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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
Call for Articles—Alif 38, 2018
Translation and the Production of Knowledge(s)
Guest-edited by Mona Baker
Abstract deadline: October 1, 2016
Article submission deadline: May 1, 2017
The point of departure for this special issue of Alif is that knowledge is ‘produced’ rather than ‘discovered’, and that translation is a core mechanism for the production and circulation of all forms of knowledge. This topic has received relatively limited attention in translation studies to date, and even less in related disciplines such as cultural studies and the history of ideas. The few, dispersed studies that have touched on the subject have so far failed to encourage sustained engagement with the role played by translation in the production of knowledge(s) across the entire spectrum of human activities.
This special issue aims to provide an opportunity for exploring various aspects of this important theme. Contributors might offer theoretical, empirical and/or historical accounts of the impact of translation on the production, renegotiation and reification of knowledge in relation to one or more themes or areas of human activity, including but not restricted to the following:
· Expert scientific discourse;
· Popular science;
· Literary and non-literary genres, motifs and metaphors that encode knowledge from specific perspectives;
· Canonical and sacred texts such as the Qur’an and the Bible – retranslation is of particular interest in this context;
· Cultural and historical narratives, which may be elaborated through a variety of media, genres and platforms;
· Political theorizing, both popular and expert;
· Knowledge produced by lobby groups that rely heavily on translation, such as the Zionist-led Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI);
· The production of gendered knowledge in the sciences and humanities, as well as lay discourses;
· World views, cultural information and identity roles produced by the gaming industry – one of the most influential means of communicating ‘knowledge’ to young minds;
· Reports produced by international and supranational organizations, such as the United Nations Human Development Reports;
· Various theories and scholarly accounts produced across the full spectrum of academic disciplines, including anthropology, area studies, gender studies, and the social and political sciences;
· Knowledge produced through citizen media activities and platforms, including street art, social media and documentary film;
· Knowledge produced in the context of new information and communication technologies that harness the potential of multi-modality in genres such as televised newscasts;
· The imbalance in patterns of translation flow between dominant and less dominant groups and languages, which impacts their ability to participate in the production of knowledge, locally and globally;
· Alternative knowledge produced – and shared globally through various forms of translation – by radical democratic initiatives, such as the World Social Forum, Indymedia, and Inter Press Service;
· Processes of canonization by certain institutions and communities of specific translations that produce and give currency to particular types of knowledge.
1 October 2016 Deadline for submission of abstracts (300 words)
1 November 2016 Selected contributors notified of acceptance of abstracts
1 May 2017 Deadline for submission of full papers
1 September 2017 Confirmation of acceptance of papers
1 November 2017 Deadline for submission of final, revised versions of papers
Spring 2018 Publication date
Alif is a refereed, annual, multi-lingual, and multi-disciplinary journal published by the Department of English and Comparative Literature at the American University in Cairo. Each issue revolves around a theme or a problematic, bringing together the views and approaches of scholars from all over the world.
Alif has been selected by MLA as a distinguished journal and has been made available electronically through JSTOR academic service (www.jstor.org).
Submission instructions: An initial 300-word abstract should be submitted by 1 October 2016, accompanied by the author’s email address, telephone number and postal address. Articles based on accepted abstracts should be between 5000 and 10000 words and may be submitted in Arabic, English, or French by electronic mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org AND email@example.com, together with an abstract of 100 words and a 50-word biographical note on the contributor. Authors should consult the MLA Handbook for style in preparing their manuscript.
Only original articles that do not duplicate previously published work, including the author’s, and are not under review by another journal or collection will be considered.
Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, Dept. of English and Comparative Literature
American University in Cairo, 113 Kasr Al Aini Street, PO Box 2511,
Cairo 11511, Egypt
Fax: (+ 202) 2795-7565, Tel.: (+ 202) 2797-5107
E-mail: Alif: firstname.lastname@example.org
دعوة للإسهام في العدد 38 من مجلة ألف، 2018
الترجمة وإنتاج المعرفة
تشرف على تحرير هذا العدد منى بيكر
آخر موعد لتسليم الملخصات: 1 أكتوبر 2016
آخر موعد لتسليم المقالات: 1 مايو 2017
ينطلق هذا العدد الخاص من أن المعرفة "تُنتَج" أكثر مما "تُكتشفَ" وأن الترجمة آلية أساسية لإنتاج جميع أشكال المعرفة وتداولها. لم يحظ هذا الموضوع حتى الآن إلا بالقليل من العناية في مجال دراسات الترجمة، وكذلك الأمر، بل أقل، في التخصصات ذات الصلة، مثل الدراسات الثقافية وتاريخ الأفكار. وحتى وقتنا هذا، فشل هذا القدر القليل المتناثر الذي اقترب من هذا الموضوع في دعم مواصلة الانشغال بالدور الذي لعبته الترجمة في إنتاج مختلف أنواع المعرفة في الأنشطة الإنسانية بكل أطيافها.
يتيح هذا العدد الخاص الفرصة لاستكشاف تنوع ظواهر هذا الموضوع المهم. ويمكن للمشاركين فيه أن يطرحوا مقولات نظرية أو تطبيقية و/أو تاريخية عما تتركه الترجمة من أثر على إنتاج المعرفة أو إعادة معالجتها، وذلك فيما يتعلق بواحد أو أكثر من موضوعات الأنشطة الإنسانية ومجالاتها التي تشمل ما يأتي، وإن كانت لا تقتصر عليه:
· الخطاب العلمي المتخصص
· العلم المبسّط
· الأجناس الأدبية وغير الأدبية، والموضوعات، والأشكال المجازية، التي تؤطر المعرفة من منظورات خاصة
· النصوص التشريعية والمقدسة، كالقرآن والكتاب المقدس – وتحظى إعادة الترجمة بأهمية خاصة في هذا السياق
· السرديات الثقافية والتاريخية التي قد تتوسع من خلال مختلف وسائط الإعلام والمنابر وأشكال التعبير
· التنظير السياسي، سواء كان متخصصاً أو غير متخصص
· المعرفة التي تنتجها جماعات الضغط التي تعوّل كثيراً على الترجمة، مثل معهد بحوث الإعلام الشرق أوسطي الصهيوني
· إنتاج المعرفة الجنوسية في العلوم والإنسانيات، وأيضاً في الخطابات المتاحة للملأ
· ما تنتجه صناعة الألعاب من وجهات نظر عالمية ومعلومات ثقافية وأدوار متعلقة بالهوية، وهذه الصناعة من أكثر الوسائل تأثيراً في إيصال "المعرفة" إلى عقول النشء
· التقارير التي تصدرها المؤسسات الدولية والعابرة للقوميات، مثل تقارير التنمية البشرية التي تصدرها الأمم المتحدة
· النظريات والمقولات العلمية التي تنتجها جميع أطياف التخصصات الأكاديمية، بما في ذلك الأنثروبولوجيا والدراسات الإقليمية والدراسات الجنوسية والعلوم الاجتماعية والسياسية
· المعرفة الناتجة عن أنشطة وسائل الاتصال المدنية، بما في ذلك فنون الشارع والأفلام التسجيلية ووسائل التواصل الاجتماعي
· ما ينتج من معرفة في سياق التكنولوجيا الجديدة للمعلومات والاتصال، والتي تمهد للتعدد في أشكال التعبير، كما هو الحال في نشرات الأخبار المتلفزة
· خلل التوازن في تدفق الترجمة بين الجماعات المهيمنة من جهة، والجماعات واللغات الأقل هيمنة من جهة أخرى، الأمر الذي يؤثر على قدرة هذه الأخيرة على المشاركة في إنتاج المعرفة، العالمي منها والمحلي
· المعرفة البديلة التي تنتجها المبادرات الديمقراطية الراديكالية، مثل المنتدى الاجتماعي العالمي، ومركز الميديا المستقلة، ووكالة أنباء انتر ݒرس. وهي معرفة يشارك فيها العالم من خلال أشكال متعددة من الترجمة
· عمليات الشرعنة التي تقوم بها مؤسسات وجماعات بعينها على ترجمات ذات خصوصية تنتج أنواعاً مخصوصة من المعرفة وتعمل على ترويجها.
1 (أكتوبر 2016 آخر موعد لتسليم الملخصات (300 كلمة 1
1 نوفمبر 2016 إخطار أصحاب الملخصات المقبولة بقبولها
1 مايو 2017 آخر موعد لتسليم المقالات
1 سبتمبر 2017 إعلان نتيجة تحكيم المقالات
1 نوفمبر 2017 آخر موعد لتسليم المقالات بعد تعديلات المحكمين
ربيع 2018 ميعاد النشر
ألف مجلة محكمة متعددة الحقول المعرفية واللغات تصدر سنوياً عن قسم الأدب الإنجليزي والمقارن بالجامعةالأمريكية بالقاهرة. ويدور كل عدد منها حول موضوع أو إشكالية، ويشمل وجهات النظر والمقاربات التي يقدمها الدارسون من مختلف أرجاء العالم.
وقد وقع اختيار المنظمات الدولية المختصة على مجلة ألف بوصفها أحد الإصدارات المرموقة، ومن ثم فهي متاحة عبر الخدمة الأكاديمية الإلكترونية:
قواعد النشر: يقدم الباحث ملخصاً مبدئياً للمقالة (300 كلمة) في موعد أقصاه 1 أكتوبر 2016، ويكون مع الملخص عنوان صاحب المقالة الإلكتروني ورقم هاتفه وعنوانه البريدي. يتراوح طول المقالات المقبولة ما بين 5000 إلى 10000 كلمة. وتقبل المجلة المقالات باللغات العربية والإنجليزية والفرنسية، إلكترونياً على العنوانين:email@example.com
ويلحق بالمقالات ملخص نهائي في حدود 100 كلمة وتعريف بالكاتب في حدود 50 كلمة.
تفضل المجلة توثيق المراجع والاستشهادات في المقالة عن طريق أقواس داخلية في المتن بها اسم الكاتب الأخير مع رقم الصفحة = (اسم الكاتب، ص 5)، على أن يكون هناك ثبت نهائي للمراجع به معلومات النشر كاملة، مثلاً:
الاسم الأخير، الاسم الأول. عنوان الكتاب. مكان النشر: الناشر، سنة النشر.
مع إضافة أرقام الصفحات كاملة في ثبت المراجع في حالة كون المصدر مقالة ظهرت في كتاب أو دورية :
الاسم الأخير، الاسم الأول. "عنوان المقالة". عنوان الكتاب. مكان النشر: الناشر، سنة النشر. ص ص 1-26 [على سبيل المثال].
كل المعلومات الإضافية غير الببليوجرافية تظهر في هوامش تكون في نهاية المقالة.
تقبل المجلة فقط المقالات الأصيلة التي لم تنشر من قبل على ألا تكون قيد التحكيم في مجلة أخرى.
ألف: مجلة البلاغة المقارنة
قسم الأدب الإنجليزي والمقارن
الجامعة الأمريكية بالقاهرة
113شارع القصر العيني، صندوق بريد2511 ، القاهرة 11511
جمهورية مصر العربية
هاتف: 5107-2797 (202)، فاكس: 7565-2795 (202)
بريد إلكتروني: firstname.lastname@example.org
الموقع الإلكتروني: http://www.aucegypt.edu/huss/eclt/alif/Pages/default.aspx
When, local time:
Tuesday, 8 September 2015 - 8:00am to Wednesday, 9 September 2015 - 8:00pm
Type of Event:
Category 2-Intergovernmental meeting
Celebration of the 2015 International Literacy Day and 2015 UNESCO International Literacy Prizes Award Ceremony. Literacy and Sustainable Societies will be the theme for this 2015 International Literacy Day.
A special event will be organized on 8-9 September 2015 at UNESCO Headquarters in the presence of the Director-General of UNESCO. It intends to prepare the ground for literacy action in the post-2015 era, in particular:
- key issues to be addressed in light of the Education 2030 Framework for Action discussed at the World Education Forum 2015 (Incheon, Republic of Korea, 19-22 May 2015) for adoption at the 38th session of UNESCO’s General Conference
- monitoring of literacy progress
- effective global coordination to ensure sustained and coordinated efforts for literacy.
This event will also mark the 50th anniversary of the World Congress of Ministers of Education on the Eradication of Illiteracy (Islamic Republic of Iran, 1965), which made the Tehran recommendation on the proclamation of the International Literacy Day and advanced the notion of functional literacy. As in previous years, the 2015 UNESCO International Literacy Prizes Awards Ceremony will also take place.
I want to become a conference interpreter
There are many ways to become a conference interpreter. However, there are three main features that unite all interpreters:
- A passion for languages
- An excellent command of their mother tongues
- Their ability to communicate
Conference interpreting is a specialist skill that must be learnt so all aspiring interpreters must obtain a postgraduate qualification in conference interpreting or gain significant professional experience in this field in order to pursue this career.
You need to be able to understand foreign languages in order to become an interpreter, but it is a myth that you have to be bilingual.
Your most important language as an interpreter is your mother tongue. You have to be able to express yourself clearly and eloquently in your native language when interpreting.
How can I study conference interpreting?
Where can I study conference interpreting?
What help is available?
How can I study conference interpreting?
Most conference interpreting courses are at a postgraduate level so you will need to have a bachelor's degree in order to enrol. This degree does not have to be in languages.
Where can I study conference interpreting?
Postgraduate degrees in translation and conference interpreting are offered by a number of European universities. These cover a range of language combinations and can be followed both full-time and part-time.
Here is a non-exhaustive list of universities [306 KB] that work regularly with DG Interpretation.
What help is available?
Studying at postgraduate level can sometimes be very expensive and is always a labour-intensive experience but don't panic, as help is at hand for both interpreting students and universities!
Training assistance, virtual tools, grants and bursaries
The European Commission cooperates closely with universities which provide conference interpreting training to ensure high level professional standards. Although the Commission does not itself organise training courses in interpretation, we provide both on-site and remote assistance by experienced trainers, a number of virtual training tools as well as grants to universities and bursaries for students. Read more here.
Individual universities often provide funding for interpreting students but do not publicise their bursaries before you apply. Contact them directly for more information and to see what help is available.
The Newcomers scheme is a new initiative designed to help interpreters at the beginning of their career to overcome the initial hurdles of establishing themselves in the profession and within the EU Institutions.
This scheme offers recently accredited freelancers:
100 contract days over an eighteen month period
mentoring/coaching by experienced colleagues
dummy booth practice
networking opportunities with other newcomers
This initiative provides young interpreters with a solid grounding and an insight into what it is like to be working for a European Institution.
Candidates for this scheme are selected on the basis of the needs of the service and are only eligible if they passed the accreditation test during the previous 12 months and live permanently in Brussels.
An Integration Programme is a +/- 4-week intensive training course offered to candidate freelance interpreters who narrowly fail the freelance accreditation test, or to interpreters who have just passed their final interpreting exams, in order to help them pass the accreditation test at the end of the programme.
These courses are organised for "priority languages", which have a shortage of interpreters, and are determined on an annual basis.
International and National Networks
For more information about interpreting, the skills involved, and how to go about pursuing an interpreting career, check the websites of some international and national networks.
- AIIC - The International Association of Conference Interpreters
- International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters
- FIT - Federación Internacional de Traductores
- ENPSIT – European Network for Public Service Interpreting and Translation
- International Medical Interpreters Association
- UK: National Network for Interpreting (NNI)
- UK: Association for sign Language interpreters (British sign language)
- The Netherlands: Netherlands Society of Interpreters and Translators
- Spain: Asociación Española de Traductores, Correctores e Intérpretes
- USA: InterpretAmerica
- USA: National Association of Judiciary Interpreters and Association
If you want your organisation to be included in this list, please contact us:
Department of African, Middle Eastern and South Asian Languages and Literatures, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; e-mail: email@example.com
International Journal of Middle East Studies / Volume 43 / Issue 03 / August 2011, pp 385-386
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020743811000456 (About DOI), Published online: 26 July 2011
The three-week uprising in Egypt that ended with the removal of Husni Mubarak on February 11 happened to coincide with the section of my spring course syllabus on the Egyptian novel from Najib Mahfuz to Ahmed Alaidy. As was the case for many of my colleagues and their students, the rapid and awe-inspiring events unfolding daily before us pushed purely academic concerns to the margins of class discussion. This tidal wave of revolutionary politics erupting into the classroom forced me to the realization that my larger syllabus was not simply some neutral or systematic survey of half a century’s worth of Arabic literature. I began to think about the largely invisible dystopic intellectual and historical paradigms through which modern Arabic literature is often framed, at least in the United States. The nahḍa/naksa narrative, which compelled many of us to read Arab cultural history of the 20th century as a story of brief “awakening” followed by irredeemable decline and corruption, is clearly no longer tenable in the wake of February 11. This same narrative underpinned the highly self-conscious postmodernism that began to emerge in Egypt in the 1990s and that reached its apogee a couple of decades later at the end of the 2000s, a postmodernism that was celebrated (though by no means universally) as the true beginning of literary modernity and the emancipation of the subject from the dead weight of a past ideological age.
And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech (Genesis 11: 1)
So either you already know the story or not, but Babylon was a city back in ancient Mesopotamia days. It was at one point the biggest city in the world, and it’s a city that also appears in the Bible, somewhere in the beginning. And as the city was growing all the people there got together, started firing up some mud bricks, and got around to making a massive tower. So they just wanted to hang out and not scatter about and do something, or whatever. They were bored maybe. There was no Candy Crush back then. Anyway, God wasn’t having any of that, so he divided all the kids by confusing their languages, etc. They stopped building and just roamed about. You know the story.
In the Bible, the story kind of just ends there, how they just scattered about. And then it continues on saying who begat who, etc. But, what was left out of the original text was that some of those who were scattered upon the face of all the earth (Genesis 11:8) inevitably became interpreters and translators. Business is business. And, because God kind of got angry that one time, business was most probably booming. And what I put forth to you, the reader, is that this part about translators in the Bible was left out either because of being lost in translation (because maybe there wasn’t a word for that profession yet?), or maybe it was erased on purpose (that part about translators being in there), because the Vatican doesn’t want you to know that you, the translator, have a profession kind of almost literally invented by, and because of, God.
Now go forth, my children, and preacheth the word/s, and yea, ye shalt later translate it and edit it and proofread it and QA it into a million different languages. Just think, if those kooky Babylonians didn’t make that tower, you’d be out of a job. Maybe.
THE postponement by the Education Ministry on the decision to make it compulsory for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) candidates to pass English next year has made many parents, teachers and students heave a sigh of relief.
Before new changes are implemented in the education system, it is vital to consider the pros and cons of the implementation, as well as their short- and-long-term effects.
In the case of making it compulsory for SPM candidates to pass English, it is quite an ambitious goal, considering the fact that the language is a second language that may be frequently or occasionally spoken by some living in an intellectual and urban environment.
However, those in suburban and rural areas may not be interested in making English their medium of communication unless their motivation and awareness is high. This explains the poor percentage of English passes in many rural schools in public examinations.
The move by the ministry to postpone the plan gives teachers and students extra time to prepare so that the school’s performance will not be badly affected, while the number of students qualified for certificates will not be low and
disappointing. I suggest that English teachers gear up and work diligently, intelligently and effectively to help students pass English for university admission and future careers.
While teachers focus on advanced learners who strive to achieve excellent grades in examinations, students with less or zero interest in learning English should not be left unguided.
Teachers who ignore the latter will not help make a win-win situation. Not only will the bad teacher-student relationship put teachers under pressure but the weak students will also gradually become weaker and problems will worsen when their inability to think rationally affects their perception of the importance of education and having a good command of English.
It is important for teachers to assist these unenthusiastic learners in every way possible.
I believe that identifying and rectifying problems is the first and final procedure of solving matters. In the case of helping students perform and pass English, the lack of vocabulary may be the problem, while the use of a dictionary, the solution.
The main reason for students’ failure to pass the subject is because of their poor writing skill. Many candidates feel de-motivated, nervous, confused and stressed when trying to answer essay questions, resulting in some showing no attempt at all.
Truth be told, some students have never owned, used or learned to use a dictionary.
Consequently, they have not been able to spell simple words, let alone make sentences. Students should be reminded constantly to buy, bring or borrow dictionaries for use when doing English revisions or writing compositions.
Everyone needs to be given a chance to learn dictionary skills as this will help students with their reading, speaking and writing skills. When dictionaries become close companions, it will encourage independent learning and students will eventually overcome their writing problems.
They may not be able to produce error-free essays but grammatically flawed compositions are way better than leaving the space blank. After all, it is the effort that matters.
MUHAMAD SOLAHUDIN RAMLI,MARANG, TERENGGANU
The Indian Parliament is the supreme legislative body in India. The Indian Parliament consists of two houses called the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their head.
Parliament of India has invited candidates for the Parliamentary interpreter Grade II positions. The details of these vacancies are as follows.
Post : Parliamentary interpreter Grade II
No. of vacancies : 11
Remuneration (in Rs. per month) : 15,600 - 39,100 + Grade Pay 5,400/-
Maximum age limit : Candidate should not be more than 27 years old.
Essential qualification : To check the required essential qualification, refer to the official notification.
Mode of selection : Selection of the candidates will be don eon the basis of Oration test/written test/ simultaneous interpretation test/ personal interview.
How to apply : Candidate can apply for this post only through the Offline mode of application to
The Joint Recruitment Cell
Parliament House Annexe,
Last date of application : 31st August, 2015
For further details, refer to the official notification.
Translator - Language Services
Employer TC Transcontinental
Posted August 21, 2015
Closes August 23, 2015
Job Type Permanent
Hours Full Time
Purpose of the Position:
This position is responsible for providing translation and proofreading services for the materials produced in print media publications such as retail flyers, direct mail and promotional signage. Specifically, the incumbent will ensure the product is aligned to client guidelines and to consumer and language laws in the province of Quebec.
Ensure all French copywriting and proofreading conforms to client guidelines and to consumer and language laws in the province of Quebec. Ensure copy style, standard and guidelines are followed in French print material.
Provide written translation services such as proofreading and copywriting in a timely and accurate manner
Health and safety - promoting and maintaining a healthy and safe work environment through the application and respect of the regulations.
Continuous Improvement- promote, support and maintain all the Continuous Improvement activities related to your team (including planning, execution and follow-up). Offer suggestions and recommendations for continuous improvement
Degree or formal training in Translation from English to French
Proficiency in French and English communication skills (oral and written)
5 years experience in English-to-French translation on a wide range of materials
Solid understanding of translation and proofreading functions and an eye for detail
A solid understanding of basic advertising principles is a requirement for this role.
A strong familiarity with translation resources and terminology tools and ability to work with a range of tools
Strong problem solving skills, and ability to perform under tight deadlines
Strong ability to manage multiple priorities in a multi-stakeholder and fast-paced environment
Please note that only selected candidates will be contacted for an interview. Your application will be treated with confidentiality and within equal opportunity principles.
TC Transcontinental is committed to providing equal opportunities to all candidates and to meeting the needs of people with disabilities. Should you be contacted regarding an employment opportunity and require an accommodation for a disability, we will be pleased to work with you to identify how we can best support you through this process.
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Registran 2.809 bolivianismos en Diccionario de la Lengua Española
22 de Agosto de 2015, 06:49
La obra de Raúl Rivadeneira Prada será presentada el miércoles 26 de agosto durante el aniversario de la Academia Boliviana de la Lengua
“El estudio de Raúl Rivadeneira, fuera de dar cuenta del número de bolivianismos consignados en el Diccionario de la lengua española (DILE) y de hacer su respectivo registro, ofrece atinados comentarios sobre cuestiones tan importantes como la redacción de las definiciones de bolivianismos, señalando las deficiencias e inexactitudes de que en no pocos casos adolecen”, refiere el director de la Academia de la Lengua, Mario Frías en el prólogo de la obra bolivianismos en el Diccionario de la lengua española Raúl Rivadeneira Prada que contiene 2809 palabras propias del país.
Esta obra registra y estudia los bolivianismos contenidos en la vigesimotercera edición del Diccionario de la lengua española (DILE/2014), publicada en octubre delm mismo año. Para el acopio de voces bolivianas, con o sin el acompañamiento de otras marcas, así como para la verificación de adiciones, omisiones y supresiones, ha seguido un procedimiento comparativo del DILE/2014 con la 23.ª edición del DRAE/2001.
Dicho trabajo de incorporación de bolivianismos al DILE/2014 estuvo a cargo de la Comisión de Lexicografía de la Academia Boliviana de la Lengua integrada en los últimos diez años por los académicos Raúl Rivadeneira Prada (Coordinador), Carlos Coello Vila y Mario Frías Infante.
El estudio registra 134 palabras de origen quechua, 26 de origen aimara, 17 de origen guaraní, y 1 de origen tupí, por ejemplo: acullico, aguayo, alasita, amancay, amauta, apacheta, aparapita, api, ara, capiguara, chala, challar, choclo, chuño, chuspa, colla, cuñapé, guabirá, guaraná, guagua, guasca, huaiño, huairuro, huiro, huminta, ispi, lagua, llajua, llocalla, locro, macurca, ojota, opa, pacay, pajla, pasancalla, pascana, patasca, picana, quinua, quiñar, quirquincho, sirvinacu, surubí, tacurú, tambo, tapera, tara tatú, tauca, tincar, tipoi,tunta, yacaré, yarará.
Asimismo, se hallan los llamados “orientalismos” (palabras más usuales en Santa Cruz, Beni y Pando), tales como: achachairú, aribibi, buri, camba, chirapa (de étimo quechua), curucusí, empanizao, guapomó, guapurú, horneado, -ingo, ga (sufijo diminutivo o afectivo), motacú, pacumutu, saó, sepe, tarechi, toborochi, y varias decenas más en actual uso.
El Oxford English Dictionary agregó vocablos a la lengua.
Por: CARAS @CARASmexico2015-08-28
¡Cómo van cambiado las cosas!
No cabe duda de que en las últimas décadas han habido grandes avances en cuanto a tecnología, comunicaciones, moda y hasta en el lenguaje, y muestra de ello es que cada vez tenemos más nuevas palabras que antes no existían.
En esta ocasión el diccionario Oxford dio a conocer a través de una publicación en su blog oficial algunas de las palabras que se adhieren este 2015 al vocabulario inglés.
RELACIONADOS: LOS LIBROS MÁS VENDIDOS EN EL MUNDO
Estas nuevas palabras serán añadidas a las próximas ediciones del Oxford English Dictionary pero ya puedes encontrarlas en su versión web:
Hangry: Estar de mal humor o molesto como resultado del hambre. Es una mezcla entre hungry y angry.
Awesomesauce: Extremadamente bueno y excelente.
Manspreading: Cuando un hombre que viaja en transporte público se sienta con las piernas abiertas invadiendo asientos adyacentes.
Mic drop: El acto de dejar caer o apartar un micrófono al final de una ejecución o discurso que se considera impresionante.
Beer o´clock: El momento apropiado del día para beber cerveza.
Wine o´clock: El moment apropiado del día para comenzar a beber vino.
Cupcakery: Una panadería especializada en cupcakes.
Brain fart: Lapso mental temporal o falla esporádica para razonar correctamente.
Pwn: Derrotar de forma definitiva a un rival, principalmente en un videojuego.
Rage-quit: Que una persona se ofenda y abandone una actividad que se ha convertido en frustrante.
Cat café: Expendio de café donde la gente puede tener una experiencia diferente con gatos.
Butthurt: Alguien que está demasiado o injustificablemente ofendido o resentido.
Butt-dial: Llamar a alguien sin querer por teléfono luego de presionar accidentalmente un botón.
Bretix: Término que se utiliza para referirse sobre la hipotética salida del Reino Unido de la Unión Europea usado principalmente en las noticias.
Gretix: Término usado para la potencial salida de Grecia de la eurozona.
Mx: Título usado antes del nombre de una persona para llamar a aquellos que no desean especificar su género. Se utiliza de la misma forma que Mr, Miss, Mrs o Ms.
A new study showing that people with autism display higher levels of creativity has been welcomed by campaigners, who say it helps debunk a myth about people with learning disabilities.
Scientists found that people with the developmental condition were far more likely to come up with unique answers to creative problems despite having traits that can be socially crippling and make it difficult to find jobs. The co-author of the study, Dr Catherine Best from the University of Stirling, said that while the results, from a study of 312 people, were a measure of just one aspect of the creative process, it revealed a link between autistic traits and unusual and original ideas.
“We speculate that it may be because they are approaching things very differently. It goes a way towards explaining how some people with what is often characterised as a disability exhibit superior creative talents in some domains.”
Though some celebrities, including actress Daryl Hannah, have spoken about their autism, the findings – published in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders – should act as a wake-up call to the creative industries, said actor Cian Binchy, who is performing his much-praised show The Misfit Analysis at the Edinburgh festival this week. “There just aren’t any people with learning disabilities – in this field I’m the only one. It’s because people with learning disabilities may need a bit of extra support, and a lot of theatre companies and performers can’t be bothered – its too challenging for them.
“It’s time people with autism and other learning difficulties are seen as people first. I want to educate people without learning disabilities that I’m not all that different to them, and I want people who do have learning disabilities to feel better about themselves by showing my problems. They are not alone.”
After working as an autism consultant on the National Theatre’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, Binchy trained with Access All Areas, an award-winning theatre company that supports adults with learning disabilities to work in the arts, and runs the country’s only professional training programme for the creative arts for people with learning disabilities.
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Actress Daryl Hannah says she has had autism since childhood
Patrick Collier of Access All Areas said: “It’s not about helping someone with autism of Down’s syndrome play Hamlet, although if they want to that’s fantastic – its about finding their own voice and to have that heard. People do need support to navigate the industry, but as this research shows, the creativity is there to be enabled.”
Autism is a lifelong disorder which affects 1 in 100 in the UK, changing the way they communicate and experience the world, and varying greatly from person to person. Jolanta Lasota, chief executive of the charity Ambitious about Autism, said lack of creativity is one of many autism myths. She welcomed the study for suggesting that seeing the world in a different way can be a positive trait
She said: “There are many misconceptions and myths about autism, the biggest one including being antisocial and having a lack of empathy. However, what people with autism struggle with is fitting their feelings of sympathy and caring into everyday interactions.
“While it is true that some people with autism can have very specific interests and may struggle with abstract concepts, this research helps to highlight the fact that seeing the world in a different way can be a positive trait too. We find time and again that many of our pupils in our TreeHouse School and Ambitious College are very creative, whether that be through art, music, film or photography. It is great to see research continued in this area to help dispel more autism myths.”
Lasota has been campaigning for employers to consider people with learning disabilities when they’re hiring, and hopes that studies like this will help. “With the right support, planning and opportunities from parents and employers, many people with autism have the ability to work. Despite this, recent figures show that only 15% of people with autism are in full-time paid employment – 79% of those polled who are not in employment would like to be.”
Estudiantes de la Universidad de La Salle crearon el Diccionario de Fraseología Usada en Colombia, que reúne lo más ‘criollo’ de nuestra lengua.
“¡Eche, no joda!” inaugura el aparte de la letra ‘E’ de un repertorio singular. Es, tal vez, la expresión más costeña del Diccionario de Fraseología Usada en Colombia. No es un chiste ni una “mamadera de gallo”. Es una realidad subida al mundo virtual que se presenta bajo un blog con pantilla de Wordpress, que colecciona la cotidianidad colombiana vivazmente hablada.
Un proyecto académico salido de la clase de Lexicografía de la Universidad de La Salle, del programa de Licenciatura en Lengua Castellana, Inglés y Francés, se presenta como el más colombiano de los diccionarios, recogiendo esas construcciones diarias que se usan en las diferentes regiones del país y aprovechando que Bogotá –sede de la alma máter– es una ciudad que se construye a partir de la multiculturalidad nacional.
Cuenta María Bernarda Espejo, la docente que lideró esta iniciativa en quinto semestre de la carrera pedagógica, que todo comenzó en el período académico anterior, con el fin de “actualizar algunas (expresiones), porque pocas veces se usan” y discriminarlas por uso coloquial, humorístico, despectivo, así como registrarlas por áreas geográficas.
Es en ese compendio de aproximadamente 300 enunciados que se sabe que “estar pavo”, en Valle del Cauca, es indicador del buen cuerpo de una mujer; o que del Tolima viene la frase “llora más que marrano alzado”.
Los dichos y locuciones fueron escuchados en la universidad, en Transmilenio, en la calle, o simplemente extraídos de la memoria de cada estudiante, como quiera que cada uno lleva consigo la huella de la oralidad de su región. Otros resultaron de consultas en los periódicos electrónicos, glosarios regionales, en el Diccionario de Americanismos, en el Breve Diccionario de Colombianismos, en el Nuevo Diccionario de Americanismos, en el Nuevo Diccionario de Colombianismos, entre otros.
El catálogo de dicciones está disponible en el link https://lexicografiaunisalle.wordpress.com, con una “producción brutal”, como la califica Espejo, que pretende rescatar lo oral y producir conocimientos en contextos de tecnología (“lo último en guarachas”), por lo que la plataforma virtual se hizo imprescindible.
La posibilidad de editar e imprimir el lexicón está vigente, no solo por su aporte a la investigación y producción académica, sino para incentivar a los estudiantes al desarrollo de propuestas que fortalezcan el sector educativo.
A British study suggests that creative thinking and autism are connected. Sufferers may be more inclined to think outside the box as compared to people who are not affected by the disorder.
When considering the abundance of autistic struggles and challenges, research focusing on the strengths of autism becomes indispensable. We mistakenly associate autism with logical thinking rather than creative expression.
Health professionals use a variety of diagnostic criteria when examining a child believed to be autistic. These criteria have always referenced one key element: the fact that the imagination of autism sufferers seems to be limited. Consequently, physicians may use this trait as a tell-tale sign when detecting the condition.
Although most research conducted in the field of autism has demonstrated that autism sufferers display remarkable qualities and skills in certain areas, such as mathematics, data processing as well as other areas that have to do with systematic methods and logic. A new study challenges this generalization and concludes that individuals who possess characteristics of autism are also more creative than those who do not.
The number of individuals who took the survey was of 75 diagnosed autism sufferers, whereas those without the condition were 237 – although a small part of the undiagnosed people displayed autistic traits during the study. The creativity of the participants of the study was tested by assigning them to seek interpretations of images designed to be perceived in more than only one way – such as the famous ambiguous image of the rabbit-duck.
Then, the participants were asked to name as many alternative functions as possible for ordinary objects such as bricks and paper clips. The researchers rated the participants’ answers according to their ingenuity and quantity. The result of the study? Compared to people without autism, those affected by the disorder generally came up with a considerably larger number of responses that also happened to be more strange.
In the same manner, when the participants of the study were asked to interpret abstract images in as many ways as possible, researchers learned that those found with autistic traits came up with more elaborate answers. The researchers also observed that autism sufferers use more strenuous methods to find answers to divergent thinking tasks and that is why they come up with fewer but more imaginative responses.
Around 1% of the world population may have autism spectrum disorder, a disorder than can lead to social, communication and behavioural deficits, states the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Although people with autism may be gifted in certain ways, most of them can be severely challenged in some sectors of life.
In fortunate cases, mild autism can provide intellectual advantages and more severe cases of autism can be a great disability for an individual suffering from this condition.
MPW Insider is an online community where the biggest names in business and beyond answer timely career and leadership questions. Today’s answer for: How do you encourage creative thinking within your organization? is written by Kerry Healey, president of Babson College.
Before the age of the Internet (I can feel my children rolling their eyes), uncovering developing trends in the workplace usually meant picking up the telephone to cajole strangers into talking to you about their work lives and then visiting them after. Interviews and site visits typically took months. Trends gathered momentum more slowly and creative solutions to emerging problems were often flourishing in one locale, while traditional responses remained entrenched in others.
I know this because as a graduate student, I was tasked by the U.S. Department of Justice to seek out the most creative “best practices” emerging from police, prosecutors and other criminal justice practitioners across the country. I saw first-hand how a lack of connectivity and sharing hindered creative and innovative solutions from developing and spreading.
Nowadays, trends develop rapidly online and news of creative solutions spreads spontaneously — and instantaneously — around the globe. But the lessons I learned about creative problem-solving from those early, in-depth conversations and visits with criminal justice professionals continue to influence my management style and approach to spurring creativity in the workplace.
Unless your job has an explicitly creative focus, creativity in the workplace most often reveals itself as innovative problem-solving. For entrepreneurs — Babson College’s special focus — creativity is an essential ingredient for success, because each day presents new and often unexpected challenges that require agility and vision to navigate. But for the majority of people who work in larger organizations, especially those nested within complex systems or long-established institutions, an employee’s ability to contribute creatively in the workplace is often limited or non-existent.
See also: How to reward good (and bad) ideas at work
Enabling and encouraging every employee to contribute to creative problem-solving leads to greater productivity, better management policies and higher levels of employee engagement. A Gallup Employee Engagement poll from 2011 found that 71% of American workers are “not engaged” or “actively disengaged” from their work. However, Babson research finds that those who are thinking and acting entrepreneurially inside organizations of all types and sizes are flourishing and deeply connected to their work. Luckily, empowering “intrapreneurs” — or creative problem-solvers — is simple to do. All it requires is time from those at the top and a genuine willingness to listen to others’ ideas.
Every summer at Babson, I conduct round-table listening sessions with each department to provide an important touchstone for policy-planning and goal-setting. I ask everyone the same questions:
* What opportunities do you see for the college or your department in the coming year?
* What problems or concerns do you see that I might not?
* How can I or your supervisor help you do your job more easily and effectively?
* How can we strengthen our community and make working here more fulfilling?
Through these open-ended and frank discussions, I gain tremendous insights into the daily workings of the college and am able to encourage the exploration of many ideas and proposals — within the departments or college-wide. Most importantly, the listening sessions empower everyone on the staff to think creatively and to take responsibility for the direction of the college. We document the suggestions, work to quickly empower employees to act on ideas, and I am always sure to note when a new initiative or successful policy change originated in the listening sessions.
While lieutenant governor, I used a similar approach to keep in touch with municipal leaders in the 351 cities and towns across Massachusetts. I devoted each Friday to round-table discussions with mayors and municipal officials to surface concerns about the impact of state policies on cities and towns and to hammer out creative solutions on which we could partner. The sessions began contentiously, but as it became clear that I would act on their suggestions and return to listen again and again, the partnership led to numerous constructive policy innovations.
Whether you are leading a large business enterprise, an institution of higher education or a government agency, open discussion, partnership, and mutual ownership of problem-solving is critical to empowering creativity in the workplace. Here’s one of my favorite suggestions from this year’s listening session: “No Meetings Wednesdays” so that staff can have more time to reflect and be more creative.
Read all answers to the MPW Insider question: How do you encourage creative thinking within your organization?
4 ways to stop worrying and embrace creative risks by Laura Pincus Hartman, professor of business ethics at Boston University.
Why you absolutely need creative employees by Nancy Brown, CEO of the American Heart Association.
Baahubali, Premam and Srimanthudu have hit box-office gold in Chennai. Vishal Menon analyses what their success means for films from other states.
Malayalam film Premam is still running strong in Chennai, now into its 12th week of release. Telugu film Baahubali, which released on July 10, is still holding onto more than 50 shows in both its Tamil and Telugu versions. And Mahesh Babu’s latest release, Srimanthudu, has had a big opening with a wide release across 200 screens in the state (both Telugu and its Tamil-dubbed versions). There clearly is a growing market for films from other states..
“Traditionally, a Malayalam film released only in theatres such as Sapphire or Elphinstone,” says producer/distributor P. L. Thenappan. “Telugu films were also restricted to a few theatres like Casino, where they would release several weeks after their release in Andhra Pradesh. The advent of multiplexes and digital projection have not only given non-Tamil content a wider release, but has also paved way for a simultaneous release here. But it is only recently that we are noticing an increase in people preferring films in languages other than their own.”
The trick, according to experts, has been the change in the approach of producers while releasing their films in other states. “It is not just about great content anymore. Producers should know how to take their films to other regions as well,” says trade analyst Sreedhar Pillai. “A mass entertainer, with a big star, could target B and C centres in Tamil Nadu by dubbing it into Tamil, and being renamed with a title that will appeal to the Tamil audience. Similarly, if you want to attract the A-centre, the producer must opt for subtitles. In fact, subtitling is the main reason why Premam has survived so long in Chennai, making the film accessible to non-Malayalis,” he adds.
Apart from dubbing and subtitling, the participation of a film’s star in its promotion also helps the film do well here. S. B. V. Prasad Rao released the Tamil-dubbed version (Selvandhan) of Srimanthudu in 111 screens in the state. He feels that Mahesh Babu’s promotion of the film in Chennai played a major role in its success. “Unlike Tamil stars, actors from Andhra, Kerala and Karnataka have traditionally not enjoyed great reception in Tamil Nadu. Therefore, a Telugu star coming to Chennai goes a long way in establishing a strong fan base here. The acceptance of Selvandhan shows that star power can work in other states too,” he says.
Mukesh Mehta of E4 Entertainment, a seasoned distributor of Malayalam films in the state, is gearing up to release Kunjiramayanam in Chennai for Onam. “The overall seating capacity allotted a Malayalam film in the city’s multiplexes is around 1,000 seats per day. So, if 7,000 people watch the film, it will run houseful for a week. If 50,000 people watch it, it gets a 50-day run here. The longer the film runs, the more money the theatres make. This is because from the third week of a film’s release, 75 per cent of the proceeds from ticket sales goes to the exhibitor (40 per cent during the first three weeks), making it a lucrative option for theatres too,” he says.
The resurgence of these films can also be attributed to their quality. Sethu, CEO of Sangam Cinemas says, “From being a regular exhibitor of Malayalam and Telugu films, we had to reduce the number of shows as we found it difficult to schedule these films with so many English and Tamil films releasing. But with films like Premam and Oru Vadakkan Selfie doing so well, we’re adding more shows. To survive, multiplexes need viewers of all types.”
But the catch, distributors claim, is the abysmal performance of a film when it carries mixed reports. Mehta adds, “It’s all fine when the film is good. But mediocre films struggle to survive even the opening weekend. Social media ensures that there is no place for such films anymore. Therefore, there is always an inherent risk in bringing films from other states here, as they don’t enjoy a successful opening like Tamil films,” he adds.
Ramanathan, veteran distributor/producer and owner of Abirami Cinemas, feels this is just a passing phase. “At times, the audience feels like trying something new, but that doesn’t mean they will not return to Tamil cinema, which is their staple diet. I agree that the quality of dubbing has improved drastically, but even now only super hit films from other languages are doing well here. This phase can be cemented only when average films become viable options in Tamil Nadu.”
With Telugu and Malayalam films finding takers here, does it mean that films from languages like Kannada, Marathi and Bengali could find a market here too? Thenappan says, “While Kannada films have so far not worked in Tamil Nadu, a great film distributed smartly could open doors to a new market for them. The same is the case with Marathi and Bengali films. There will always be takers for good cinema in this state.”
The spelling of Tsuut'ina has officially been changed from two words to one, a subtle change on the surface that carries deeper meaning on the First Nation southwest of Calgary.
11 graduates trained to teach ailing Tsuu T'ina language
"I'm a speaker and the way it was written was always wrong," said Bruce Starlight, language commissioner for Tsuut'ina Nation.
The Tsuut'ina Nation logo has been changed to reflect a return to the original spelling, which anthopologists had split in two decades before. (Tsuut'ina Nation )
"How it's written is very important to how it's actually said."
The modern spelling was confusing to the learner and to the speaker, Starlight said.
While the name has always been one word, anthropologists divided the name in two decades ago, says Darin Flynn, a linguistics professor at the University of Calgary.
On a reserve where the number of elders who speak Tsuut'ina, an Athabascan language, is dwindling, the nation is working to preserve the language and culture.
"They're now down to 48 because they had two recent passings and there's only about 11 of those speakers (who) are willingly engaged, in like community activities that are trying to revitalize the language," said Flynn.
"So the chance of it being passed on from one generation to the next is really small."
Band leadership only recently agreed to make the change official to the one-word "Tsuut'ina" spelling and they're starting small, taking time to fully restore it.
"We don't have any big glorious signs right now that need to be changed," said spokesperson Kevin Littlelight.
"Where we're starting is web pages, stationery ... then we'll grow from there."
It's unclear how much it will ultimately cost when new maps and road signs are factored in, but Littlelight says the nation will pay what is needed to preserve its identity.
Argentinian poet and translator Miguel Petrecca speaks at the 2015 Sino-Foreign Literature Translation and Publishing Workshop. [Photo: CRIENGLISH.COM/William Wang]
The Chinese science fiction novel The Three-Body Problem stormed literature circles when it claimed last year's prestigious Hugo Award. That success was the result of cross-border literature paths across the world, but those in the industry know that those paths are still too narrow. China is a country far more complex than people's conception of it abroad, and literature is a key way for people to gain a deeper understanding of China's traditions, culture and individuals.
On Wednesday, a large group of foreign and Chinese literature enthusiasts and members of the media gathered in Beijing for the Workshop on Chinese and Foreign Literature Translation. The event was the second day of the 2015 Sino-Foreign Literature Translation and Publishing Workshop. Speakers at this event examined the gains Chinese literature has made internationally, and discussed what needs to be done to further propagate it. Li Jingze, vice chairman of the Chinese Writers' Association, mentioned successes such as how Lu Deng's classic poems have been translated into many languages. But he also noted that much work needed to be done in order to show the world a truer version of China that reflects its diverse livelihoods, thoughts and ways of being.
Argentinian poet and translator Miguel Petrecca spoke at length (in fluent mandarin) about how his obsession with Du Fu's poetry had inspired him to learn Chinese. Du Fu's words inspired him to help spread Du Fu's vision of China with the rest of the world. As acclaimed children's author Wally DeDoncker noted shortly after, globalism has its downsides, but when it comes to the spreading of international literature, its benefits are obvious.
Dubrovka Duric Nemec from Croatia discussed some of the difficulties in translating work and publishing foreign language books. “A bad translation can destroy a marvelous piece of art,” she noted, an experience that many people in the room had witnessed. She further discussed the steps that could be taken to help establish Chinese literature abroad such as grants to help authors and translators participate in literature festivals, or subsidies to writer or translator residencies to help foster exchange.
The workshop heard from a broad spectrum of voices, men and women from China and countries across the world. Speakers' enthusiasm for their work was evident, and people where happy to hear about best practices to help them to spread literature across borders. Authors usually take center stage, so it was refreshing to see translators getting proper respect for the work they do, and for the talent required to do it well.
A translator from Korea, Kim Tae Sung recently completed his 100th translation. “Translators in Korea are considered the lowest of the low,” he chuckled. “But I love it!”
The conference began August 26th, and will continue to the 29th.
ric Athenot, enseigne la littérature américaine à l’Université de Tours. Passionné par l’œuvre de Walt Whitman, à l’origine de la création de la Walt Whitman Transatlantic Association, il a traduit l’édition originale du poème Feuilles d’Herbe, datant de 1855 et restée jusqu’alors inédite en France. Un travail au plus près du souffle du grand poète américain. Entretien.
Quelle a été votre première rencontre avec Walt Whitman et la poésie américaine ?
J’ai rencontré Walt Whitman à l’occasion d’un cours de poésie américaine de Licence que ma première université m’avait demandé d’enseigner. Quand j’ai fini de lire l’intégralité de Feuilles d’herbe, j’ai su que je pourrais passer le reste de ma vie en compagnie d’une telle œuvre. J’étais loin d’imaginer que j’allais un jour m’atteler à en traduire la première édition.
Pourquoi avoir choisi de traduire la première version de Feuilles d’herbe, datant de 1855 ?
C’est un texte proprement révolutionnaire, fondateur de la modernité poétique américaine. De toutes les éditions de Feuilles d’herbe, c’est la plus radicale, la plus intimement liée, également, à ses conditions matérielles de production. Par ailleurs, traduire cette édition particulière me permettait de me mesurer à des textes traduits avec des bonheurs divers dans leur version définitive. La voix de Whitman que j’entendais en français en mon for intérieur ne résonnait dans aucune de ces traductions. J’ai ressenti le besoin de la faire entendre.
Cette poésie américaine portée par Thoreau, Emerson et Whitman, est-elle facilement « compatible » avec la langue française et par là même avec notre propre vision du monde ?
L’écriture de Whitman tient de nombreuses esthétiques. Elle vise à être lue à haute voix et s’appuie sur des outils rhétoriques dont les contemporains de Feuilles d’herbe étaient familiers. L’un des genres détournés par Whitman est le sermon, qui devait retenir l’attention des auditeurs et avait donc recours à des formules de répétition facilement décelables dans cette poésie, parmi lesquelles le parallélisme et la répétition. Ce dernier trait passe mal en français, mais on ne peut pas l’évacuer. Il me semble crucial, par honnêteté envers les lecteurs, de se fixer des contraintes qui puissent donner la mesure du poids rhétorique (non dénué de lourdeur, parfois) du style whitmanien. La répétition et l’usage systématique du présent simple sont deux traits d’écriture qu’il m’a fallu négocier. J’ai tenté de déplacer les mots ou groupes de mots répétés afin d’éviter le calque pur et simple, qui aurait été vite lassant en français et que je ne considère pas à proprement parler comme relevant de la traduction. De même, les participes présents ont été écartés le plus possibles au profit de relatives.
Je pense, pour répondre enfin à votre question, que la langue whitmanienne, au moins dans sa mouture de 1855, est tout à fait compatible avec une vision du monde contemporaine. Il y souffle un vent de liberté, un désir de s’approprier les mots pour les partager qui devrait parler aux êtres humains contemporains. Encore faudrait-il qu’ils aient accès à la poésie…
« Traduire c’est trahir », dit-on souvent. En brisant les frontières du temps et de l’espace, le traducteur n’est-il pas avant tout un « passeur de cultures» ?
Je ne crois pas à la trahison du traducteur. Je crois que le premier traître est l’écrivain lui-même, qui, comme le rappelle Proust, écrit toujours dans une langue mineure et détourne à son profit la langue qu’il emploie. Je crois que le traducteur sert réellement l’auteur qu’il traduit quand il reste à l’écoute du texte de départ et qu’il accepte la logique que lui impose sa propre langue au fur et à mesure de son travail.
J’ai été ainsi profondément ému de constater que des réseaux d’échos, parfois même de jeux de mots, se mettaient en place dans mon texte là où ils n’existaient pas toujours dans l’original. Il m’a fallu faire le deuil de la polysémie du « you » anglais, dont Whitman joue avec brio. J’ai choisi sans hésitation le tutoiement (comme Baudelaire, à bien des égards faux-jumeau de Whitman, quand il s’adresse au lecteur), mais je n’ai pas pu maintenir l’ambiguïté de genre et de nombre que permet le pronom anglais. Cela m’a conduit à placer d’emblée le texte dans un rapport d’intimité avec le lecteur, ce que Whitman devait systématiser dans ses éditions successives, où les rapports entre le poème et le lecteur prennent la forme d’une union sexuelle. J’ignore à quel point j’ai été « passeur de cultures », pour utiliser votre formulation. Je crois, pour faire écho à Antoine Berman, que j’ai davantage tenté de produire un poème américain en français.
La traduction d’œuvres dissonantes, parfois censurées dans leurs pays d’origine, et difficiles d’accès, joue-t-elle selon vous un rôle politique ?
Je crois que de nos jours, le rôle politique de la littérature ne se mesure plus réellement à la censure dont il est victime. Il existe une censure tout aussi pernicieuse dans nos sociétés que celles que mettent en place les pires régimes dictatoriaux. Une des grandes tragédies de notre société contemporaine est que, en dépit d’une omniprésence de la culture et des moyens pour y accéder, celle-ci devient de plus en plus éloignée des préoccupations de nos concitoyens. Pire, sous la pression hégémonique de produits de consommation de masse que l’on désigne avec hypocrisie comme relevant d’une culture populaire, la culture que je désignerai comme « classique » est vouée aux gémonies, reléguée aux cours de Lettres du secondaire et trop souvent associée à des exercices scolaires stériles.
Quand, je vois l’inculture crasse de nos hommes et femmes politiques, je me dis que passer du temps à lire un roman, à écouter de la musique classique ou du jazz, à voir un film d’auteur ou à contempler un tableau est un acte de résistance politique, en plus de constituer un moment de ressourcement et une étape dans la construction de soi. Plus que jamais, c’est la culture tout entière qui est dissonante dans nos sociétés où résonne sans fin la vacuité des conversations en ligne, dans une société où le plaisir esthétique est immédiat, terriblement normé et abêtissant. En matière de culture, comme en politique, la vertu principale, c’est le courage.
Journaliste indépendante. Ses missions ? Faire parler les invisibles, secouer la médiasphère et relayer les alternatives qui font bouger le monde.
Probando. Así se encontró Lizeth Arce con la cocina. A punto de graduarse del colegio empezó a barajar algunas opciones de carrera. Tenía claro que quería seguir estudiando. Entonces, la gastronomía apareció en su radar. Indagó y le gustó. Sin más se la jugó por convertirse en chef. Incluso cuando en la búsqueda de una universidad, las puertas se cerraban de tajo.
Tres procesos de selección se negaron a mirar más allá: la discapacidad no define a una persona. Ella hace parte del 65,8 % de la población sorda que asiste a una institución educativa en Colombia. Para el 2013, sólo 988 sordos en el país entraron a la educación superior. Hoy Lizeth está terminando un técnico laboral y creó un diccionario multimedia de cocina para sordos en Colombia.
La idea nació a raíz de su experiencia en la Escuela de Gastronomía Mariano Moreno. Al principio las clases fueron muy complejas. Su intérprete debía deletrear los ingredientes, cortes y técnicas de cocción. Un proceso que la mayoría de las veces no lograba alcanzar el ritmo del profesor.
“Yo no podía decirle que fuera más despacio o que repitiera y la verdad, al final no entendía algunas cosas. Entonces, con la intérprete acordamos hacer unas señas nosotras. Me grabé en un video muy sencillo y así nos acordábamos”, explica Lizeth a través de Ana María, la voz que traduce sus expresiones.
Ese primer insumo fue la semilla del diccionario multimedia. Si bien empezó como una estrategia para entender todos los contenidos de un programa que es para oyentes, con el tiempo se concretó en su trabajo de grado. Lizeth reconoce que las señas son ideas que crecieron a la par de su formación como chef. Construyó y consignó cerca de 350 términos culinarios, los que más se usan en la escuela.
Además, es muy enfática en que hace falta tiempo y difusión para que las señas de su diccionario sean apropiadas por quienes tienen una discapacidad auditiva en Colombia. Justamente, porque en su lenguaje no se pueden imponer los términos. “Eso es con el tiempo, hay que hablar, hay que hacerle publicidad, que los sordos las miren y les interesen para que sean señas colombianas. Es un proceso de años”, sostiene.
Tal vez por eso es muy reservada con el contenido del multimedia, que aún no está al aire. Un trabajo que le llevó más de un año de construcción y que contó con la asesoría de otros sordos. Mandó un video por Facebook, en lengua de señas, para que quien quisiera colaborarle lo hiciera.
Fue cuando un joven en Barranquilla le explicó las señas con las que se referían a los peces. Además, una compañera de Lizeth que estudiaba pastelería le colaboró en la construcción de ciertos términos. “De resto sí fueron ideas mías”, dice. Sacó Las palabras y los conceptos de los libros que la acompañaron durante el técnico laboral.
Pese a que en la Mariano Moreno hay un programa de inclusión por competencias para estudiantes con procesos diferenciales de aprendizaje, Lizeth no quiso cursarlo. “Yo quería demostrar que soy igual a cualquier persona oyente. Yo puedo entender procesos. Entonces hacía las recetas y las dibujaba para que se dieran cuenta de que sí estaba comprendiendo”, afirma.
Precisamente, insiste en que todos los oyentes deberían entender que los sordos son personas iguales, con enseñanzas valiosas. “Mi costumbre, mi cultura como sorda, es en lengua de señas. Los que sí oyen pueden acercarse y aprender de lo que yo sé para incluirme en la universidad”, sostiene. Como efectivamente sucedió con la comunidad de la Mariano Moreno.
Estudiantes, profesores, directivas y todo aquel que tiene relación con ella han aprendido un par de señas para poder saludarla o despedirse. Ese y el diccionario es el granito de arena que Lizeth ha puesto para los que vienen detrás. No sin dificultad. “Yo no era muy buena en lengua de señas porque siempre estuve en un contexto de oyentes, desde el colegio. El reto fue mejorar mi comunicación y que el proyecto impactara: estuve practicando hasta que los sordos pudieron entender mis videos”, enfatiza.
Su siguiente proyecto es montar su negocio propio: un restaurante en que todas las personas que trabajen sean personas sordas. Mientras tanto, espera poder trabajar en un hotel. Otro de sus sueños. Eso sí, con la mira puesta en que no le vuelvan a cerrar las puertas.
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Marcelo Bielsa’s former translator, Fabrice Olszewski, gives an incredible interview
In an extraordinary interview given on Monday night to Canal + TV show J + 1, Marcelo Bielsa’s translator during the 2014/15 campaign, Fabrice Olszewski, spoke frankly about his relationship with “El Loco”, offering an inside track interpretation of the last 12 months which culminated in Bielsa’s departure after the first game of the new Ligue 1 season.
On when he first met Bielsa…
It was thanks to the Toulon Tournament. I did the Toulon Tournament in 2006, half with the Argentina team and the other half with the Mexico team. And in 2008, people from the tournament got in touch with me again, this time I was to enter into contact with the Chilean FA. It is then that they signed Marcelo Bielsa.
I knew a little bit about his story. When I saw him, I knew that I was going to be dealing with one of the best managers in the world. But he always treated me in a straightforward way, he never really considered me as someone who belonged in football, so we had quite a friendly relationship…
On his arrival at Marseille…
Everything happened through Diego Reyes. One day, Diego sent me an email to do a translation, then he sent me a second email to tell me that they were going to be needing a translator… I said to myself what is this crazy position. For me, Marseille is like Real Madrid, like Bayern, like Manchester, it is a big club.
On his first press conference, during which he was entirely drunk throughout…
I did not do press conferences. The second match, I went into the lounge with Baptiste Aloé, who was the nineteenth player that day. It was the first time that I came across a players lounge, a V.I.P. lounge. There, the waitress comes to me and asks me what I would like to drink. Baptiste Aloé, next to me, asks for a Coca-Cola. I looked at her and I asked her “is it possible for me to have a whisky-coca?” she tells me “yes of course no problem”. So I watch the match and each time that I emptied my glass, she would refill it.
We ended up drawing the match, it was a bit tense, I went down to the dressing room and there the press officer puts her hand on my shoulder and says to me “Fabrice you are doing the press conference”. Woah, the press conference, I am completely drunk, sh** I was scared. The first question, I translate it, well, and then in my first press conference, I look at the journalists and then… blank. Shit, is what I told myself, what is the answer?
If you go back through my first press conference, in my opinion you will see that what I said, it is not really what the coach said.
On stupid questions from journalists…
I was disappointed by the press conferences because I found that they (the journalists) were looking more to create buzz rather than to really talk about football. Everyone said to me “Fabrice, are you sighing because it is difficult to translate?” No, I am sighing because when I listen to the question and then whilst I am translating it I realise that it is a sh** question, so I was sighing.
On Bielsa’s attack on Labrune (at the beginning of the 2014/15 season)…
Yes, I saw it coming because we could all see that the transfer window was not going as we wanted. I warned the president by telling him “you know president, right now the coach is not very happy and it is a bit like a game of poker, at one moment you will see he will bring out an ace”. The president said to me “don’t worry Fabrice, I am used to situations like that”. Everybody knew, in the technical staff, that he was going to blow.
It was necessary. It was from that moment onwards that he realised that the project was presented to him in a way that he wanted to interpret it, and he felt a bit hard done by, the coach. The president, he, made all the efforts to fix it, but it is like trying to mix water with oil, it does not work. During a meeting before things blew up, I understood what the coach was saying, and I also understood what the president was saying and at one point I said “but hang on a minute, it is not what he is trying to say” and I was told “shut up, you be quiet and you only translate”.
I think it was the coach who told me that, but anyway I could see that it was the same from the other side. The coach was a bit annoyed because he thought that the conversations with the players were not going quickly enough. But I said to him “this is normal coach, it is the president who holds the discussions, but he does not just have that to do. So a Sporting Director is missing in the hierarchy”. And he said to me “yes you are right Fabrice, you are right”. When we arrived at the hotel, he said to me “would you be interested in becoming the Sporting Director?” and then I burst out laughing, I couldn’t believe it.
On disagreements with Bielsa…
Then came this discussion where he wanted to get something across to Momar Bangoura who was one of the guys who understood the (training) exercises the best. I repeated what he was saying the first time, then Franck Passi repeated it. And at one point I said “but coach, this is pointless, you can see that it is not working”. What made him angry, was when I said that he was abusing his power. There immediately he went into a mood.
He said to me “come on then we are going to have a walk, and we will sort this out through a discussion”. We got to the height of it and then he said to me “well now we are going to sort this out by fighting each other, this is the only way to resolve this”.
I exploded with laughter and I left. He apologised afterwards, I also apologised, and we sorted it out very easily. But I noticed that it was still hard because he is a nice person the coach, he has good intentions. But aside from that he allows himself to be trapped inside his character a bit. There is a difference when you are with him in private and when you are with him at work. I also saw his faults. I told him “I compare you to Van Gogh, you are a football genius, but in terms of human relationships, it is a bit complicated”. And he found that comparison to be flattering.
On moments of joy for Bielsa…
Yes, often after victories where everything went as planned, he was happy. But aside from that, there were always problems. We did not have one week honestly where we could say “Here, we worked well, everything went well, there were no issues”.
On Bielsa’s inevitable departure…
I knew very well that he was not going to stay; it was not possible for him to stay. But did they want him to stay? I do not know. But we couldn’t continue like that. I thought that it would all come to a head earlier. At one moment, everyone thought that we were going to leave halfway through the season. When he got annoyed he would say “sh** I should have never signed for this club”. Sometimes he would say that.
For me, it was best that things turned out the way that they have. The coach was nice because he did it after the first match. He could have done it on the 31st August. I thought that he would leave on the 31st August because he would have seen the results with the players that he had, it was not what he wanted. And then, there are players that he absolutely wanted to keep who left: Morel, Fanni, Payet.
On the press conference before Bielsa resigned, during which he notably spoke highly of President Vincent Labrune and showed no intentions of leaving…
I think that he was still in doubt, because each time that he takes a decision, he likes to have all the cards in his hands. And often, he is missing one card, so he hesitates, he hesitates, he hesitates. And sometimes there is not a lot in it. There was one part of him that wrote that letter that evening and another part of him that wrote that press conference.
But both things were sincere, that is what is complicated with him.
On Bielsa and money…
Money makes the world go round, so yes he attached importance to it because he did not want to be had; he is always scared of being had.
On Bielsa the kid…
For him, one of his main motivations for working in football, it is that, he wants to bring the fans joy. In the last match, Djibril Cissé was involved, the coach, like a kid, he waits for Djibril Cissé to be close enough to him to go and congratulate him and to talk to him because he loves football, he is truly passionate about it.
On the world of football…
For me, I will no longer be working in the world of football. It is clear, I no longer take much pleasure from watching football, I have cut it all out. Professional football is not good, it is not good…
N.B. The French transcript was provided by our colleagues at DailyMercato.
From mic drops to manspreading: an Oxford Dictionaries update
NBD, but are you ready to fangirl over our dictionary update? Abso-bloody-lutely. We’ve got some awesomesauce new words – no, rly – that will inform and entertain whether you’re hangry or it’s already wine o’clock. Mic drop.
Mic drops, awesomesauce, manspreading, and more
Let’s pick that mic up again and check out some of the words that have been added to OxfordDictionaries.com in the world of informal language. The mic drop in question can be a literal ‘instance of deliberately dropping or tossing aside one’s microphone at the end of a performance or speech one considers to have been particularly impressive’, but it’s more likely to be figurative – or an exclamation to emphasize a particularly impressive point: Nuff said. Mic drop.
If you want to describe something as excellent, you can use awesomesauce; on the other side of the coin, anything of a poor or disappointing standard is weak sauce. Weak sauce came first, and has a more comprehensible origin as a metaphor; an inadequate sauce would certainly let down an otherwise decent meal. Though awesomesauce clearly comes from the words awesome and sauce, the former is currently beating the latter in the Oxford English Corpus and Oxford Twitter Corpus.
Why say banter (‘playfully teasing or mocking remarks exchanged with another person or group’) when you can save a syllable with bants? (Be careful where you use it, though; the term might be recognized in the UK, but is likely to get bemused looks elsewhere.) And, speaking of brevity, the initialism NBD can take the place of no big deal, while rly is handy textspeak for really. SJW stands for social justice warrior, which is also added in this update. It’s ‘a person who expresses or promotes socially progressive views’, but the word is used derogatively, usually by those who do not share these views.
You may remember mansplain from last year’s update. It’s now joined by the noun manspreading: ‘the practice whereby a man, especially one travelling on public transport, adopts a sitting position with his legs wide apart, in such a way as to encroach on an adjacent seat or seats’. If you’re a gentleman reading this on the bus … can we suggest you arrange your legs considerately? Rly.
Manic pixie dream girl has been added from the world of film criticism: find out more in our video post.
Other informal terms in this update include brain fart, bitch face, bruh, butthurt, fur baby, MacGyver, mkay, rando, and swole.
Mx, Grexit, and other words in the news
Among the additions in the August update, there are those that relate to recent news and events. The blends Brexit (British/Britain + exit) and Grexit (Greek/Greece + exit) were coined in 2012, relating to potential departures of the United Kingdom from the European Union and Greece from the eurozone (those countries which use the euro as their national currency).
The honorific Mx has also been added to OxfordDictionaries.com. It’s used (in the same way as Mr, Miss, Mrs, Ms etc.) before a person’s surname or full name as a gender-neutral title. Katherine Martin, Head of US Dictionaries, recently spoke with the New York Times about the rising popularity of the term, which is first found in the late 1970s and has gained significant traction since.
Some fanciful words relating to food and drink are also included in the August update. Beer o’clock and wine o’clock are humorous terms for the (supposedly) appropriate times of day for having your first glass of either drink. You might need to start the meal earlier if you’re feeling hangry: a blend of hungry and angry, meaning ‘bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger’. Anything snackable will come in handy.
English often forms new words using existing suffixes, and the realm of food and drink shows several such innovations. From the –y ending comes cheffy (relating to, or characteristic of, a chef) and melty (melting or partially melted); from the –ery ending, we get cidery (a place where cider is made) and cupcakery (a bakery that specializes in cupcakes). The latter is a venue where you’re unlikely to have the option of cakeage, which is ‘a charge made by a restaurant for serving a cake that they have not supplied themselves’, and another word created by the inclusion of a common suffix. The word is modelled on the pattern of corkage, where the same rule applies to wine. And if you can’t bring yourself to have the finest things in life separately, there is now the option of a cat café, where café patrons can eat while surrounded by feline friends.
Edible additions to OxfordDictionaries.com from Australian English include Anzac biscuit, barmaid’s blush (typically red wine mixed with lemonade or beer mixed with raspberry cordial), battered sav (battered saveloy sausage), and lolly cake (a cake containing sweets, known generically as lollies in Australian and New Zealand English).
Gaming and the Internet
Whether you’re a Redditor, a YouTuber, or more used to handling physical meeples (playing pieces in certain board games), this update has terms that’ll come in handy. Some don’t show the finer side of the human character: rage-quit is a verb meaning to ‘angrily abandon an activity or pursuit that has become frustrating’, and is especially used in relation to video games.
One reason you might rage-quit is because you are being pwned: that is, utterly defeated by an opponent. This informal term is used more often in video gaming, and supposedly resulted from a common mistyping of own with this sense, as a result of the proximity of p and o on a computer keyboard. Along with pwn comes pwnage (and ownage), being ‘the action or fact of utterly defeating an opponent or rival’.
A Redditor is a registered user of the website Reddit; the word is formed on the pattern of editor, and the site relies upon user-submitted content, posted in subreddits (forums dedicated to specific topics). Users might well post content that they consider glanceable, shareable, and even snackable – which can refer to online content designed to be read or viewed quickly, as well as to food.
Other additions from the sphere of technology and the Internet include spear phishing (‘the fraudulent practice of sending emails ostensibly from a known or trusted sender in order to induce targeted individuals to reveal confidential information’), and blockchain (‘a digital ledger in which transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency are recorded chronologically and publicly’). Nor are mobile phones left out: butt-dial and pocket-dial have been added, denoting that awkward moment when you dial someone’s number by mistake while your phone is in your pocket.
The opinions and other information contained in OxfordWords blog posts and comments do not necessarily reflect the opinions or positions of Oxford University Press.