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Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.
KEVIN Rudd’s pitch as a global expert on Asia is being questioned by prominent Chinese academics who say speaking Mandarin does not make him an automatic authority on China.
The former PM has spent his time since losing office collecting a series of positions at prestigious Western and Chinese universities and policy institutions as he positions himself for a tilt at the UN’s secretary-general job due to be filled next year.
Mr Rudd has trumpeted his proficient Mandarin, but a Chinese academic at a top Beijing university believes the former PM has overstated his expertise on the region and his insight into international relations, saying his “quality as an academic has been somewhat overblown”.
Mr Rudd was last year appointed as a senior fellow at Harvard University’s John F Kennedy School of Government, where he helmed a research project into the relationship between China and the US.
He is a Visiting Professor at Tsinghua University, sits on the International Advisory Committee of Peking University and co-Chairs the China Global Affairs Council of the World Economic Forum.
Associate Professor Chen Changwei, a lecturer at the prestigious Peking University in Beijing, says he met Mr Rudd at a conference in China last year where Mr Rudd described himself as a “global citizen” during his address.
But Dr Chen, an expert on Asia Pacific international relations, says the former Labor leader is not particularly well-respected within the Chinese “academic circle”.
Dr Chen said his view was “ shared by colleagues ... His quality as an academic has been somewhat overblown.”
Dr Chen, who said he was not speaking for the university, said it would be a “mistake” to assume proficiency in Mandarin equated to insight into Chinese culture.
“He has a long time to go to establish himself as a scholar among Chinese people,” he said.
One of Dr Chen’s Peking University peers, Professor David Walker, who chairs the BHP Billiton Chair of Australian Studies at Peking University, said Dr Chen’s comments were “a bit harsh”.
“There’d be a measure of respect for his knowledge and expertise,” he said.
Prof Walker said there were issues with Mr Rudd’s interactions with China that were perhaps the “mirror image of his Australia problem”.
“People might well respect the China knowledge and know that he knew quite a lot about China and a whole lot more than a lot of western leaders,” he said.
“But somehow the process of translating that into an effective rhetoric or a language that was appropriately respectful of the Chinese but also stating ... a position — that didn’t quite work. But it didn’t work for him politically in Australia either.”
Prof Walker said there was also a lot of commentary in China about Mr Rudd’s “tendency to want to tell the Chinese how to conduct themselves”.
“So on the one hand there’s a kind of respect for his knowledge of China and his knowledge of Mandarin, but in some ways they can be a little bit wary of that because it can appear as if they know too much,” he said.
He said he believed former PM Julia Gillard’s visit to China was more effective in some ways.
“In some ways, when Julia Gillard visited it was clear that she wasn’t visiting as a China authority,” he said.
“My sense was that her visit was rather more relaxed and in some ways more effective because of that, because she wasn’t presenting herself or pretending to be someone who knew China.”
Dr Tao Kong, also from Peking University, said some of her colleagues’ views were influenced by how the Chinese media and government had portrayed Mr Rudd over the years, saying many media reports were not “overly favourable”.
A spokeswoman for Mr Rudd said he was travelling and could not be contacted.
“It’s unsurprising that in a country of China’s size there’s a diversity of opinion, and it should be welcomed,” the spokeswoman said.
Jason Tin is in China as a fellow with the Asia Pacific Journalism Centre’s journalists’ cultural exchange.
Pwn (8 points, to dominate an opponent). Thanx (15 points, thanks). Bezzy (18 points, several meanings, not all of which are printable).
Do these words sound “ridic” (8 points, ridiculous)? Collins, which publishes the official dictionary for the World English-Language Scrabble Players Association, doesn’t think so. All four terms, along with about 6,500 others, are included in its updated list of Official Scrabble Words released last week.
Some of the additions are new because the concepts they describe are fairly new themselves, like “Facetime” (15 points, to speak with someone over video chat using the Facetime application on a phone).
Others, like “bezzy” and “thanx,” are straight up slang. You probably wouldn’t find them in a high school English essay, let alone the Oxford English Dictionary. But the Collins list includes them anyway, because people use them. And that’s actually kind of radical.
By bestowing official Scrabble legitimacy on “shizzle” and “tweep,” Collins waded into language’s longest-running debate: Should language rules dictate how we speak, or reflect it?
On one side are the prescriptivists, who believe that grammar books and dictionaries determine the “right” way to speak, and everyone should follow suit. A word that’s not in the dictionary isn’t missing — it just shouldn’t be used. Prescriptivists would shudder at “shizzle” (28 points, sure) and turn up their noses at “tweep” (10 points, someone who follows you on Twitter).
Opposing them are people who believe that language rules should be descriptive, that they ought to reflect the way people speak and write. This camp argues that prescriptive language rules stigmatize those who speak differently — for example, people who use African-American Vernacular English. It’s a means of “gatekeeping,” deciding who’s in and who’s out.
Noah Webster, the 19th-century creator and namesake of the tome that haunted you in grade school, would have none of it, according to linguist Rosemarie Ostler.
“Individuals who dictate to a nation the rules of speaking (have) the same imperiousness as a tyrant gives laws to his vassals,” Webster declared in 1789. He believed that fledgling democracy needed a democratic dictionary, one that reflected how Americans actually spoke.
But nearly two centuries later, that idea remained radical. In 1961, the publishers of “Websters Third,” the grandchild of his original dictionary, were excoriated for including casual terms like “ain’t” and “beatnik.”
“They have untuned the string, made a sop of the solid structure of English and encouraged the language to eat up himself,” one New Yorker critic lamented.
Doesn’t sound too different from today’s Scrabble dictionary critics, only now the prescriptivists voice their outrage on Twitter.
When I did an internship at a Top 500 international enterprise I was quite amused by how the Chinese employees in the company talked to each other - they freely mixed English words and Chinese grammar, which made them sound like second or third generation immigrants who had not totally inherited their ancestors' mother tongue. But in actuality, many of them had never been abroad.
However I soon became just like them, especially after my boss told me that it was "the corporate culture." I realized that, given that the enterprise stipulated that English and Chinese were its work languages, the weird mix of languages was a compromise between corporate regulations and the employees' mediocre English ability. From a linguistic perspective, the staff were "code-switching" to increase efficiency - English words are used to identify key things such as work procedures and material names; while Chinese grammar is used to create a logical and comprehensible train of thought.
But some people who have no experience in foreign companies do not think so, in particular when they find someone they know keeps mixing English and Chinese even in their daily life. Bitter jokes and skits, which have gone viral, were manufactured to mock these "code-switchers," who are seen as "pretentious and aloof" and consider the "language" a cachet of intellectual refinement and a marker of social status.
As for some linguists, sociologists and educators, they see a gloomy picture and have expressed concern. Many of them argue that code-switching confounds people through the disorderly use of words and expressions of different languages. Li Rulong, a professor at Xiamen University, said that this mess of words and expressions have "polluted" Chinese, whose "purity" is at risk.
Worries about the purity of Chinese have piqued the attention of policymakers. China's media watchdog issued a regulation last year, banning all audio, TV programs and commercials from using "nonstandard expressions of Chinese," especially some newly-created words and phrases by netizens.
Before discussing whether the "purity of a language" should be defended, the proposition itself should be questioned. As James D. Nicoll, a well-known Canadian writer, argues, "The problem with defending the purity of the English language is that English is about as pure as a cribhouse whore. We don't just borrow words; on occasion, English has pursued other languages down alleyways to beat them unconscious and rifle through their pockets for new vocabulary."
Nicoll's argument was rough, but made the point that as long as there is contact between humans, languages borrow words and exchange expressions with each another every minute. As for robust languages such as English and Chinese, their desire for variety, be it reflected in words, grammar or expressions, has always been stronger than their desire to isolate themselves. This can be seen in countries such as India, which has both Hindi and English as official languages despite Britain's centuries of colonialism.
As for those who are obsessed with the purity of Chinese, strictly speaking, will probably have to learn how to read, write and speak in classical Chinese, because contemporary Chinese is rife with foreign elements. For example, 70 percent of social sciences terms were borrowed from Japanese.
But it must be noted that the evolution of languages is a double helix which integrates the standardization of language use with the diversification of language elements. A rapidly changing language, which has no rules for people to learn and grasp, will be abandoned.
The real purpose of defending the purity of a language is never the language itself. It is manipulated by politics to serve as an approach to fend off the pull of a dominant culture. For instance, after French was replaced by English in international diplomacy, France didn't give up guarding against "the Americanization of French life." Not only did it add a new article to its constitution to confirm French's position as the only official language, but it adopted new laws to prohibit domestic French audio and TV shows from using foreign languages and ordered government documents to be written in French words only. However, years have passed, and time has proven that in the sphere of language use, we have no choice but to bend the rules - the French still prefer using "email" instead of "courrier électronique."
The author is a Global Times reporter. firstname.lastname@example.org
THE event launch for this year's Languages and Cultures Festival provided a sneak peek into the Indian Arts Spectacular that is set to headline the festival.
The event will be held at Queen's Park on Sunday, August 9 from 10am - 4pm.
Toowoomba Regional Council mayor Paul Antonio launched the 10th anniversary event and said he was pleased to continue council's involvement to ensure the festival remained to be a vibrant and inclusive community event.
"Celebrating our diversity at the Toowoomba Languages and Cultures Festival offers a relaxed and enjoyable chance to learn more about the different cultural groups who contribute to our region," Cr Antonio said.
"Getting to know the diverse groups in the community is the perfect way to promote tolerance, respect and understanding among all residents.
"Council's Corporate Plan seeks to value and share cultural diversity and intergenerational knowledge. The festival fits the bill perfectly with its mix of food, music, dance, cultural and information stalls.
"At the time of European settlement, German and Chinese communities were active in the growing town. Today, the region is home to people from around 200 distinct cultural backgrounds," he said.
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Toowoomba Regional Council Tourism and Events portfolio leader Cr Geoff McDonald said the Indian Folk dancers who performed at the launch offered a glimpse into the vibrant entertainment that awaited patrons.
Cr McDonald said the festival had grown to be Queensland's largest regional multicultural celebration.
"Under the banner 'One World, Many Faces', the festival highlights the thriving and diverse language and cultural groups who live across the Toowoomba region and southern Queensland," Cr McDonald said.
"The best way to learn about different cultural groups and their respective traditions is to experience a sample of their hospitality first-hand.
"Patrons can browse the stands at the Health and Wellness Expo as well as the languages, school and community displays. Other areas are given over to an activities marquee, martial arts demonstrations and the USQ marquee, with displays covering archaeology, languages, history, a poet's corner and creative writing.
"The festival offers a great deal of education and information about services and different providers in the region who support these activities," he said.
More information is available at the festival website www.TLCFestival.com.au
Position:Legal Intern (Semantics Project – French)
Location: Bangkok, Thailand
Starting date: 1 July 2015
Duration: Six Months
Reports to:Project Coordinator, Terminology and Semantics Project, ECPAT Luxembourg/ Head of Legal Programme, ECPAT International
ECPAT International is a global network of organisations working to eliminate all forms of sexual exploitation of children. The ECPAT network has 85 member organizations in 77 countries in Africa, Americas, Europe and the CIS, Asia and the Pacific. All of these members are independent organisations or coalitions working for the eradication of sexual exploitation of children. The ECPAT International Secretariat coordinates the global work of ECPAT International and is based in Bangkok, Thailand. A key priority for ECPAT International is to engage in international research projects, to strengthen and support the work of its network members.
Terminology and Semantics Project
Words matter. The decision to use one word over another can radically alter our reaction to a situation. The meaning ascribed to a term can dramatically change our conceptualisation of an issue, often leading to an entirely different understanding of the same problem. For example, the term ‘child prostitute’ conjures a different mental image from, ‘sexually abused child through prostitution.’ Equally, hearing the words ‘child sexual abuse material’ evokes a different emotional response from ‘child pornography’.
Disagreement over terminology and semantics has consumed significant time and resources. Stakeholders often make hasty decisions to use one term over another, or worse even continue to use a term that is outdated or damaging to the dignity of the child victim.
Working across languages raises further challenges. Direct translations often do not convey the same meaning, especially when addressing complex terms or behavior. Without clear guidance from linguists or experts on sexual exploitation of children, stakeholders are left to manage these difficult questions relating to terminology on their own. With the global epidemic of child sexual exploitation growing at an exponential rate, the need for conceptual clarity and precision in terminology is all the more important.
ECPAT International in partnership with ECPAT Luxembourg began a process in 2014 to establish international guidelines on terminology through an inter-agency working group of leading international institutions: non-governmental organizations, UN agencies, inter-governmental organizations, academic institutions, and law enforcement agencies. This Inter-agency Working Group has met over the past 6 months to jointly discuss and develop guidelines on the terminology on sexual exploitation of children. The objective is to create a process where key child rights stakeholders and organizations themselves have ownership over all aspects of the process, from conceptualization to drafting the guidelines. As part of this process, ECPAT is also leading a consultation process to develop the guidelines in Spanish and French. The French and Spanish Guidelines are meant to be substantive rather than literal translations of the English Guidelines.
ECPAT International seeks an intern to assist in the development of the Terminology Guidelines in French.
Major Tasks and Responsibilities
The Legal Intern will work closely with the Project Coordinator to develop Terminology Guidelines and Travaux Preparatoiresin French, based on the work of the International Working Group. The Legal Intern will assist the Coordinator in:
· Revising the initial translation of the French Guidelines and Travaux Preparatoires to ensure it accurately reflects the substance of the English version;
· Assist in eliciting feedback on the French experts on the Guidelines and Travaux Preparatoires;
· Coordinate the collection of feedback on the French text from members of the IWG;
· Work to compile and incorporate the revisions and comments from Francophone Experts and IWG members into the French texts as well as the English texts;
· Support the Project Coordinator in the organization of Interagency Working Group meetings, teleconferences, briefing notes, representation at the key events, dissemination of the project outcomes/progress to the network and key stakeholders;
· Provide assistance to the Project Coordinator as required on any other matters relating to the Terminology and Semantics Project.
· Masters level degree (or equivalent) in law, human rights or other related discipline;
· Native French speaker;
· Demonstrated knowledge of child rights instruments and monitoring processes;
· Work experience with non-government organizations would be an asset;
· Fluency in written and spoken English and Spanish is an asset.
· Demonstrated commitment to ECPAT’s vision, values and principles;
· Communication: excellent writing, speaking and presentation skills;
· Planning and Organizing: setting of clearly defined objectives, activity planning and monitoring, and ability to adapt as required;
· The ability to analyse complex and/or multi-sourced information and summarise it for a range of different audiences;
· Excellent interpersonal skills and ability to work in a team.
A modest stipend of 10,000 Bath/month (around $300 USD) will be made available to interns who are not sponsored by other organizations or institutions. All other costs related to the internship, i.e., travel, passport, visa or living costs in Bangkok, are to be borne by the intern or his/her sponsoring institution or organization. Interns who are performing their duties for academic credit or as part of requisite coursework are ineligible for a stipend.
HOW TO APPLY:
To apply, please e-mail your CV and cover letter, with your name and the position title in the subject line to email@example.com
For further information on the application process, please visit:
Google wasn’t always the world’s third most valuable brand. Long before it was a go-to verb, it was an obedient digital dog, merely finding and retrieving stuff, playing fetch for Internet users over and over again.
Eventually the little G -- which started in 1995 as a Stanford University Ph.D. research project -- grew into the big, $367 billion-dollar G we know and love-hate today. No longer satisfied to fetch links alone, the global tech colossus now chases meatier, more meaningful bones, like nailing the fastest Internet speeds on the planet, rendering human drivers obsolete and, NBD, ending death.
Related: Larry Page and Sergey Brin
The Mountain View mammoth’s meteoric rise to the top is chock full of juicy trivia tidbits and mind-blowing milestones along the way.
Here are 11 surprising facts about Google:
1. Sergey Brin and Larry (Lawrence) Page met by chance.
Page, 22 at the time, having recently earned a computer engineering degree from the University of Michigan, considers attending Stanford University for his Ph.D. Brin, then 21, already a Ph.D. candidate at the prestigious institution, is assigned to show Page around campus. That was back in 1995 and, as fate would have it, quite the momentous meeting of the minds.
2. Google was originally named BackRub.
In 1996, Page and Brin collaborate on a pioneering “ web crawler” concept curiously called BackRub. Some speculate that the early search engine’s nomenclature was a nod to retrieving backlinks. BackRub, which linked to Brin’s and Page’s 90s-tastic original homepages, lived on Stanford’s servers for more than a year, but eventually chews up too much bandwidth.
Related: Google CEO: This Is Why Dominant Tech Companies Falter
3. Google is a play on the word “googol.”
On Sept. 15, 1997, over the BackRub title, Page and Brin register the domain name of their mushrooming project as Google, a twist on “googol,” a mathematical term represented by the numeral one followed by 100 zeros. The name hints at the seemingly infinite amount of data the brainy pair code their fledgling search engine to mine, make sense of and deliver. Many still wonder if Google is a misspelling of Googol.
4. Google’s first doodle was a Burning Man stick figure.
The inaugural doodle was an out-of-the-office message that Page and Brin created in August of 1998 to let people know they’d shipped off to the Burning Man festival. The future billionaires positioned the iconic Man behind the second “o” in Google’s logo. Dude, check it out here.
Related: Lessons From Burning Man on How to Unlock Creativity and Think Big
5. Google’s first office was a rented garage.
So stereotypical Silicon Valley startup, right? Starting in September 1998, the company’s first workspace was Susan Wojcicki’s garage on Santa Margarita Ave. in Menlo Park, Calif. Wojcicki, sister of 23andMe founder Anne Wojcicki, is Google employee no. 16. She was Google’s first marketing manager and is now the CEO of YouTube. As for the house that built Google, the tech titan bought it, because of course it did. Then it filled the suburban ranch-style dwelling with candy, snacks and lava lamps.
6. A former caterer for The Grateful Dead was Google’s first chef.
In 1999, chef Charlie Ayers won a cook-off judged by Google’s employees, then only 40 in all, to clinch the position, which he held for seven years. Ayers initially cooked for the Grateful Dead in exchange for free admission to their legendary shows, but later took over catering for the jam band. At Google, he eventually served 4,000 daily lunches and dinners in 10 cafés throughout its Mountain View, Calif. global headquarters.
Related: Sergey Brin's Best Advice to Marissa Mayer
7. Google New York began at a Starbucks on 86th Street.
In 2000, Google unofficially kicked off its New York arm at a Starbucks in New York City. It was helmed by a one-person sales “team.” Now, thousands of “NYooglers” clock-in at its swanky, 2.9 million-square-foot New York office, a former Port Authority building on 111 Eighth Avenue.
8. Swedish Chef is a language preference in Google search.
Gurndy morn-dee burn-dee, who knew? Yes, it’s true. In 2001, Google got in touch with its inner yodelling Muppet and opened the gates for search queries and results in Swedish Chef lingo (called Bork Bork Bork, to be technical). Other “joke” languages you can tickle Google’s algorithm with include: Elmer Fudd, Pirate, Klingon, Pig Latin and, of course, Hacker (a.k.a. 1337sp34k).
Related: Get Ready for 'Buy' Buttons in Google Search Results
9. Gmail was launched on April Fool’s Day, no joke.
Toying with Silicon Valley’s longstanding tradition of pulling April Fool’s Day pranks, Google unveiled Gmail on April 1, 2004, in a wackily-worded announcement that was widely misconstrued as a hoax. It wasn’t Google Gulp. It was a brilliant double fake and the precursor to a Google staple that now serves millions of users across the world every day.
10. Googlers ride colorful “gBikes” around the Googleplex.
Launched in 2007, Google’s Googleplex campus commuter bike program began as a modest fleet of bright blue Huffys. Then came the goofy “clown bikes.” Now Googlers ride more than 1,000 primary-colored, basket-equipped beach cruisers, dubbed “gBikes,” around the two-mile expanse that is Google Mountain View. Interestingly, none of the bikes have locks. Employees simply “borrow” the nearest set of wheels. When they’re done, they drop them off conveniently close to office entryways for other Googlers to use.
11. Google negotiated its acquisition of YouTube’s at Denny’s over mozzarella sticks.
“We didn’t want to meet at offices,” YouTube co-founder Steven Chen said, “so we were like, ‘Where’s a place that none of us would go?’” That place turned out to be a Denny’s in Palo Alto, Calif. Mozzarella sticks were nibbled, hands were shaken. The 2006 landmark acquisition was a Grand Slam for Chen and co-founders Jawed Karim and Chad Hurley. Not bad for the time. Google doled out $1.65 billion for what would explode into the Internet’s most-watched -- and most uploaded-to -- video platform.
Related: Young, Fearless and Fed Up
The UK's Electro Velvet may have failed to set Eurovision alight with their performance of Still In Love With You on Saturday night, but for those watching in sign language, the routine took on a whole new dimension.
For the first time this year, The Eurovision Song Contest was simulcast in International Sign Language, and deaf viewers were not left disappointed.
Delil Yilmaz in full flow (Eurovision / ORF)
Interpreter Delil Yilmaz, who is able to hear, was in charge of signing during Saturday night's live Grand Final in Vienna.
"We always say that music is a language which is understood by everyone. And we felt that we should make this word come reality, and to offer music to everyone, including deaf people," Eva-Maria Hinterwirth from Austria's official broadcaster ORF said before the event.
The purpose of the International Sign Language broadcast was not to interpret each song word for word, but rather to give deaf viewers a sense of the song's character and mood as well as the lyrics.
Sign language has become the fourth official language of Papua New Guinea, in a move that it's hoped will assist people living with hearing impairments in PNG significantly.
Sign language becomes fourth official language of Papua New Guinea (Credit: ABC)
The new policy will require interpreters to be present at all official functions, events and media conferences, and media organisations across the country are set to receive sign language training.
Brother Kevin P. Ryan, director of disability support network Callan Services National Unit in Port Moresby, says it is a welcome move.
Presenter: Michael Walsh
Bloodborne has just received its fourth major patch, in the form of update 1.04 on the PS4 in its native Japan, while the North American and European versions are expected to launch later this week. Fortunately, a translated version of its changelog has also surfaced, confirming quite a lot of different modifications coming to the popular RPG.
Bloodborne launched earlier this year as a PS4 exclusive experience and quickly took over the hearts and minds of millions of console owners from all over the world. The title has since received a few updates to solve some problems, and last week, publisher Sony confirmed that an expansion was at the time in development at From Software.
Patch 1.04 is now available for download in Japan
Until then, a special update 1.04 was confirmed to debut this week. While a May 27 date is currently pinned onto the patch for its North American and European versions of the RPG, the Japanese editions have already received it earlier today, via the PlayStation Network.
A special changelog accompanies its debut, and fortunately, DualShockers has managed to come up with a translation that should give fans in the Western world a glimpse of the modifications coming to Bloodborne via patch 1.04.
Tweaks are made to the Insight store and the storage for each player. More specifically, they'll be able to store up to 600 blood vials and quicksilver bullets.
Adjustments have been made to some enemies in the New Game + mode, as well as the vulnerability of some monsters to bolt and arcane attacks.
Various items, such as the Kirkhammer, Logarius' Wheel, or Old Hunter Bone, have also been tweaked, while it will cost fewer quicksilver bullets to activate things like A Call Beyond, Choir Bell. What's more, the Chalice Dungeons will drop different blood stones depending on their depths.
Check out the translated changelog below and look forward to hear some official announcement from Sony and From Software as we get closer to its debut in the West later this week.
La Ligue 1 va perdre l'une des attractions de la saison qui s'achève. Fabrice Olszewski, le traducteur de Marcelo Bielsa, l'entraîneur argentin de l'Olympique de Marseille, va quitter le club, rapporte lundi 25 mai L'Equipe. Décrit par l'un des joueurs de l'OM comme "un traducteur moyen, avec un accent bizarre", cet autodidacte de 40 ans a illuminé tout au long de la saison l'univers un peu terne des conférences de presse.
Francetv info a trouvé trois raisons de regretter son départ.
1Il traduit l'espagnol en espagnol
C'est sa dernière perle. Le 21 mai, à quelques jours du match contre Lorient, un journaliste hispanophone s'adresse à Marcelo Bielsa. Ce dernier attend avant de répondre que son traducteur traduise la question pour la presse française. Mais Fabrice Olszewski reformule en espagnol. Une erreur qui déclenche l'hilarité générale dans la salle.
Ne dites plus « digital native » mais « enfant du numérique ». La traduction coule de source, mais la Commission de terminologie l'officialise et la rend ainsi obligatoire pour l'État.
C'est à nouveau le bon sens qui l'a emporté auprès de la Commission générale de terminologie et de néologie, qui nous a livré hier une nouvelle traduction quasi littérale d'une locution en langue anglaise. On ne dira donc plus « digital native » mais « enfant du numérique ».
Chacun reste libre d'employer la locution anglaise, à l'exception des services de l'État et les établissements placés sous sa tutelle, qui ont désormais l'obligation d'employer cette traduction officielle.
Dans l'avis publié au Journal Officiel du 24 mai 2015, on trouve les traductions d'une demi-douzaine de termes spécifiques à l'éduction et à l'enseignement supérieur, accompagnées de leurs définitions. Les enfants du numérique sont ainsi « des personnes qui ont toujours vécu dans un environnement numérique » et qui sont par conséquent « présumées familières des outils et des usages des nouvelles techniques d'information et de communication ».
La Commission ne précise pas à partir de quelle année de naissance les individus sont considérés enfants du numérique.
Crédit : goldencow / Fotolia
Globalisation has put Indigenous languages in a precarious position..
Studies indicate that by the end of the 21st century, 90 per cent of the world's 7000 languages could be lost.
But academics and educators across the Pacific, where a third of the world's living languages are from, are trying to halt the trend.
Will Mumford reports.
Actor Richard Green says he wants bring his native tongue Dharug, or Eyora, back to life.
Mr Green, who speaks eight Aboriginal languages, has joined academics, educators and linguists in calling for more effort to be put toward preserving the vast and diverse range of Indigenous languages in the Pacific.
The Pacific region is home to more than 2000 languages, however many are critically endangered and face the prospect of dying out in the coming decades.
A symposium at Sydney University has brought together experts in the field to discuss the status of indigenous languages in the French Pacific and Australia, and how we might better protect their future.
Professor Jaky Troy is the director of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research at the university and says when a language ceases to exist, it also has a broader cultural effect.
"It means that there is a lesser world. So when a language disappears in many ways the people associated with that language disappear, part of them disappears. All their knowledge, everything they know about themselves in their language goes with the language."
There are around 250 languages spoken by Australia's Indigenous communities, however many experts say there is a lack of engagement with and recognition of these languages.
Professor Troy says there needs to be a greater focus on language education in policy and the curriculum, as well as the arts and new media.
According to Professor Troy, Australia is behind other parts of the world when it comes to recognising and actively supporting the existence of native tongues.
"None of our Indigenous languages are national languages. We should have our languages alongside English, wouldn't it be wonderful if Australia was the country in the world with 251 national languages - English, plus the other 250. It's a sad thing that a lot of the countries where the English invaded English becomes the dominant language and is the only national language. But for other countries in the world, in spite of European invasion, the languages are recognised - so the French recognise the languages across French Polynesia, they are national languages as well in their constitutions."
Actor Richard Green says better public knowledge of local languages would help us explain the world around us and its history.
"The whole city is covered in this very language we're speaking about, when we're concerning ourselves with the Sydney language - the Dharug, Eyora - in that it's written on all the street signs, it's written in all the suburbs... I mean Bondi does not mean waves crashing on rocks, it's a five letter word that's mispronounced. It's Boondee and it means beach - so when are we going to be allowed to deal with our own language, instead of everyone else deciding what my Grandmother's tongue was. "
Aboriginal actor and television presenter Ernie Dingo spoke at a public forum held as part of the symposium.
He says native languages represent a self-contained form of history.
And through the quirks and idiosyncracies of languages, Dingo says we can understand something about the culture and geography of the people who speak them.
"Language is very important for people's identity. Before we had too much influences...you can tell where people come from by the sounds of the language because it reflects their environment."
Professor Troy says the preservation of languages has been proven to result in positive health outcomes and gives people a sense of cultural awareness and identity.
"There are studies now that demonstrate that where people speak their languages their health is better. Chronic disease is reduced, youth suicide is dramatically reduced. If you, as an Aboriginal person know that you and your language are recognised nationally, you're one of the people of the country. You're no longer somebody who sits sideways while English and imported culture dominates. "
[AGEN] —Dans le débat qui agite les médias sur la réforme du collège, il est beaucoup question de l'enseignement du grec, du latin et de l'allemand qui est plus ou moins mis en péril mais il n'est jamais question de la place précaire des langues dites régionales dans l'enseignement public. Elles risquent, avec la réforme, d'être complétement marginalisées.
Le Parti de la Nation occitane souhaite rappeler sa proposition de régionalisation de l'Education nationale comme cela existe dans les « Länder » allemands.
Cela signifie que les nouvelles régions héritées de la très contestable réforme territoriale auraient compétence, avec les moyens nécessaires, pas seulement sur les murs des établissements scolaires mais pourraient recruter les enseignants et adapter en partie les programmes pour offrir à tous les niveaux dans toute l'Occitanie un enseignement de la langue et de la civilisation occitane.
Il en serait de même pour les autres langues de France en Bretagne, en Flandre néerlandophone, en Alsace, au Pays basque, en Catalogne Nord et en Corse.
Les programmes du collège devraient également prévoir que l'enseignement de l'histoire ne passe plus sous silence l'histoire des vaincus et relate les conquêtes militaires qui ont permis l'extension du royaume de France puis de la République ainsi que la tentative d'éradication des langues de France avec les lois Jules Ferry entre autre.
Comme cette proposition ambitieuse n'a aucune chance d'être acceptée par le gouvernement actuel, il faudra la défendre dans la rue le samedi 24 octobre lors de la grande manifestation pour la langue occitane à Montpellier. Le Parti de la Nation occitane y sera et le fera. ■
Globalisation has put indigenous languages in a precarious position.
Studies indicated that by the end of the century, 90 per cent of the world's 7000 languages could be lost.
In an effort to halt the decline and ultimate disappearance of thousands of native tongues, academics and educators have called on governments and institutions to focus attention on preserving languages through education.
During a symposium at Sydney University, looking at the status of Indigenous languages in Australia and the French Pacific, solutions to the problem of endangered languages was discussed among experts in the field.
Professor Jaky Troy,the director of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Research at Sydney University, said when a language ceased to exist it had a broader cultural effect.
"It means that there is a lesser world," she said.
'So when a language disappears, in many ways the people associated with that language disappear.
"All their knowledge, everything they know about themselves and their language goes with the language."
There are around 250 languages spoken by Australia's Indigenous communities, however many experts said there was a lack of engagement with and recognition of these languages, particularly in policy and the curriculum.
According to Professor Troy, Australia was behind other parts of the world when it came to actively supporting and ensuring the existence of native tongues.
"All their knowledge, everything they know about themselves and their language goes with the language."
"None of our Indigenous languages are national languages," she said.
"We should have our [Aboriginal] languages alongside English. Wouldn't it be wonderful if Australia was the country in the world with 251 national languages - English, plus the other 250?
"It's a sad thing that a lot of the countries where the English invaded, English becomes the dominant language and is the only national language.
"But for other countries in the world, in spite of European invasion, the languages are recognised. The French recognise the languages across French Polynesia, they are national languages in their Constitutions."
Actor Richard Green speaks eight Aboriginal languages and wants more effort to be directed to preserving the vast and diverse range of Indigenous languages in the Pacific.
He said better public knowledge of local languages would help explain the world around us and its history.
"Wouldn't it be wonderful if Australia was the country in the world with 251 national languages - English, plus the other 250?"
"The whole city is covered in this very language we're speaking about, when we're concerning ourselves with the Sydney language - the Dharug, Eyora - in that it's written on all the street signs, it's written in all the suburbs,” he said.
“I mean 'Bondi' does not mean waves crashing on rocks, it's a five-letter word that's mispronounced.
“It's Boondi and it means beach. when are we going to be allowed to deal with our own language, instead of everyone else deciding what my grandmother's tongue was?”
Aboriginal actor and television presenter Ernie Dingo spoke at a public forum held as part of the symposium.
He said native languages represented a self-contained form of history and that through the quirks and idiosyncrasies of languages, we can understand something about the culture and geography of the people who speak them.
“I mean 'Bondi' does not mean waves crashing on rocks, it's a five letter word that's mispronounced."
"Language is very important for people's identity. You can tell where people come from by the sounds of the language because it reflects their environment."
Although the cultural value of language preservation is largely undisputed, there were also health and welfare benefits, according to Professor Troy.
"There are studies now that demonstrate that where people speak their languages their health is better,” she said.
“Chronic disease is reduced, youth suicide is dramatically reduced.
“If you, as an Aboriginal person know that you and your language are recognised nationally, you're one of the people of the country. You're no longer somebody who sits sideways while English and imported culture dominates.”
Being able to use different languages and thus to communicate with people from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds is one of the many fascinating aspects of the expat life.
Most definitely enjoyable if seen from an adult's viewpoint but a rather daunting task for our children!
In this context, when the time has come for our youngsters to start attending school or to continue their education, a very important decision has to be made.
Technically speaking, everything is possible. You can enroll your kids at a nearby public school where Turkish is the primary language of instruction. Or, you can opt for a school where English or another foreign language is taught and used during most classes. And there is a third alternative: a school where two or even three languages are offered in similar numbers of teaching hours.
Expat parents must not only carefully evaluate their children's needs, but at the same time check their bank balance. The first option is of course the most affordable, whereas the other two carry a hefty price tag: Away from the bigger cities, the amount you would need to allocate can vary between TL 10,000 and TL 15,000, whilst in a metropolis such as Ankara or İstanbul, it is not uncommon to invest in the region of TL 25,000 or even TL 35,000.
Question time! First, does your son or daughter already speak more than one language -- think a bi-national and bi-lingual family?
Second, for how long do you plan to stay in a particular country; are you in for the long run or abroad for only one or two years?
Third, is your financial situation solid enough to spend a serious amount of money, not just for one year, but for longer?
Fourth, what about the logistics such as the distance from your workplace or home? Is there a service bus? Is the school a half-day or full-day establishment?
Fifth, consider the general structural appearance of the school, the cleanliness and the restrooms. Is there a sit-down meal option? Or, if not, a hot snack shop? Is there an adequate library?
And there is, of course, a sixth aspect -- the persons we entrust our children to, that is, the teachers. Personally speaking, I have had very positive experiences with a public school, as I found the class teacher highly motivated and caring. As our daughter was already used to speaking both Turkish and English, the fact that most classes were taught in the former did not pose any obstacle, either.
Nevertheless, assuming one day in her future she will move to a country where another language is spoken more widely, we had to find a balance between her expected linguistic ability and our more modest family budget circumstances. Eventually, we located a school where over one-third of lessons are given in English, plus, she could begin studying French as well, with just over half of all classes being offered in Turkish. And, although it is at the lower end of the fee-paying scale, quality is not compromised.
A last observation, though: The one thing that surprised me, regardless of whether the school is public or private, was the fact that the involvement of parents in how the school is run was rather limited. I had previously been used to strong input from the elected parents' committee but, figuratively speaking, was unable to throw my hat into the ring over here.
In a nutshell: there is abundant choice and, as I wrote above, going public does not mean lesser quality, and going private does not have to break the bank. What is necessary is sufficient time to find what suits your children and yourself best.
The Kingdom of Enclava, a new micronation formed in central Europe, has announced that it will adopt Chinese as one of its five official languages and will use the virtual currency dogecoin, the Hong Kong-based Phoenix Infonews reported.
According to the report, the newly formed micronation is located near the town of Metlika, between Slovenia and Croatia, and described itself as the smallest country in Europe with a land area of only 100 square meters.
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The report said that the unclaimed parcel of land was discovered by a group of Polish tourists along the Slovenia border and declared it a new kingdom on April 23, claiming it "terra nullius" (nobody's land).
"This exclave would normally be an enclave also, except that neither Slovenia nor Croatia claims the land that adjoins the exclave. If Slovenia were to claim the parcel, Croatia's exclave would become an enclave as well. As it is, the exclave is bordered by Slovenia and The Kingdom of Enclava (Ex Terra Nullius)," according to the micronation's official website.
The report added that a constitution is currently being drafted by founders of the country of the micronation. The founders also decided that the virtual currency dogecoin will be accepted in the kingdom; and five languages have been recognized and will be used as official languages, which include English, Chinese, Polish, Croatian and Slovenian. No reasons were given for the choice on the adoption of the five languages, the report said.
According to Piotr Wawrzynkiewicz, one of micronation's founders, the kingdom will not apply any distinction in terms of nationality, race and religion in the country. He added that citizens can freely exercise the freedom of speech and they will not be subject to taxation.
People from around the world have been invited to register online to become citizens of the micronation, as posted on the website.
Inclusion in prominent English dictionaries is seen by some as the first step for loanwords entering mainstream discourse. Photo: IC
Yannick Pelletier, 28, is currently fascinated by the Chinese expression yeshi zuile, a phrase that has recently become popular on the Internet, and literally means, "I'm also drunk."
"It's used when you're shocked or speechless," said Pelletier, an English teacher in New York who started learning Chinese two years ago, and who met his Chinese wife in Beijing. "I find it interesting since its word-by-word translation is not so close to its meaning. It might just be personal, but when I'm drunk, nothing can shock me and I talk a lot more than usual."
As China's cultural influence grows, more and more Chinese loanwords have come into common usage in English - from long-existing nouns like "kung fu" and "tofu," to the use of words expressing more abstract concepts like guanxi ("connections") and guanggun (literally "bare branches," used to describe bachelors). In recent years, words like tuhao ("the crass new rich") and dama ("elderly Chinese woman") have even been shortlisted for inclusion in The Oxford English Dictionary. "Chinese buzzwords often come to our attention through media," Julie Kleeman, project manager of Bilingual Dictionaries with the Oxford University Press, told Xinhua News Agency in November 2013. "In the case of Chinese words that are gaining publicity in foreign media, obviously some terms such as tuhao and dama tell us something about trends and phenomena in China that mark interesting shifts in society."
Common Chinese words in English
Pelletier runs a Facebook blog called "Learn Chinese with a laowai," on which he often shares new Chinese meme words and other Chinese phrases he finds interesting with fellow language learners.
Although he has a personal fascination with Chinese Internet memes, Pelletier was skeptical about whether they would catch on in English outside of China.
"If we look at the Chinese words actually used in English, they are not expressions or slang [words]," said Pelletier. "They are used because we don't have any English words to express [certain common] objects from China."
Pelletier listed litchi, oolong tea, dim sum, tofu, mahjong, feng shui and tai chi as examples - all of which can be found in The Oxford English Dictionary.
Both specialist terms and basic nouns of Chinese origin are included in the dictionary, such as wu wei (under the entry for Taoism, meaning "nonaction, or letting things take their natural course"), pipa ("a shallow-bodied, four-stringed Chinese lute"), chow mein ("A Chinese-style dish of fried noodles") and kowtow (to "act in an excessively subservient manner").
Linguist Zhao Ronghui said that it was natural that more Chinese words were being adopted in English as the international community pays more attention to social trends and changes in China.
Zhao works for the Institute of Linguistics at Shanghai International Studies University, which is also Research Center for Foreign Language Strategies under State Language Commission.
As Chinese cultural sway around the world grows, more loanwords are finding their way into the English language. Photos: Li Hao/GT
As Chinese cultural sway around the world grows, more loanwords are finding their way into the English language. Photos: Li Hao/GT
As Chinese cultural sway around the world grows, more loanwords are finding their way into the English language. Photos: Li Hao/GT
As Chinese cultural sway around the world grows, more loanwords are finding their way into the English language. Photos: Li Hao/GT
Don't be such a diaosi
Zhao said that there were two recent Chinese expressions that were strong candidates for coming into common usage among particular professional sectors of the English-speaking population.
The first is xin changtai - a phrase used by President Xi Jinping to describe the slower pace of economic growth in China as the "new normal." The second is yidai yilu ("One Belt, One Road") - a term also first unveiled by Xi, referring to an organizational framework for closer economic ties between China and the rest of the world.
As for linguistic expressions mainly popularized on the Internet in China, such as diaosi ("loser") and xiao xianrou (literally "little fresh meat," referring to a handsome, innocent-looking young man), Zhao was unsure about their likelihood of catching on, despite the inclusion of some such phrases on American online dictionary for slang, Urban Dictionary.
"The group of people using these words is limited to mostly younger generations who use them online," said Zhao. "Young people are creative in their language use. They challenge and play with [language conventions]. But they do not necessarily affect mainstream discourse."
Zhao said that unless a linguistic meme that originated on the Internet was published in a national newspaper like the People's Daily, it would be unlikely to enter the national consciousness.
Among the Chinese words that have been discussed in the Chinese media to be highly possible as having a strong possibility of being included in English dictionaries, are jiayou (a term used to cheer somebody on) and chengguan (urban management officers). But Hugo T. Y. Tseng, chairperson of the English department at Soochow University in Taipei, Taiwan, is less optimistic.
"Tuhao and dama haven't made any headway in the English-speaking world - they are terms that are talked about [by English speakers], rather than actually used," said Tseng. "It's like the word pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis [a lung disease caused by silica dust], which is usually considered the longest word in English. It is often discussed and analyzed. Rarely, if ever, is it actually used in conversation."
Whether Chinese words are actually adopted in English outside of academic or specialized circles, said Tseng, is dependent upon whether they resonate with English-speakers.
"Unless the English-speaking world considers these words to be universal and capable of transcending cultural barriers, or unless they are unique enough to attract interest, they'll end up like the [previously popular] word geili ['able to excite']," said Tseng. "[It was] transposed into English as "gelivable," which [Chinese people] just did for fun and to feel self-satisfied."
Criteria for a successful loanword
"The [Chinese] words that have actually entered the English language are usually unobtrusive," said Tseng. The latest of these, he said, is "Buddha's hand" ("foshougan") referring to a kind of fruit with segmented finger-like sections.
Two other recent examples, he added, are goji (a bright red berry commonly found in China) and wuxia (a genre of fiction that tells the stories of martial artists in ancient China). Both were added to The Oxford English Dictionary in 2010.
Tseng's opinions are in line with the conclusions of professor Allan Metcalf, executive secretary of the American Dialect Society, in Predicting New Words: The Secrets of Their Success (2002). In the book, Metcalf explores why some new words find favor, while others are ignored.
Whether a word endures, Metcalf concludes, is dependent on factors including its frequency of use, its unobtrusiveness (whether a word is normal-sounding enough to become a comfortable part of speech), and whether it generates new forms and the concept to which it refers persists through time.
Speaking specifically about loanwords across languages, Zhao said that a prerequisite was that the word being loaned did not already exist in the target language.
"If there are corresponding words, loanwords won't happen," said Zhao. Therefore, said Zhao, words that refers to distinctive features of a country, such as names, cultural elements and cultural phenomenon, are more likely to become loanwords. Loanwords that can be adapted in the word formation rules of the target language are also more likely to catch on, said Zhao.
Tseng said the prevalence of loanwords in other languages was ultimately dependent on the political, cultural and military clout of the nation loaning the word.
"[As China's national strength grows,] having Chinese words in the English language will be completely normal. If it happens, we'll become accustomed to it and it will no longer surprise us."
Risks of mistranslation
Pelletier said he considered some words to be completely untranslatable from Chinese to English, such as shanghuo ("rising inner heat") and zhaoliang ("catching inner cold"). Both terms refer to common concepts in traditional Chinese medicine.
"The concept of [inner] heat and [inner] coldness doesn't exist in Canada or the US," said Pelletier, who was born in Quebec. He said despite his wife's best efforts, he struggled to grasp the concepts, and that trying to import them into English might obscure their original meaning.
Pelletier is not alone in fearing that the wholesale import of Chinese words into English might confuse English-language speakers, leading to a distorted impression of what certain words and concepts actually mean, and consequently to a false understanding of Chinese culture.
Last December, the"Key concepts in Chinese Thought and Culture - Translation and Communication Project" launched by the State Council released the first batch of 81 words in English. The project is designed to more accurately define China's key cultural concepts for the rest of the world.
Zhao gave the example of long, commonly translated as dragon, as a word that might give the wrong impression when translated from Chinese to English. She pointed out that the word "dragon" usually has negative connotations in English, being associated with evil, where as in Chinese culture, long is usually a symbol of good fortune. This was why translation projects like the one were important, she said.
Tseng said the more prominent the differences between cultures, the more likely there would be unique words whose meanings would be lost in translation.
"The examples that I can immediately think of are dongshi [literally to "understand matters," but usually used to talk about whether a child is obedient or dutiful] and qingxiu [an adjective describing a woman's figure as being "delicate]" said Tseng. "Both words have corresponding English definitions in a dictionary, but these definitions do not perfectly encapsulate their meanings in Chinese."
They are resplendent in their handcrafted silk batik gowns – which, incredibly, were whipped up a mere three weeks ago – and their voices are even more glorious.
On Monday afternoon, at the Bunjilaka Aboriginal Cultural Centre at Melbourne Museum in Carlton, 31 members of the Central Australian Aboriginal Women's Choir gave guests a preview of their upcoming "Boomerang" tour of Germany, kicking off next Saturday in Bayern.
"Australia could not have a better group of ambassadors to represent us," said the choir's musical director, Morris Stuart. "By us, I mean all of us, the beautiful rainbow of races that we are – they'll do us all proud."
This is Aboriginal singing, but not as you've heard it before. In a tradition with a 135-year history, the choir perform German baroque hymns, translated into the traditional Arrarnta language.
In 1877, German Lutheran missionaries set up a mission in Ntaria, 125km west of Alice Springs, which they called Hermannsburg. Here, with the help of Aboriginals, the missionaries drafted 53 hymns in three years in the local language, Western Arrarnta, and then taught the locals to sing in this new genre.
Today, the Central Australian Aboriginal Women's Choir spans five Aboriginal communities and they sing in six languages, including traditional Aboriginal languages, English, German and Zulu. Two honorary male members will accompany the 29 women on their trip to Germany: David Roennfeldt, the conductor of the Ntaria Women's Choir, and Nick Williams, whose sister Marjorie is also in the choir and whose grandparents sung in the choir in 1967.
The choir were invited by a Lutheran church in Bavaria to perform at the Kirchentag Festival in Stuttgart, a spiritual festival that attracts around 120,000 visitors from around the world over five days.
For most of the choir, it will be the first time they have been overseas. "We've had to get 30 passports issued," says Stuart.
"They're a bit anxious but they've thought, well, we'll get on the plane and we'll go."
On Monday afternoon, the choir sounded note-perfect, in spite of limited rehearsals. The five communities are spread out across around 1000 km, making it hard for the entire choir to get together on a regular basis.
"This year I've spent an average of four days in each of the communities and worked out the music we're going to be doing," says Stuart.
"When I'm not there, they practice hard, they are very serious about what they do."
Australia will soon have a national school curriculum for Aboriginal Languages and Torres Strait Islander languages.
Jakelin Troy, director of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research at the University of Sydney and a key writer of the curriculum, currently in draft stage, said it will mark the first time in the country’s history that an Australian language will be recognised in schools nationally.
“Children were once beaten for speaking [their own] language,” said Troy. “It’s interesting that it’s come full circle. It’s a very big shift.”
The curriculum, developed in consultation with community groups across the nation, should be finalised by October, Troy said.
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Jakelin Troy, director of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research at the University of Sydney. Photograph: Monica Tan for the Guardian
It will be published by the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority and be available as an online resource to primary and high schools that wish to teach an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander language.
“This gives schools a model on how to introduce teaching Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages in the way they would teach any other language,” said Troy.
A 2009 study found only 260 schools in the country offered Indigenous Australian language classes, with more than 80 different languages taught.
Troy said one of the most important aspects of teaching an Australian language is involving the community associated with the language. “For example, if you’re in Darug country the main thing for a school is that you need to engage with the local [Darug] population and with the people who are the custodians of that land.”
Darug man Richard Green has taught his language in Sydney high schools for several years. He has witnessed first-hand the positive impact speaking language has had on Indigenous children and said it empowers them to “think along the lines” of their own culture and see the “incredible intelligence” of their own people.
“I’ve seen kids stop stealing cars to learn lingo and turn their lives around,” Green said. “It’s something they have a lot of fun with. They realise its benefits.”
Green is a key figure in the revival of the Darug language, which he began speaking as a teenager. He studies at least two hours a day, breathing new life into word lists and other studies compiled by academic linguists that are held in the State Library of New South Wales.
“Why write the bible if no one is going to read it? Why put them together if no one is going to read it?” he said.
A 10-year study released in 2008 into the mortality rates of the residents of Utopia, a pastoral station north-east of Alice Springs, linked outstation lifestyles including “connectedness to culture, family and land, and opportunities for self-determination” to positive health outcomes.
The findings reflect a 2014 report into Indigenous youth suicide called Culture is Life, which compiled interviews with Indigenous elders and outreach workers from across Australia. Many identified connection to country and culture as vital tools in the fight against a rising epidemic of Indigenous youth suicide.
Troy said while not all the community elders will be fluent, there are always some who are “language knowledgeable” and “any language teacher can teach any language, provided there are resources”.
Developing those teaching resources was the next critical step and more funding was required, Troy said. “Resourcing this curriculum is going to be an issue. But it sets a challenge: to seriously see this implemented we’re going to have to see resourcing put into it.”
Les jeunes enfants qui entendent plus d'une langue à la maison, seront de meilleurs « communicateurs », explique cette étude de l'Université de Chicago. Ses conclusions présentées dans la revue Psychological Science, montrent qu’une simple exposition à une seconde langue contraint à mieux chercher à comprendre le point de vue des autres et et permet ainsi d’acquérir de meilleures compétences sociales.
De nombreuses études ont porté sur l’effet pour le jeune enfant d’être confronté au bilinguisme ; leurs résultats sont mitigées sur l’apprentissage même des langues, mais, globalement suggèrent un impact positif sur certaines fonctions d’exécution. L’exposition même passive à une langue étrangère, par le biais de la télévision par exemple, pourrait aussi avoir des avantages, comme permettre de mieux s’approprier certaines caractéristiques d’une langue étrangère comme l’accent ou l’accent tonique. Mais ici les auteurs mettent en exergue un nouveau bénéfice de cette exposition : l’acquisition de compétences de communication sociale.
L’auteur principal, le Dr Katherine Kinzler, professeur de psychologie à l'Université de Chicago, expert en apprentissage de la langue et en développement social, explique : « Les enfants vivant dans les environnements multilingues vivent une expérience sociale particulière, avec la nécessité de suivre « qui dit quoi à qui » en observant les comportements sociaux associés à l’usage de différentes langues". Cette expérience « socio-linguistique » va les aider à mieux comprendre le point de vue d'autres personnes et leur apporter ainsi les outils d’une communication plus efficace, bien au-delà du vocabulaire et de la syntaxe.
Une expérience pour tester la compréhension de l'autre : Pour parvenir à cette conclusion, l’équipe a suivi 72 enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans, durant une tâche de communication sociale. 24 enfants vivaient dans un contexte familial monolingue (anglais), 24 dans un contexte ayant pour langue principale l’anglais, mais avec une exposition régulière à une autre langue et, enfin, 24 enfants dans un contexte vraiment bilingue et en capacité de parler et de comprendre les deux langues.
L'expérience: Chaque enfant était assis face à un adulte, séparé par une grille et était invité à déplacer des objets dans la grille. L'enfant était en mesure de voir tous les objets, mais l'adulte de l'autre côté en raison de quelques casiers obturés ne pouvait pas voir tous les objets. Les enfants avait d’abord occupé la place de l’adulte pour bien comprendre que l'adulte ne pouvait pas tout voir.
L’enfant disposait de 3 voitures, une petite, une moyenne, une grande mais l'adulte ne pouvait voir que 2 voiture, la moyenne et la grande. Lorsque l’adulte demandait à l'enfant de déplacer « la petite voiture », l’enfant pour interpréter correctement la demande de l'adulte, devrait prendre en compte le fait que l'adulte ne pouvait pas voir la plus petite voiture, et donc déplacer la plus petite des 2 voitures visibles par l’adulte, soit la voiture de taille moyenne.
· Les enfants monolingues ne déplacent l'objet correct que dans 50% des cas,
· les enfants exposés à une seconde langue, déplacent le bon objet dans 76% des cas,
· les enfants totalement bilingues dans 77% des cas.
Les auteurs l’appellent « l’exposure advantage » : Etre exposé à de multiples langues apporte une expérience sociale très différente, qui forme à la prise de perspective (des autres) et contribue ainsi à développer des compétences de communication plus efficaces.
Sources: Communiqué APA Children Exposed to Multiple Languages May Be Better Natural Communicators et Psychological Science May 8, 2015, doi: 10.1177/0956797615574699 The Exposure Advantage: Early Exposure to a Multilingual Environment Promotes Effective Communication
Lire aussi :
Language is available in its verbal and visual forms.
Language is available in its verbal and visual forms. Verbal is that which is spoken or heard while visual is that which we read or see as in literatures of all kinds. Language could also be a set of images grouped together to generate meaning sometimes supported by words as in advertisements, or even graffiti and writings on the walls of public places such as trains, public toilets, etc. All these expressions are languages and they are rooted in specific cultures and generate specific meaning when read. They express certain opinions about people and incorporate certain attitudes towards them.
Sexism and Language has an important role to play when it comes to the construction of male and female stereotypes in a given literature and culture. It directs the understanding of roles assigned to men and women in patriarchal societies. Language is not independent of its social connotations and cannot be seen in isolation. It signifies meanings, and commands and controls the attitudes rooted in specific cultures. This, in turn, gives meaning to our understandings and perceptions. Literature is one such component that clearly demonstrates the ideas proposed by language. And if one examines literary history, it's the same story. The philosophical construct itself starts with the abasement of woman, the subordination of the feminine to the masculine order which appears to be the condition for the functioning of the system.
This is a 'man-made' world where 'mankind' thrives! Darwin's Theory of Evolution suggests that 'mankind' has evolved through time to our present form. History (his-story) documents facts and findings of the mankind. Such popular ideas offered by sexism through language show where women stand. Language also directs the logic of cultural thinking. Language loaded with sexism has either looked down upon womanhood or glorified and tailored it to suit to the convenience of patriarchy. Language demonstrates itself as a major discourse reinforcing patriarchy. It has served as a tool instrumental in establishing inequality by defining social ranking and promoting social hierarchies. Language has thus offered women a secondary status in society.
The discourse of language is loaded with images and metaphors used time and again to gain a certain meaning in specific socio-cultural contexts. These meanings define the qualities attributed to people and inscribe undertones in what is signified. What gets signified in this power game is 'femininity' against 'masculinity'. Images associated with the perception of female and femininity are always constructed as against those associated with 'male' and 'masculinity'. Languages used in the public spaces is also male oriented and generally opinionated towards women. Most of the time, language commodifies women and elevates men to a status where they own and enjoy this commodity. Sexism and language in most of the cultures in general ridicule and insult women, their body and sexuality. Sexism and language play a major role in prescribing characteristic features for women in society.
Good and bad women come into existence as consequent to their performances in relation to male counterparts.
—The writer is a poet, playwright and translator
Paru début mai, « 1940 - 1944, les fusillés » est une synthèse historique de taille. Un dictionnaire de près de 2 000 pages consacré à la biographie d’une partie des fusillés (la liste est tellement longue et les recherches se poursuivent). Christian Lescureux, de Saint-Laurent-Blangy, à collaboré à la rédaction.
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Christian Lescureux s’est attaché notamment à évoquer l’histoire des fusillés de la Citadelle, victimes de la barbarie nazie, et bien souvent d’une police collaborationniste. « C’est ce qui m’a le plus surpris dans mes recherches. Pour les fusillés de la Citadelle, ce n’est pas difficile. Les Allemands notaient tout et on trouve même les comptes-rendus d’interrogatoires aux Archives départementales. Bien sûr, il faut lire ces documents sans penser qu’ils disent toute la vérité. » Christian Lescureux tend un procès verbal de la police Lensoise. C’est celui de l’interrogatoire de Pennequin, le 24 mars 1944 à Arras. Arrété alors qu’il était en possession d’une fausse carte d’identité, il sera livré aux Allemands puis fusillés à la Citadelle. « Beaucoup ont été arrêtés par la police française notamment les communistes, le parti était interdit. Les Allemands ont aussi bénéficié des listes de communistes dressées par la police. ». Christian nous montre celle d’Arras, de Billy-Montigny. « Ce qui m’a marqué aussi c’est cette évidence : tous les fusillés de la Citadelle ou presque ont été torturés. Il y avait la maison blanche à l’angle de la préfecture, les caves de l’ancien hôtel du Commerce, rue Ronville et Bricquet-Taillandier, et une maison, rue Faidherbe où œuvrait la Gestapo. Un journaliste anglais a fait la description d’une salle découverte en 1944 : il y avait des endroits où l’on clouait les gens au mur, des presses pour écraser les têtes... » Beaucoup de ces fusillés était de jeunes garçons.
L’homme a travaillé dix ans sur la question et aura retracé la biographie de soixante-quinze des fusillés de trente des 130 éxécutés sur place dans le département. « J’avais quatorze ans en 1940. Mon école se situait près du parking du palais-Saint-Vaast, rue Albert-1er, là où l’armée avait, ces dernières années son centre de recrutement (CIRAT). Nous savions qu’il y a avait des fusillés. Il y avait les affiches et puis parfois, les cercueils de bois blanc fournis par la municipalité, entreprosés là avant les exécutions, dans ce qui devenu un parking. J’ai eu Guy-Mollet comme prof et Pierre Baudel, qui fut lui aussi fusillé. Mais à l’époque seul un correspondant du journal candestin « La Voix du Nord » affirmait avoir assisté à une exécution dans les fossés de la Citadelle. Nous avons tout découvert en 1944. ».
Du 21 août 1941 au 21 juillet 1944, 218 patriotes furent fusillés par les Allemands dans les fossés de la Citadelle d’Arras. Les fusillés appartenaient à neuf nationalités différentes. Les derniers furent enterrés à la va vite sur place, en 1944.
Au Théâtre du Rond-Point, l'ancien animateur d'Apostrophes raconte l'histoire d'un écrivain dévoré par les mots. Savoureux.
Abris de Jardin
Aménagez votre jardin !
Un pupitre et un verre d'eau: il n'en faut pas plus à Bernard Pivot pour donner un savoureux spectacle au Théâtre du Rond-Point. Il n'en faut pas plus, car ce sont les mots qui tiennent la vedette de cette lecture justement titré Au secours! Les mots m'ont mangé. Le personnage créé par l'ancien animateur d'Apostrophes, un écrivain Prix Goncourt, aurait voulu être le premier bébé au monde à parler.
Dès son plus jeune âge, il comprend la complexité de la vie à travers la subtilité de la langue: pourquoi le mot «femmes» se prononce-t-il «fam» alors qu'il contient un «e»? «J'ai tout de suite compris que ça allait être compliqué avec les femmes…», dit-il. Ensuite, Pivot déroule une histoire pleine d'humour et de finesse à travers les mots qu'il aime et même ceux qu'il voudrait changer - il tient pour ceux que cela intéresse une étonnante réforme de l'orthographe où il faudrait, par exemple, écrire «héléphant» pour que l'animal et le mot gagnent en majesté. Tout comme il faudrait enlever le «x» (lettre au caractère pornographique) au mot «pieux» (qui est animé par des sentiments de piété) et l'ajouter à celui de «pieu», plus approprié.
Ami avec les dictionnaires
Ses meilleurs amis sont les dictionnaires. Le spectacle fait l'éloge du Petit Larousse et du Petit Robert avec le Littré et Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie française et bien d'autres: «Les dictionnaires sont les plus belles agences de voyage au monde.» On connaît l'appétit de l'auteur du Dictionnaire amoureux du vin pour les choses de la table. Écriture et lecture relèvent de l'alimentation, souligne-t-il. «On déguste les phrases. On savoure les textes. On boit les paroles. On dévore des livres. On s'empiffre de mots… Mais la vérité est tout autre: ce sont les mots qui nous grignotent, ce sont les livres qui nous avalent…»
Et lui, il nous met les mots à la bouche. Il joue, il en jouit. C'est cocasse, lorsque son personnage tente de dire «Je t'aime» à la manière d'Exercices de style . Les rires fusent. Tout comme au final quand Pivot imite Patrick Modiano. Ça bégaie, mais quel superbe mot de la fin!
Bernard Pivot effectue une tournée de son autre spectacle Souvenirs d'un gratteur de tête, récit littéraire et cocasse.
Bruxelles, le 26 mai
Binche (Belgique), le 29 mai
Compiègne le juin
Thonon-les-Bains, le 5 juin
Argenteuil, le 9 juin
Les mots nouveaux de l’année : langue française et mercantilisme (1)
24 MAI 2015 | PAR ROBERT CHAUDENSON
Comme chaque année, les jonquilles fleurissent en mai, les nouveaux mots font également leur entrée dans les dictionnaires au même moment, curieux hasards de la nature.
Le Petit Larousse, fleuri de ses nouvelles entrées, sortira en librairie le 28 mai 2015 et Le Petit Robert, nouvelle mouture, sauf erreur, est paru jeudi, comme nous le précise sa pub. La promo a sorti Alain Rey de la naphtaline et s’est même risquée à recruter … Cyril Hanouna (ce qui est dire la grande misère de la lexicographie française !) qui a osé évoquer sur Europe1, le nom d’un certain Richelet, la semaine passée, après l’avoir appris dans les « éléments de langage » qu’on lui avait fournis ; pour cette édition 2016, plus d’une centaine de nouveaux items feront leur apparition dans les dictionnaires rivaux. Les termes qui trouveront désormais leur place dans les dicos sont « dans l’air du temps » : « bolos », « adulescent » ou même, Dieu seul sait pourquoi, « big data ». « Selfie » fait aussi son apparition sans qu’on lui préfère, (comme toujours car nous sommes les seuls propriétaires de la langue française), son équivalent québécois « egoportrait » où l’accent du é est inutile et fautif. La terminologie et la néologie sont pourtant, avec la poutine et de sirop d’érable, des spécialités de la "Belle Province" ! On apprendra, même en feuilletant le Larousse 2016, des choses totalement fausses comme, par exemple, que le verbe « amarrer » signifierait à la Réunion « séduire » !
Laissons ces détails ; il y a beaucoup à en dire mais je pourrais y revenir ! Nos médias s’interrogent gravement, pour le moment, sur les mystères de la lexicographie printanière : Comment ces nouveaux mots sont-ils choisis ?
Qui les a sélectionnés et comment ?
Je vous dois donc ici quelques éclaircissements indispensable sur les subtilités de la lexicographie et de la dictionnairique, car, assurément, vous ne risquez pas de les lire dans nos médias que les éditeurs et les marchands tiennent, comme partout et toujours, par la barbichette publicitaire.
Contrairement à mes habitudes et pour éviter d’apparaître comme un échappé solitaire des « Petites Maisons » (voilà un terme qui s’il figure dans nos nouveaux dictionnaires, ce dont je doute, pourrait y céder la place à un terme nouveau ; laissez-moi donc vous citer Littré pour vous éviter la recherche : « Petites-Maisons, nom donné autrefois à un hôpital de Paris où l'on renfermait les aliénés (on met un P et une M majuscules ». »), je citerai ici à l’appui de mon point de vue et pour éclairer le titre de ce billet, un expert incontesté en la matière, Jean Pruvost, dans Langue et patrimoine :
« La dictionnairique [ les soulignements des termes essentiels pour mon propos sont de moi] devient le fait d’élaborer un produit offert à la vente, avec, donc, toutes les problématiques dont relève chaque réalisation, avec ses contraintes éditoriales précises : coût, format, public ciblé, calendrier, conditions de diffusion, etc.
Une telle distinction s’avérait de fait extrêmement utile au moment où, l’informatique aidant, le matériau premier d’un dictionnaire, fruit d’une lexicographie très complète, peut être retravaillé par le seul éditeur en ajoutant ou en ôtant des informations, à la manière d’une structure à géométrie variable, pour adapter le produit à un public parfaitement évalué, le tout pouvant aboutir à des dictionnaires commerciaux sans avancée particulière dans le domaine de la lexicographie.
Pour illustrer mieux cette distinction, on se contentera de souligner que lorsqu’au moment de rédiger un dictionnaire, l’éditeur précise qu’il faudra tant de signes par page, pas plus de 1 500 pages, ou que pour les dictionnaires millésimés, entre deux refontes, il faut pour faire place à un nouveau mot sur une page, pour ne pas refaire l’ensemble du dictionnaire, enlever quelque chose, on se situe en dictionnairique. ».
« Ah! Qu’en termes galants ces choses-là sont dites! ». Je plaisante ! Jean Pruvost exprime ici , en termes à la fois précis et mesurés, ce que je dis méchamment en évoquant le mercantilisme, agacé que je suis par tant d’hypocrisie !
En effet, dans les publicités promotionnelles des éditeurs, avec la complicité manifeste de journalistes ignorants et de quelques auteurs stipendiés (« Vous êtes orfèvre, Monsieur Josse ! » comme vous, Monsieur Rey, « la figure emblématique de la rédaction des dictionnaires Le Robert et le président du jury du Festival du mot »). Foutre !
Dans le JDD, au départ, on pose à A. Rey la question qui pourrait tuer ! : » De nouveaux mots sont entrés dans le dictionnaire en début de semaine. Comment les choisissez-vous? ».
Mais on ne prend pas sans vert Alain Rey qui , à 87 ans, pratique chaque année, cet exercice ; a-t-il gardé cette expression dans le Petit Robert 2016 ? Je n'en sais rien faute de fréquenter ces lieux. Elle est en tout cas dans le Littré : « Fig. Prendre quelqu'un sans vert, le prendre au dépourvu.
Et [je] suis parmi ces gens comme un homme sans vert, [Régnier, Sat. X]
Je confesse à ce coup que je suis pris sans vert, [Th. Corneille, Amour à la mode, II, 3] »
A. Rey ne répond naturellement pas à la question, comme on pouvait le prévoir :
« Sur le plan technique, nous avons les moyens de savoir si un mot est en circulation et s'il concerne une partie notable de la population francophone. Aujourd'hui, la circulation des mots par l'intermédiaire des médias est complètement mémorisée et accessible par la numérisation. Les chiffres de Google ne sont pas forcément fiables, mais leurs ordres de grandeur oui. Quand le terme "selfie" revient à des millions d'occurrences, on ne pas faire comme s'il n'existait pas. Notre critère est donc la fréquence d'emploi, mais en dessous d'un certain seuil, il y a des choix idéologiques qui se font, autour de l'importance du concept. Le dictionnaire n'a pas le droit de passer à côté de certains termes ». Ben voyons ! Rien d’autre à en dire… ?
Laissons donc ces oiseuses et embarrassantes questions du choix des mots à admettre comme à chasser :
« Nous sommes moralement et éthiquement obligés de définir des mots nouveaux même s'ils ne plaisent pas. Maurice Druon me reprochait déjà à l'époque de "ramasser les mots dans le ruisseau", au nom du purisme du français de l'Académie française. Le dictionnaire est un observatoire, pas un conservatoire. Décrire des pratiques réelles et observables n'est pas l'expression d'un mépris, au contraire. On donne une image raisonnablement juste de la vérité de l'usage social de la langue. Que ça plaise ou pas. Je me suis battu par exemple pour qu'on garde dans Le Robert les injures racistes, tout en le spécifiant. Combattre quelque chose en le niant est la politique la plus sotte qui soit !)
L’éthique lexicographique étant au rendez vous du commerce, il n'est question que de motifs nobles et de défense ou promotion de la langue française à propos de ces nouvelles publications désormais annuelles et « millésimées », comme nos grands crus sans toutefois que leur abus soit déclaré dangereux ! Buy French !
Comme toujours, je suis long et nous verrons la suite demain !
Presiones de los autores, palabras intraducibles, subtitular a diez personas hablando al mismo tiempo... Así son los retos que el este fin de semana premia la Asociación de Traducción y Adaptación Audiovisual de España
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Día 25/05/2015 - 01.03h
«El lobo de Wall Street» es «seguramente, la película con más subtítulos de la historia, con esa afición que tiene Scorsese a meter una voz en off que te va contando lo que ves y lo que no tuvo tiempo de rodar», pero no es, sin embargo la más difícil de subtitular, ese título es para «'Toro salvaje', donde en todo momento había tres personas en pantalla hablando a gritos y no se podía meter en subtítulos lo que decían todos.».
Quien habla es Juan Manuel Ibeas, uno de los anónimos seres humano que dedica sus días a la profesión hace posible que quienes no dominen la de Shakespeare (o sufran sordera, por ejemplo) puedan ver películas en su versión original sin perder comba.
Él ha sido «finalista en la categoría mejor subtitulación de película estrenada en cine» en los galardones de la III edición de los premios Atrae. Organizados por la Asociación de Traducción y Adaptación Audiovisual de España, estos premios reconocen las mejores traducciones y adaptaciones «para dar visibilidad a todo el trabajo casi siempre desconocido que hay detrás de cada traducción audiovisual».
La obra y su autor
Una industria tan anónima como compleja, no en vano no son menores las exigencias de los autores del original, celosos de que su obra pierda matiz alguno al pasar por otras manos.
«A Wes Anderson le preocupa y le gusta seguir muy de cerca el doblaje de sus películas», cuenta Gonzalo Abril, autor de la adaptación al castellano de «El gran hotel Budapest». «Le gusta, es algo que salta a la vista, tener todo medido al milímetro. Por eso contamos con cierta supervisión del texto desde EE. UU., lo que si bien en ciertos casos suele resultar engorroso, en este caso fue fluida. Una vez traducida, ajustada y adaptada, hubo que hacer una 'back translation' a partir de la cual discutimos y llegamos a acuerdos para la adaptación de ciertos términos, por ejemplo el de 'Lobby Boy', que no era un botones en sí, sino un mozo de portería.», narra Abril.
¿Licor hecho en la cárcel?
La dificultad no estriba sólamente en lo perfeccionista que llegue a ser el dueño de la obra, sino en el lenguaje excesivamente específico. Ese fue el caso de «Orange is the new black», toda vez que Beatriz García Alcalde, finalista en la categoría Mejor subtitulación de obra estrenada en TV, y responsable de esta, nunca «había pisado una cárcel».
«Mis conocimientos de vocabulario carcelario eran nulos. Y una cosa es entender a los personajes, pero ¿cómo se llaman en castellano el licor que elaboran las presas o las armas que se fabrican? Ahí está el reto y la parte divertida del proyecto.», dice.
«¿Cómo transcribe uno el diálogo 'posible' entre dos monos o entre un mono y una persona? Y no una persona cualquiera, claro, ¡sino el rey de los monos, el mismísimo Tarzán! Cuando nos llegó el encargo de subtitular la película para persona sordas, esto fue lo primero que me vino a la mente, así como ese grito inolvidable que caracteriza al personaje desde que lo encarnara el nadador Johnny Weissmüller», cuenta Javier Gil, finalista en la categoría Mejor subtitulado para sordos.
Las anécdotas son muchas en un sector a veces duramente criticado que es tan amplio como lo es el ocio importado. Juegos, Videojuegos, cine, televisión, subtítulos, adaptación para doblaje...
El próximo fin de semana reciben el poco habitual aplauso en un trabajo muy, muy detrás de la cámara.