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Over 100,000 Google Reader fans sign petition to keep RSS feed service going

Over 100,000 Google Reader fans sign petition to keep RSS feed service going | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
More than 100,000 users of the RSS feed tool have signed a “Keep Google Reader Running” petition at Change.org.
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Metaglossia: The Translation World
News about translation, interpreting, intercultural communication, terminology and lexicography - as it happens
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UN Careers - jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.)

UN Careers -  jobs in this network (Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.) | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Vacancies in this network: Translators, Revisers, Editors, etc.

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Steven Pinker’s Sense of Style

Steven Pinker’s Sense of Style | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Harvard psychologist offers a writing guide based on how the mind works
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Writing guides tend to be pretty unsatisfying. They offer plenty of concrete rules, but why, a reader might ask, should the rules be followed? The answer is usually “because” — as in, “because I say so.” This, of course, is where humanity found itself before the advent of the scientific method: the mystics spoke, and everyone had to decide for themselves whom to believe. Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker takes a different approach, one that is both more ambitious and more modest. In his new book, “The Sense of Style,” he draws on research, and particularly his deep knowledge of linguistics, to give his writing principles a scientific basis. Readers can thus have some assurance that Pinker’s advice is good, and, knowing the reasons why, they will be more likely to know when a rule should be broken. Yet he does not push this method beyond its natural limits. Scientists, after all, still know relatively little about the ways dark squiggles communicate ideas. Instead, he shows readers how to take apart a piece of fine writing to see what makes it tick. He does this with affection and enthusiasm. In Pinker’s hands, we do not feel ordered around capriciously, but truly guided by an inspiring teacher. He was interviewed by Gareth Cook, the editor of Mind Matters.

There are many, many books about writing in the world. What did you hope to add?
Most writing guides recycle a standard set of peeves and superstitions about usage, mixed with useful but vague guidelines like “keep related words together.” None of them take advantage of the tremendous advances in the study of language of the past fifty years — modern grammatical theories that are a vast improvement over the old Latin-based grammars; evidence-based dictionaries which pay attention to how language really is used; research from cognitive science on what makes sentences easy or hard to read; and historical and critical studies of usage, which trace the history of various rules (like the one against ending a sentence with a preposition) so that their rationale can be examined. I wanted to write a style manual for the 21st century.

That’s fascinating. Can you give any examples of writing lessons that come from cognitive science research?
A student press release at Yale advertised “a panel on sex with four professors,” which sounded much racier than it was. These ambiguities are common in careless prose. Usually the unintended meaning is not humorous, just distracting, and often the ambiguity is resolvable a few words downstream, like one that I came across the other day: “John Kerry arrived in Baghdad on Wednesday to endorse the new Iraqi government hours before President Barack Obama will address the American people about his strategy for combating ISIS militants”—it sounded for a second as if he was endorsing government hours (were they now working 9-5?). Text that has a lot of local ambiguities is frustrating to read, because it constantly forces the reader to backtrack and reinterpret. One of the things that differentiates “smooth” from “choppy” prose is the absence of these dead ends.

The authors of traditional style guides, like Strunk and White, were dimly aware of the problem, but lacked the technical concepts to analyze it, and offered useless advice such as “Keep related words together.” The advice is useless for the Yale sentence, the related words panel and on sex in fact are already together; disambiguating it requires moving related words apart to get a panel with four professors on sex. For that matter, if it had been a panel on drugs with four professors, then the word-moving solution would make things worse: a panel with four professors on drugs is just as misleading as the panel on sex with four professors.

Psycholinguists call these temporary ambiguities “garden paths,” and have run hundreds of experiments on what causes them and what prevents them. In the Yale example, the problem is that the human sentence understanding process parses sentences with the help of statistically frequent word pairs that have a standard structure and meaning—in this case, sex with X,and X on drugs. A careful writer has to scan for them and recast the sentence to avoid the ambiguity. The advice is better stated as “pull unrelated (but mutually attracted) phrases apart.”

It seems that it is pretty standard, in books about writing style, to bemoan the decline of the written word. Yet you don’t. Why?
Every generation thinks that “the kids today” are ruining the language. They confuse changes in themselves (people pay more attention to language as they get older and consume more text) with changes in the times. Studies of writing quality in student papers have shown that there has been no deterioration over the decades, and no, today’s college students don’t substitute smiley-faces and texting abbreviations for words and phrases.  

You write of “directing the gaze of the reader to something in the world she can see for herself.” Can you explain what you mean by this and how it defines your view of good writing?
The main difference between good writing and turgid mush—academese, corporatese, and so on—is that good writing is a window onto the world. The writer narrates an ongoing series of events which the reader can see for himself, if only he is given an unobstructed view. In academese, the writer’s chief goal is to defend himself against the accusation that he is naïve about his own enterprise. So academics describe what other academics do instead of what they study (“In recent years there has been increased interest in X”). They use many metaconcepts—concepts about concepts, likelevel, perspective, framework, and approach—instead of writing “call the police,” they write, “approach this problem from a law-enforcement perspective.” They turn verbs into nouns—instead of writing, “People cooperated more,” they write, “Levels of cooperation increased.” And they sprinkle their prose with hedges—somewhat, virtually, partially—in an attempt to get off the hook should anyone ever try to prove them wrong. +

Did working on this book change how you approach your own writing in any ways?
Yes. It made me more aware of the coherence connectors — like “but,” “so,” “after,” “moreover,” and “nonetheless” — which play such an important role in weaving sentences into a coherent argument. And it made me even more dependent on modern dictionaries, which don’t just prescribe correct usage, but in their usage notes, comment insightfully on the history and range of variation in the use of a word or expression.

I really enjoyed the way the book examines examples of good writing, and then explains what makes them good. Why did you decide to do that? 
When I asked some good writers which style manuals they read when they were starting out, the most common answer I got was “none.” Good writers acquire their craft not from memorizing rules but from reading a lot, savoring and reverse-engineering good prose, and assimilating vast numbers of words, idioms, tropes, and stylistic habits and tricks. On top of that, my earlier research on irregularity reminded me how much in language is arbitrary and illogical and must be acquired not by logic or rule but by brute-force memorization—spelling and punctuation being prime examples. I wanted to emphasize how important careful reading is to good writing, so I began by letting readers eavesdrop on my stream of consciousness as I went over a few examples of prose that pleased me and tried to become conscious of what made it so good. That’s a key to becoming a good writer.

Are you a scientist who specializes in neuroscience, cognitive science, or psychology? And have you read a recent peer-reviewed paper that you would like to write about? Please send suggestions to Mind Matters editor Gareth Cook. Gareth, a Pulitzer prize-winning journalist, is the series editor of Best American Infographics and can be reached at garethideas AT gmail.com or Twitter @garethideas.


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Children benefit from learning multiple languages

Children benefit from learning multiple languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Students who are educated in the U.S. typically need some type of foreign language credit in order to graduate from high school.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Students who are educated in the U.S. typically need some type of foreign language credit in order to graduate from high school. There is beauty in learning another language and being able to communicate effectively with native speakers of that language.

Usually students are exposed to opportunities to learn another language in middle school but there are other schools that purposely offer it as early as kindergarten. While some parents worry that starting their toddler on a second language will interfere with developing English skills, the opposite is actually true. Children can differentiate between two languages within the first weeks of life. "Learning another language actually enhances a child's overall verbal development," says Roberta Michnick Golinkoff, Ph.D., author of “How Babies Talk.”

Recently, my 5-year-old daughter asked if she could learn some words in Hebrew, which totally shocked me; she is learning Spanish in school now and is also very interested in American Sign Language, as she has been exposed to it since she was a baby. My husband and I discussed it and we are at ease with fostering any and as many languages our daughters are interested in learning.

You may be wondering where you get started if you have a child that isn't being exposed in school to a foreign language? PBS suggests the following tips to parents:

• Bilingual immersion

• Extracurricular programs

• Books and videos

• Speak to them (if you are fluent)

• Take a trip to another country

M• ake it fun

Most of all, don't give up, because as you well know, whether you are a teacher or parent, consistency with children is a difficult task. But the advantages of our children being tolerant, respectful, knowledgeable and more marketable now and in the future is worth considering a life with multilingual benefits.

Tysha K. Pittman is a school counselor with Florida State University Schools.

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Chine du Sud : le cantonais, force linguistique menacée par le mandarin | Geopolis

Chine du Sud : le cantonais, force linguistique menacée par le mandarin | Geopolis | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
La politique linguistique de Pékin tente d’imposer le mandarin standard dans le sud du pays. Mais dans la métropole de Canton, les habitants défendent leur
Charles Tiayon's insight:

La politique linguistique de Pékin tente d’imposer le mandarin standard dans le sud du pays. Mais dans la métropole de Canton, les habitants défendent leur dialecte local, le cantonais. Quant à l’usage imposé du mandarin, promu langue officielle, il fait toujours débat.

Bataille linguistique. Dans la province de Guandong, dont Canton est la capitale, les autorités menacent de supprimer les programmes de la télé locale en cantonais au profit d’émissions exclusivement en mandarin. Les médias s'en sont fait l'écho, cet été, à Canton, troisième ville de Chine où plus de la moitié des résidents ont le cantonais pour langue maternelle.

Si cantonais et mandarin s'écrivent en utilisant les mêmes caractères, et sont donc mutuellement intelligibles à l'écrit, ces deux langues diffèrent totalement à l'oral. «Je suis opposé à ce que les émissions basculent en mandarin. C'est mauvais de s'attaquer comme ça à notre langue», s’offusque Huang Yankun. Ce lycéen de 17 ans reconnaît que «parler le cantonais, c'est ici une tradition».

Ce n'est pas l'avis de Mme Yang, 58 ans, résidente de Canton originaire du Shandong (nord-est) qui, elle, se plaint de «ne pas comprendre un mot de cantonais», regrettant de ne pouvoir profiter de la télévision locale. En août 2010, la télévision municipale de Canton avait déjà annoncé qu'elle envisageait de bannir le cantonais de son antenne, ce qui avait provoqué des manifestations et, du coup, l’abandon du projet.

Unifier le pays au niveau linguistique
D’après une étude gouvernementale, un tiers des citoyens de la République populaire de Chine, soit plus de 400 millions de personnes, ne sait pas communiquer en mandarin appelé «putonghua», c'est-à-dire «langue commune». Basé sur le chinois traditionnellement parlé à Pékin, le mandarin est pratiqué dans les administrations, les médias nationaux et l'enseignement.

En l'imposant, les autorités communistes ont espéré renforcer le pouvoir central dans un pays linguistiquement morcelé, face aux fortes identités régionales et aux minorités ethniques. Promouvoir le «putonghua» était pour Pékin «dès l'origine une tentative d'unifier le pays linguistiquement, mais l'idée était aussi que le Nord et le mandarin dominent le Sud et ses langues comme le cantonais, le shanghaïen ou le Hakka», explique Victor Mair, sinologue de l'Université de Pennsylvanie.
 
L'usage du cantonais s'est «incroyablement affaibli» dans le Guangdong depuis 1949 et l'arrivée au pouvoir des communistes, note M.Mair.«Beaucoup d'enfants ne parlent que le mandarin à l'école. A la maison, si leur mère les questionne en cantonais, ils répondent en mandarin», déplore Huang Xiaoyu, 28 ans, employé dans la communication.

Le cantonais, langue principale à Hong Kong
«Le mandarin a été élaboré il y a seulement 100 ans environ, alors que le cantonais a 1.000 ans d'histoire. Quand nous lisons des poèmes antiques en cantonais, ils riment toujours», martelle pour sa part l'éditeur Lao Zhenyu, fervent défenseur du cantonais.

C'est aussi la langue principale à Hong Kong, colonie britannique jusqu'en 1997 et aujourd'hui territoire chinois autonome. «S'il n'y avait pas Hong Kong (et sa puissante influence), le cantonais cesserait vite d'être une force linguistique significative», estime M.Mair. Avec l'influence grandissante de Pékin sur Hong Kong, combien de temps encore la défense de la langue cantonaise résistera-t-elle au mandarin?

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How A Second Language Betters Your Brain

How A Second Language Betters Your Brain | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
By Nathan Collins

Speaking more than one language has some advantages beyond ordering food in the local tongue -- psychologists believe that bilingualism has many other positive side effects. Now, researchers have evidence connecting bilinguals'...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Speaking more than one language has some advantages beyond ordering food in the local tongue -- psychologists believe that bilingualism has many other positive side effects. Now, researchers have evidence connecting bilinguals' talents to stronger so-called executive control in the brain.

Much has been made recently about growing up learning more than one language, as about one in five do. There's evidence that children who grow up speaking two languages may be more creative, that bilingualism might stave off demefntia, and that bilinguals are better at tasks that involve switching attention between different objects. That led some researchers to suspect that speaking two languages might improve our brains' executive functions, the high-level circuits that control our ability to switch between tasks, among other things.

To get a little more sense of the matter, Andrea Stocco and Chantel Prat of the University of Washington screened 17 bilingual and 14 monolingual people for language proficiency and other factors and then tested them using a series of arithmetic problems. Each problem was defined by a set of operations and two inputs -- divide x by two, add one to y, and subtract the second result from the first, for example -- with x and y specified uniquely for each problem. First, participants ran through 40 practice problems using just two operation sets. Next, they went through another 40 problems, this time a mix of 20 new ones, each with a unique set of operations and inputs, and another 20 featuring the previously studied arithmetic operations, but with new inputs for x and y. Finally, the groups worked through 40 more problems, again a mix of familiar and novel, but this time, they completed them inside a fMRI brain scanner.

While bilinguals and monolinguals solved the problems with equal accuracy and took about the same amount of time on arithmetic with familiar sets of operations, bilinguals beat out monolinguals, on average, by about half a second on novel problems. What's more, fMRI results showed that the basal ganglia, a brain region previously linked to learning about rewards and motor functions, responded more to novel math problems than old ones, but only in bilinguals.

That's interesting, Stocco says, because more recent studies suggest the basal ganglia's real role is to take information and prioritize it before passing it on to the prefrontal cortex, which then processes the information. If that's correct, the new results suggest that learning multiple languages trains the basal ganglia to switch more efficiently between the rules and vocabulary of different languages, and these are skills it can then transfer to other domains such as arithmetic.

"Language is one of the hardest things the brain does," Prat says, though we often realize that only when we try to learn a new language -- a task that is "at least an order of magnitude" more difficult than learning the first one. But just as working on your core has benefits outside the gym, working your basal ganglia hard may be the key to promoting other cognitive skills, especially your hidden math genius.

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Toulouse: le musée des Augustins lance son appli en langue des signes

Toulouse: le musée des Augustins lance son appli en langue des signes | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Les sourds et malentendants ont désormais une application adaptée pour préparer leur visite...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Pas facile de saisir toute l’histoire d’une œuvre d’art quand on n’a pas accès aux audioguides. Pour pallier ce manque auprès de son public sourd et malentendant, le musée des Augustins vient de lancer une application en Langue des signes. En plus des notules écrites, des petites vidéos sont disponibles d’un simple clic.

Visites aussi en LSF

«Chefs-d’œuvre du musée des Augustins», est désormais disponible en quatre langues. «Notre volonté est de pouvoir proposer la même visite pour tout le monde. Cette nouvelle application donne accès à vingt œuvres majeures du musée, un petit panorama de toutes les époques, et permet à chacun de préparer sa visite en amont», explique Marie Allaman, chargée du développement des publics et de l’accessibilité.

Le musée des Beaux-arts n’en est pas à son coup d’essai. De temps à autre, des visites tactiles sont organisées. Et durant deux ans, il a proposé des ateliers avec une historienne de l’art et plasticienne sourde. «Cela nous a permis de connaître ce public, nombreux à Toulouse puisque la Ville rose accueille l’une des plus grosses communautés européennes», poursuit la responsable, qui a travaillé au projet avec plusieurs associations locales.

Et pour aller encore plus loin, le programme en LSF s’est étoffé. Une visite guidée avec un interprète est ainsi prévue le 16 novembre pour l’exposition qui s’ouvre samedi, Benjamin Constant. Merveilles et mirages de l’orientalisme.

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« Les Langues paternelles » à Thuillies

« Les Langues paternelles » à Thuillies | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Le Centre culturel de Thuin Haute Sambre propose, le samedi 4 octobre, à 16 h, «Les Langues paternelles», d’après le roman de David Serge.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Le Centre culturel de Thuin Haute Sambre propose, le samedi 4 octobre, à 16 h, «Les Langues paternelles», d’après le roman de David Serge.

«C’est une perle de théâtre et d’humanité qui a écumé les villes de France et de la Francophonie, de succès en succès, d’éloges unanimes en critiques dithyrambiques. De plongeoirs pourris en monstres tièdes, comment les mots du père font-ils de nous, à notre insu, ce que nous sommes?»

Ces quelques mots élogieux démontrent que le spectacle proposé par le Centre culturel de Thuin Haute Sambre ne laisse personne indifférent.

«Les Langues Paternelles» est organisé en partenariat avec la plate-forme des aînés. Le spectacle est prévu en journée pour permettre une sortie entre générations.

Une sortie entre générations

Avec Christelle Alexandre, assistanat à la mise en scène; Thomas Depryck, texte et dramaturgie; Jean-François Fontaine, création sonore; Antoine Laubin, adaptation et mise en scène; Cora-Line Lefèvre, production et diffusion; Hervé Piron, jeu; Gaspard Samyn, lumières et régie; Julien Sigard, diffusion; Vincent Sornaga, jeu; Renaud Van Camp, jeu.

La représentation aura lieu à la salle culturelle, Place communale à Thuillies. Le prix d’entrée est de 8€ (étudiants: 5€ – article 27: 1,25€).

Réservations au 071/59.71.00. Site web: www.centrecultureldethuin.be

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Just how big is Google Scholar? Ummm …

Just how big is Google Scholar? Ummm … | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Researchers struggle to gauge size of popular academic search engine
Charles Tiayon's insight:

When it comes to searching for scientific literature, Google Scholar has become a  go-to resource for a growing number of researchers. The powerful academic search engine seems to comb through every academic study in existence. But figuring out exactly how many papers are covered by Google Scholar isn’t easy, recent research shows—in part because of the company’s secretive, tightlipped nature. And some scholars warn the service may be inflating citation counts, although that may not necessarily be a bad thing.

Figuring out how many documents are indexed in traditional bibliographic databases, such as Thomson Reuters’s Web of Science and Elsevier’s Scopus, is a piece of cake—a simple query is all it takes. Microsoft Academic Search is similarly transparent. Google Scholar, however, offers no such tools to bibliometric researchers, and the Web search giant has declined to publish the information.

To come up with a tally, bibliometricist Enrique Orduña-Malea of the Polytechnic University of Valencia in Spain and his colleagues used four different methods to estimate Google Scholar’s total number of documents. Although each method has distinct limitations, all but one yield similar results, the researchers report in a study posted to the arXiv preprint server earlier this year and updated this month. The number: 160 million indexed documents (plus or minus 10%), including journal articles, books, case law, and patents.

The study is very “thorough and creative work,” says bibliometricist Henk Moed, a visiting professor at Sapienza University of Rome and a former senior scientific adviser at Elsevier, who was not involved with the research. 

By itself, however, the number doesn’t answer some other questions important to academics. One is: What proportion of all scholarly documents is covered by Google Scholar? A previous study by computer scientists Madian Khabsa and C. Lee Giles of Pennsylvania State University, University Park, which estimated the size of Google Scholar at 100 million documents, suggested that it covers about 88% of all scholarly documents accessible on the Web in English. “It's not complete, but a very good coverage,” Giles says.

Another puzzle is how to gauge the quality of Google Scholar’s citation statistics (the number of times a paper is cited by other authors). In general, the citation numbers on Google Scholar tend to be higher than those provided by other sources, Moed says. That’s apparently because databases such as Web of Science require their citation sources to be peer-reviewed and surpass a minimum impact factor, he says, whereas Google Scholar taps into a much broader range of sources.

That’s not necessarily bad, Orduña-Malea says, noting that such wide citing practices can help expand the range of papers that researchers read, beyond those published in elite journals. But a potential problem, Moed says, is that some people may think that “the higher the [citation] numbers, the better the database. … But this is not necessarily the case.”

Moed’s team is conducting a study that compares citations for the same paper provided by Google Scholar and Scopus. One goal is to discern the sources included in Google’s search engine, he says. So far, the percentage of peer-reviewed sources tapped by Google appears to vary drastically across disciplines, he says.

To take the mystery out of such research, both Moed and Orduña-Malea would like to see Google Scholar become more transparent. Indeed, Google’s silence on the size of its index made the authors of the arXiv study wonder “if the company really knows this figure.”

But one insider dismisses such musings. “It is of course not difficult to compute,” says Anurag Acharya, a co-founder of Google Scholar who leads its development. Still, he wouldn’t share any numbers withScienceInsider. He did note, however, that index size is less relevant to search companies such as Google than to subscription-based databases, which can use size as a selling point.

One thing seems certain, researchers say: Google Scholar is continuing to expand its coverage of scholarly literature, which is already believed to be the largest among all academic search engines and databases. “Google Scholar, we think, is representing very well the science landscape,” Orduña-Malea says.

Posted in Scientific Community Scientific Publishing

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Creativity, commerce and culture – roundtable on finding the right balance in digital agencies

Creativity, commerce and culture – roundtable on finding the right balance in digital agencies | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
It’s the age-old debate: how do you strike a balance between creativity and commerce? Everyone wants to work for an agency that is...
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Diccionario imprescindible para el nuevo curso político

Diccionario imprescindible para el nuevo curso político | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Pablemos, contracción de Podemos y de Pablo Iglesias, nació en Twitter.
–La ministra Báñez creó la "movilidad exterior".
–Mamandurria no la acuñó Esperanza Aguirre. Es una palabra que existe de toda la vida.

Por ANDRÉS GUERRA | 30 de septiembre de 2014
0 comentarios100%0%
"María Dolores de Cospedal y Mariano Rajoy. Ambos han contribuido desinteresadamente a enriquecer nuestro diccionario. Cordon Press
Desde el ‘Diccionario del Diablo’ de Ambrose Bierce a aquel concejal que a mediados de los 90 cambió las feas chabolas por los sugerentes módulos horizontales de tipología especial, el lenguaje ha ido adaptándose a la escena política y económica con pasmosa plasticidad. Nuestro concejal madrileño de Obras e Infraestructuras, Enrique Villoria, cambió una cosa por la otra solo sobre el papel. Los pobres chabolistas siguieron en la miseria. Sin embargo, era menos incómodo hablar de módulos ‘especiales’. Esa es la esencia del eufemismo. Hoy sigue ocurriendo lo mismo: existen eufemismos que siguen disfrazando la realidad cuando esta es demasiado áspera y neologismos que brotan para identificar a nuevos actores. Pero también honrados términos en desuso del castellano viejo y otros que se combinan en un desconcertante ejercicio de pirotecnia semántica. Este es nuestro (breve) diccionario para el nuevo curso político.

"La fórmula es sencilla: Pablo Iglesias + 'Podemos' = Pablemos.  © Gtresonline
Mamandurria: fue Esperanza Aguirre quien popularizó la palabra en 2012 (“Se tienen que terminar los subsidios, las subvenciones y las mamandurrias“ en alusión al gasto público) y, por lo jocoso del término, la mayoría pensó que se trataba de una ocurrencia de la lideresa. Sin embargo, la palabra existe: “f. Sueldo que se disfruta sin merecerlo, sinecura, ganga permanente”, dice el DRAE. El origen, como su lexema muestra, es el verbo mamar. En este caso, obviamente, de la cosa pública.

Envolverse en la estelada (antes senyera): locución adverbial utilizada cuando se prevé que un expresident de la Generalitat y exhonorable comparezca en el Parlament de Cataluña para dar explicaciones sobre un espinoso asunto de evasión fiscal. Si el resultado es que el expresident asegura que es rico de toda la vida (140 millones de pesetas), no justifica la millonada medida en euros que ha regularizado (y la que la UDEF le supone fuera de España) y además, regaña a la oposición lanzándoles veladas amenazas, quizá sea el momento de crear “ponerse como Pujol un 26 de septiembre”.

Pablemos: resulta arduo dar con el creador de uno de los mejores acrónimos (de Podemos y su líder, Pablo Iglesias) que se recuerdan pero todo apunta a que nació en Twitter, ese hervidero de creatividad [si algún lector conoce a ese genio, háganoslo saber]. Fue incluso antes de la sorpresa que supuso su magnífico resultado electorales en las Europeas del 25 de mayo. El 15 de abril Podemos modificó su logo en el registro de partidos del Ministerio del Interior y lo sustituyó por la efigie de Iglesias. Pocos conocían la nueva formación pero muchos a su cabeza visible (un 10 % frente a un 50 % del electorado, según datos de la propia plataforma). Pablemos era cosa cantada.

Alcaldable: Candidato/a o probable candidato/a al cargo de alcalde. Esta es de las pocas palabras de nuestro breve diccionario cuyo significado coincide exactamente con su entrada en el DRAE. La particularidad es que se trata de un término con uso temporalmente localizado: aparece en la escaramuza previa a la confección de listas electorales. Ayer mismo la empleó en un pleno del consistorio madrileño el portavoz socialista, Jaime Lissavetzky. Por cierto, que los de Madrid suelen ser los más famosos de entre los alcaldables de España. Para las próximas municipales y dado que Ana Botella no se presentará, quienes tienen más números son Cristina Cifuentes, Ignacio González y Esperanza Aguirre.

"La ministra de Trabajo creó la expresión "movilidad exterior" para referirse a decenas de miles de jóvenes españoles que han emigrado en busca de trabajo.Gtres
Ajuste: recorte en el gasto público. Punto.

Empoderar: anglicismo calcado del inglés (to empower) que, según el DRAE, consiste en “hacer poderoso o fuerte a un individuo o grupo social desfavorecido. U. t. c. prnl (usado también como pronominal)”. Ya existía en español bajo la variante “apoderar”, si bien esta segunda ha quedado para el mundo taurino y los juzgados. La irrupción mediática de Pablo Iglesias popularizó la acepción inglesa.

Movilidad exterior: si el inventor de Pablemos es difícil de rastrear, esta otra expresión tiene un creador perfectamente identificado. Fátima Báñez, ministra de Trabajo. Fue en abril de 2013 contestando a datos de 2012: la tasa de paro de los jóvenes españoles alcanzó el 55 % y hasta 133.000 salieron de los datos de la EPA y de España al mismo tiempo. El lenguaje del siglo XXI permite hablar de movilidad si no se sale uno de la Unión Europea. Aunque podemos apurar un poco más, ya que la economía está globalizada, y mantener esta acepción de la ministra para cualquiera que busque trabajo en cualquier lugar a excepción de la ISS.

Flexibilizar: además del obvio y casi tautológico ‘hacer flexible algo’, en el lenguaje socioeconómico impuesto desde 2008, I Año de la Crisis, termina significando, inexorablemente, que el más débil suele salir escaldado. Ejemplo: flexibilidad laboral significa despidos menos costosos para el empresario.

Reajuste: véase ajuste y vuelva a aplicarse sobre una economía ya maltrecha. O sobre el precio de algo: un reajuste (recibo de la luz, ticket del bus) supone indefectiblemente una subida.

Populista: aunque según el DRAE es “el perteneciente o relativo al pueblo”, en lenguaje político español es el adjetivo que los partidos con, al menos, siete años de vigencia (Ciutadans se creó el 8 de julio de 2006 y UPyD, el 26 de septiembre de 2007) pueden utilizar contra las nuevas formaciones con objeto de desacreditarlos ante, precisamente, la opinión pública.

"José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero vio brotes verdes. Mariano Rajoy los ha visto vigorosos.Gtres
Brotes:

1. Verdes: si el presidente del Gobierno se llama José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero y emplea la expresión refiriéndose a un repunte de la Economía, real o imaginario, usará esta acepción.

2. Vigorosos: en las mismas condiciones que la anterior salvo que el presidente del Gobierno debe llamarse Mariano Rajoy y encontrarse de viaje oficial en China.

Crecimiento cero: expresión incongruente pero de ladino uso. El elemento negativo (“cero”) se combina con el favorable (“crecimiento”) y así parece que duele menos. Álex Grijelmo lo explica muy bien en ‘El estilo del periodista’. Debió incluir ‘Y del político’ en el título.

Crecimiento negativo: precioso oxímoron que suele ser el colofón de un crecimiento cero sostenido en el tiempo.

Moderar: lo mismo que flexibilizar pero aplicado a los salarios. Si su jefe le modera el sueldo es que cobraba demasiado. Aunque fuese demasiado poco.

Chiringuito financiero: se trata de empresas que asesoran al pequeño y mediano inversor pero con dos salvedades: no están registradas en la Comisión Nacional de Mercado de Valores (CNMV), por lo que son ilegales, y suelen ser una trampa para el incauto. El señuelo son productos financieros que arrojan rentabilidades altísimas y que resultan muy creíbles cuando el inversor es recibido en un deslumbrante despacho en un inmejorables edificio. El despacho es alquilado y los ahorros vuelan antes de que uno sea consciente de dónde se ha metido.

Desindexación: según el DRAE consiste en desvincular de un determinado valor del índice al que hasta entonces estaba referido. Si el índice es el IPC y lo que se cae es una pensión, ya sabemos quién es el perjudicado. Véase “ajuste”.

Minijob: pese a su cándido nombre, consiste en un complemento laboral que el jubilado debe buscarse cuando su pensión no le llega para vivir. Su remuneración es baja y la jornada laboral semanal está limitada (unas 15 horas). Que el país madre de esta fórmula sea la próspera Alemania resulta desconcertante para algunos de nuestros políticos.

Gravamen a activos ocultos: si les damos la otra acepción indolora (‘medidas excepcionales para incentivar la tributación de rentas no declaradas’) se van a quedar prácticamente igual. El común de los ciudadanos lo conocemos como “amnistía fiscal”, es decir, una exención de responsabilidad penal por haber escamoteado dinero a Hacienda si el evasor lo declara pagando entre un 8 y un 10 % de la suma evadida. Existen asesorías especializadas en hacer las paces con la Agencia Tributaria y muchos millonarios están contentos con ello.

Indemnización en diferido en forma de simulación: no deja de tener mérito convertir una tradicional y paupérrima forma de ver partidos de fútbol en un modo de cumplir con las obligaciones pecuniarias que se tiene con todo empleado. La creadora fue María Dolores de Cospedal, secretaria general del PP, durante una rueda de prensa en la que trataba de explicar, sin demasiado éxito, por qué se le seguía pagando Seguridad Social y practicándoles retenciones de IRPF a un Luis Bárcenas que ya no trabajaba para el PP.

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Sign Language Interpretation For Theatre, Music Growing

Sign Language Interpretation For Theatre, Music Growing | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
On Friday, Misti Ryefield and Kathleen Robertson of Grand Rapids will interpret for the Kalamazoo Civic Theatre's production of My Fair Lady. The show
Charles Tiayon's insight:

On Friday, Misti Ryefield and Kathleen Robertson of Grand Rapids will interpret for the Kalamazoo Civic Theatre's production of My Fair Lady. The show starts at 7:30 p.m.


Ryefield says these days more deaf people are asking for interpreters for musicals and concerts.

“One possible reason that traditionally deaf people haven’t been interested in music is because they haven’t been able to see it. They haven’t been able to have a good translation of not just the words, but the meaning behind the words and how that fits in with the music and how that fits in with the context of the music,” says Ryefield.

“That type of service is expanding. So more deaf people are getting a chance to actually experience the music instead of just assuming that it’s a hearing thing and one more thing that separates the communities.”

The Bureau of Labor Statistics says within the next few years, sign language interpreting is expected to grow significantly because of video chat services like Skype. But Kathleen Robertson says not every interpreter can do plays and musicals. You have to be able to be as expressive as the actors themselves.

“You have to give a physical characterization rather than a vocal one and that helps the deaf people track which character is speaking on stage,” says Robertson.

On the other hand, Robertson says you don’t want to overshadow the actors. She says she’ll often look at or “throw focus” to the action that’s happening on stage.

“Like if someone is obviously sobbing on stage, look at it. Don’t look at me, they’re crying,” says Robertson laughingly.

But what about My Fair Lady? How do you translate a musical that’s all about pronunciation?

Ryefield is interpreting for the character Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower girl taking speech lessons to sound more like a lady. She says she’ll probably start out using American sign language and then slowly switch to a more English style of signing.

“Traditionally English people are portrayed as more stiff and shoulders back and standing up straight, where she probably is going to have more of a slouchy type of posture for…especially in the beginning. As she makes her transformation that physicality may change as well,” says Ryefield.

Even though ASL interpretation for live entertainment is growing, Robertson says many theatres don’t know how to bring in deaf audiences.

“[Deaf people will] go if they know and trust the interpreter that’s doing the work. So you kind of have to set up those lines of communication and that development of trust that they know, ‘Yes, that’s a good interpreter. I’ll go,’" says Robertson. "And you have to have the interpreter first before they’ll buy the tickets, usually.”

Robertson says if a theatre does get a request for an interpreter, often the theatre doesn’t know how to find one. The Michigan Division on Deaf and Hard of Hearing has a list of interpreters in the state.

“So if they get a request they’re required to provide, but there are some theatres that are willing to provide. And that’s always exciting to work with them,” says Ryefield.

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Lost in Translation -

Lost in Translation - | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Selective translating of foreign news articles in the name of China boosterism prevents serious discussion and is ultimately self-defeating
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Is selective translation of news articles from the foreign media more insidious than no translation at all? The debate was sparked by a garbled translation of the cover story of the Economist headlined What does China Want?

In a translated version run on ThePaper.cn, a generously funded website covering political and social news, passages following some transitional device such as "but" and "however," which seek to give a counterpoint and more often than not contain the core messages, are excised. For example: The translated passage renders: "As China becomes, again, the world's largest economy, it wants the respect it enjoyed in centuries past," while leaving out "But it does not know how to achieve …"

Translators in China are not neutral message conveyors but active censor-oriented rewriting hacks. Their job requires the sensitivity of knowing the parameter. Foreign news is not used as a means of national self-reflection, but an adjunct to domestic propaganda. Veteran translators are infuriated by the accusation that they are accomplices to an authoritarian regime. They point out that the core issue is not how to translate, but how to translate and get published. Publish or perish is the rub.

How the translators hew to the adaptation and rewriting is often an indicator of where the publication stands in the Communist Party-condoned ideological spectrum. Reference News (Cankao Xiaoxi) was founded in 1931 as an internal publication to provide the party leadership with an idea of how the world perceived China. When it turned into a mass circulation paper in 1985, translators were given the mandate of selecting passages from world press and adapting a propaganda agenda. Boasting a daily circulation of 3 million, Reference News is influential and profitable. Global Times, a tabloid subsidiary of the People's Daily, routinely mangles foreign news articles to bolster its nationalistic stance. But when ThePaper.cn was launched this summer, hopes ran high that it would set itself apart to attract weary online readers. There is a sense of betrayal that it commits the same sin of translating only the positive while blocking passages critical of China.

Pity ThePaper.cn. The fledgling news website has already got a rap on the knuckles that its wayward experiments must be reined in. A think tank affiliated with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences posted online that propaganda officials have issued a "timely warning" after a series of minor transgressions by the website that all news media – including new media – must adhere to one standard and the same "foundation color." The media can experiment with different ways of reporting, varying the means of delivery, but the messages must be identical.

In the age of global communication, officials take filtering reports from the foreign media seriously. Letting people know what the world thinks of them must be managed with great care and a firewall erected to guard against "foreign infiltration" to sow seeds of doubt in China's greatness. Boosterism is de rigueur and under no circumstance can it challenge the legitimacy of the regime. As a result, readers of Reference News think the foreign press on China is filled with either starry-eyed admiration or rabid imperialist hostility.

I once wrote a column on the perception of China in Latin America, in which I described how the local people, awed by China's economic success, look to it as an alternative development model. China's defiant stance vis-à-vis the United States in international politics also struck a sympathetic cord. But people in those predominantly Catholic countries are troubled by religious persecution in China, especially the sufferings of the "underground" churches and the vilification of Dalai Lama. In a translated version, religion and Tibet disappeared.

"What Does China Want?" asks searching questions. If the excised passages had been translated and published, there could have been a chance to start a serious national discussion. The distorted translation reinforces what political commentator Edward Luttwak calls "great-state autism" that China traps itself in. This ultimately is self-defeating.

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Hoy se celebra a San Jerónimo, traductor de la Biblia y doctor de la Iglesia

Hoy se celebra a San Jerónimo, traductor de la Biblia y doctor de la Iglesia | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
"Ama la sagrada Escritura, y la sabiduría te amará; ámala tiernamente, y te custodiará; hónrala y recibirás sus caricias”, solía decir San Jerónimo, traductor de la Biblia al latín y cuya fiesta se celebra cada 30 de septiembre.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

LIMA, 30 Sep. 14 / 12:03 am (ACI).- "Ama la sagrada Escritura, y la sabiduría te amará; ámala tiernamente, y te custodiará; hónrala y recibirás sus caricias”, solía decir San Jerónimo, traductor de la Biblia al latín y cuya fiesta se celebra cada 30 de septiembre.

San Jerónimo nació en Estridón (Dalmacia) hacia el año 340. Estudió en Roma y allí fue bautizado. Vivió la vida ascética y luego partió para el Oriente, donde fue ordenado presbítero. Retorna a Roma y sirvió como secretario del Papa Dámaso. De aquí que algunos artistas lo representen con ropajes como de un cardenal.

En esos años empezó la traducción al latín de la Biblia que fue llamada la “Vulgata” (de “vulgata editio”, “edición para el pueblo”) y que se convirtió en el texto bíblico oficial de la Iglesia Católica hasta la “Neovulgata” en 1979.

Posteriormente se va a vivir en Belén, donde trabajó por el bien de la Iglesia y ayudando a los necesitados. Es autor de una gran cantidad de obras, en especial de comentarios de la Sagrada Escritura.

Retornó a la Casa del Padre el 30 de septiembre del 420 y su Fiesta litúrgica es una de las razones por las que en este mes se pone énfasis en la Iglesia para profundizar en el amor a la Biblia.

El Papa Benedicto XVI, en su audiencia general del 7 de noviembre del 2007 dijo: “Concluyo con unas palabras que San Jerónimo dirigió a San Paulino de Nola. En ellas, el gran exegeta expresa precisamente esta realidad, es decir, que en la palabra de Dios recibimos la eternidad, la vida eterna. Dice San Jerónimo: ‘Tratemos de aprender en la tierra las verdades cuya consistencia permanecerá también en el cielo’”.

Para conocer más de este gran doctor de la Iglesia, visite: https://www.aciprensa.com/santos/santo.php?id=292

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Five life-changing books - Life & Style - NZ Herald News

Five life-changing books - Life & Style - NZ Herald News | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
There's one of those Facebook chain letters going on at the moment (when isn't there?!) It's a nomination list that you complete and forward on - this time about books that changed - New Zealand Herald
Charles Tiayon's insight:

There's one of those Facebook "chain letters" going on at the moment (when isn't there?!) It's a nomination list that you complete and forward on - this time about books that changed your life.

Coming up with books wasn't difficult - I love books. Narrowing my list down to only five was far trickier. But here goes, my five life-changing reads.


1. The Life of Pi


Before Ang Lee's spectacular cinematic interpretation, I read Yann Martel's book nearly a decade ago, and knew then I would never look at the world the same way. It's not a book about making you believe in a particular religion - rather it encourages the reader to have faith. In yourself, the strength of the human spirit, a higher power, the world, the universe - whatever really - just the strength to survive insurmountable challenges. A must-read, over and over.


Photo / File, Supplied


2. The Power of One


Bryce Courtenay's brilliant novel is set in South Africa during the 1930s and 1940s. For me, growing up during the transition of a country ruled by apartheid to a democracy, I was faced with conflicting views from adults about how to treat others. My family was liberal and anti-apartheid - but the same couldn't be said for some of my teachers and friends' parents. This book shows how, in a world full of hate, to have faith in the goodness of people and how to show strength through self-preservation. A big read, but an important one.


Photo / Wikimedia Commons


3. The Alchemist


The message behind Paulo Coelho's The Alchemist is similar to, but far less naff than, The Secret that was popular a few years ago. It's the story of a shepherd and his journey to find treasure in Egypt. Perhaps the book's most poignant quote is, "When you really want something to happen, the whole universe conspires so that your wish comes true."


Photo / Wikimedia Commons


4. We Need To Talk About Kevin


Lionel Shriver's novel explores the nature vs nurture debate in a series of letters written by a teen murderer's mother - Eva - to her husband. Kevin is responsible for a school massacre, and killing his sister and father. Eva admits she is not maternal and never showed Kevin affection. All the way through the novel I questioned whether Kevin was born a sociopath, or became that way due to his upbringing.


Photo / File, Supplied


5. Popcorn


I studied this novel by Ben Elton in my final year of school. It has similar themes toNatural Born Killers and Pulp Fiction. The story is of a movie director taken hostage, along with others from the industry, by two murderers who want him to publicly announce that his films encourage violence and killing, and he is responsible for their crimes. During the siege, which is broadcast on live TV, one of the captors holds a ratings monitor and announces that the hostages would be spared if everyone stops watching - which, of course, doesn't happen. Some are killed, but the survivors use different legal pathways to escape any responsibility. The underlying message - we live in a blameless society.


Photo / Wikimedia Commons

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Can We Talk? Finding A Common Security Language

Can We Talk? Finding A Common Security Language | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
How engineers can get beyond the crippling vocabulary and semantic barrier of infosec and actually communicate about cyber risk with bosses and business colleagues.
Charles Tiayon's insight:

How engineers can get beyond the crippling vocabulary and semantic barrier of infosec and actually communicate about cyber risk with bosses and business colleagues.

Put yourself in the shoes of your CEO.

Good morning, Mr. or Ms. CEO! Quick question -- and I need you to think fast: What’s the top cyber risk to your enterprise this quarter, and how does it affect your business’s bottom line?

It might help to think back to your last status meeting with your security team. In the meeting are all your department heads, including your CFO, COO, CMO, CTO, and CSO.

Imagine that you’ve come to the half-hour set aside for the CSO and his lead infosec engineers, and, on the slides, you see one summarizing your IT security and cyber defense spending over the first half of the year. Things like antivirus, malware detection, and anti-phishing show up, as do $ symbols followed by healthy numbers beside things like IDS/IPS, firewalls, signature detection, log aggregation, netflow analysis, and packet inspection.

Then you see a slide summarizing your top cyber security issues over the first half of the year: words and phrases like Zeus, Citadel Trojan, Backoff POS, Man-in-the-Middle, Dorking, Beaconing, Packet Reflection.

So, what is the top cyber risk to your enterprise this quarter, and how does it really affect your business’s bottom line?

Imagine you still can’t answer? You wouldn’t be alone.

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Displaced Author Russell Kaschula on “Re-imagining the Grammar of Local Languages

Displaced Author Russell Kaschula on “Re-imagining the Grammar of Local Languages | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Professor Russell Kaschula is the Head of the School of Languages at Rhodes University and the author of Displaced. Kaschula teaches African Language Studies at Rhodes and his research is concerned with the importance of indigenous languages in education. According to the Mail & Guardian two Research Chairs were awarded in 2012 as part of the South African Chairs Initiative (SARChI) with the focus ...
Charles Tiayon's insight:

Professor Russell Kaschula is the Head of the School of Languages at Rhodes Universityand the author of Displaced. Kaschula teaches African Language Studies at Rhodes and his research is concerned with the importance of indigenous languages in education.

According to the Mail & Guardian two Research Chairs were awarded in 2012 as part of the South African Chairs Initiative (SARChI) with the focus on higher education in an African context.

Kaschula has been awarded the position of Chair of Intellectualisation of African Languages, Multilingualism and Education. In this article he explains the three focus areas of the Chair:

First, linguistics and applied African language studies, which looks at ways to introduce teaching in indigenous languages into the higher education system. One project in this field is looking at translating and developing appropriate terminology and lexicology in various fields of study that is not only relevant but that students can identify with.

This approach is being applied in developing isiXhosa language usage and terminology for information and communication technology subjects.

Allied to this is the development of courses in indigenous languages in subjects ranging from journalism to pharmacy, education and law.

Probably closer to the Chair title of intellectualisation of language is work on what Kaschula terms re-imagining the grammar of local languages that he says had originally been documented by missionaries in the 18th Century.

The third area of the Chair’s research is into Africa literary studies, including its history.

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Clarkson University: Clarkson University Students Learn About Foreign Cultures, Languages Abroad Through Special ROTC Program

Clarkson University: Clarkson University Students Learn About Foreign Cultures, Languages Abroad Through Special ROTC Program | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

Clarkson cadets Nicholas Zapotoski '17 traveled to Greece, Jacob Cappiello '16 traveled to Cape Verde, Ashley Forshey '16 traveled to Thailand, Nicholas Haluska '16 traveled to Croatia, Timothy Pierce '17 traveled to Germany, Courtney Quinn '16 traveled to Bulgaria and Adam Yates '16 traveled to Hungary to discover how people live in other countries.

Sally Mooney '16, from SUNY Potsdam, and Thomas Plumb '16, from SUNY Canton, also participated in CULP programs in Romania and Poland, respectively.

Zapotoski participated in a military-to-military program where he learned how the military in Greece operates. While there are differences, he said, there are also many similarities.

"It's just neat to see how cadets from other countries train," he said. "I made a lot of cool friends. As cadets, we're not that different."

Forshey said she ate breakfast, lunch and dinner with locals every day as part of her program teaching English in Thailand.

"I hadn't traveled anywhere before," she said, "so it was nice to see how they viewed us as Americans, and I was welcomed into the culture like a family."

Approximately 1,400 Army ROTC cadets traveled to more than 40 countries as part of CULP this year. The program gives cadets an opportunity to explore the globe, spending up to four weeks immersed in foreign cultures, practicing leadership skills, learning more about how other cultures around the world view the U.S. and, in the process, learning more about themselves.

These missions create better military leaders who are educated in world cultures and values, and better equipped to function in a variety of complex circumstances. Cadets also gain valuable experience in today's geo-political and geo-economic world, where countries and economies are tied together. The training prepares them for civilian careers while serving in the reserve components, or in industry and business after their army service.

Professor of Military Science Lt. Col. Abrahm DiMarco said knowledge of other cultures becomes increasingly important as the United States develops international connections. He said students will interact with people from around the globe in higher education, in the military and in the business world.

"In order to work with people in foreign countries in an effective manner, you have to have an understanding of different cultures and you have to understand that not everybody does things or things the way we do," DiMarco said. "We're trying, in some ways, to induce culture shock to give them that exposure and that training."

Cadets participate in CULP programs generally through one of four varieties: teaching English to students and in turn learning the native culture and language; humanitarian missions and service learning projects; military-to-military training with host cadet corps or partner nation military; or State Partnership Program missions with the National Guard.

"It's a great experience that's available to all of our ROTC cadets, and when people think about ROTC they often don't understand the opportunities that go along with that," DiMarco said.

The U.S. Army Cadet Command commissions officers to meet the Army’s leadership requirements at 275 host universities and more than 1,000 affiliated colleges across the nation. Commanded by Brig. Gen. Peggy C. Combs at Fort Knox, Ky., USACC also provides a citizenship program through more than 1,700 high school programs that motivate young people to be strong leaders and better citizens.

Clarkson University launches leaders into the global economy. One in five alumni already leads as a CEO, VP or equivalent senior executive of a company. Located just outside the Adirondack Park in Potsdam, N.Y., Clarkson is a nationally recognized research university for undergraduates with select graduate programs in signature areas of academic excellence directed toward the world’s pressing issues. Through 50 rigorous programs of study in engineering, business, arts, sciences and the health professions, the entire learning-living community spans boundaries across disciplines, nations and cultures to build powers of observation, challenge the status quo, and connect discovery and engineering innovation with enterprise.

Photo caption: Seven Clarkson University students traveled around the world this summer through Army ROTC's Cultural Understanding and Language Proficiency programs. Back row, left to right: Nicholas Zapotoski '17, Timothy Pierce '17, Jacob Cappiello '16, Sally Mooney '16, and Courtney Quinn '16. Front row, left to right: Adam Yates '16, Ashley Forshey '16, Thomas Plumb '16 and Nicholas Haluska '16.

Charles Tiayon's insight:

Clarkson cadets Nicholas Zapotoski '17 traveled to Greece, Jacob Cappiello '16 traveled to Cape Verde, Ashley Forshey '16 traveled to Thailand, Nicholas Haluska '16 traveled to Croatia, Timothy Pierce '17 traveled to Germany, Courtney Quinn '16 traveled to Bulgaria and Adam Yates '16 traveled to Hungary to discover how people live in other countries.

Sally Mooney '16, from SUNY Potsdam, and Thomas Plumb '16, from SUNY Canton, also participated in CULP programs in Romania and Poland, respectively.

Zapotoski participated in a military-to-military program where he learned how the military in Greece operates. While there are differences, he said, there are also many similarities.

"It's just neat to see how cadets from other countries train," he said. "I made a lot of cool friends. As cadets, we're not that different."

Forshey said she ate breakfast, lunch and dinner with locals every day as part of her program teaching English in Thailand.

"I hadn't traveled anywhere before," she said, "so it was nice to see how they viewed us as Americans, and I was welcomed into the culture like a family."

Approximately 1,400 Army ROTC cadets traveled to more than 40 countries as part of CULP this year. The program gives cadets an opportunity to explore the globe, spending up to four weeks immersed in foreign cultures, practicing leadership skills, learning more about how other cultures around the world view the U.S. and, in the process, learning more about themselves.

These missions create better military leaders who are educated in world cultures and values, and better equipped to function in a variety of complex circumstances. Cadets also gain valuable experience in today's geo-political and geo-economic world, where countries and economies are tied together. The training prepares them for civilian careers while serving in the reserve components, or in industry and business after their army service.

Professor of Military Science Lt. Col. Abrahm DiMarco said knowledge of other cultures becomes increasingly important as the United States develops international connections. He said students will interact with people from around the globe in higher education, in the military and in the business world.

"In order to work with people in foreign countries in an effective manner, you have to have an understanding of different cultures and you have to understand that not everybody does things or things the way we do," DiMarco said. "We're trying, in some ways, to induce culture shock to give them that exposure and that training."

Cadets participate in CULP programs generally through one of four varieties: teaching English to students and in turn learning the native culture and language; humanitarian missions and service learning projects; military-to-military training with host cadet corps or partner nation military; or State Partnership Program missions with the National Guard.

"It's a great experience that's available to all of our ROTC cadets, and when people think about ROTC they often don't understand the opportunities that go along with that," DiMarco said.

The U.S. Army Cadet Command commissions officers to meet the Army’s leadership requirements at 275 host universities and more than 1,000 affiliated colleges across the nation. Commanded by Brig. Gen. Peggy C. Combs at Fort Knox, Ky., USACC also provides a citizenship program through more than 1,700 high school programs that motivate young people to be strong leaders and better citizens.

Clarkson University launches leaders into the global economy. One in five alumni already leads as a CEO, VP or equivalent senior executive of a company. Located just outside the Adirondack Park in Potsdam, N.Y., Clarkson is a nationally recognized research university for undergraduates with select graduate programs in signature areas of academic excellence directed toward the world’s pressing issues. Through 50 rigorous programs of study in engineering, business, arts, sciences and the health professions, the entire learning-living community spans boundaries across disciplines, nations and cultures to build powers of observation, challenge the status quo, and connect discovery and engineering innovation with enterprise.

Photo caption: Seven Clarkson University students traveled around the world this summer through Army ROTC's Cultural Understanding and Language Proficiency programs. Back row, left to right: Nicholas Zapotoski '17, Timothy Pierce '17, Jacob Cappiello '16, Sally Mooney '16, and Courtney Quinn '16. Front row, left to right: Adam Yates '16, Ashley Forshey '16, Thomas Plumb '16 and Nicholas Haluska '16.

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Phonics 'helping to boost reading skills' - Teaching Personnel

Phonics 'helping to boost reading skills' - Teaching Personnel | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Government figures reveal pupils are benefiting from the phonics teaching method.
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Pupils' reading skills have significantly improved since the introduction of the phonics reading check, the government has announced.

Some 100,000 more children are now on track to become excellent readers since the internationally proven method of teaching was brought in, which boosts reading by giving children the building blocks they need to understand words.

The official figures show that the proportion of six-year-olds achieving the expected standard has risen by 16 percentage points since 2012 to 74 per cent (474,000 pupils). Based on the 2014 cohort, this is equivalent to 102,000 more children doing well.

In addition, the gap between pupils eligible for free school meals and their peers achieving the expected level has narrowed by one percentage point since 2012, while for year two phonics the gap closed by two percentage points.

Some £20 million has been made available by the government to enable schools to purchase and develop resources for teaching phonics.

Extra reading help is available for those who do not reach the threshold in the light-touch check, so that they catch up early in their school career.

There has also been a rise in the number of pupils reaching the expected phonics standard at the age of seven, demonstrating that those having to retake the check are benefiting from increased support from those in teaching jobs.

Extra funding and advice has been made available for teaching phonics, while more emphasis is now placed on the theory during teacher training.

School reform minister Nick Gibb said disadvantaged pupils were previously allowed to fall behind in reading, adding that the government's drive to tackle illiteracy has helped to ameliorate the problem.

"[These] figures provide irrefutable evidence that our plan for education is working for young people across Britain with 100,000 more six-year-olds now on track to become proficient readers as a result of our relentless emphasis on phonics. Had we not done so, those pupils would still be struggling today," he stated.

Posted by Charlotte Michaels

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Une Asie, des Asies

Une Asie, des Asies | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Le thème :  Les pays d'Asie, ce sont 800 langues et des religions multiples. C'est aussi la zone la plus dynamique du monde. Cette région,...
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Les Economies émergentes d'Asie Entre Etat et marché (par Jean-Raphaël Chaponnière, et Marc Lautier Ed. Armand Colin, CollectionU, 265 pages)


Le thème :  Les pays d'Asie, ce sont 800 langues et des religions multiples. C'est aussi la zone la plus dynamique du monde. Cette région, qui s'est longtemps définie par la géographie, s'intègre aujourd'hui de plus en plus dans le panorama économique mondial. Ce mouvement s'effectue toutefois à des allures différentes selon que l'on parle du Bangladesh ou de la Thaïlande, voire bien sûr de la Chine. Après avoir replacé l'essor de l'Asie dans un contexte historique, l'ouvrage revient sur le mode de croissance de ce continent, souvent fortement piloté par l'Etat. Il analyse les processus d'intégration régionale et de creusement des inégalités liés à ces développements.

Les auteurs : Jean-Raphaël Chaponnière, ingénieur au CNRS, est un grand connaisseur de l'Asie. Il est associé à Asie 21 et à Asia Centre. Marc Lautier est maître de conférences à Paris-XIII et spécialiste des économies émergentes d'Asie.

La citation : « Les expériences d'Asie de l'Est confirment que ce n'est pas l'ouverture qui provoque l'industrialisation et la croissance rapide. L'Afrique de l'Ouest ou le Moyen-Orient ont eu une ouverture plus précoce et parfois plus marquée. C'est l'effort d'investissement, matériel et immatériel, associé aux opportunités de l'ouverture qui engendre le 


En savoir plus sur http://www.lesechos.fr/idees-debats/livres/0203809833313-une-asie-des-asies-1048056.php?rqU2DAd1QthGuS15.99

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BMW launches automated driving project in China with Baidu

BMW launches automated driving project in China with Baidu | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
FRANKFURT (Reuters) - German luxury carmaker BMW is teaming up with Chinese internet giant Baidu to start highly automated driving trials in Beijing and Shanghai.BMW research vehicles capable of highly
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(Reuters) - German luxury carmaker BMW is teaming up with Chinese internet giant Baidu to start highly automated driving trials in Beijing and Shanghai.

BMW research vehicles capable of highly automated driving have already undergone thousands of kilometers of trials on German autobahns. The project will now be expanded to include other large cities in China, BMW said on Monday.

"BMW is embarking on a further research project which will pave the way for highly automated driving in China as well," the Munich-based automaker said in a statement.

"China's fast-expanding urban centers present the engineers with challenges such as multi-level highways."

Prototype cars developed in this project will initially be operated on urban highways in Beijing and Shanghai.

BMW needs a partner because cars with semi-autonomous driving functions need high-resolution maps to help measure precisely when they are in danger of hitting a curb, or missing a turn.

Cars currently have insufficient memory to store detailed maps of an entire country, so automakers need to team up with telecoms and internet providers to help autonomous vehicles download detailed maps on the go.

Baidu operates China's largest search engine and is also a provider of map services and cloud services.


(Reporting by Edward Taylor; Editing by Mark Potter)

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» Inaccessible writing, in both senses of the term The Occasional Pamphlet

Inaccessible writing, in both senses of the term September 29th, 2014
My colleague Steven Pinker has a nice piece up at the Chronicle of Higher Education on “Why Academics Stink at Writing”, accompanying the recent release of his new book The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person’s Guide to Writing in the 21st Century, which I’m awaiting my pre-ordered copy of. The last sentence of the Chronicle piece summarizes well:

In writing badly, we are wasting each other’s time, sowing confusion and error, and turning our profession into a laughingstock.

The essay provides a diagnosis of many of the common symptoms of fetid academic writing. He lists metadiscourse, professional narcissism, apologizing, shudder quotes, hedging, metaconcepts and nominalizations. It’s not breaking new ground, but these problems well deserve review.

I fall afoul of these myself, of course. (Nasty truth: I’ve used “inter alia” all too often, inter alia.) But one issue I disagree with Pinker on is the particular style of metadiscourse he condemns that provides a roadmap of a paper. Here’s an example from a recent paper of mine.

After some preliminaries (Section 2), we present a set of known results relating context-free languages, tree homomorphisms, tree automata, and tree transducers to extend them for the tree-adjoining languages (Section 3), presenting these in terms of restricted kinds of functional programs over trees, using a simple grammatical notation for describing the programs. We review the definition of tree-substitution and tree-adjoining grammars (Section 4) and synchronous versions thereof (Section 5). We prove the equivalence between STSG and a variety of bimorphism (Section 6).

This certainly smacks of the first metadiscourse example Pinker provides:

“The preceding discussion introduced the problem of academese, summarized the principle theories, and suggested a new analysis based on a theory of Turner and Thomas. The rest of this article is organized as follows. The first section consists of a review of the major shortcomings of academic prose. …”

Who needs that sort of signposting in a 6,000-word essay? But in the context of a 50-page article, giving a kind of table of contents such as this doesn’t seem out of line. Much of the metadiscourse that Pinker excoriates is unneeded, but appropriate advance signposting can ease the job of the reader considerably. Sometimes, as in the other examples Pinker gives, “meta­discourse is there to help the writer, not the reader, since she has to put more work into understanding the signposts than she saves in seeing what they point to.” But anything that helps the reader to understand the high-level structure of an object as complex as a long article seems like a good thing to me.

The penultimate sentence of Pinker’s piece places poor academic writing in context:

Our indifference to how we share the fruits of our intellectual labors is a betrayal of our calling to enhance the spread of knowledge.

That sentiment applies equally well – arguably more so – to the venues where we publish. By placing our articles in journals that lock up access tightly we are also betraying our calling. And it doesn’t matter how good the writing is if it can’t be read in the first place.
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We’re Translating the Mass. Governor’s Debate Into Emoji

We’re Translating the Mass. Governor’s Debate Into Emoji | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
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design - translating a list of words (word1, word2 and word3) - Programmers Stack Exchange

design - translating a list of words (word1, word2 and word3) - Programmers Stack Exchange | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it

We are trying to globalize an application and we have run into a situation where I'm not sure how (of if) we would go about formatting the string for globalization. It's a paragraph explaining something with a list of names within it. For example:

"Bob, Sue and Michael each received a point."

"Bob, Sue and Michael" is the string in question and can be one to many people. What is the correct approach to translating the comma and "and" word?

asked 22 hours ago
put on hold as unclear what you're asking by gnatKonrad MorawskiGlenH7MichaelTjwenting 4 hours ago

Please clarify your specific problem or add additional details to highlight exactly what you need. As it's currently written, it’s hard to tell exactly what you're asking. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question.If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

2 
The linguistically correct approach would be to use a globalization engine that can deal with the fact that different languages require the substituted elements to appear in different orders. Most engines can't, which is why commercial software usually uses workaround such as "The following players have received one point each:\nBob\nSue\nMichael\n". –  Kilian Foth 22 hours ago
1 
...that said, as a programmer, I can offer a completely unprofessional guess that you might want to learn about Oxford comma –  gnat 22 hours ago
3 
@gnat This is absolutely not off topic. It's a perfectly legitimate question about best practices on localizing an application. –  Crono 22 hours ago
   
@Crono maybe, but it's more about linguistics than programming. –  jwenting 4 hours ago
1 Answer

I'd say this is one of many localization scenarios where you'll have to admit a simple "key/language/value" storing pattern isn't enough. :)

I'd personally create a localization engine class with a method that'd take a list of words and a language as parameters. This method would build the "list" segment of your string. Once you have this, concatenate the result to the rest of your sentence and you'll have your complete, final string.

UPDATE:

Although IMHO this is a bit outside your question's scope, you might want to give some thoughts to Konrad's comment below. Depending on how many / which languages you have to support, it might be necessary for your localization engine to be in a higher layer of your app. It might have to know about the context and produce your complete string.

Not to say you cannot still process the "list" part at a lower level, though. But then it would likely be for a limited set of languages only.

answered 22 hours ago
Crono
1,135412
   
Quite often you couldn't simply glue the result to the rest of the sentence. In some languages the rest of the sentence would also be affected by the contents of the list. This is actually OP's case, too - if his list only contained Bob, we wouldn't want the result to be "Bob each received a point". Anyway, in Polish it would be "Barbara i Asia otrzymały punkt", but "Roman i Asia otrzymali punkt". Note that the verb takes a different form, its conjugation suffix alternating between "ły" and "li" depending on whether there's a masculine noun on the list (a male name, in this case). – Konrad Morawski 21 hours ago
Charles Tiayon's insight:

We are trying to globalize an application and we have run into a situation where I'm not sure how (of if) we would go about formatting the string for globalization. It's a paragraph explaining something with a list of names within it. For example:

"Bob, Sue and Michael each received a point."

"Bob, Sue and Michael" is the string in question and can be one to many people. What is the correct approach to translating the comma and "and" word?

asked 22 hours ago
put on hold as unclear what you're asking by gnatKonrad MorawskiGlenH7MichaelTjwenting 4 hours ago

Please clarify your specific problem or add additional details to highlight exactly what you need. As it's currently written, it’s hard to tell exactly what you're asking. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question.If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

2 
The linguistically correct approach would be to use a globalization engine that can deal with the fact that different languages require the substituted elements to appear in different orders. Most engines can't, which is why commercial software usually uses workaround such as "The following players have received one point each:\nBob\nSue\nMichael\n". –  Kilian Foth 22 hours ago
1 
...that said, as a programmer, I can offer a completely unprofessional guess that you might want to learn about Oxford comma –  gnat 22 hours ago
3 
@gnat This is absolutely not off topic. It's a perfectly legitimate question about best practices on localizing an application. –  Crono 22 hours ago
   
@Crono maybe, but it's more about linguistics than programming. –  jwenting 4 hours ago
1 Answer

I'd say this is one of many localization scenarios where you'll have to admit a simple "key/language/value" storing pattern isn't enough. :)

I'd personally create a localization engine class with a method that'd take a list of words and a language as parameters. This method would build the "list" segment of your string. Once you have this, concatenate the result to the rest of your sentence and you'll have your complete, final string.

UPDATE:

Although IMHO this is a bit outside your question's scope, you might want to give some thoughts to Konrad's comment below. Depending on how many / which languages you have to support, it might be necessary for your localization engine to be in a higher layer of your app. It might have to know about the context and produce your complete string.

Not to say you cannot still process the "list" part at a lower level, though. But then it would likely be for a limited set of languages only.

answered 22 hours ago
Crono
1,135412
   
Quite often you couldn't simply glue the result to the rest of the sentence. In some languages the rest of the sentence would also be affected by the contents of the list. This is actually OP's case, too - if his list only contained Bob, we wouldn't want the result to be "Bob each received a point". Anyway, in Polish it would be "Barbara i Asia otrzymały punkt", but "Roman i Asia otrzymali punkt". Note that the verb takes a different form, its conjugation suffix alternating between "ły" and "li" depending on whether there's a masculine noun on the list (a male name, in this case). – Konrad Morawski 21 hours ago
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Ryan learned Irish All-Ireland speech phonetically

Ryan learned Irish All-Ireland speech phonetically | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Kilkenny captain Lester Ryan has revealed his All-Ireland speech, which garnered attention for being entirely in Irish, was learned off phonetically.
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Kilkenny captain Lester Ryan has revealed his All-Ireland speech, which garnered attention for being entirely in Irish, was learned off phonetically.

Speaking to RTÉ Sport, Ryan admitted he was not a fluent speaker. “I wouldn’t be ‘Irish man’ at all,” he said.

“I have a teacher friend in Callan, Brother Damien Rinn, and he helped me out with the Irish words, so I just learned it.

“After we played Limerick I learned it in the first few days after that, and he helped me with it, and I broke it down phonetically and learned it in a few days and then went back to concentrating on winning an All-Ireland final!” 

Reflecting on Kilkenny's 35th title, Ryan insisted a belief at the start of each season that the Cats can win an All-Ireland is “set in stone”.

Ryan said Kilkenny’s unsuccessful season last year – beaten by Dublin in the Leinster championship and knocked out of the All-Ireland series by Cork in the quarter-final – had not affected belief within the panel this year.

Ryan said a strong sense of belief and confidence was something passed down from older players to the younger panel members.

“In fairness to the older lads that’s there, they certainly set that in stone, that every year you can do it,” Ryan said.

“Every year you go out to train you can win an All-Ireland, or potentially win an All-Ireland.

“That’s just something, when you get the Kilkenny jersey, and when you’re training with Kilkenny, you realise that is what you’re training for. So, we always had that belief. There were no questions marks over that.”

"I broke it down phonetically and learned it in a few days and then went back to concentrating on winning an All-Ireland final" - Lester Ryan 

Reflecting on this year’s finals, Ryan said the big change Kilkenny had tried to bring about between the drawn first final and the replay was to tighten up on Tipperary’s forwards, who had enjoyed great success the first day out.

“I think they only scored half the number of points in the replay than they did in the first match,” he said.

“I suppose that was an awful lot easier said than done [limiting them to this amount], and Tipp have some fantastic forwards there.

“The big aim was: if we could get the defensive things right – and not just the six backs, but even the forwards, just defending and hooking and blocking – we’d have the potential to beat them.”

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Language education conference due at COEX Oct. 4-5

Language education conference due at COEX Oct. 4-5 | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
The Korea TESOL (KOTESOL) and the Korea Association of Foreign Languages Education (KAFLE) will hold a joint international conference to discuss way of promoting language education at the COEX on Oct. 4 and 5.
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The Korea TESOL (KOTESOL) and the Korea Association of Foreign Languages Education (KAFLE) will hold a joint international conference to discuss way of promoting language education at the COEX on Oct. 4 and 5.

The event organizers said that 1,500 English teachers and scholars will take part in the 2014 KOTESOL-KAFLE International Conference under the theme of "Embracing Change: Blazing New Frontiers through Language Teaching."

It is the first time that KOTESOL and KAFLE have joined forces for a conference.

KOTESOL stands for Korea Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.

The gathering will represent a change for KOTESOL conferences, which were previously held at Sookmyung Women's University.

"The fond and nostalgic memories are with us all. However, it was time for change, and the COEX became our new venue. In order to embrace change truly, you need to embrace the community more," conference Chairman Ralph Cousins said.

The conference features two days of presentations, including plenary sessions by world-renown authors and practitioners, including Michael Long of Maryland University, Scott Thornbury of the New School, Ahmar Mahboob of the University of Sydney and David Hayes of Brock University.

There will also be 13 featured presenters from around the world and a host of local talent presenting seminars and workshops.

While the focus of the presentations will be embracing change, the foundation of the conference will be "Promoting Peace and Education through Language Teaching" in celebration of World Teachers' Day, Oct. 5.

A multitude of sponsors are involved in this year's conference including the National Research Foundation, the Korea National Commission for UNESCO, the Ministry of Education, the Korea Tourism Organization and the National Institute for International Education.

KOTESOL was founded in 1992, and is the official Korean affiliate of both TESOL International (USA) and the U.K-based International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL), as well as a partner in the Pan Asian Consortium of Language Teaching Associations.

KOTESOL has more than 700 teacher-members, of which 25 percent are Korean teachers of English and 65 percent are expatriate teachers in Korea.

There are 11 local chapters across Korea, including Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju and Busan.

KOTESOL's overseas members are located in more than 20 countries. The KOTESOL website is http://koreatesol.org.

KAFLE is the only inclusive academic organization of all different foreign languages taught in Korea to share and disseminate teaching ideas and methods.

Learn more about the conference at: http://koreatesol.org/nc2014. 

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New bilingual isiXhosa dictionary from Oxford University Press SA

New bilingual isiXhosa dictionary from Oxford University Press SA | Metaglossia: The Translation World | Scoop.it
Last week, the Oxford University Press SA (OUPSA) launched its bilingual isiXhosa dictionary, the first substantial isiXhosa-English bilingual dictionary to be published since 1985.
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Last week, the Oxford University Press SA (OUPSA) launched its bilingual isiXhosa dictionary, the first substantial isiXhosa-English bilingual dictionary to be published since 1985.
"The company has been making up-to-date bilingual dictionaries for South African languages since 2004. Each bilingual dictionary we produce takes at least three years, an extensive team of language and dictionary-making experts and state-of-the-art technological support. This dictionary had a team of more than 35 experts working on it," says Steve Cilliers, OPSA MD.

Up-to-date dictionary

It is described as the first of its kind to have been made with a corpus. This means that words were selected based on their frequency in texts such as novels, textbooks, official documents and even transcripts, ensuring that the dictionary reflects the language as it is spoken today. It also includes words from across the South African curriculum, such as life cycle, photosynthesis and vertex. The result is a modern, up-to-date dictionary that supports learning and teaching in subjects such as natural sciences and maths, as well as in the two languages.

"Our goal is to support education and enable all South African children to fulfil their potential. This may seem like a big task for a dictionary to achieve, but our research indicates that widespread use of bilingual dictionaries could help children acquire the languages they need to learn, and to succeed, whatever their mother tongue may be. Having dictionaries in class can help teachers stop being 'walking dictionaries' and enable them to spend more time on the subject they're teaching. We feel confident that they can make a real difference," continued Cilliers.

Promote reading

At the launch, 600 copies of the dictionary were donated to the Nelson Mandela Institute for Education and Rural Development (NMI), an Eastern Cape-based NGO working with rural communities to create text-rich classrooms that promote reading, writing, expression and critical thinking. Xolisa Guzula, Senior Language and Literacy Specialist at NMI, was on hand to accept the donation and commented that it would go a long way in supporting learners and teachers.

"Dictionaries are a scarce resource in our schools. This will help teachers to standardise meanings as they teach vocabulary, and learners as they engage with difficult texts. They'll be invaluable in making texts even more accessible in both languages."

The new Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: isiXhosa and English is available at leading book retailers at a recommended selling price of R129.95. For more information, go to www.oxford.co.za.
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