident in his splendid and fascinating book Haruki Murakami and the Music of Words, an excellent and exhaustive literary appreciation of Murakami’s oeuvre. Rubin – who includes an extensive discussion on the challenges of translation – recounts a heated debate that arose in the German press over the sex scenes depicted in Murakami’s novel South of the Border, West of the Sun.


      While critics were arguing whether they constituted sophisticated erotica or cheap pornography, a Japanese language professor intervened to say that it wasn’t really a fair debate to be having, since the German version of the novel had been translated from the English translation, instead of directly from the Japanese original. This, he suggested, created too great a degree of distance for the combatants to be attributing the quality of the work solely to Murakami. It also raised questions: there were fully capable Japanese-German translators, so why had it been translated from a translation?


      A complicated matter! Murakami, who is himself a prolific translator (he has both written about translation as well as introduced Japanese audiences to many English writers through his own translation work), has described translation as “a kind of therapy for me”. In addressing the German controversy, it was pointed out in Rubin’s book that for practical purposes English is often the first and most laborious translation, with the resulting English version considered “the starting point for the journey of his works around the world.” But Murakami himself, with his usually quirky take on globalization, replied to this debate with “So what?”:


      To tell you the truth, I kind of like re-translation. My tastes are a little weird anyway… I’m not so worried about the details at the level of linguistic expression; as long as the big things on the story level get through, that’s pretty much going to do the job. If the work itself has power, it will get past a few mistakes. Rather than worrying about the details, I’m just happy to have my work translated.

      Such examples reveal the complexities involved in translation work. They also reveal the singular challenges faced by those who undertake the challenge of translating literature. And they demonstrate the importance of the NEA’s new collection, which shares the insights of translators and others who are involved in this work, reflecting on the art and craft of their important profession.


      More Art than Science


      In Art of Empathy, Gregory Pardlo points out that translators must convey not just words, but style: “The unique musicality each poet has – let’s call it style – is just as, if not more, important than what her poems ‘say’…if the lay reader is made conscious of the fact that she is reading a poem in translation, I will not have done my job.”


      But how precisely to do that? The contributors to Art of Empathy provide a variety of useful examples and techniques that illustrate the complexity of this art. Pardlo discusses the Stephen Mitchell translation of Rainer Maria Rilke’s Archaic Torso of Apollo, in which “a phrase like ‘wherein the eye-apples ripen’ simply refers to a dilating pupil. But its closest colloquial match in English might call to mind ‘the apple of my eye’ which, of course, is trite and schmaltzy. Mitchell foregoes the apple altogether and gives us ‘eyes like ripening fruit.’”


      Similarly, he explains, Fernandez de Castro in translating Langston Hughes’ poem I, Too, Sing America, added an accent to the ‘e’ in America: a simple yet powerful mark which helped expand the range of ‘America’ from the US to the entirety of the Americas, rendering the poem more inclusive to the expanded audience.


      Tiny gestures, but in the art of translation, ones that count.


      For those who think (as I once did) that translation is a boring, onerous, scientific task—a sort of bureaucratic, technical literary mechanics—Art of Empathy exposes the much more joyful, beautiful and creative side to this art. Angela Rodel writes of translating Bulgarian authors into English: “The experience was and continues to be exhilarating – trying to find the right timbre for a short story, adding the perfect lexical ornament, trying to make the text itself sing, without changing the key entirely or tripping up the beat. For me, translation means hearing voices – allowing an author’s voice to sing through my own, letting Bulgarian rhythms echo inside English syllables, finding the right key that makes a piece of writing resonate.”


      The joy and love these translators feel for their work is palpable.


      Angst, Joy, and Creativity


      Twists that produce joy in the reader can produce angst in the translator. An author uses a piece of slang in his text during a pivotal moment—a colloquialism that can have multiple and contradictory meanings—but then dies before a translator can ask which of the word’s many meanings he intended. A reader in the original language can revel in the ambiguity, enjoying the many possible meanings and interpretations of the phrase; it’s what makes language so delightful. But how does a translator express that in a language which might share no analogous phrase? How to convey this-is-what-they-probably-meant-to-say-but-it’s-deliberately-vague-and-could-mean-precisely-the-opposite? The meaning of entire texts can hinge on such momentous decisions.


      “Translating is a kind of writing, of course,” says Natasha Wimmer, “but it’s also a kind of reading: a very, very slow kind of reading – possibly the slowest kind of reading in the world.”


      Indeed, it may be that the act of translating transforms the role of a literary work in our society. Pierre Joris draws on poet/translator Leon Robel’s observation that “a text is the ensemble of all its significantly differing translations.” This renders the work of translation even more important; indeed implicates translators in the creative work of those they translate and in the inspiration those works provide to us as readers.


      Edward Gauvin draws an analogy with photographers (and other new media workers), who were once seen as merely technicians who clicked a button: now they’re seen as creative producers in their own right. “The translator is… a literature worker, and as such deserves respect, guarantees of safer working conditions, and certain basic rights for the formerly invisible and illicit.”


      Indeed, can translation change our world? These inspired translators have no doubt of that. Susan Harris, editorial director of Words Without Borders, points out that peace, tolerance and understanding – especially across cultures – can be facilitated by immersing oneself in another “culture from within” – and good translation allows this. It allows the reader to see things “from a human perspective” beyond that of one’s own immediate language and culture.


      Even journalism, she points out, is an act of translation, where journalists tell us what’s happening in the world, but framed through their own interpretation and frames of meaning. Rather than relying exclusively on news reports and journalism to understand what is happening in the world, she suggests, we ought to immerse ourselves in world literature, which can provide an equally – if not more – important insight into other cultures, other places, other systems of meaning and thinking and understanding. “The inability to read foreign languages, and the corresponding lack of access to literature written in anything but English… reflects our insularity and isolation, and perpetuates our restricted knowledge of the rest of the world.”


      We may not all be able to learn other languages, but we can certainly try to access the literature of other languages.


      Of course, only a fraction of such literature is available to English speakers. Chad Post discusses the “three percent problem” – the oft-cited figure refers to the percentage of books published annually in the United States which are translations. This is, of course, only a tiny fraction of all the books out there – meaning that unilingual English-speakers are only able to tap into the smallest portion of world literature. Post discusses the estimate and where it comes from, but ultimately points out that yes, while it may be small, and while we ought to do more to support the work of translation and try to increase it, we should also celebrate the work that is being done and the people who are doing it.


      The average American reads four books a year, and 517 pieces of translated fiction and poetry came out last year alone. Lamenting the low percentage “reinforces the idea that it’s difficult to find literature in translation, which is a blatant lie… so let’s quit fretting over a number and instead rejoice in all that has been made available to us.”


      Art of Empathy does precisely that: it’s an act of celebration, which honours and rejoices in the work of these translators and the broader efforts that they represent.


      Touching the Soul


      If translation helps to bring humanity closer to each other, is there a spiritual side to translating as well? Johanna Warren appears to think so. She writes that translation, in a broad sense, “…is essential to the spiritual evolution of our species. Our stubborn fixation on the perception that I am separate from you and humans are separate from all other life on Earth has set us up for both individual misery and global catastrophe… What translation can do for us, and what we so desperately need at this juncture in human history, is to radically increase our empathic capacities; to learn, or perhaps relearn, how to listen…”


      Hearing the voices of translators speaking so openly and honestly truly has the potential to affect how we engage with translated literature—and with each other. It also underscores the importance of diversifying our reading lists to ensure we include not only our own linguistic culture’s best-sellers (and cult classics), but also a healthy sampling of literature in translation.


      One of the delightful aspects of this short collection is the additional world of reading that it opens up. Each contributor was asked to list their three favourite works or recommendations for books-in-translation, and most of them offer extensive annotated notes explaining the reasons for their choices. The result was that I came away from this book with a shortlist of additional ‘must-read’ selections to keep an eye out for.


      Art of Empathy is a short read, but a powerful and inspiring one. It’s a worthy gesture for the NEA to complement the announcement of its awards with a delightfully beautiful read that reveals how truly invaluable the funding of literary translation is. It calls on us to reposition our orientation toward literature in translation, and to recognize the reading of translated works not as merely a quirky hobby, but as central to our development as literate, empathic citizens of the world, and to the dynamic vitality of our own literary cultures.


      For, as Natasha Wimmer puts it: “Translation may momentarily render the foreign text thinner, but it also reminds us of the richness of fiction, of the many possible readings it permits and encourages.”


      * * *

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Can A Search Engine Make You More Creative?

      Can A Search Engine Make You More Creative? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      "With Yossarian you can increase the diversity and frequency of your Ah ha! moments." Oh really?
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      Type "beauty" into Google image search, and you'll see endless photos of white models. Search "beauty" in Yossarian, the metaphorical search engine, and it returns pictures of men shaking hands, a little boy dressed as a super hero, and burning money. Keep scrolling and new understandings of "beauty" pop up.

      Compared to Google, the results seem random and confusing, but that's Yossarian's benefit, argues its creator J. Paul Neeley. "Google is an incredibly powerful tool, if you know what you're looking for," he told Fast Company. "But it's really problematic in creative terms, if you're trying to generate new ideas." Staring at Google's singular view of a given concept doesn't exactly inspire. All queries go through the filter bubble--the algorithms that guess what we want, like Google autocomplete. Filter bubbles, the theory goes, lead to group-think and hinder creativity. And even on Pinterest, a favorite among creative types, the visual representations of ideas tend to converge on one definition.

      search engine that spits out metaphors, like Yossarian, however, can get people thinking about how to define a topic in new and interesting ways. "With Yossarian you can increase the diversity and frequency of your aha moments," the site promises.


      How it works


      That's quite the sell, and a rosy view of technology as something that makes us better people. Yet, Yossarian isn't the first--and probably won't be the last--technological attempt to make us more creative. (If that's even possible.) Seenapse, a search engine that came out this summer, promises better brainstorming by bringing together disparate parts of the Internet. That might lead to new, interesting mental associations.

      Neeley, along with two co-founders built Yossarian, which launched last month, based on some actual science: the widely held idea that visual metaphors help people think of original ideas. Neeley believes that "any supreme insight is a metaphor." A handful of research backs up a milder version of that theory. One studyfound just showing people an illuminated lightbulb led to more creative insights. In another participants that looked at an image of a brain outside of a box literally thought outside the box. At the very least, seeing metaphors about creativity, leads to creative thinking.

      Yossarian takes that idea a step further, suggesting that metaphorical images will lead to more insights. "Metaphors are really weird, they're always patently false," said Neeley. "If I tell you love is a river, the first thing your mind does is say 'no, love is not a river.' It takes a moment where you have a flip: Love can be a river, it can ebb and flow, it's ever changing." By scrolling through Yossarian, a person's mind can get to that "flip" faster and more often.

      For a given query, Yossarian parses language corpuses for metaphors, instead of direct text matches. (One of the other co-founders is a linguist.) Users can choose how wacky they want results to get from the mildest setting, "literal," to the most adventurous, "serendipitous." Depending on the level, the engine will surface somewhat related or completely random images. Searching "technology" on the "moderate lateral" setting shows pictures of spray bottles, cotton fields, and an elephant riding a motorcycle. The images all come from Getty.

      An elephant riding a motorcycle might not, at first, seem like it has anything to do with technology. And that's the point. "It's suggesting to the user: hey this might be one way of thinking about technology," Neeley said. "It becomes a conversation between the user and the system."

      That sounds like an ideal setup for someone always in search of ideas, but the experience feels aimless. Without explanation of how to use the search engine, it's confusing. How could looking at stock photos possibly lead to my next big breakthrough?

      Technology might not be able to solve something like creativity. "Detecting metaphors is pretty difficult in itself, mapping between them is very difficult, and to do this with enough accuracy to be usable seems a bit hopeful," Phil Blunsom, a researcher in computational linguistics at the University of Oxfordsaid. Indeed, Yossarian asks a lot of the user. Take those results for "beauty" for example. Beauty is a boy dressed as a super hero? No: Beauty is imagination; beauty is make-believe. Some of the other images, like burning money, are even harder to translate.

      The initial (and most obvious) use-case, Neeley says, is at advertising agencies, to help art directors and creative teams combat blank page syndrome. When not relying on serendipity, a terrible method for generating ideas, creative workers at many firms use Google, Flickr, and Pinterest for idea generation. Gifted searchers learn to bend Google to their will, using the search engine in creative ways. Most people spend hours staring at the same images until inspiration appears.

      Not only does this take a lot of time, and result in frustration, Neeley believes it dulls originality. The name Yossarian, a reference to the main character in Catch-22, gets at that point. "We kind of joked about the catch-22 of Google," he said. "Google is incredibly powerful and helps us by giving us access to the world’s information. The catch is that it hurts us. The more we use it, the more we think like everyone else."



      With Yossarian, however, the original ideas flow like yogis.*

      The U.K. based media strategy company Initiative is testing out Neeley's theory and technology, hoping to "democratize creativity across the agency" using Yossarian, Lee Ramsay, head of innovation, told Fast Company. So far, Ramsay and his team have used Yossarian to find more compelling images for mood boards and presentations, to brainstorm, and to reframe business problems.

      Not only has the search engine has made those exercises more interesting, says Ramsey, but have led to tangible results. Ramsey put the company through creativity tests. After three hours of using Yossarian, employee scores went up 50%-80%. "It starts the chain in a slightly different way," he said. "It's an ignition. It gives you a jump."

      *I used Yossarian for this brilliant simile. It works!

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      English In All The World's Classrooms? Just Say 'Non!'

      English In All The World's Classrooms? Just Say 'Non!' | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

      ZURICH — The ongoing debate about the heavy influence of the English language in our education system is mostly focused on primary and high schools. But within many Swiss universities — in economics, finance and management — the utter domination of English has in fact become the norm in master's degree and PhD courses. The same goes for ...



      Read the full article: English In All The World's Classrooms? Just Say 'Non!' 
      Worldcrunch - top stories from the world's best news sources 
      Follow us: @worldcrunch on Twitter | Worldcrunch on Facebook

      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      ZURICH — The ongoing debate about the heavy influence of the English language in our education system is mostly focused on primary and high schools. But within many Swiss universities — in economics, finance and management — the utter domination of English has in fact become the norm in master's degree and PhD courses. The same goes for ...



      Read the full article: English In All The World's Classrooms? Just Say 'Non!' 
      Worldcrunch - top stories from the world's best news sources 
      Follow us: @worldcrunch on Twitter | Worldcrunch on Facebook

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Courts told to break down language barriers

      Courts told to break down language barriers | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      TAMPA — In Hillsborough County, 26 percent of adults speak a language other than English at home.
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      TAMPA — In Hillsborough County, 26 percent of adults speak a language other than English at home.



      But in many state court proceedings, people with limited or no ability to understand English are on their own.



      That means someone who is being evicted or foreclosed on may not understand what is happening. The same goes for people whose pets or money may be seized in a civil dispute, and people getting a divorce.



      The U.S. Justice Department says that’s not fair. Failing to provide translators for all court proceedings, the department says, can be a violation of civil rights or discrimination on the basis of national origin.



      The department wrote states, including Florida, in 2003 and 2010, about the need to furnish translators for people whose English language abilities are limited. “Dispensing justice fairly, efficiently, and accurately is a cornerstone of the judiciary,” the department said in 2010. “Policies and practices that deny (limited English speakers) meaningful access to the courts undermine that cornerstone.”



      Court officials say they understand the problem but that solving it wouldn’t be easy.



      “It’s a delicate issue,” said Gregory J. Youchock, chief of court services for Florida. “It’s an evolving issue. It is a budgetary issue. In order to expand (court translations), we’ll need more funding.”



      Census figures show that 27 percent of adult Floridians speak a language other than English at home.



      The state funds translators for all criminal courts and for civil court proceedings in which the state has determined a “fundamental interest” is at stake, such as domestic violence hearings or when parental rights could be terminated.



      But in many other proceedings, including divorce and landlord-tenant hearings, the parties are responsible for providing their own translators. With certified translators costing upward of $75 an hour, litigants often bring relatives or friends to translate, officials say. This can cause problems because these amateur translators frequently don’t understand court terminology and don’t know the standards for official translation.



      Two years ago, the Justice Department released the results of an investigation into practices in North Carolina, which it found was failing to provide translators in all kinds of proceedings, both civil and criminal. While acknowledging budgetary issues, the department wrote that, “Fiscal pressures are not a blanket exemption from civil rights requirements.”



      The Justice Department pointed out in a letter to North Carolina officials that there are financial implications to not adequately providing interpreters.



      “It costs money and time to handle appeals and reversals based on the failure to ensure proper interpretation and effective communication,” the department wrote. “Similarly, delays in providing interpreters often result in multiple continuances, which needlessly waste the time and resources of the court staff. And ineffective communication deprives judges and juries of the ability to make reliable decisions.”



      Hillsborough Chief Judge Manuel Menendez said the Justice Department “made some very good points” in its letter to North Carolina.



      He said the courts here have “made do with what we had.” Years ago, Menendez said, he presided over a trial involving a car crash where an attorney communicated with his client through her daughter. When it came time for the woman to testify, the lawyer hired an interpreter to translate her testimony.



      That worked just fine, Menendez said. “In other cases,” he added, “It’s probably essential that we do something.”



      Hillsborough County Judge Frances Perrone hears domestic violence cases, where translators are provided, as well as general civil cases, such as evictions, where they are not. Every day, she said, someone appears in her courtroom who doesn’t speak English. In addition to Spanish, she sees people who speak other languages, such as Vietnamese and French.



      “There’s even a shortage of interpreters for the cases where they are approved,” Perrone said. “On cases where they are not approved, we have to rely on an individual that the party brought with them to court.” When that’s not possible, she said, bilingual bailiffs and judicial assistants will pitch in to help.



      “It’s very unfortunate because I hate to send people out without being confident they understand what has taken place,” Perrone said.



      Perrone said she doesn’t think significant numbers of people have been wrongly evicted because of the language problem in court. They most likely would have had extensive communications with their landlords before landing in court, she noted.



      But is it possible, that on occasion, people have been wrongly evicted because of the translator issue? “I don’t know,” she said.



      Some judges are looking for creative solutions, enlisting volunteers to help.



      Circuit Judge Catherine Catlin, who sits in family court, said parties who come to court without benefit of a lawyer are given forms that instruct them that if they need an interpreter, it’s their responsibility to bring one.



      “A lot of that docket can be Spanish speaking and there’s no funding in the court system to provide translators in the civil side of the courthouse,” Catlin said. She said people bring friends and neighbors to translate, and sometimes these translators speak broken English.



      Catlin said she approached the Tampa Hispanic Bar Association, and the group’s president, Victoria Cruz-Garcia, agreed to help. Cruz-Garcia enlisted translators to volunteer their services. So once a month, people representing themselves are provided professional translators at no cost to the courts or the litigants, This happens for the initial court hearings. The litigants are informed that for subsequent hearings, however, they need to bring their own translators.



      Cruz-Garcia said she’s seen litigants’ friends and family members in court providing bad translations. “There have been moments where I just wanted to leap up and do something, but I can’t,” she said. Sometimes, she said, “I will tell the judge something’s going on here, but it wasn’t interpreted correctly.”



      One time, she said, she was in court when an issue arose when the litigant was being sworn in. The woman was refusing to take the oath, and no one understood why. Cruz-Garcia had overheard a conversation in the hallway, and so she stepped in and explained that the woman was a Jehovah Witness. Instead of saying the word “swear,” all the court had to do was use the word “affirm” or “promise,” and the oath could be given.



      Circuit Judge Nick Nazaretian, also working with Cruz-Garcia, has enlisted bilingual students from Cooley Law School to volunteer their services to translate in his courtroom. Nazaretian, who is an adjunct professor at the school, said the parties benefit from the help from students, and the students get real-world exposure to family courts.



      “I just wish we had done this years ago,” he said.



      The program is now only used in family court but could be helpful in other courts as well, Nazaretian said.



      One of the students who participates, Marisol Perez, said the experience is rewarding. Perez said she grew up in Cuba. “My husband doesn’t speak fluent English. For some reason, if he has any issue at all trying to go to court and be heard, he can’t be understood.”



      People who don’t speak English can be lost in court, she said. They’re also embarrassed that they can’t communicate.



      She said her father once sued someone. In court, she said, “The other party was saying horrific things about him, which all were lies. He couldn’t understand.” Fortunately, she said, her father had a lawyer, who was able to help him.



      Patricia Cruz, a professional translator, volunteers her services once a month in Catlin’s courtroom.



      “I want to help people,” she said. “I see how lost they are when they get into the system. They already have the trauma of appearing before a judge. I just want to give back a little bit.”



      She said litigants are profusely grateful for her help. And her presence “takes a load off the judge, mainly,” saving her from having to postpone hearings.



      The state is experimenting with using technology to reduce the cost of translation services where they are provided. Youchock said a pilot program is being conducted in several courts, including Orlando, Daytona Beach and Panama City. Using video and audio hookups, interpreters are able to work in a central location and serve distant courtrooms.



      It’s possible the technology could enable the state to provide interpreters in more hearings, Youchock said. “We’re in an evaluation period where we’re studying this pilot and we’re trying to determine whether or not it’s going to work and meet our needs and what would the costs for expansion be.”



      Senior Court Operations Consultant Maggie Evans said officials are collecting data about the pilot program and can’t provide a firm evaluation yet. “Anecdotally, it sounds like it’s working fairly well,” she said.



      Youchock said Florida is not the only state grappling with providing translators in courts. “There are states all around the country that are dealing with the same issues,” he said, including California and Texas. “This is an evolving issue. It has not been resolved at all. We’re working hard on it every day.”




      esilvestrini@tampatrib.com



      (813) 259-7837



      Twitter: @ElaineTBO

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Learning in Two Languages

      Learning in Two Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      Gooding Elementary School launches new dual-immersion kindergarten class.
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      Gooding Elementary School launches new dual-immersion kindergarten class.

      GOODING • Surrounded by six kindergartners, Magda Campos held up a flash card with the letter “A” and a picture of an airplane.

      During a lesson Wednesday, the paraprofessional asked Gooding Elementary School students to repeat the word and its sounds in Spanish.

      “Avi”n, avi”n, ah, ah, ah,” students recited.

      They moved on to another word: “Oso,” Spanish for “bear.”

      “Oso, oso, o, o, o,” they chanted.

      After they got through the alphabet, students got high-fives from Campos and switched to speaking in English.

      “Three more minutes, and then you switch groups, OK?”

      Gooding Elementary launched its dual-immersion kindergarten class this fall, with instructions in English and Spanish.

      The class has 24 students — 12 with English as their native language and 12 for whom Spanish is their first language.

      Lessons are conducted in English two days a week and Spanish the other two days.

      Being able to speak, read and write in both languages opens many opportunities for students, said teacher Jeny Pavkov.

      “This is an opportunity for them to keep their home language and build a second language.”

      A Rare Program

      Only six Idaho school districts and one pubic charter school have a dual-immersion program.

      St. Mary’s Catholic School in Boise is launching a kindergarten section in 2015.

      Schools don’t need state approval for a dual-immersion class, said Christina Nava, who coordinates limited English proficiency programs for the Idaho Department of Education.

      But such a program does need school board approval. “It’s a lot of legwork, from what I’ve seen,” Nava said.

      Brad Henson, principal of a dual-immersion magnet school in Hailey, said he’s excited to see Gooding join the ranks.

      “It’s nice to see that school districts are recognizing the importance of cultural awareness,” said Henson, of Alturas Elementary.

      The Blaine County School District has a robust dual-immersion program, with 826 students enrolled — 25 percent of the district’s students.

      Such programs have been running nationwide for decades, but they are few. Only 271 programs were operating in 2003, according to the University of Minnesota’s Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.

      Henson hopes more programs are launched in Idaho.

      “These kids are so immersed in the language that they come out of it being able to read, write, speak and listen naturally,” he said.

      “It just opens their world to potential jobs, awareness and cultural understanding.”

      How Dual Immersion Works in Gooding

      The dual-immersion class in Gooding sprang from a collective conversation among school employees, said Principal Kali Connell.

      One reason for the change is that English language learners weren’t making the needed academic gains.

      But the pilot class includes English and Spanish speakers; it’s not targeting high or low achievers, Connell said.

      “No one has a complete advantage,” she said, and students depend on each other when they’re learning in their non-native language.

      “We want to move it (the program) up through the grade levels until at least through middle school,” Connell said. “The benefits in that area are huge.”

      Children learn languages far more easily when they’re young, research shows.

      If the dual-immersion students are struggling, they’re enrolled in extended day kindergarten. That means they attend the dual immersion class in the morning and a regular class in the afternoon.

      Students were tested on the Idaho Reading Indicator at the beginning of the year so teachers have baseline data to see how they progress.

      Wednesday, groups of six students sat around tables for different lessons in Pavkov’s classroom.

      “Can you find the oso?” Pavkov asked during a vocabulary lesson.

      “What’s an oso?” one boy asked, and his classmates helped him find the bear.

      Gooding High School seniors Jodene Trent, 17, and Savannah Fleming, 17, helped another student group draw numbers on small whiteboards.

      They rolled two foam dice and asked students to add the numbers and write the answer.

      “Do you guys all remember how to do 8s?” Jodene asked. She drew the number on her whiteboard to show them.

      Another group worked on iPads.

      Once kindergartners finished the lesson, they returned to their normal seats.

      “Hands on your head,” Pavkov said to get their attention. “Eyes on me.”

      “Kindergarten, that was one of the best days we’ve had yet.”

      What do Parents Think?

      Ana Navarro arrived just before morning kindergarten ended at 11:20 a.m. Wednesday to pick up her daughter.

      Why did she choose the language class? “Because it’s a big opportunity to speak and write in both languages,” she said.

      It’s not easy for her daughter Perla Cortez, 5, since it’s practically double the work, Navarro said. “It’s a challenge for her.”

      But the opportunity to learn in two languages appeals to many parents, she said. “I know a lot of people who want to do it.”

      Navarro, who has three children, helps her kindergartner with letters and sounds at home.

      And she’d like to see Perla continue in a dual-immersion program for years to come.

      Lorena Solis said her kindergartner was bilingual before starting school.

      “I didn’t want him to lose his Spanish,” she said, and she wants him to be able to read and write it.

      It’s a great opportunity for Erik, 5, she said, and she’s glad the district launched the class. “He actually likes it.”

      The class has a waiting list, but Connell didn’t have the exact count.

      “We actually got a lot more interest from English-speaking parents,” she said.

      Expansion in Blaine County

      Until this year, the Blaine County School District had the only dual-immersion program in south-central Idaho.

      Now that 10-year-old program is expanding.

      The dual-immersion magnet, Alturas Elementary, opened this fall after several years of work, Henson said.

      The school was previously Woodside Elementary, but officials decided to change the name.

      English-speaking students who attended Woodside now go to Hailey or Bellevue elementary schools.

      One dual-immersion class per grade level remains at Ernest Hemingway Elementary in Ketchum.

      After doing research and visiting programs around the nation, the district asked families whether they’d support a magnet school.

      “We wanted to make sure that everyone would be vested,” Henson said.

      Blaine County school trustees voted in January 2013 to create the school.

      School leaders say they’ve seen how dual-immersion classes affect students.

      “There are many cognitive benefits of becoming bilingual at an early age,” said Molly Lansing, dual-immersion coordinator for the Blaine County School District.

      Also, students gain problem-solving skills, better job opportunities once they graduate, and experience different cultures, she said.

      “I think there’s potential for dual immersion to connect different people within our community.”

      Copyright 2014 Twin Falls Times-News. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Summit School District increases outreach to Spanish-speaking families | SummitDaily.com

      Summit School District increases outreach to Spanish-speaking families | SummitDaily.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      Giovanna Voge was tired of being the bad guy.
      For the last 14 years, she worked in Summit County in accounting and property management. The native Columbian said she didn’t
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      For the last 14 years, she worked in Summit County in accounting and property management. The native Columbian said she didn’t like having to be a bearer of bad news when non-English speaking families faced financial and other troubles often stemming from or exacerbated by language barriers or cultural misunderstandings.

      Now Voge, 37, works to help immigrants, Spanish speakers and others understand the school system and how to support their children. Voge started last month as the full-time interpreter, translator and family liaison for the Summit School District.

      In her new role, she coordinates interpreters for parent-teacher conferences at every school, translates the district’s communications into Spanish and acts as a resource for families who might be lost or confused.

      At an interpreter training session she helped organized on Wednesday, Sept. 17, she said she loves using her native language again and learning all about the school district.

      This year, the district restructured its communications department and is expanding efforts to more effectively reach students’ families, especially those who might face language barrier challenges and are not well represented on school PTAs.

      Voge reports to Julie McCluskie, the district spokeswoman who was promoted to a full-time position now called director of communications and community engagement.

      At the training day at the district’s central office, McCluskie pointed to the roughly 15 people learning more about interpreting guidelines and said she was happy the district could bring together its interpreting personnel with a handful of Family and Intercultural Resource Center staff members and a couple Mind Springs Health employees.

      In larger communities, outside companies provide language services for schools, she said, which makes it more important for those working in interpreting and translating for different organizations around the county to meet and share best practices.

      McCluskie said the district now has a full-time interpreter/translator/family liaison in four schools and is trying to increase its number of on-call experienced interpreters to 12 to 15 people.

      This fall, the district hired a part-time district-wide bilingual family liaison, Moraima Kelley, who will talk to families about their needs, reach out to all the local faith-based organizations and connect with parents at community events.

      Moraima Kelley said she’s been involved with the schools as a parent for almost 25 years and has worked with the school district for the last five years. Now in her new role as family liaison, she attended an event called Dialogue Over Dinner at Upper Blue Elementary last week.

      About 12 families participated, and a school literacy specialist talked to them about how to read to their children and get more involved with reading. Kelley said she was happy with the number of families who attended, and the topic was especially helpful for foreign-born parents who may have stopped their education to work when they were elementary- or middle-school aged.

      Dialogue Over Dinner is a monthly parenting discussion that the Family and Intercultural Resource Center took over from Summit Prevention Alliance two years ago. This fall the series added a night specifically for parents of elementary kids.

      Tamara Drangstveit, FIRC executive director, said she applauds the school district for making family engagement a priority and following through with the commitment.

      When parents are engaged in their children’s education, she said, students are more likely to graduate high school and go to college and less likely to abuse substances or inflict harm on themselves.

      “Large bureaucracies like the school district can often be overwhelming,” she added, and parents who didn’t grow up with the American school system might be unfamiliar or intimidated by talking to school staff.

      Another resource the district offers families is called El Grupo, a monthly meeting at school that gives Spanish-speaking parents an opportunity to talk to teachers and administrators. McCluskie said the district is trying to start one at every school.

      At Upper Blue Elementary, Kelley said, meetings have involved English and computer lessons. She has taught some parents, who likely don’t have access to computers or Internet at home, how to check their children’s grades online and told them the schools give people free access to computers before and after school hours.

      Not all non-English speaking families are Hispanic, she said. She has visited with families who speak French and Russian as well as one from former Yugoslavia.

      This Thursday, Sept. 25, Kelley will meet parents at Frisco Elementary at 6 p.m. for an El Grupo potluck and to chat about how to better meet their needs. She will also explain the role parents play in their children’s education.

      In other countries, she said, people believe that it’s the teacher’s fault if a child isn’t excelling in school. Without the interpreters and liaisons, that cultural misunderstanding could lead to conflict.

      Part of the district’s increase outreach has involved the Summit Middle School principal, Joel Rivera, visiting the homes of incoming sixth-graders before school starts in the fall.

      The idea was to help kids feel more attached to their school from the beginning, McCluskie said.

      “Connectedness is a driver for good outcomes for kids,” she said, explaining that the home visits have led to improved attendance, better grades and fewer discipline issues. “The impact that it’s had in the school has been just tremendous.”

      The week before school started in August, Rivera and interpreters targeted and visited 40 Spanish-speaking families.

      “The fact that we have a principal who’s willing to take time out of his summer, go into homes and talk to the kids about their hopes and dreams” Drangs said. “I give him huge kudos for that effort.”

      Kelley said the visits benefit the schools as well as the families when educators learn more about their students’ backgrounds.

      For example, during a recent home visit, Kelley learned that a family was concerned that the father might be deported soon. Kids can’t concentrate 

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Google Traduction : « Translate » devient « Captions » pour les Google Glass

      Google Traduction : « Translate » devient « Captions » pour les Google Glass | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      La traduction en ligne prend de plus en plus d’ampleur depuis quelques années. Google traduction tente actuellement d’élargir sa plate-forme de traduction,
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      La traduction en ligne prend de plus en plus d’ampleur depuis quelques années. Googletraduction tente actuellement d’élargir sa plate-forme de traduction, Google Traduction, afin que celui-ci soit utilisable sur tous les appareils, des PC aux smartphones en passant pas les tablettes et bien sûr le Google Glass. Récemment, trois étudiants ont de développé « Captions », une application de traduction de la parole qui s’avère être très efficace.

      Captions, uniquement sur Google Glass

      Cette nouvelle application peut s’avérer particulièrement utile puisque la traduction se fait directement, de la parole au texte. Captions permettra donc de surpasser les barrières de langues puisqu’elle propose plus de 60 combinaisons de traductions. Pour le moment l’application n’est pas encore téléchargeable et sera disponible uniquement sur les Google Glass.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      With Translation Program, St. Luke’s Speaks to Patients in Their Language

      With Translation Program, St. Luke’s Speaks to Patients in Their Language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      TWIN FALLS • Do you only speak Tzotzil? Or maybe you can only properly describe your symptoms in your native Chaldean. Don’t worry, St. Luke’s Magic Valley Medical Center has
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      TWIN FALLS • Do you only speak Tzotzil? Or maybe you can only properly describe your symptoms in your native Chaldean. Don’t worry, St. Luke’s Magic Valley Medical Center has got you covered.

      The hospital already had a contract to provide translators and a few Spanish-speaking employees. But someone wasn’t always around to translate if a non-English speaking or deaf patient came into the emergency room or for Quick Care i.e., walk-ins with colds, injuries or infections that are urgent but not serious enough for the ER.

      So the hospital started a pilot program in the emergency rooms in Twin Falls and at St. Luke’s Jerome two years ago, using a remote translation service, said Malena Rodriguez, a nurse and the hospital’s coordinator for language services.

      The program, MARTTI (My Accessible Real-Time Trusted Interpreter), comes from the Language Access Network, an Ohio-based company that provides interpretive services to more than 350 hospitals and other medical venues nationwide. It looks like a laptop; you call and get connected to a call center with someone who speaks the language in question.

      This spring, the hospital expanded the program, adding a MARTTI at Wood River Medical Center in Ketchum and getting a second one for Twin Falls that moves around the hospital, depending on where it’s needed.

      Rodriguez said the service gets a lot of use with hearing-impaired patients as well as those who speak foreign languages.

      One patient who came in recently was struggling to communicate with the staff until they got an American Sign Language interpreter using the MARTTI, she said.

      “She told me she needed help, and we were able to help her,” Rodriguez said. “She left happy. She gave me a big hug.”

      The number of languages available keeps growing. For now, video translation is available for 31 languages and audio-only for 169 more.

      The video translation is especially helpful because much communication comes from non-verbal cues, LAN Chief Operating Officer Andrew Panos said in a news release.

      “By providing this tool for patients and health-care providers to communicate effectively, anxiety is reduced and outcomes are greatly improved,” he said.

      The video also can be turned off if a patient is in the middle of a medical procedure, Rodriguez said.

      “It’s kind of like pulling the curtain,” she said.

      The translator gets used at least once a day, Rodriguez said, as the area’s non-English-speaking population continues to grow. Eight percent of the Twin Falls County population is foreign-born, and 14 percent speak a language other than English at home. Both numbers had risen about 2 percent since 2000.

      Latinos – mostly Mexicans – make up 15 percent of the county population, up from 9 percent in 2000, and the numbers are higher in counties to the north and east.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Fuuzle . Un nouveau concurrent pour Google

      Fuuzle . Un nouveau concurrent pour Google | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      Fuuzle comble cette lacune. Fuuzle collecte et permet la diffusion du contenu de millions de bulletins d’informations ...
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      22/09/2014 – 07H00 Web (Breizh-info.com) – Le monde du numérique est souvent associé à l’information ; toutefois, une grande partie de celle-ci ne peut pas être trouvée par le biais de moteurs de recherche, ou seulement après de longues heures de navigation harassante sur le net. Une entreprise novatrice, Fuuzle, comble cette lacune. Fuuzle collecte et permet la diffusion du contenu de millions de bulletins d’informations et de flux RSS en provenance de toute la planète, et elle le traduit dans 26 langues avec un niveau raisonnable de précision. Cela inclut les informations, souvent d’une valeur très intéressante, qui peuvent difficilement être trouvées par le biais des moteurs de recherche. Fuuzle vise à offrir très prochainement ses services à un nombre d’utilisateurs réguliers compris entre 15 et 90 millions.

      Le site Web de Fuuzle a été lancé le 18 septembre (version bêta). Cela signifie qu’à partir de cette date, les sociétés, pouvoirs publics, organisations et consommateurs ont accès à une immense base de données d’informations spécifiques provenant de millions de bulletins d’informations et flux RSS du monde entier. La localisation et le regroupement des bulletins d’informations, en particulier, et la diffusion de ces informations, sont des caractéristiques novatrices.

      Logiciel intelligent de traduction
      Tout le monde peut accéder à ces informations par le biais de Fuuzle et les filtrer en fonction des domaines qui l’intéresse. On obtient ainsi des messages d’informations pertinents et actuels qui peuvent être fournis en pas moins de 26 langues couvrant ainsi 92 % de toutes les langues utilisées sur Internet. Fuuzle fonctionne avec un logiciel qui traduit à la fois mot à mot, et par phrase, ce qui permet d’obtenir un texte facile à lire et fidèle à l’original. Même si le résultat n’est pas conforme aux normes élevées des linguistes professionnels, tous les efforts sont réalisés quotidiennement afin d’améliorer davantage le service.

      2,75 milliards de documents
      Depuis plus de 18 mois maintenant, un groupe de spécialistes en informatique et de commerciaux de Fuuzle se consacre à la conception d’un système permettant de localiser ces millions de newsletters et de flux RSS. Chaque mois, grâce aux équipes de travail spéciales de Fuuzle, plus de 100 millions de flux RSS uniques sont diffusés, ainsi que plus de 5 millions de bulletins d’informations. Ajoutez à cela les traductions de toutes ces informations, et la base de données de Fuuzle s’est accrue de près de 2,75 milliards de documents par mois depuis ce printemps.

      Lecteurs de RSS
      Fuuzle offre quelque chose de plus que les lecteurs de RSS existants. Tout d’abord, le fait de les associer aux bulletins d’informations et à leur traduction dans les différentes langues cibles est quelque chose de tout à fait novateur. Il est en de même pour la recherche d’un mot spécifique et de combinaisons de mots dans les RSS et les bulletins d’informations. Fuuzle propose un service d’ « alertes » qui transmet les informations pertinentes aux utilisateurs aux heures qu’ils ont indiquées. Fuuzle est bien plus qu’un « lecteur de RSS avec un nombre limité d’URL ». À intervalles de quelques minutes, des millions de RSS sont vérifiés, traduits et diffusés en temps réel.

      Des informations variées
      Les informations actuellement diffusées par Fuuzle sont très variées ; il peut s’agir d’explications scientifiques issues de l’université de Harvard jusqu’aux dernières nouvelles fournies par des magasins en ligne. Bientôt, les utilisateurs de Fuuzle ne perdront presque plus de temps : en saisissant des mots, ou des combinaisons de mots, à rechercher (alertes Fuuzle), des milliards de documents sont scannés et filtrés pour retrouver exactement les informations requises qui sont proposées dans la langue correspondante.

      Des bureaux aux États-Unis et en Europe
      Fuuzle est proposé gratuitement. La société générera ses revenus de la publicité. Par le biais de Fuuzle AdMaster, chaque annonceur peut indiquer la région dans laquelle il souhaite faire de la publicité, les mots clés de recherche sur lesquels il désire se centrer et le budget maximum qu’il souhaite consacrer à la publicité. Les écrans des utilisateurs ne seront toutefois pas inondés de publicités. Afin de garantir la convivialité de Fuuzle, les publicités sont de petite taille, le nombre de caractères ne dépassant pas 35. Fuuzle prévoit que la croissance la plus importante s’effectuera dans les domaines des économies reposant sur la connaissance : les États-Unis mais également l’Europe (Grande-Bretagne), le Japon et la Corée du Sud. Le siège social de la société se trouve à Willemstad (Curaçao) et des bureaux seront ouverts prochainement aux États-Unis et en Europe (aux Pays-Bas).

      Photo :  DR
      [cc
      Breizh-info.com, 2014, dépêches libres de copie et diffusion sous réserve de mention de la source d’origine. 

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Comment une erreur de traduction a uni un groupe armé tunisien à l'Etat Islamique

      Comment une erreur de traduction a uni un groupe armé tunisien à l'Etat Islamique | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      Publiée par le HuffPost Maghreb, une information AFP rapportait, samedi 20 septembre, "l'allégeance" du groupe armé tunisien "Phalange Okba Ibn Nafaâ" à l'Etat Islamique (EI), s'appuyant sur un ra...
      Charles Tiayon's insight:


      Erreur de traduction: Finalement pas d'allégeance du groupe armé tunisien à l'Etat Islamique
      Huffpost Maghreb avec AFP
      Publication: 21/09/2014 13h05 CEST Mis à jour: 21/09/2014 13h05 CEST


      Publiée par le HuffPost Maghreb, une information AFP rapportait, samedi 20 septembre, "l'allégeance" du groupe armé tunisien "Phalange Okba Ibn Nafaâ" à l'Etat Islamique (EI), s'appuyant sur un rapport du centre américain de surveillance des sites islamistes SITE.

      Dimanche 21 septembre, l'AFP a corrigé son information, remplaçant le terme "d'allégeance" par celui de "soutien".

      Une erreur de traduction de SITE aurait été à l'origine de la confusion, annonce l'agence de presse.

      "Les frères moujahidine de Okba Ibn Nafaâ (...) appuient et soutiennent fortement l'Etat islamique et l'appellent à avancer en passant les frontières et en écrasant partout les trônes des tyrans", indique la traduction corrigée du communiqué publié par le groupe tunisien.

      La Tunisie pourchasse depuis près de deux ans les combattants de la "Phalange Okba Ibn Nafaâ" dans les massifs montagneux à la frontière tuniso-algérienne, notamment le mont Chaambi considéré comme le fief du groupe jihadiste.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Will Alibaba translate from East to West?

      Will Alibaba translate from East to West? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      Alibaba investors are gambling that CEO Jack Ma can make an Asian ecosystem work in the West.
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      Alibaba shares will start trading on the New York Stock Exchange in a record-breaking initial public offering (IPO) which could end up raising US$25 billion. Investors have bought into a new kind of internet company – an ecosystem more than a service – which came out of a frenetic battle between emerging Chinese internet giants. Their gamble is that CEO Jack Ma can make an Asian ecosystem work in the West.

      As the largest internet company in China, it will become the 8th most valuable technology company in the world, behind the likes of Apple, Google, Microsoft, Facebook and IBM. And, with annual growth rates of more than 30 per cent, the gap between Chinese companies such as Alibaba and Tencent and their Western counterparts is getting closer. In fact, with Alibaba’s listing, Chinese internet companies share the top four spots equally with the US in terms of their market value. In descending order, these are: Google, Alibaba, Tencent and Amazon. 

      The strong performance and rapid rise of China’s tech firms may shock some – outside of China, Alibaba is not a household name like Amazon or Google. But, with hundreds of millions of users hosting millions of merchants and businessmen, Alibaba handles more business than any other e-commerce company. It is, of course, China’s enormous and fast growing domestic market that has spurred the rise of these tech companies to service their needs.

      Fast moving innovator.



      But there is more: the competition in this domestic market among Chinese companies as well as with other multinationals is extremely fierce. Successful private companies like Alibaba have to be highly entrepreneurial and customer-oriented to survive, let alone thrive. For example, Alibaba recently introduced online payment platform Alipay Wallet and taxi-calling features in an attempt to compete with rival Tencent’s highly successful WeChat.

      There is little doubt that Alibaba is a fast moving innovator in the world of e-commerce. It has created its own model by constantly adding and integrating new functions and features, driven by the needs of its customers and the desire to offer them something that competitors such as Tencent, Baidu and eBay do not have.

      In terms of the value proposition and business model, Alibaba differs from its Western counterparts. Take Google and Amazon – they both specialise in one area: Google aims to be the best search engine and Amazon the best online retail store. The way that they have positioned themselves in terms of the market reflects the game they played when they first opened up shop. This was to compete with bricks and mortar companies such as Walmart.

      Alibaba is part of the next generation of internet companies. It is first and foremost focused on creating online ecosystems rather than specialising in a niche service. Its main focus is to create new services for customers who have been brought up in and who are highly versed in the world of the internet.

      From East to West.

      A big question though for Alibaba is whether the innovative capabilities and competences that it developed in a Chinese environment will be transferable to the West. The ability to understand customers intimately and continuously innovate is transferable in principle, but will need significant adjustment before it can become a truly global player like Google and Amazon.

      The needs of customers in the West may be very different to those in China, and so the innovative features they have successfully introduced there may not float the boats of Western consumers. Alibaba may also lack the closely knit business network and institutional support that would be critical for the company to create an online ecosystem outside of China. However, these are not insurmountable problems, and their expansion overseas is more likely to start in emerging markets such as Africa and Asia, where Alibaba is much more recognised and admired, than in Europe and North America.

      If Alibaba’s Jack Ma can navigate a route to reach Western markets successfully, then there will be others in China waiting to ride in his wake. Competition among Chinese companies in the tech sector is very strong. It comprises some well known names such as Lenovo, Huawei, Baidu and Tencent, as well as some promising newcomers like DJI and Xiaomi. Their battling rivalry has given them the motivation and tools to innovate and promote themselves in a way that gives them a foothold to compete in the global market. And it means that China will continue to chip away at US dominance in the world technology sector.

      Qing Wang does not work for, consult to, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has no relevant affiliations.

      This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Tulu Film All Set for a Big Release

      Tulu Film All Set for a Big Release | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      BANGALORE: Madime, a Tulu film directed by Vijayakumar Kodialbail of Oriyardori Asal fame is all set to hit theatres this October. This is believed to be the mo...
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      BANGALORE: Madime, a Tulu film directed by Vijayakumar Kodialbail of Oriyardori Asal fame is all set to hit theatres this October. This is believed to be the most expensive Tulu film ever made and is made on a large scale with lavish sets and outdoor locations across Karnataka. While the rest of the Southern film industry is busy making remakes in different languages, Vijaykumar sticks to his Tulu roots and is in fact adapting his own plays into films. He says, "I have done 20 plays over the last 25 years and since they were well received, I decided to adapt them for the silver screen. Madime has been staged as a play 500 times and its popularity made me decide to turn it into a film."

      According to the director, there is a growing demand for Tulu films, which was not the case before. "Especially, in Mangalore, and its surrounding areas, people are more interested in Tulu films than those in other languages and that has encouraged us to do more films in the language," says Vijay.



      Initially, Madime will be released in Mangalore and a few theatres in Mumbai and then it will be shown in theatres in Bangalore. He adds, "Since Tulu speaking people are spread across Bangalore city, our only option is to release it in multiplexes. We have also been in talks with a producer who is keen to remake Madime in Kannada."



      The director claims that it was Oriyardori, which ran for 25 weeks gave a boost to the Tulu film industry and today, more and more directors are coming forward to make films in the language. "Intially films were made in Tulu, once every few years. Today, the Tulu industry has registered 40 titles at the Karnataka Film Chamber of Commerce and right now eight films are in production," he says.

      The director also mentions that there is difficulty in converting a play into a feature film but since we have already done it before, we have the experience now," he explains. Vijaykumar has recast the leading pair -- Likith Shetty and Ramya Barna from Oriyardori Asal in Madime too. "Likith knows the language well, as he is from Udupi. We don't have a popular hero in Tulu cinema and since Likith's last film did well, we roped him in again for this film as well," he says.  Since it is necessary for the actors to know the language for dubbing purposes, the choices are limited for the director.  Thus actress Ramya was also repeated because there are few Tulu speaking actresses working in the local industry. "Although big names like Aishwarya Rai or Deepika Padukone say they are from this region, their contribution to their regional language is negligible as their work is in Bollywood," says Vijay.

      Madime is a tale that talks about dowry. "It aims to show what parents go through when their daughters get married and sends across a strong message," concludes the director.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      UP Diliman to host Asian translation conference

      UP Diliman to host Asian translation conference | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      From October 23 to 25, 2014, the Department of English and Comparative Literature of the University of the Philippines in Diliman will host the 6th Asian Translation Traditions International Conference (ATT6). The conference seeks to explore translation theories and methodologies arising from the specific historical and contemporary contexts of Asia.
      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      From October 23 to 25, 2014, the Department of English and Comparative Literature of the University of the Philippines in Diliman will host the 6th Asian Translation Traditions International Conference (ATT6). The conference seeks to explore translation theories and methodologies arising from the specific historical and contemporary contexts of Asia.

      ATT6 features eminent speakers and academics such as Resil Mojares of the University of San Carlos in Cebu City, Anis Nor of the University of Malaya, Harish Trivedi of the University of Delhi, Judy Wakabayashi of Kent State University, and Lawrence Wong of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

      The conference is open to teachers, students, academics, researchers, translators, and anyone interested in translation studies. For those who are interested in participating in the conference, the registration fee is P5,000, which covers a conference kit, one conference dinner, and morning snacks, lunch, and afternoon snacks for the duration of the conference.

      The deadline for registration is October 15, 2014. For further information about the conference, visithttp://asiantranslation6.up.edu.ph/ or http://asiantranslation6.tumblr.com. For questions and inquiries, email asiantranslation6@up.edu.ph.

      The Asian Translation Traditions (ATT) conference series began in 2002 with the aim of challenging the Eurocentric emphasis of translation studies. The conferences have since been held in Hong Kong, India, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates.   

      Press release from the University of the Philippines

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      Baahubali dubbing works underway - The Times of India

      Baahubali dubbing works underway - The Times of India | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
      Rajamouli's Baahubali is shaping up at a brisk pace. The film's team have also started dubbing for the Telugu version of the movie recently
      Charles Tiayon's insight:
      Rajamouli's Baahubali is shaping up at a brisk pace. The film's team have also started dubbing for the Telugu version of the movie recently. "#Baahubali Telugu dubbing has commenced. #Mahaabali (Tamil) dubbing will commence soon.", confirmed Baahubali team in their official social networking page. 

      Baahubali is reported to have completed 75% of shooting with the recent Mahabaleshwar schedule and will resume shooting from this Tuesday after three days break. Prabhas, Anushka, Rana, Tamanna, Sathyaraj, Ramya Krishna, Nasser and others starring Baahubali will enjoy MM Keeravani musical, while Senthil is cranking the camera and Kotagiri Venkateswara Rao will take care of editing. 

      Shobu Yarlagadda and Prasad Devineni are producing Baahubali on Ark Media Works Banner. A new teaser of Baahubali is expected in October and the movie is slated for 2015 release.

      more...
      No comment yet.
      Scooped by Charles Tiayon
      Scoop.it!

      7 Key Strategies to Generate More Leads from Social Media » Search Engine People Blog

      7 Key Strategies to Generate More Leads from Social Media » Search Engine People Blog | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

      Social media can serve as a gateway for high quality leads. Businesses often underutilize the power of social media in generating vital leads and spend a lot on other channels of digital marketing in source of leads. Social media is an interactive platform for connecting with people so as to exchange, create and share information and ideas through virtual communities. Moreover, in doing that it not only imparts knowledge but also interacts which makes it a two way street unlike the traditional media where the scope of interaction is limited or narrow. Here, I share the top 7 key strategies that every business must adopt in order to generate quality leads from social media:

      1. Crowdsource Content And Build Community

      Crowdsourcing is the process of getting required content, ideas and work by soliciting contributions from a diverse crowd usually online in which independent and self-identified volunteers contribute their bit in adding value to the final result. For an effective content crowdsourcing, the key is to build the network group that may involve entrepreneurs, businessmen, government officials, academicians or community leaders who are a great source in reaching out to calibre content curators and building a community. In building community via crowdsourcing, the people outside the organization contribute and the division of labour provides the best results that are drawn by truncating and keeping the best in class thus creating an amazing set of people who add value to the community.

      2. Target Customer Personas

      Enhancing the user experience automatically helps to generate vital leads and increase ROI. This can be done by targeting the customer persona's, which helps us to understand the audiences needs, wants and preferences. In a marketing scenario if one can get into the audience shoe, the communication will be more effective; hence customer personas which are near representatives of the audience are created so that the audience can connect to them and relate to them. A well-developed persona will have farfetched results and help in making decisions more efficiently and effectively.

      Buyer persona profile for busy mom (Image credit: contentmarketinginstitute)

      3. Use Vine And Set The Stage To Become The Most Talked About Page On Facebook

      Vine has become the talk of the town, it's one of the fastest growing Facebook page in the U.S .celebrating millions of likes in less than a few months and the likes are surging with its popularity going international. Videos from vine that are posted to best vines Facebook page gain huge amount of shares and great scores in terms of likes and comments.Vine, the new app lets you create a six second video sharing network with friends and followers across the vine network. The process involves downloading and installing the app, signing in with twitter and finally allowing twitter to authenticate vine for you, and you are ready to create history.

      4. Connect With Top Influencers And Make Your Content Go Viral

      Practicing a regular outreach to connect with the people who might help in generating leads plays a vital role in getting visibility. Connecting with the community via fan discussions or a general chit chat can be highly influencing. For bloggers it is important to mention great influences in order to be noticed and go viral. Linkedin is designed to connect with the business associates, and it is easy to connect with top influencers. Commenting on the influencers content and then asking for connection. Also mentioning influencers and setting up Google alert to let them know when their names get mentioned helps in getting visibility.

      5. Be Polite In Answering Customer's Queries And Include CTA Choices

      Any query on social media needs a careful handling, the customer is the king tag line follows here too. The way a concern is addressed says a lot about the company. A proper humble social media call to action entice the social media audience with a keen focus on the next action plan you wish them to take. The concern may not be addressed then and there, but the assurance will pay good dividends. Motivating the prospects and putting the CTA options in the right hierarchy of importance, is very critical and helps in determining what you want prospects to do. The intention is to keep it unproblematic and easy so that the readers will want to be engaged further without getting bugged.

      6. Stay Ahead Of Your Competitors With Sponsored Posts, Tweets And Secret Tools

      Creating a social media strategy to get the best aftermath for generating leads and referrals, augmenting website traffic and building a customer loyalty are a must for any business house. A promoted post to a community driven website will have a better chance of visibility and fame vis a vis others. These sponsored posts are like advertisements that help in drawing a large heap of people featured on the most viewed pages. Promoted or sponsored tweets are beneficial in targeting specific audiences; nonfollowers by gender, geography, language can also be encompassed.  Various analytical tools like KISSmetrics and Google Analytics facilitates you to acknowledge the specific user engagement and the customers to fully understand your products and services.

      7. Leverage The Power Of Visual Content

      The web world is brimming with literature and provides a ubiquitous platform to all. Since 90% of the information that is transmitted is visual, social media plays a major role in making this communication easy which is both sapid and absorbed. In terms of business, the infographics help in greater traffic as compared to those who do not use visual content for business augmenting. What shows, sells and visual content has made a mark in this context, a visual image speaks more that what cannot be conveyed otherwise so, social media should utilize the power of the visual content to its maximum limit so that everyone can benefit from it.

      The above mentioned points will tremendously help in increasing the inbound traffic. The higher the quality content syndicated on social media, the higher the traffic generated, and more traffic means higher leads and more conversions.



      Read more: http://www.searchenginepeople.com/blog/925-social-media-leads-strategies.html#ixzz3E3iht0xt

      Charles Tiayon's insight:

      Social media can serve as a gateway for high quality leads. Businesses often underutilize the power of social media in generating vital leads and spend a lot on other channels of digital marketing in source of leads. Social media is an interactive platform for connecting with people so as to exchange, create and share information and ideas through virtual communities. Moreover, in doing that it not only imparts knowledge but also interacts which makes it a two way street unlike the traditional media where the scope of interaction is limited or narrow. Here, I share the top 7 key strategies that every business must adopt in order to generate quality leads from social media:

      1. Crowdsource Content And Build Community

      Crowdsourcing is the process of getting required content, ideas and work by soliciting contributions from a diverse crowd usually online in which independent and self-identified volunteers contribute their bit in adding value to the final result. For an effective content crowdsourcing, the key is to build the network group that may involve entrepreneurs, businessmen, government officials, academicians or community leaders who are a great source in reaching out to calibre content curators and building a community. In building community via crowdsourcing, the people outside the organization contribute and the division of labour provides the best results that are drawn by truncating and keeping the best in class thus creating an amazing set of people who add value to the community.

      2. Target Customer Personas

      Enhancing the user experience automatically helps to generate vital leads and increase ROI. This can be done by targeting the customer persona's, which helps us to understand the audiences needs, wants and preferences. In a marketing scenario if one can get into the audience shoe, the communication will be more effective; hence customer personas which are near representatives of the audience are created so that the audience can connect to them and relate to them. A well-developed persona will have farfetched results and help in making decisions more efficiently and effectively.

      Buyer persona profile for busy mom (Image credit: contentmarketinginstitute)

      3. Use Vine And Set The Stage To Become The Most Talked About Page On Facebook

      Vine has become the talk of the town, it's one of the fastest growing Facebook page in the U.S .celebrating millions of likes in less than a few months and the likes are surging with its popularity going international. Videos from vine that are posted to best vines Facebook page gain huge amount of shares and great scores in terms of likes and comments.Vine, the new app lets you create a six second video sharing network with friends and followers across the vine network. The process involves downloading and installing the app, signing in with twitter and finally allowing twitter to authenticate vine for you, and you are ready to create history.

      4. Connect With Top Influencers And Make Your Content Go Viral

      Practicing a regular outreach to connect with the people who might help in generating leads plays a vital role in getting visibility. Connecting with the community via fan discussions or a general chit chat can be highly influencing. For bloggers it is important to mention great influences in order to be noticed and go viral. Linkedin is designed to connect with the business associates, and it is easy to connect with top influencers. Commenting on the influencers content and then asking for connection. Also mentioning influencers and setting up Google alert to let them know when their names get mentioned helps in getting visibility.

      5. Be Polite In Answering Customer's Queries And Include CTA Choices

      Any query on social media needs a careful handling, the customer is the king tag line follows here too. The way a concern is addressed says a lot about the company. A proper humble social media call to action entice the social media audience with a keen focus on the next action plan you wish them to take. The concern may not be addressed then and there, but the assurance will pay good dividends. Motivating the prospects and putting the CTA options in the right hierarchy of importance, is very critical and helps in determining what you want prospects to do. The intention is to keep it unproblematic and easy so that the readers will want to be engaged further without getting bugged.

      6. Stay Ahead Of Your Competitors With Sponsored Posts, Tweets And Secret Tools

      Creating a social media strategy to get the best aftermath for generating leads and referrals, augmenting website traffic and building a customer loyalty are a must for any business house. A promoted post to a community driven website will have a better chance of visibility and fame vis a vis others. These sponsored posts are like advertisements that help in drawing a large heap of people featured on the most viewed pages. Promoted or sponsored tweets are beneficial in targeting specific audiences; nonfollowers by gender, geography, language can also be encompassed.  Various analytical tools like KISSmetrics and Google Analytics facilitates you to acknowledge the specific user engagement and the customers to fully understand your products and services.

      7. Leverage The Power Of Visual Content

      The web world is brimming with literature and provides a ubiquitous platform to all. Since 90% of the information that is transmitted is visual, social media plays a major role in making this communication easy which is both sapid and absorbed. In terms of business, the infographics help in greater traffic as compared to those who do not use visual content for business augmenting. What shows, sells and visual content has made a mark in this context, a visual image speaks more that what cannot be conveyed otherwise so, social media should utilize the power of the visual content to its maximum limit so that everyone can benefit from it.

      The above mentioned points will tremendously help in increasing the inbound traffic. The higher the quality content syndicated on social media, the higher the traffic generated, and more traffic means higher leads and more conversions.



      Read more: http://www.searchenginepeople.com/blog/925-social-media-leads-strategies.html#ixzz3E3iht0xt

      more...
      No comment yet.