Metaglossia: The ...
Follow
Find
206.2K views | +111 today
 
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
onto Metaglossia: The Translation World
Scoop.it!

Way with words

Way with words | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
At 29, language ‘happens’ to Chinmay Vijay Dharurkar, the way poetry ‘comes’ to poets; he knows nine languages.

He has translated Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault and Ferdinand de Saussure into his mother tongue Marathi. If you ask him how many languages he knows, he will say nine – he can read, write and converse in Marathi, Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Telugu, Bangla, Gujarati, Urdu and Persian. After which he will add that besides these, he has an elementary knowledge of Kannada, Arabic, Konkani and German.

At 29, language ‘happens’ to Chinmay Vijay Dharurkar, the way poetry ‘comes’ to poets. “It was pretty late in Class 9 I realised that I have a flair for languages,” he says. Living in Aurangabad, where Urdu was commonly sighted on bill boards, prompted him to learn the Urdu script. Meanwhile, he realised that to understand Urdu better one needs to understand the meanings of Perso-Arabic words and he started learning Persian. As he went deeper into Persian, he realised that it was full of Arabic words and got introduced to elementary Arabic word-formation rules.

The trajectory of learning Urdu, Persian and Arabic that began when Chinmay was in Class 9, lasted until his Bachelor of Arts days.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

He has translated Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault and Ferdinand de Saussure into his mother tongue Marathi. If you ask him how many languages he knows, he will say nine – he can read, write and converse in Marathi, Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Telugu, Bangla, Gujarati, Urdu and Persian. After which he will add that besides these, he has an elementary knowledge of Kannada, Arabic, Konkani and German.

more...
No comment yet.
Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
Curated by Charles Tiayon
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

more...
No comment yet.
Suggested by Speaky
Scoop.it!

Best Of Language Learning Articles in 2014

Best Of Language Learning Articles in 2014 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
This is a compilation of the best language learning articles published in 2014 ranked by the number of social shares.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

'The Interview' Will Stream on YouTube, Google Play, Xbox

'The Interview' Will Stream on YouTube, Google Play, Xbox | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
One day after planning a limited theatrical release for the controversial Seth Rogen comedy The Interview, Sony Pictures Entertainment has announced plans to stream the movie on YouTube Movies, Google Play, Microsoft's Xbox Video and the studio's own dedicated website. The film – which stars Rogen and James Franco as bumbling journalists hired by the CIA to assassinate North Korean leader Kim Jong-un – will be available to rent (for $5.99) and purchase in HD (for $14.99) starting on December 24th at 10 a.m. PST, according to The Hollywood Reporter.

RELATED
How Seth Rogen Sparked an International Incident
"It has always been Sony's intention to have a national platform on which to release this film," said Michael Lynton, Sony Entertainment chairman and CEO, in a statement. "With that in mind, we reached out to Google, Microsoft and other partners last Wednesday, December 17th, when it became clear our initial release plans were not possible. We are pleased we can now join with our partners to offer the film nation-wide today."

Sony previously canceled the film’s Christmas release date, following cryptic terrorist threats from a group called Guardians for Peace – which also claimed responsibility for a massive cyber attack on Sony (one linked by the FBI to North Korea, though denied by the state itself.) 

But the decision to kill The Interview drew widespread criticism from free-speech advocates like George Clooney – and even President Barack Obama, who said, "I think [Sony] made a mistake. We cannot have a society where some dictator some place can start imposing censorship here in the United States." Representative Brad Sherman, a California Democrat and Chairman of the Entertainment Industries Caucus, called on Sony and Lynton to release the film, even suggesting the U.S. Capitol as a venue for a screening. Sony also faced an open-letter petition from a coalition of roughly 250 independent cinemas, urging the studio to release The Interview in honor of free speech. 

"The people have spoken!" Rogen tweeted following the Sony reversal. "Freedom has prevailed! Sony didn't give up! The Interview will be shown at theaters willing to play it on Xmas day!"

"VICTORY!!!!!!!" echoed Franco. "The PEOPLE and THE PRESIDENT have spoken!!!"
more...
No comment yet.
Suggested by Ignacio López Aylagas
Scoop.it!

Sinónimos y Antónimos - Diccionario

El mayor diccionario de Sinónimos y Antónimos en lengua Española con más de 35.000 entradas. Incluye también definiciones de los sinónimos y antónimos.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Ateliers de traduction et d’initiation aux enquêtes de terrain: Toute l'actualité sur liberte-algerie.com

Ateliers de traduction et d’initiation aux enquêtes de terrain: Toute l'actualité sur liberte-algerie.com | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Dans le cadre de ses activités et sorties sur terrain, le Haut commissariat à l’amazighité (HCA) se déplace en cette fin d’année 2014 à Taghit (wilaya de Béchar), et ce, du 27 au 31 décembre, pour un programme riche et varié traitant du thème de la traduction et de l’initiation aux enquêtes de terrain.
En effet, le Haut commissariat à l’amazighité enchaîne les rencontres et rendez-vous dans le souci de promouvoir et d’enrichir la langue, la culture, l’histoire et la civilisation amazighes. Après la rencontre consacrée au roi Massinissa à El-Khroub (Constantine), le colloque de Batna intitulé “Regards croisés sur les procédés de traduction et d’adaptation en tamazight”, le 9e Salon du livre et multimédia amazigh à Bouira, comme pour clore l’année en beauté, le HCA entame un travail de terrain à Taghit où bon nombre d’ateliers seront consacrés à la recherche et au travail de terrain, sous la houlette des spécialistes et chercheurs. Ainsi, quatre ateliers sont au programme. Il s’agit d’un atelier de traduction sous la direction de Boujema Aziri, d’un autre atelier réservé aux enquêtes sous la direction de Abdnour Hadj Saïd (sous-directeur au HCA).
Le troisième atelier, dirigé par Hamid Bilek, sous-directeur au HCA, sera consacré à la réalisation de planches de bandes dessinées en tamazight.
Le dernier atelier sera réservé à un projet de traduction d’une ERP (planification des ressources de l’entreprise).
Aussi un projet de beau-livre consacré aux Aurès sera-t-il présenté aux présents, aussi bien par son auteur (journaliste et photographe) que par un membre du Haut commissariat à l’amazighité, Ramdane Abdenebi.
La dernière journée sera consacrée à un compte rendu sur le déroulement et résultats des quatre ateliers, ainsi que sur l’annonce des grandes lignes du plan de charge 2015 du HCA.

R. H.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

The Himalayan Times : TOPICS: The texting phenomenon - Detail News : Nepal News Portal

The Himalayan Times : TOPICS: The texting phenomenon - Detail News : Nepal News Portal | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
KEN SUBEDI
Although the same language is used, its forms are varied according to their own spheres. Texting is a new form in writing that has influenced mostly the young learners. While I had given my students homework, some students of grade six had written ‘u’ in place of ‘you’ and ‘ur’ in place of ‘your’. This result came as an influence of science and technology or the development of the internet.

The use of language has changed to short form. The internet is the fastest means of communication. So to convey the messages fast, characters in the language are reduced while sending. In course of time, some full forms generated like ‘asl’ for age, sex, location, HAND for have a nice day, LOL for laugh out loud and so on.

Texting is popular among the young people especially teenagers. They do texting to send SMS and during online chats. Texting is one of the trends in modern communication. Whether texting is harming the languages is a matter of debate. But both pros and cons exist.

Texting primarily affects grammar and spelling as it is idiosyncratic. ‘R u f9’ or ‘u r gr8’ do not follow the rules of spelling whereas ‘cal 2morrow dnt cal nw’ does not follow grammar and punctuation rules. Such use over a long period of time develops into incorrect writing habits. A new study has found that those who text are more likely to fall short in grammar tests. Other shortcuts include dropping non-essential letters, such as changing the word ‘would’ to ‘wud’. The texting habit affects their offline language skills that are important to language development and grammar skills.

The texters have problems in switching between techspeak and the normal rules of grammar that result in poor grammar choices in formal writing. There is another school of thought that supports texting and opines that text messaging inspires creativity to play with language. It is a good thing to make language and writing more fun. We believe that texting and instant messaging adds to our culture and language instead of diminishing them.

My view regarding texting is different. We have to make sure we learn the correct spelling and grammar as well as develop correct writing skills before engaging in the text lingo.

Once we develop these basic skills, we will be able to differentiate between formal writing and text lingo. I think that a strong English foundation is needed before we start texting. Don’t we shorten other things in writing? ‘Etc.’ instead of ‘et cetera’, ‘8th’ instead of ‘eighth’, ‘Dr’ instead of ‘doctor’, ‘e.g.’, ‘i.e.’, ‘pm’, ‘am’ etc. Texting is just taking it a step further to save time.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

In 2015, It's Time To Turn Words Into Action

In 2015, It's Time To Turn Words Into Action | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
I recently received a vintage dictionary from a former colleague. Whether it was a thoughtful gift or a subtle hint to boost my vocabulary, it coincided (ironically) with what the advertising industry needs to accomplish in the year ahead.
2014 was a year defined by words. Heated discussions surrounded the right approach to programmatic, the growth of multiplatform ad buys and the evolution of digital to be more than just online.

In the midst of the wall of words, however, was a notable dearth of action. Terminology was refined and definitions were debated, but if industry progress is defined by measurable achievements, then as much as we hoped the industry would change in 2014, much actually stayed the same.

As we look toward 2015, can we finally expect the level of progress that all of us have clamored for? The answer depends on whether the words of this coming year will turn into action, and whether that action will generate demand. With that in mind, here are three words — and more importantly, their definitions — that need to change.

1. Programmatic

Programmatic was without a doubt the most discussed and debated topic in advertising this year. (The Association of National Advertisers even went as far as to vote it the 2014 Marketing Word of the Year.) In 2015, the idea of programmatic will evolve from efficiently selling remnant and direct response, to the development of common mechanisms for selling a range of inventory more effectively.

While conversations about the topic will become more focused, we are not likely to see a common set of automated technology platforms. The definition of programmatic must be tweaked to focus on technologies to automate fragmented media buying and include audience targetability – something still limited to an elite club of media companies who control consumer data.

As with ad buys, the industry will need to define a standard system of measurement that can help us determine what works and what doesn’t when it comes to programmatic.

2.  Ad Buy

Multiplatform deals are by no means a new conversation topic in the industry, but will 2015 be the year that agencies demand fully integrated media buys that blend linear and digital components from order to delivery to invoice? Or will multiplatform remain yet another topic to contemplate. 

Without a standard measurement to support a range of distribution outlets (TV, OTT, online), television and digital will continue to be mere line items within deals that lack the ideal amount of synergy.

A specifically defined – and widely accepted – system of measurement, coupled with true agency demand, will be the driving force behind finally turning multiplatform from a concept into a reality.

3.  Media Company

The media landscape is rapidly changing, and with more anticipated mergers and other deals on the way, the services that a media company provides will extend far beyond the traditional concepts of programming and distribution. And thus their needs for selling and delivering advertising. 

Media companies will be defined by their ability to connect consumers across devices, provide data-rich insights into consumer behavior and provide services that include not only linear distribution but digital. The definition of “media company” will, without question, have the most marked impact on 2015.

Looking Ahead

Ultimately, 2015 is a year in which true demand must be created, big risk must be pursued and conversations will need to progress into actions. This combination of demand, risk and action will lead to industry change, and only then will definitions evolve into practice.

Without these three inputs, 2015 will be another year of heavy dialogue without much noticeable change.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

TCG Releases Movie Tie-in Edition of "Into the Woods"

TCG Releases Movie Tie-in Edition of "Into the Woods" | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Theatre Communications Group (TCG) has announced the publication of a movie tie-in edition of "Into the Woods," with lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by James Lapine.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

REGALO DE PALABRAS

REGALO DE PALABRAS | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
En esta Navidad no quiero agobiar a mis lectores con problemas políticos, nubes negras sobre el futuro o esos horrendos sapos que habremos de tragarnos para obtener una dudosa y arbitraria paz; al contrario, deseo hacerles un regalo de palabras hermosas, muchas de ellas provenientes de lenguas antiguas, voces de nuestros antepasados indígenas, las cuales muchas veces usamos olvidando su origen, su historia, su raigambre.
Mucho de este “regalo” que hoy les hago, proviene del libro, Folclor literario de Colombia, de la historiadora Mercedes Medina de Pacheco, publicado por el Patronato Colombiano de Artes y Letras, libro que recomiendo como una joya.
De las valientes tribus Caribe, que poblaron la Costa Atlántica colombiana y los valles bajos y medios del río Magdalena, conservamos vocablos que nos llenan la boca con sus sonidos redondos y abundantes: batata, bagre, banano, batea, totuma, caníbal, tabaco y arepa, nuestro pan de maíz siempre presente, de una u otra forma, en la mayoría de nuestras mesas. De ellos también nos queda el nombre con que reconocieron a algunos de sus animales, como: caimán, turpial y la boa guio, además de guayacán, árbol sin igual por la dureza de sus maderas y la mejora que proporcionan sus flores para curar el reumatismo, la faringitis y la laringitis.
Palabras que amamos porque nos traen a la memoria deliciosos sabores, como curuba, uchuva y cubios, son herencia de la lengua chibcha hablada por los pueblos muiscas que habitaron la región andina colombiana, llamada por nosotros altiplano cundi-boyacense, donde hoy se extienden grandes urbes como Bogotá y Tunja. También vienen de ellos los nombres de los pájaros toches, del fique y el chusque y de los tunjos, intrigantes objetos religiosos, decorativos.
Del imperio Inca, que ocupó desde Chile hasta el sur de Colombia, heredamos el nombre de lugares y pueblos como Putumayo, Cajamarca, Quito, Pasto, Huila, Guambía y Anchicayá, y voces que quisiera uno repetir hasta la saciedad por su sonoridad, como arracacha, cuchuco, chirimoya, choclo, chonta, zapallo, quinua, alpaca y guaca.
De los aztecas, sus antecesores y otros pueblos habitantes de Centro América y México nos quedan entre otras muchas: cacao, chocolate, tamal, aguacate, tomate, chicle, cacahuate, camole, jícara, petaca, petate y tapir. Y de las lenguas de los pueblos de Uruguay y Paraguay, algunas tan bellas como: cámbulo, cumare, mandioca, ananá, chamán y maraca.
Son estas palabras solo un puñado de las miles que heredamos de los imperios y pueblos que poblaron estas tierras en la era precolombina. Palabras que ahora nos pertenecen y nos hacen hermanos. Sonidos que colorean y enriquecen nuestro español moderno, acompañan nuestras canciones, describen los sabores que preferimos y la fauna y flora que nos pertenece. Voces que le han dado poder y brillo a la pluma de los grandes escritores latinoamericanos.
¿Qué sería del español sin la riqueza, tinte y musicalidad de estas palabras provenientes de lenguas indígenas? Son ellas el mejor ejemplo del mestizaje que nos da la identidad y tienden un puente entre el Nuevo Mundo y España.
¿Qué puede ser más bello que un regalo de palabras como estas? Para todos, una feliz Navidad llena de bellas palabras.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Hemos probado Skype Translator y ésto es lo que nos hemos encontrado

Hemos probado Skype Translator y ésto es lo que nos hemos encontrado | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Me río yo de la torre de Babel. Lo de no hablar el mismo idioma que otras personas hace tiempo que dejó de ser una limitación importante para la comunicación: la tecnología nos ha traído servicios que ayudan a facilitar esa interacción hablada y escrita, y Microsoft ha abierto un nuevo capítulo en esos avances.
Se trata de Skype Translator, un servicio casi futurista que de momento permite traducir del inglés al español y viceversa en conversaciones de voz de tiempo real, pero que soporta más de 40 idiomas si usamos su cliente de mensajería instantánea. Nosotros hemos querido analizar si sería posible mantener una conversación coherente con este servicio simulando ese escenario, y el resultado ha sido sorprendente.
Mucho trabajo por detrás
Los propios ingenieros de Skype dejan claro que de momento el servicio está en una fase muy preliminar y que por tanto la eficiencia y precisión de los distintos mecanismos implicados es limitada. La traducción dista mucho de ser perfecta, sobre todo si hablamos normalmente y con frases hechas que parecen normales en el lenguaje coloquial pero que son especialmente difíciles de entender por estos motores.

Las tareas implicadas en dar ese servicio son muy complejas y muy variadas, y por ejemplo tenemos que el reconocimiento de voz, la traducción por parte de una máquina (a través del servicio Microsoft Translator), la síntesis de voz, el procesamiento en la nube y el aprendizaje automático se entremezclan en una tarea realmente intensiva que parece más del futuro que de la época actual.
Y precisamente por esa complejidad Skype Translator tiene ciertas limitaciones, como la de hablar con un ritmo sostenido pero no demasiado rápido, o la de no hacer frases demasiado largas. La puesta en marcha de la conversación con nuestro contacto es más lenta de lo normal, y puede llevar unos 30 segundos -el "traductor virtual" debe prepararse antes de cada llamada- pero a partir de ahí podremos disfrutar de una curiosa experiencia: la de que ese traductor vaya traduciendo automáticamente de un idioma a otro todo lo que van diciendo los dos interlocutores.
El servicio nos avisa, eso sí, de que nuestra conversación será grabada con el objeto de mejorar el reconocimiento: cada frase que decimos sirve para afinar el motor de reconocimiento de voz conforme a la pronunciación que tiene cada persona. En ningún momento -aseguran desde Microsoft- esos clips de audio están asociados a una identidad real, y los clips son anónimos y están destinados a mejorar la precisión del reconocimiento de voz.
Nuestras pruebas, o en inglés, our tests
Para probar el servicio pusimos en marcha una simulación de un escenario real, en el que yo hablaba en inglés y mi compañero Juan Carlos González lo hacía en español. Como veréis, el resultado fue dispar, pero sorprendía el buen comportamiento de Skype Translator en diversos momentos de la conversación.

De hecho, parte de los errores cometidos por el servicio de Microsoft se debieron más a esa simulación -mi inglés tiene también sus limitaciones, me temo- y al hecho de que no acabábamos de ajustar el ritmo o las pausas adecuadas. El uso del micrófono de nuestras webcams no ayudaba, y aquí Microsoft era clara en sus recomendaciones: es mucho más recomendable utilizar auriculares con micrófonos de cierta calidad para lograr un proceso más eficiente.
Las dificultades para Skype Translator se notaban especialmente en los nombres propios -al final, por ejemplo, digo "Juan Carlos" y él entiende "how sincere" y lo traduce como "cuán sincero")- pero también en algunos giros del lenguaje que obviamente tenía dificultad para reconocer y traducir adecuadamente.
Y sin embargo, el resultado fue más que aceptable. Aunque ambos entendíamos lo que el otro estaba diciendo sin necesidad de traductor, la conclusión es que es posible llegar a un entendimiento bastante alto entre personas que no hablen ambos idiomas. En los casos en los que el reconocimiento de voz no es perfecto, además, podremos hacer uso del cliente de chat, con el que la traducción es mucho más precisa ya que no está involucrada la faceta de reconocimiento de voz y además podemos construir frases de forma más ordenada y a menudo precisa para ese proceso de traducción rápida.
Más información | Skype Translator
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Are you using the most secure and private web browser?

Are you using the most secure and private web browser? | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Aviator web browser, created by a WhiteHat Security, is setup to maximize privacy and security safeguards by default. Simply download OS X or Windows versions and then start surfing in private, protected mode without being tracked.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Google traduction : 57,7 % de justesse dans la traduction médicale !

Google traduction : 57,7 % de justesse dans la traduction médicale ! | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Google Traduction est le géant de la traduction en ligne. L’outil de traduction de la marque de Mountain View présente un taux de justesse de traduction de 74 %, bien loin devant ses concurrents. Le site santelog.com a cependant tenu à tester cette efficacité de Google Traduction dans la terminologie médicale qui requiert une justesse parfaite. En effet, il arrive que le médecin et son patient ne parlent pas toujours la même langue.

10 propositions médicales

Pour effectuer ce test, les chercheurs NHS, en Grande-Bretagne, ont choisi 10 propositions médicales qui sont couramment utilisées dans la langue anglaise. Ils ont ensuite traduit ces phrases en 26 langues différentes. Ces mêmes propositions ont ensuite été traduites par des professionnels de la santé parlant couramment les 26 langues de traduction sur Google traduction. Les versions des professionnels ont été comparées à celles de Google Traduction.



57,7 % de justesse pour translate.google.com ! 

Les résultats du test sont surprenants. En effet, Google Traduction ne propose que 57,7 % de justesse dans les traductions de l’anglais vers une langue d’Europe occidentale. Ce taux justesse descend même jusqu’à 45 % pour les traductions en langues africaines et asiatiques.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Le PJD relance le débat sur l’usage du français dans les administrations marocaines

Le PJD relance le débat sur l’usage du français dans les administrations marocaines | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Les parlementaires du PJD ne se lassent pas de remettre au goût du jour la place de la langue française dans le secteur public. Il y a neuf mois, ils avaient déjà déposé une proposition de loi exigeant l'usage de l'arabe et sanctionnant les infractions par des amendes. Aujourd’hui, ils interpellent à nouveau le ministre délégué chargé de la Fonction publique et de la Modernisation de l'administration sur la question.

Les députés du PJD tentent de relancer le débat sur l’usage de la langue française dans l’administration marocaine. Mardi, lors de la session des questions hebdomadaires à la Chambre des représentants, ils ont interpellé le titulaire du portefeuille de la Fonction publique sur « la situation de la langue arabe au Maroc ».
Mohamed Moubdiî, s’est voulu très rassurant, estimant que toutes les administrations publiques et les collectivités locales sont tenues de communiquer en arabe, conformément à des circulaires des Premiers ministres Abderrahmane El Youssoufi et Abbas El Fassi, datant de 1998 et 2008. Mais les documents publiés par le hacker Chris Coleman prouvent le contraire. Pour expliquer cela, le ministre a souligné que le recours aux langues étrangères n’était autorisé qu’avec les partenaires internationaux.
Connaissant l’importance que revêt le sujet chez les islamistes, le « Harakiste » a rappelé que l’article 5 de la constitution oblige l’Etat à « œuvrer à la protection et au développement de la langue arabe, ainsi qu’à la promotion de son utilisation ». Moubdiî n’a pas souhaité s’engager d’avantage à l’image de son prédécesseur. Saâd El Alami, l’ancien ministre istiqlalien actuellement ambassadeur au Caire, avait en effet promis en 2008 de publier un décret consacrant  l'obligation de l'usage de la langue arabe aussi bien dans la relation entre services publics que dans la communication avec les citoyens.
Le PJD réclame une meilleure place
La réponse de Moubdiî n’aura pas réussi à dissiper les inquiétudes des députés du parti de la Lampe. Abdellah Saghiri, a l’origine de la question, a martelé que « l’arabe est sinistrée ». Ajoutant une couche, il a affirmé que « sa renaissance, annoncée depuis l’avènement de l’indépendance du Maroc est toujours reportée aux calendes grecques ».
Les PJDistes avaient déjà déposé, en mars dernier, une proposition de loi, exigeant de l’Etat une « protection de la langue arabe (…) à l’oral comme à l’écrit », « sa préservation de toutes les influences étrangères » et « l’élaboration de programmes et de plans (…) à même de rehausser son niveau et la généralisation de son usage ». Poussant leur logique jusqu’au bout, ils avaient même prévu des amendes allant jusqu’à 5 000 dh contre les messages publicitaires diffusés dans une langue étrangère. Un texte qui n’est pas sans rappeler celui déposé en 2008 par des députés istiqlaliens. Mais l’initiative n’avait pas dépassé le stade des annonces.
De son côté, le gouvernement Benkirane, tentant de noyer le poisson, avait déclaré préparer une politique linguistique qui se veut cohérente. Neuf mois plus tard, elle se laisse toujours désirer. C’est peut être ce qui a poussé les députés PJD a relancé le débat.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

MIT unifies Web development in a single, speedy new language

MIT unifies Web development in a single, speedy new language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Building a moderately complex Web page requires understanding a whole stack of technologies, from HTML to JavaScript. Now a researcher from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has wrapped these technologies into a single language that could streamline development, speed up performance and better secure Web sites.

The language, called Ur/Web, provides a way for developers to write pages as self-contained programs. It incorporates many of the most widely used Web technologies, freeing the developer from working with each language individually.

“I think this is a language with potential broad applicability to reduce costs of Web development in many different settings,” said Ur/Web’s author, Adam Chlipala, an MIT computer science assistant professor. “It brings some well-ad understood software engineering advantages to aspects of the Web that have been handled in more ad hoc ways.”

Chlipala will present his work next month at the Association for Computing Machinery’s Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages.

Developing a Web site requires understanding a range of different languages, as well as how they interact.

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) offers basic formatting for the Web page, but there is a whole range of adjoining Web technologies that are usually deployed as well: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) provides a way to modify the look of a Web page, and the Extensible Markup Language (XML) structures data for additional processing and classification. JavaScript provides the foundation for writing the business logic for user interactions. And if data is stored in a database, a developer will need to know SQL (Structured Query Language) as well.

Ur/Web encapsulates all the capabilities of such Web development tools within a single language, which is compiled into machine executable code.

Because Ur/Web code is compiled, it can be substantially more efficient to run than code from commonly used Web development languages, Chlipala said.

“In Ur/Web, everything is based on transactions, where a single client request is handled by what looks like an uninterrupted execution of a single function,” Chlipala said. “The language implementation has optimizations in it to support running many requests in parallel, on real servers. But the programmer can pretend everything is a transaction and think in a simpler concurrency model.”

In addition to potentially lessening the cognitive burden for developers, Ur/Web’s top-down approach offers some safety mechanisms that could make Web sites more secure.

The language prohibits unintended interactions among different page elements. With this limit in place, embedded code for supplying ads could not interfere with a calendar widget elsewhere on the page, for example.

Also, like traditional programming languages such as C and Java—and unlike Web languages such as JavaScript—Ur/Web is strongly typed. This means all variables and functions must conform to a preset data type, which limits the ability of an attacker to send maliciously formatted data through a Web form. Ur/Web also supports variable scoping, or the ability to limit where a variable can be called within a program.

The language does have a potential downside. For the average Web developer, Ur/Web could require a “very steep” learning curve, Chlipala admitted. It is what is known as a functional programming language, a style of programming that treats programs as a series of functions, which can be computationally more efficient but harder to learn for a programmer versed in more widely used procedural or object-oriented languages.

Chlipala compared Ur/Web to Haskell, a functional programming language considered esoteric by many programmers yet loved by a dedicated community that praises its computational functionality.

Chlipala is one of a number of MIT researchers who have been pushing the frontiers of software programming languages of late. Another MIT researcher is designing a language called Sketch that can automatically complete sections of code for a program being written. Another MIT effort, dubbed Stack, is designed to identify parts of code that compilers routinely disregard but that nonetheless could be useful.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’

New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
What difference is there between being repelled, being repulsed, being disgusted and being offended? Not much, perhaps, but consider the scene: Anna Karenina has taken a sip of coffee and raised her eyes to look at Vronsky, her lover, who is watching her. After hundreds of pages of love, lust, passion, fear, exhilaration, disappointment, exhaustion, aggression and, probably most important, jealousy, they are having their final fight. Leo Tolstoy is describing Anna ascribing an emotion to a man whose love she needs so desperately that she is convinced he has stopped loving her. Consider also this: When she lifted her coffee cup, she extended her pinkie away from it — a precious gesture that signals just how far this domesticated, miserable Anna has come from the glamorous young woman she was at the beginning of the novel; she made a sound with her lips — and she realized this when she lifted her gaze and saw Vronsky looking at her. She saw the most painful thing a woman can see: a lover who is turned off by her physical being.

Photo

In the classic translation by Constance Garnett, “she saw clearly that he was repelled by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound made by her lips.”

In the popular 2000 translation by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, she “clearly understood that he was disgusted by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound her lips made.”

In a new translation by Rosamund Bartlett, she “understood clearly . . . that he was repulsed by her hand, her gesture, and the sound she made with her lips.”

And in another new translation, this one by Marian Schwartz, she “clearly realized that he found offensive her hand, her gesture and the sound she was making with her lips.”

Surprisingly, all the translators ruled that the part of Anna’s anatomy that she believed repelled, repulsed, disgusted or offended Vronsky was her hand and not her arm, though the Russian word ruka can mean either. I happen to think Tolstoy is writing about the arm — one of those two full arms that were so beguilingly set off by the black gown Anna wore to the ball in Part 1, Chapter 22, when she and Vronsky fell in love. Now, in Part 7, Chapter 25, when Anna lifts her coffee cup, the full arm, the pinkie gesture and the noisy lips form a tragic triangle. On the subject of the lips, the two newer translations hew closer to the original Russian on the issue of the intentionality of the sound that Anna thinks annoys her lover: Tolstoy makes it clear that it is Anna making a sound with her lips, not her lips making an involuntary sound. Like the extended little finger, this is a habit that Vronsky may once have found charming — in fact, he may still, for, Anna’s jealousy and fears notwithstanding, he still loves her — but she thinks he no longer does.

What does she think he feels? If he is offended, he is making — or she thinks he is making — a sort of private social commentary on her provincial-aristocracy ways. If Vronsky is repulsed or disgusted, he is — or Anna thinks he is — having a visceral reaction to her very ways of being. If Anna thinks he is repelled, then perhaps she has a fleeting awareness of pushing Vronsky away. To decipher what Tolstoy wanted to say, the translator has to devise an interpretation of Tolstoy’s narrative voice in “Anna Karenina.”

Continue reading the main story


This is an exercise millions of native Russian readers of the novel perform several times in a lifetime. Teenage girls read the novel as melodramatic; adult readers of both genders begin to perceive irony — its amount seems to vary from reading to reading. The author’s sympathies, too, invariably appear to shift between characters with every reading; this, combined with ironic distance that is always contracting and expanding, makes the book endlessly rich — and endlessly difficult for the translator, who can never hope to keep pace with the author. How earnest, ironic, condescending, moralistic and simply funny a Tolstoy should the translator inhabit? Perhaps the only way to render Tolstoy’s variable voice is to continue producing ever-varying translations. The two new translations bring the number of published English-language versions to at least nine — or 10, if one considers the fact that Constance Garnett’s translation was significantly revised by Leonard J. Kent and the great Russian prose stylist Nina Berberova in 1965. Of these, Garnett’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s versions have enjoyed the tightest grip on the market, though it can be argued that neither came by its reputation on the basis of literary merit alone: Garnett for decades had a virtual monopoly on translating Russian classics, and Pevear and Volokhonsky sold hundreds of thousands of copies after their translation was chosen by Oprah Winfrey for her television book club. Winfrey, however, had not read the book and chose this particular translation out of consideration of convenience only: It was the most recent and therefore the most widely available at that moment.

The Tolstoy of Garnett (one of the few translators to have met the author in person, and the only one of those whose work is still read as current) is a monocled British gentleman who is simply incapable of taking his characters as seriously as they take themselves. Pevear and Volokhonsky, a Russian-American husband-and-wife team, created a reasonable, calm story­teller who communicated in conversational American English. Rosamund Bartlett, a longtime scholar of Russian literature and culture and a biographer of both Tolstoy and Chekhov, creates an updated ironic-Brit version of Tolstoy. Marian Schwartz, Bartlett’s distinguished American competitor who has translated a great variety of Russian authors, has produced what is probably the least smooth-talking and most contradictory Tolstoy yet.

Schwartz begins by giving the most literal rendition to date of one of the greatest first lines in the history of the novel.

“Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Garnett.

“All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Pevear and Volokhonsky.

Bartlett made the exact same choice of words.

Here, meanwhile, is Schwartz: “All happy families resemble one another; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

Photo

In her introductory note Schwartz explains her decision: “The first half of this now famous saying is often translated using the word ‘alike.’ The sentence thus rendered becomes aphoristic: ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.’ It is a tidy package, but not the package Tolstoy wrote. Tolstoy said not that happy families are ‘alike’ (odinakovye) but rather that they ‘resemble’ one another (pokhozhi drug na druga). By not using the expected word in that first half, Tolstoy makes the reader take a second look and points to a more complicated opinion about those happy families.”

Continue reading the main story
There are two problems with this argument. One, the Russian word odinakovye would not be the expected word at all in this sentence — indeed, it would be jarring there. Two, odinakovye actually means “same,” while the English word “alike” is more often used to mean not identical but precisely very similar — it is indeed the best word to express the Russian phrase “resemble one another.” But Schwartz’s larger point is well taken: Tolstoy’s writing is indeed remarkable for its purposeful roughness, the use of repetition and the obsessive breaking of clichés to force the reader to consider the meaning of each word and phrase. “Beginning with Garnett,” Schwartz writes, “English translators have tended to view Tolstoy’s sometimes radical choices as ‘mistakes’ to be corrected, as if Tolstoy, had he known better, or cared more, would not have broken basic rules of literary language.”

Fourteen years earlier, in their own translators’ note, Pevear and Volokhonsky quoted Vladimir Nabokov, who wrote of a particular case of repetition that it is “characteristic of Tolstoy’s style with its rejection of false elegancies and its readiness to admit any robust awkwardness if that is the shortest way to sense.” Pevear and Volokhonsky conclude: “In previous English translations such passages have generally been toned down if not eliminated. We have preferred to keep them as evidence of the freedom Tolstoy allowed himself in Russian.” The differences between these two translations, in other words, stem not from a difference in goals or attitudes toward Tolstoy’s style but from differences in the ways the translators actually read the text.

Bartlett, for her part, quotes Chekhov, Tolstoy’s contemporary: " ‘Have you ever paid attention to Tolstoy’s language?’ Chekhov once said to a friend; ‘enormous sentences, one clause piled on top of another. Do not think this is accidental, that it is a flaw. It is art, and it is achieved through hard work.’ ” Bartlett writes, “This translation seeks to preserve all the idiosyncrasies of Tolstoy’s inimitable style, as far as that is possible, including the majority of his signature repetitions, so often smoothed over by previous translators, his occasional use of specialized vocabulary . . . and his subtle changes of register, as in those instances where the introduction of an almost imperceptible but unmistakable note of irony is concerned.” But though Bartlett shares Schwartz’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s understanding of Tolstoy’s intentions — and their appraisal of previous translation efforts — she proposes that Tolstoy was “often a clumsy and occasionally ungrammatical writer, but there is a majesty and elegance to his prose which needs to be emulated in translation wherever possible. Tolstoy loved the particular properties of the Russian language, but he would not have expected them to be reproduced exactly in translation. . . . The aim here, therefore, is to produce a translation which is idiomatic as well as faithful to the original, and one which ideally reads as if it was written in one’s own language.”

Continue reading the main story
The opposition between the ideal of producing a translation that reads as though the original had been written in the language and one that has an accent, like a Russian character speaking English in a Hollywood movie, is an old one, and convincing arguments have been made on both sides of the debate. In this case, Bartlett, like Pevear and Volokhonsky before her, appears to be on the side of those who aim for idiomatic English, while Schwartz prioritizes formal equivalence. In reality, though, it is Bartlett who sometimes introduces an awkwardness that is absent in the original. In Chapter 25 of Part 7, for example, as Anna and Vronsky initiate their final fight, Vronsky reads from a telegram: “Few hopes.” In Russian, just as in English, hope can be used as either a count or a noncount noun, and Tolstoy in this case opts for the more common noncount option, which would have sounded more idiomatic in translation as well: “Little hope,” just as Schwartz has it. A few lines later, when Vronsky tells Anna she needs a divorce from her estranged husband, she responds, in Schwartz’s version, “Clarity is not in the form but in the love.” Bartlett has her say, “Clarity is not a matter of form but of love,” introducing an error of syntax that is absent in the original. And neither of the new translations compares to Pevear and Volokhonsky’s in its ability to match the pitch and intonation of one of the novel’s most important scenes.

But while Schwartz seems to have a better ear for the Russian, her translation is often in the end less readable than Bartlett’s. At the very beginning of the book, in the second paragraph, where Tolstoy describes his first unhappy family, that of Anna’s brother, Bartlett gets tripped up by the use of tenses in Russian and writes, “The wife had found out that the husband was having an affair with the French governess formerly in their house.” Schwartz has “The wife had found out about her husband’s affair with the French governess formerly in their home” — this is an accurate reflection of the ambiguity of the sequence of verb tenses that makes Russian very different from English, as well as the ambiguity characteristic of all such discoveries: Neither the wife nor the reader can possibly know whether the affair is over.

But in her drive to convey the full and complete meaning of every word, Schwartz weighs the paragraph down with detail: She has the children “racing through” the house “like lost souls” while for Bartlett they are “running about the house as if lost.” The Russian word poteryanniye indeed suggests that the children are spiritually rather than physically lost, but this exactitude creates the distracting image of souls rushing at breakneck speed, in no way implied by Tolstoy. Schwartz indicates that the cook quit the day before, “during the midday meal,” while Bartlett translates the meal simply as “dinner.” Technically, Schwartz is right because Russians consume the meal in question later than Americans would have lunch and earlier than they would have dinner — around the time, in fact, when British people would have tea. But the Russian obed is the most important meal of the day, which is why Bartlett’s “dinner” accurately conveys the meaning of the cook’s insult, if not the timing of the walkout.

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story


But let us consider the first line again. Did Tolstoy actually mean that all happy families are alike while each unhappy family enjoys its own form of misery? The structure of the book seems to affirm this view: It tells the stories of many unhappy families and only one happy one, as though the one happy family could represent all the families that are just like it. On second look, however, it turns out that all unhappy families are very much alike — decimated by unfaithfulness, jealousy and lack of trust that work in predictable ways — while the one happy family develops in unpredictable, fascinating detail. Did Tolstoy mean to start the reader off with a false assertion to make his moral point all that much more clearly, or is this reader reading too much into the apparent paradox? The answer colors the reading of much of the text that follows.

Take Part 7, Chapter 15, in which Kitty, the wife in the book’s sole happy family, gives birth to a son — an event the anticipation of which is described in excruciating detail: Kitty even goes weeks past her due date. In Bartlett’s version, her husband’s first encounter with the baby goes as follows: “As he gazed at this tiny, pathetic creature, Levin tried vainly to find some signs of paternal feeling in his heart. He felt only disgust for it.”

Schwartz’s image of Levin is essentially the same as Bartlett’s: “Levin gazed at this tiny, pitiful being and made vain efforts to find in his heart some signs of fatherly feeling toward it. All he felt for it was revulsion.”

In both of these translations, Levin’s fears, described over hundreds of preceding pages, have been realized: For all his efforts at building the perfect family, he cannot rise to the challenge of fatherhood — he is undeserving of happiness, just as he suspected. The ending of the chapter therefore cannot redeem him. Bartlett: " ‘Look now,’ said Kitty, turning the baby towards him so that he could see it. The wizened little face suddenly wrinkled up even more, and the baby sneezed.

“Smiling and barely able to hold back tears of tenderness, Levin kissed his wife and went out of the dark room.

“What he felt for this little creature was not at all what he had expected. There was nothing jubilant or happy about this feeling; on the contrary, it was an agonizing new fear. It was the consciousness of a new area of vulnerability. And this consciousness was indeed so agonizing at first, and the fear that this helpless creature might suffer so intense, that he failed to notice the strange feeling of absurd joy and even pride he experienced when the baby sneezed.”

Russian uses the same pronouns for both animate and inanimate objects, so Bartlett’s choice of “it” for the baby serves to underscore Levin’s failure to relate to the baby in a way that is absent in the original. Schwartz uses “him.” She also uses the word “emotion” where Bartlett has “tenderness”; “anticipated” rather than “expected”; “cheer” and “joy” over “jubilant” and “happy”; “terror” rather than “fear”; and “senseless” rather than “absurd.” None of these distinctions, however, change the narrative: Levin appears to be failing, and the birth of the baby is likely the point at which this family, too, starts on its path to failure.

Pevear and Volokhonsky, in their 14-year-old translation, rendered Levin’s initial reaction to the baby not as disgust or revulsion but as squeamishness. And that changes everything.

ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Rosamund Bartlett
847 pp. Oxford University Press. $29.95.
ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Marian Schwartz
754 pp. Yale University Press. $35.
Masha Gessen’s seventh book, “The Brothers: The Road to an American Tragedy,” will be published in April.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’

New Translations of Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’ | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
What difference is there between being repelled, being repulsed, being disgusted and being offended? Not much, perhaps, but consider the scene: Anna Karenina has taken a sip of coffee and raised her eyes to look at Vronsky, her lover, who is watching her. After hundreds of pages of love, lust, passion, fear, exhilaration, disappointment, exhaustion, aggression and, probably most important, jealousy, they are having their final fight. Leo Tolstoy is describing Anna ascribing an emotion to a man whose love she needs so desperately that she is convinced he has stopped loving her. Consider also this: When she lifted her coffee cup, she extended her pinkie away from it — a precious gesture that signals just how far this domesticated, miserable Anna has come from the glamorous young woman she was at the beginning of the novel; she made a sound with her lips — and she realized this when she lifted her gaze and saw Vronsky looking at her. She saw the most painful thing a woman can see: a lover who is turned off by her physical being.

Photo

In the classic translation by Constance Garnett, “she saw clearly that he was repelled by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound made by her lips.”

In the popular 2000 translation by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky, she “clearly understood that he was disgusted by her hand, and her gesture, and the sound her lips made.”

In a new translation by Rosamund Bartlett, she “understood clearly . . . that he was repulsed by her hand, her gesture, and the sound she made with her lips.”

And in another new translation, this one by Marian Schwartz, she “clearly realized that he found offensive her hand, her gesture and the sound she was making with her lips.”

Surprisingly, all the translators ruled that the part of Anna’s anatomy that she believed repelled, repulsed, disgusted or offended Vronsky was her hand and not her arm, though the Russian word ruka can mean either. I happen to think Tolstoy is writing about the arm — one of those two full arms that were so beguilingly set off by the black gown Anna wore to the ball in Part 1, Chapter 22, when she and Vronsky fell in love. Now, in Part 7, Chapter 25, when Anna lifts her coffee cup, the full arm, the pinkie gesture and the noisy lips form a tragic triangle. On the subject of the lips, the two newer translations hew closer to the original Russian on the issue of the intentionality of the sound that Anna thinks annoys her lover: Tolstoy makes it clear that it is Anna making a sound with her lips, not her lips making an involuntary sound. Like the extended little finger, this is a habit that Vronsky may once have found charming — in fact, he may still, for, Anna’s jealousy and fears notwithstanding, he still loves her — but she thinks he no longer does.

What does she think he feels? If he is offended, he is making — or she thinks he is making — a sort of private social commentary on her provincial-aristocracy ways. If Vronsky is repulsed or disgusted, he is — or Anna thinks he is — having a visceral reaction to her very ways of being. If Anna thinks he is repelled, then perhaps she has a fleeting awareness of pushing Vronsky away. To decipher what Tolstoy wanted to say, the translator has to devise an interpretation of Tolstoy’s narrative voice in “Anna Karenina.”

Continue reading the main story


This is an exercise millions of native Russian readers of the novel perform several times in a lifetime. Teenage girls read the novel as melodramatic; adult readers of both genders begin to perceive irony — its amount seems to vary from reading to reading. The author’s sympathies, too, invariably appear to shift between characters with every reading; this, combined with ironic distance that is always contracting and expanding, makes the book endlessly rich — and endlessly difficult for the translator, who can never hope to keep pace with the author. How earnest, ironic, condescending, moralistic and simply funny a Tolstoy should the translator inhabit? Perhaps the only way to render Tolstoy’s variable voice is to continue producing ever-varying translations. The two new translations bring the number of published English-language versions to at least nine — or 10, if one considers the fact that Constance Garnett’s translation was significantly revised by Leonard J. Kent and the great Russian prose stylist Nina Berberova in 1965. Of these, Garnett’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s versions have enjoyed the tightest grip on the market, though it can be argued that neither came by its reputation on the basis of literary merit alone: Garnett for decades had a virtual monopoly on translating Russian classics, and Pevear and Volokhonsky sold hundreds of thousands of copies after their translation was chosen by Oprah Winfrey for her television book club. Winfrey, however, had not read the book and chose this particular translation out of consideration of convenience only: It was the most recent and therefore the most widely available at that moment.

The Tolstoy of Garnett (one of the few translators to have met the author in person, and the only one of those whose work is still read as current) is a monocled British gentleman who is simply incapable of taking his characters as seriously as they take themselves. Pevear and Volokhonsky, a Russian-American husband-and-wife team, created a reasonable, calm story­teller who communicated in conversational American English. Rosamund Bartlett, a longtime scholar of Russian literature and culture and a biographer of both Tolstoy and Chekhov, creates an updated ironic-Brit version of Tolstoy. Marian Schwartz, Bartlett’s distinguished American competitor who has translated a great variety of Russian authors, has produced what is probably the least smooth-talking and most contradictory Tolstoy yet.

Schwartz begins by giving the most literal rendition to date of one of the greatest first lines in the history of the novel.

“Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Garnett.

“All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way,” wrote Pevear and Volokhonsky.

Bartlett made the exact same choice of words.

Here, meanwhile, is Schwartz: “All happy families resemble one another; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

Photo

In her introductory note Schwartz explains her decision: “The first half of this now famous saying is often translated using the word ‘alike.’ The sentence thus rendered becomes aphoristic: ‘All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.’ It is a tidy package, but not the package Tolstoy wrote. Tolstoy said not that happy families are ‘alike’ (odinakovye) but rather that they ‘resemble’ one another (pokhozhi drug na druga). By not using the expected word in that first half, Tolstoy makes the reader take a second look and points to a more complicated opinion about those happy families.”

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story
There are two problems with this argument. One, the Russian word odinakovye would not be the expected word at all in this sentence — indeed, it would be jarring there. Two, odinakovye actually means “same,” while the English word “alike” is more often used to mean not identical but precisely very similar — it is indeed the best word to express the Russian phrase “resemble one another.” But Schwartz’s larger point is well taken: Tolstoy’s writing is indeed remarkable for its purposeful roughness, the use of repetition and the obsessive breaking of clichés to force the reader to consider the meaning of each word and phrase. “Beginning with Garnett,” Schwartz writes, “English translators have tended to view Tolstoy’s sometimes radical choices as ‘mistakes’ to be corrected, as if Tolstoy, had he known better, or cared more, would not have broken basic rules of literary language.”

Fourteen years earlier, in their own translators’ note, Pevear and Volokhonsky quoted Vladimir Nabokov, who wrote of a particular case of repetition that it is “characteristic of Tolstoy’s style with its rejection of false elegancies and its readiness to admit any robust awkwardness if that is the shortest way to sense.” Pevear and Volokhonsky conclude: “In previous English translations such passages have generally been toned down if not eliminated. We have preferred to keep them as evidence of the freedom Tolstoy allowed himself in Russian.” The differences between these two translations, in other words, stem not from a difference in goals or attitudes toward Tolstoy’s style but from differences in the ways the translators actually read the text.

Bartlett, for her part, quotes Chekhov, Tolstoy’s contemporary: " ‘Have you ever paid attention to Tolstoy’s language?’ Chekhov once said to a friend; ‘enormous sentences, one clause piled on top of another. Do not think this is accidental, that it is a flaw. It is art, and it is achieved through hard work.’ ” Bartlett writes, “This translation seeks to preserve all the idiosyncrasies of Tolstoy’s inimitable style, as far as that is possible, including the majority of his signature repetitions, so often smoothed over by previous translators, his occasional use of specialized vocabulary . . . and his subtle changes of register, as in those instances where the introduction of an almost imperceptible but unmistakable note of irony is concerned.” But though Bartlett shares Schwartz’s and Pevear and Volokhonsky’s understanding of Tolstoy’s intentions — and their appraisal of previous translation efforts — she proposes that Tolstoy was “often a clumsy and occasionally ungrammatical writer, but there is a majesty and elegance to his prose which needs to be emulated in translation wherever possible. Tolstoy loved the particular properties of the Russian language, but he would not have expected them to be reproduced exactly in translation. . . . The aim here, therefore, is to produce a translation which is idiomatic as well as faithful to the original, and one which ideally reads as if it was written in one’s own language.”

Continue reading the main story
The opposition between the ideal of producing a translation that reads as though the original had been written in the language and one that has an accent, like a Russian character speaking English in a Hollywood movie, is an old one, and convincing arguments have been made on both sides of the debate. In this case, Bartlett, like Pevear and Volokhonsky before her, appears to be on the side of those who aim for idiomatic English, while Schwartz prioritizes formal equivalence. In reality, though, it is Bartlett who sometimes introduces an awkwardness that is absent in the original. In Chapter 25 of Part 7, for example, as Anna and Vronsky initiate their final fight, Vronsky reads from a telegram: “Few hopes.” In Russian, just as in English, hope can be used as either a count or a noncount noun, and Tolstoy in this case opts for the more common noncount option, which would have sounded more idiomatic in translation as well: “Little hope,” just as Schwartz has it. A few lines later, when Vronsky tells Anna she needs a divorce from her estranged husband, she responds, in Schwartz’s version, “Clarity is not in the form but in the love.” Bartlett has her say, “Clarity is not a matter of form but of love,” introducing an error of syntax that is absent in the original. And neither of the new translations compares to Pevear and Volokhonsky’s in its ability to match the pitch and intonation of one of the novel’s most important scenes.

But while Schwartz seems to have a better ear for the Russian, her translation is often in the end less readable than Bartlett’s. At the very beginning of the book, in the second paragraph, where Tolstoy describes his first unhappy family, that of Anna’s brother, Bartlett gets tripped up by the use of tenses in Russian and writes, “The wife had found out that the husband was having an affair with the French governess formerly in their house.” Schwartz has “The wife had found out about her husband’s affair with the French governess formerly in their home” — this is an accurate reflection of the ambiguity of the sequence of verb tenses that makes Russian very different from English, as well as the ambiguity characteristic of all such discoveries: Neither the wife nor the reader can possibly know whether the affair is over.

But in her drive to convey the full and complete meaning of every word, Schwartz weighs the paragraph down with detail: She has the children “racing through” the house “like lost souls” while for Bartlett they are “running about the house as if lost.” The Russian word poteryanniye indeed suggests that the children are spiritually rather than physically lost, but this exactitude creates the distracting image of souls rushing at breakneck speed, in no way implied by Tolstoy. Schwartz indicates that the cook quit the day before, “during the midday meal,” while Bartlett translates the meal simply as “dinner.” Technically, Schwartz is right because Russians consume the meal in question later than Americans would have lunch and earlier than they would have dinner — around the time, in fact, when British people would have tea. But the Russian obed is the most important meal of the day, which is why Bartlett’s “dinner” accurately conveys the meaning of the cook’s insult, if not the timing of the walkout.

Continue reading the main storyContinue reading the main story


But let us consider the first line again. Did Tolstoy actually mean that all happy families are alike while each unhappy family enjoys its own form of misery? The structure of the book seems to affirm this view: It tells the stories of many unhappy families and only one happy one, as though the one happy family could represent all the families that are just like it. On second look, however, it turns out that all unhappy families are very much alike — decimated by unfaithfulness, jealousy and lack of trust that work in predictable ways — while the one happy family develops in unpredictable, fascinating detail. Did Tolstoy mean to start the reader off with a false assertion to make his moral point all that much more clearly, or is this reader reading too much into the apparent paradox? The answer colors the reading of much of the text that follows.

Take Part 7, Chapter 15, in which Kitty, the wife in the book’s sole happy family, gives birth to a son — an event the anticipation of which is described in excruciating detail: Kitty even goes weeks past her due date. In Bartlett’s version, her husband’s first encounter with the baby goes as follows: “As he gazed at this tiny, pathetic creature, Levin tried vainly to find some signs of paternal feeling in his heart. He felt only disgust for it.”

Schwartz’s image of Levin is essentially the same as Bartlett’s: “Levin gazed at this tiny, pitiful being and made vain efforts to find in his heart some signs of fatherly feeling toward it. All he felt for it was revulsion.”

In both of these translations, Levin’s fears, described over hundreds of preceding pages, have been realized: For all his efforts at building the perfect family, he cannot rise to the challenge of fatherhood — he is undeserving of happiness, just as he suspected. The ending of the chapter therefore cannot redeem him. Bartlett: " ‘Look now,’ said Kitty, turning the baby towards him so that he could see it. The wizened little face suddenly wrinkled up even more, and the baby sneezed.

“Smiling and barely able to hold back tears of tenderness, Levin kissed his wife and went out of the dark room.

“What he felt for this little creature was not at all what he had expected. There was nothing jubilant or happy about this feeling; on the contrary, it was an agonizing new fear. It was the consciousness of a new area of vulnerability. And this consciousness was indeed so agonizing at first, and the fear that this helpless creature might suffer so intense, that he failed to notice the strange feeling of absurd joy and even pride he experienced when the baby sneezed.”

Russian uses the same pronouns for both animate and inanimate objects, so Bartlett’s choice of “it” for the baby serves to underscore Levin’s failure to relate to the baby in a way that is absent in the original. Schwartz uses “him.” She also uses the word “emotion” where Bartlett has “tenderness”; “anticipated” rather than “expected”; “cheer” and “joy” over “jubilant” and “happy”; “terror” rather than “fear”; and “senseless” rather than “absurd.” None of these distinctions, however, change the narrative: Levin appears to be failing, and the birth of the baby is likely the point at which this family, too, starts on its path to failure.

Pevear and Volokhonsky, in their 14-year-old translation, rendered Levin’s initial reaction to the baby not as disgust or revulsion but as squeamishness. And that changes everything.

ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Rosamund Bartlett
847 pp. Oxford University Press. $29.95.
ANNA KARENINA
By Leo Tolstoy
Translated by Marian Schwartz
754 pp. Yale University Press. $35.
Masha Gessen’s seventh book, “The Brothers: The Road to an American Tragedy,” will be published in April.
more...
No comment yet.
Suggested by Saleem Jaffer
Scoop.it!

Translator Jobs | joblife.co.za

Translator Jobs
You are viewing the Latest Translator Job Listings for December 2014  Page 1
Sub Editor
Media24 - Cape Town, Western Cape
Media24 Weekly Magazines have a vacancy for an Afrikaans translator and copy editor. The candidate will be based in Johannesburg or CPT....
from: Media24 - 11 days ago


Japanese Translator
Digital Outsource Services - South Africa
This is a very exciting role within our Translations Department at Digital Outsource Services. Operating within the e-commerce industry, we provide world
from: Top Language Jobs - 3 days ago
Speak More Then One Language? Translators Needed Urgently
Johannesburg, Gauteng
Our translator jobs require tasks to be done such as:. If you can speak English, and at least one other language, we have translator jobs available for you....
from: Gumtree ZA - 4 days ago
Integration Manager Praekelt Foundation
Praekelt Foundation - South Africa
Praekelt Foundation’s mission is to use open source technologies to deliver essential information and inclusive services to millions of people around the world
from: Omidyar Networks - 9 days ago
Speak More Then One Language? Translators Needed Urgently
Cape Town, Western Cape
Our translator jobs require tasks to be done such as:. If you can speak English, and at least one other language, we have translator jobs available for you....
from: Gumtree ZA - 4 days ago
Job Vacancies At Hg Construction Limited
HG Construction Limited - South Africa
As part of our ongoing recruitment exercise, we welcome applications from suitably qualified candidates in the fields of Management, Administration, Science,...
from: Careers24 - 15 days ago
German Proofreader Wanted
Pretoria, Gauteng
German proofreader wanted to proofread English to German translation of Finance & IT procedures. Requirements: Must be a native German speaker or have German
from: Gumtree ZA - 10 days ago
Looking For English-chinese Translator - Urgent!
Johannesburg, Gauteng
Urgently looking for a English-Chinese translator. If you have the correct skills in translation and have a proven track record in such a practice please email...
from: Gumtree ZA - 2 days ago
German Translator Needed NEW
Gordon’s Bay, Western Cape
Need a German translator for 5 January...
from: Gumtree ZA - 1 day ago
Technical Team Leader / Operations Manager
Maverick Recruitment Solutions - Durban North, KwaZulu-Natal
The COO will be responsible for being the translator between the technical and business teams to ensure that all team members are working towards one end goal....
from: Careers24 - 18 days ago
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Simultaneous translations at 31C3 « CCC Event Weblog

Simultaneous translations at 31C3

31C3 is getting closer, and the translation team is once again at the ready to translate all German talks into English, and also a selection of English talks into German.

You can listen in on the streams by either selecting the appropriate stream, or by changing the stream audio channel (if your player allows). If you are on the Eventphone DECT network, you can dial in to various streams: 8011 for Saal 1, 8012 for Saal 2, 8014 for Saal G, and 8016 for Saal 6.

Call for translators

If you are multilingual and fluent in German and English, please consider joining the translation team. Simply send an email to “translate-subscribe(at)lists.ccc.de” and mail a quick intro to the mailing list after subscribing. Also sign up as a translation angel at theEngelsystem.

Don’t be shy. If you are uncertain whether your English or German is good enough, chances are that you’ll do just fine. If we believe you might be struggling, we will talk it over, no harm done. So please, take this chance and help us bring C3 to an even wider international audience.

For more information, you can contact us on Twitter @c3translate or via mail to translate(at)lists.ccc.de (after subscribing).

See (and possibly hear) you at 31C3!

Tags: Englishtranslate

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

In the world of books

In the world of books | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The more the publisher works invisibly, the more successful a book becomes, says Aleph founder David Davidar

Publishing house Aleph hosted an evening recently to celebrate the publication of its new book “A Clutch of Indian Masterpieces”, and the year’s last.

Celebrating the occasion, Aleph founder David Davidar was in a mood to look back at the entity he put together two years ago. “When I decided to come up with Aleph, I questioned myself, Why did I want to start an independent company when I could work for someone else. I realized that with Aleph, I could give each and every novel the kind of attention and time it needs. Though I always had a knack for publishing, I had to find a partner since I wanted to work on lesser number of books and give out better quality and I found my partner in Rupa Publications.” He always knew that “writing is a very subjective matter and no author can be perfect.”

“Aleph works on it and publishes only 20 to 25 books a year,” he said.

So what would he call the secret behind a successful book? Davidar was categorical there, “The more a publisher works invisibly, the more successful a book becomes.”

The recently published “A Clutch of Indian Masterpieces” is a collection of 39 short stories.. It covers a wide spectrum of literary masterpieces that reflect the diversity and range in our story-telling tradition. It has works of Rabindranath Tagore to that of a 21st Century writer,Kanishk Tharoor. From folklore, romance and myth to stories based in small towns and cities, it has a wide range between its covers. “I have always known that I loved writing and was into journalism initially. I got into publications accidently when I joined Penguin as a founding member,” said Davidar, also the author of three novels. Wishing upcoming authors would invest greater effort into their writing, Davidar stated, “Writers should always take risks with writing. They should go beyond autobiographies.”

“What makes a story great is that the readers want to read it over and over again and it leaves an indubitable mark on their mind.”

Aleph’s upcoming publication, “The Patna Manual of Style” would most likely be the first in its 2015 list. Penned by Siddharth Chowdhury, the book is expected to come outthis February. It would comprisenine short stories and would connect Patna with Delhi. Siddharth, an author of four other novels, was awarded The Man Asian Literary Prize in 2009.

“Every fictional work is influenced by one’s personal experiences. In a way, it is an autobiography,” said the author present at the event.

”Writing is a blessing and one can write great stories and come up with fresh ideas it comes to him or her naturally,” he added.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Rare first-edition copy of Jane Austen’s Emma for sale in York with £100k price tag

Rare first-edition copy of Jane Austen’s Emma for sale in York with £100k price tag | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
THERE are few shops in York city centre where you can walk in with £100,000 in your pocket and leave with just one Christmas present and no change.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

BitLit app pairs ebooks with your paper editions - SlashGear

BitLit app pairs ebooks with your paper editions - SlashGear | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Ebooks and paper books each have their own benefits -- nothing is quite as satisfying as watching the number of pages dwindle as you read a physical book, for example, but a Kindle packed with ebooks is far more convenient than a heavy backpack. Having each version of a book -- both paper and digital -- is the best of both worlds, but more or less double the expense. Some publishers have rolled out options to get an ebook edition of a book you already own, but finding those options isn't always simple.

That's a task the folks behind BitLit aim to simplify, using an app to scan the physical books on your shelf and find their ebook counterparts. Some ebooks are free if you already have the physical editions; others are offered at a discounted priced.

The BitLit app is available for both iOS and Android, and works by taking a "shelfie" of your book shelf. Each book in the image will be identified and then paired with a related ebook. The next step is one book lovers will likely balk at however.

You'll need to write your name on the physical book's copyright page and snap another picture -- a sort of protection mechanism against getting free ebook editions of, for example, library books or books scanned while browsing a book store. At that point, and assuming an ebook is available, it'll be emailed for download.

VIA: Lifehacker
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Souhaiter Joyeux Noël dans toutes les langues | www.directmatin.fr

Souhaiter Joyeux Noël dans toutes les langues | www.directmatin.fr | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Période de fêtes oblige, les "Joyeux Noël" fusent à tout va. Mais vous êtes-vous déjà demandés comment est-ce que cela se dit ailleurs ?...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Agustín Pallares presentó su 'Diccionario de topónimos de Lanzarote'

Agustín Pallares presentó su 'Diccionario de topónimos de Lanzarote' | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
El libro, presentado en la Sociedad Democracia, es el fruto de más de 50 años de investigación durante los que se su autor se ha enfrascado en multitud de entrevistas, recorridos y horas de lectura...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

« Les accents participent à la richesse de notre langue »

« Les accents participent à la richesse de notre langue » | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Si les langues régionales ont décliné en France, les accents souvent résistent. Que s’est-il passé ? D’où provient l’accentuation ? Entretien avec le linguiste Philippe Boula de Mareüil, directeur de recherche au CNRS.

De quand datent nos accents régionaux ?

Les accents sont aussi vieux que le langage. Au XVIe siècle, le français – qui s’était développé lors de l’essor démographique du bassin parisien aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles – était encore peu répandu en France. On parlait diverses langues, différents dialectes d’oc ou d’oïl, comme le champenois, le picard ou le normand, ainsi que des variétés non romanes comme le basque, le breton et des dialectes flamands ou alsaciens. Aujourd’hui, si les langues minoritaires sont en danger, les accents résistent encore dans certaines régions.

Bien souvent, on reconnaît un Méridional à sa prononciation – « mère » étiré en deux syllabes avec le « e » ou « canton » perçu comme « caneton » par les gens du Nord – ou encore un Alsacien – qui prononcera « bidon d’huile » comme « python-tuile » et « jalousie » comme « chat-loup-scie » –, d’où d’innombrables charades et plaisanteries.

Un accent n’est perçu que dans la mesure où il s’écarte d’une langue qui est la norme. D’où vient-elle ?

Dans un pays aussi centralisé que la France, le rôle linguistique des élites, et aujourd’hui des notables de la capitale, est depuis longtemps considérable. Au XVIe siècle, le grammairien anglais Jehan Palsgrave décrétait que la forme de françai...
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Administration : Obligation d'utiliser la langue arabe - LE MATIN.ma

Administration : Obligation d'utiliser la langue arabe - LE MATIN.ma | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
«Les administrations publiques et les collectivités locales sont tenues d'utiliser la langue arabe dans tous leurs services», c’est ce qu’a affirmé, le ministre délégué chargé de la Fonction publique et de la Modernisation de l'administration
Mohamed Moubdii, a affirmé, mardi à Rabat, que les administrations et les établissements publics ainsi que les collectivités locales sont tenus d'utiliser la langue arabe dans tous leurs services.
Répondant à une question orale du groupe «Justice et Développement» à la Chambre des représentants sur l'état de la langue arabe au Maroc, le ministre a rappelé que deux circulaires du Premier ministre ont été publiées en 1998 et 2008 obligeant les administrations et les établissements publics ainsi que les collectivités locales à utiliser uniquement la langue arabe dans leurs services, et ne recourir aux langues étrangères que lorsqu'il s'agit de documents techniques difficiles à traduire vers l'arabe.
Le ministre a souligné que la langue arabe constitue l'une des composantes essentielles de l'identité nationale et de la personnalité marocaine, rappelant dans ce sens l'article 5 de la Constitution qui stipule que «l'arabe demeure la langue officielle de l'Etat. L'Etat œuvre à la protection et au développement de la langue arabe, ainsi qu'à la promotion de son utilisation».
Il a, dans ce cadre, indiqué que le programme du gouvernement visant la mise en oeuvre des dispositions de la constitution et la consolidation de la langue officielle de l'Etat, a porté sur les mécanismes suivants, à savoir l'élaboration d'une loi spéciale sur la langue arabe, la mise en place de l'Académie Mohammed VI de la langue arabe et du Conseil national des langues et de la culture du Maroc.
S'agissant des mesures prises au niveau de l'administration publique, Mohamed Moubdii a précisé qu'un dictionnaire dédié aux termes administratifs les plus courants a été créé afin d'aider les administrations à utiliser la langue arabe, outre l'élaboration des guides de fonctionnement et de gestion en langue arabe notamment les guide des «ressources humaines» et des «procédures les plus courantes».
La question de l'usage de la langue arabe et sa préservation n'est pas seulement une affaire du gouvernement mais elle concerne toutes les composantes de la société, a-t-il fait savoir.
  
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Charles Tiayon
Scoop.it!

Utilisation de la langue arabe dans l'administration: Le dictionnaire de Moubdii

Utilisation de la langue arabe dans l'administration: Le dictionnaire de Moubdii | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Utilisation de la langue arabe dans l’administration : Le dictionnaire de Moubdii

Mohamed Moubdii, le ministre délégué chargé de la Fonction publique et de la modernisation de l'administration./DR
Dernière mise à jour le 24/12/2014 à 11:57
Le ministre délégué chargé de la Fonction publique et de la modernisation de l’administration, Mohamed Moubdii, a affirmé, mardi à Rabat, que les administrations, les établissements publics et les collectivités locales sont tenus d’utiliser la langue arabe dans tous leurs services.

Mohamed Moubddi répondait à une question orale du groupe « Justice et Développement » à la Chambre des représentants sur l’état de la langue arabe au Maroc. Il a rappelé dans ce sens que l’article 5 de la Constitution stipule que « l’arabe demeure la langue officielle de l’Etat ».

Deux circulaires ministérielles ont été publiées en 1998 et 2008 obligeant les administrations, les établissements publics et les collectivités locales à utiliser uniquement la langue arabe dans leurs services, et ne recourir aux langues étrangères que lorsqu’il s’agit de documents techniques difficiles à traduire vers l’arabe, insiste-t-il.


Ainsi, M.Moubdii a précisé qu’un dictionnaire dédié aux termes administratifs les plus courants a été créé afin d’aider les administrations à utiliser la langue arabe, outre l’élaboration des guides de fonctionnement et de gestion en langue arabe.

Le ministre a aussi indiqué que le programme du gouvernement, visant la mise en oeuvre des dispositions de la Constitution et la consolidation de la langue officielle de l’Etat, a porté sur les mécanismes suivants, à savoir l’élaboration d’une loi spéciale sur la langue arabe, la mise en place de l’Académie Mohammed VI de la langue arabe et du Conseil national des langues et de la culture du Maroc.

aufait avec MAP
more...
No comment yet.